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1.

CAROTINO PALM METHYL ESTER PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES


2.CAROTINO PALM METHYL ESTER/BIODIESEL PRODUCTION PROCESS

B100 is 100% Biodiesel produced from refined Palm Oil. This product has a pour point of
15-18ºC. B100 can be used to replace fossil fuel oil in tropical countries without any difficulty, as
have been proven in the Mercedes Benz AG-MPOB trial conducted over a 5-year period.
Carotino Palm Biodiesel is produced from high quality crude palm oil from our own plantation.
The input material into the Palm Biodiesel production process is refined palm oil.Palm Biodiesel
is an alternative fuel derived from palm oil and can be used in compression ignition engines i.e.
diesel engines without any modifications. It refers to methyl esters derived from palm oil through
a process known as ‘transesterification’.

Palm Biodiesel is simple to use. It is biodegradable, non-toxic, safe to handle (flash point
higher than petroleum diesel) and essentially free of sulphur.Various studies indicated that
carbon dioxide emissions, total particulate matter, and carbon monoxide emissions are reduced
with Palm Biodiesel. Nitrogen oxides seem to increase slightly but still within the acceptable
limit. However, because Palm Biodiesel does not contain sulphur, catalytic technology is more
effective at countering nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, Palm Biodiesel degrades quickly
in the environment, and is non-toxic.

One of the important criteria for any vegetable oil to be used as biodiesel is availability at
competitive price. Palm oil meets this criterion perfectly. It is already common knowledge within
the world of oils and fats that development of the oil palm industry in Malaysia has been
remarkable. Malaysia takes pride of the fact that within a relatively short period of time, we have
become the world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil products in the international oils
and fats market. Furthermore, the advantage which palm oil holds over other oils and fats lies in
its productivity, yield and efficiency factors. Oil palm is the most productive oil bearing plant
species known. The yield of palm oil per unit area is 5 and 10 times higher than rapeseed and
soybean oil, respectively. Considering the comparative yields of various oil-bearing crops, oil
palm is clearly the most efficiently produced oil in the world today. When the world is looking at
vegetable oil as renewable fuel, palm oil will undoubtedly stand out among other vegetable oils.
This yield factor alone is adequate for the world to decide which vegetable oil should be
produced to meet the expanding requirements for “Greener and Cleaner Energy” for its growing
population.

1. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL C/F PETROLEUM


DIESEL
Advantages Disadvantages
Renewable Less energy per unit weight/volume
Biodegradable Increase in NOx emissions
Non-toxic Degrade rubber hoses and parts
High flash point – less hazardous Higher pour point
High solvency – reduce carbon deposits Not compatible with certain metals
High cetane number Potential competition for food production
Oxygenated fuel – cleaner burning
Reduce green house gas emissions
High lubricity
Low sulfur
Adds diversity and security to fuel supply portfolio
No aromatic compounds

2. ENGINE PERFORMANCE OF B5 (PALM BIODIESEL/PETROLEUM DIESEL


BLENDS IN COMPARISON WITH PETROLEUM DIESEL
Property Description
Thermal Efficiency Comparable
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Slightly higher
Brake Power Slightly lower because of low calorific value
Smoke Emission Lower
NOx Emission Slightly higher but still well below regulated level
Combustion Pressure Patterns Similar
Volatility Lower
Ignition Delay Decrease due to presence of Oxygen

3. COMPARISONS BETWEEN PALM BIODIESEL AND RAPESEED METHYL


ESTER
European Stds Palm Rapeseed
Parameters
EN 14214:2003 Biodiesel Biodiesel
Methyl Ester, % 96.5 min 99.3 99.5
Density @ 15°C, kg/m3 860 - 900 875.3 883.9
Viscosity @ 40°C, mm2/s 3.50 – 5.00 4.4 4.5
Flash Point, °C 120 min 176 >127
Sulfur Content, mg/kg 10.0 max <1 < 10
Cetane Number 51.0 min 60.3 55.3
Water Content, mg/kg 500 max 380 320
Oxidation Stability @ 110°C, hrs 6.0 min 6.8 8
Cold Filter Plugging Point, °C - +18 -12
4. WHY USE PALM BIODIESEL
• Made from renewable resources
Biodegradable
• Can be produced in short amounts of time (for example: one growing season)
whereas nonrenewables, like fossil fuels, take 40 million years or more to be

produced
• Reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50% and carbon
• dioxide by 78.45% compared to petroleum diesel
• Free of Sulphur
• Non-toxic
• Has better cetane number
• Is produced from lower priced raw material
• Palm oil is abundantly available
• Has higher CFPP
Palm oil is the most productive oil bearing plant species

The yield of Palm Oil per unit area is 5 and 10 times higher than rapeseed and
soybean respectively
Palm oil is less susceptible to the vagaries of the weather compared to other
crops.