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CHECAL TOPICS1 LECTURE

Engr. Rainier Gomez


• A particular equation is as follows:

𝑓𝑡
• D(ft) = 4 + 0.5t(s) + 7x( 2 )
𝑠

• What are the units of 4, 0.5 and 7 for the equation to be


dimensionally homogeneous?
• If all distance units are to be in meters and all time units are to be in
minutes, what is the new equation relating the distance to t and x?
• A solution was prepared by mixing equal masses of ethanol (𝑆𝐺 =
0.79) and water. Assuming volume is additive, determine the specific
gravity of the resulting solution in °𝐵𝑒 and °𝑇𝑤, if the system is at
60℉.

• For the given manometer, the pressure at point D is atmospheric.


Calculate the pressures at points A, B and C in kPa.
• Waste acid from a nitrating process contains 25% HNO3 , 55% H2SO4
and 20% H2O by weight. This is to be concentrated to get fortified acid
containing 27% HNO3 , 60% H2SO4 and 13% water. This is done by
adding concentrated H2SO4 of strength 93% H2SO4 and concentrated
HNO3 of strength 90% HNO3 in suitable quantities to the waste acid. If
1000 kg fortified acid is to be produced, calculate the kg of the
various solutions mixed.
• Wet leather enters a continuous drier at 45% moisture (wet) and
leaves at a rate of 200 lb/h with a moisture content of 25% moisture
(dry). Air at 140℉ and 10% RH enters the drier, and leaves the drier
at 120 ℉ and 40% RH. Assume atmospheric pressure on both inlet
and outlet.
• 𝐴𝑛𝑡𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝐸𝑞𝑛 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟:
1668.21
• Log P (mm Hg) = 7.96681 -
228+𝑇(℃)
• Calculate the rate (lb/h) at which water is removed from the leather,
and the volumetric flow rate of inlet air.
• One thousand kilograms of a 30% solution of Na2CO3 in water is
cooled slowly to 293 K. During cooling, a portion of water is
evaporated and removed. 700 kg of Na2CO3*10H2O crystals are
formed in the process. What percent of total water in the feed is
evaporated? The solubiltiy of anhydrous Na2CO3 at 293 K is 21.5
kg/100 kg of water.
• In a distillation column, there are two input streams, A and B. Stream
B is fed at a rate of 10000 kg/hr, containing equal mass benzene and
toluene. The mass flow rate of stream A is unknown, but it is known
that it contains equimolar benzene and methanol. Three output
streams are observed. The topmost output stream contains only
methanol. The middle output stream, flowing at a rate of 1000 kg/hr,
contains 70% by mole benzene, and 20% by mole toluene. The
bottom output stream contains only benzene and toluene, and it is
determined that it contains 33% toluene by mole. Calculate the mass
flow rate of stream A, the topmost output stream and the bottom
output stream.
• A saturated solution of 𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 at 30°𝐶 is sent to a crystallizer where
it is cooled to 12°𝐶. The stream containing the saturated solution is
discarded as waste, while the other stream containing crystals
(𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 ∙ 10𝐻2 𝑂) with adhering solution is then sent to a drier to
produce anhydrous 𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 . With 1000 kg of saturated solution at
30°𝐶 and 5% of the mother liquor adhering to the crystals, calculate
the weight of crystals exiting the drier.
Temperatur 0 10 20 30
e (℃)
Solubility (g 7 12.5 21.5 38.8
𝑁𝑎2 𝐶𝑂3 /
100 𝑔 𝐻2 𝑂)
• Wet tshirts are being dried from a moisture content of 45% (wet
basis) to a moisture content of 25% (dry basis) by passing hot air
through a drier. The fresh air contains 2% water by mole and the
outlet air contains 15% water by mole. Part of the outlet air is
recycled to the drier, and the air that enters the drier is 5% water by
mole. Calculate the recycle ratio.
• A gaseous mixture (F) consists of 16 mol% CS2 and 84 mol% air are fed
to the absorption column at a rate of 1000 Ibmole/hr. Most of the CS2
input are absorbed by liquid benzene (L) which is fed to the top of the
column. 1 % of benzene input are evaporated and out with the exit
gas stream which consists of 96 mol% air, 2 mol% CS2 and 2 mol%
benzene. The product liquid stream (P) consists of benzene and CS2.
Calculate the mole flow rates of (G), (L) and (P) and the compositions.
• Membranes represent a relatively new technology for the separation
of gases. One use that has attracted attention is the separation of
nitrogen and oxygen in air. The product of this process is 25% oxygen
and the balance nitrogen. What is the composition of the waste
stream if the waste stream amounts to 80% (in moles) of the input
stream?
• A tannery extracts certain wood barks which contains 40% tannin, 5%
moisture, 23% soluble non-tannin materials and the rest insoluble
lignin. The residue removed from the extraction tanks contain 50%
water, 3% tannin and 1% soluble non-tannin materials. What percent
of the original tannin remains unextracted?
REACTIVE SYSTEMS
• Ethanol is produced by the hydration of ethylene according to the following
reaction:
• 𝐶2 𝐻4 + 𝐻2 𝑂 → 𝐶2 𝐻5 𝑂𝐻
• However, some of the products are converted to the following side
reaction:
• 𝐶2 𝐻5 𝑂𝐻 → 𝐶2 𝐻5 2 𝑂 + 𝐻2 𝑂
• The feed to the reactor contains ethylene, steam and nitrogen. The effluent
analysis is as follows:

Component 𝑪𝟐 𝑯𝟒 𝑯𝟐 𝑶 𝑪𝟐 𝑯𝟓 𝑶𝑯 𝑪𝟐 𝑯𝟓 𝟐 𝑶 𝑵𝟐
% mole 39.12 45.08 2.95 0.27 12.58

• Calculate the % conversion of ethylene, % yield of ethanol and maximum


fractional conversion of the excess reactant.
• Methanol is synthesized in a catalytic reactor using CO and H2. However, a
side reaction is observed to occur which leads to the formation of
formaldehyde, H2CO. The fresh feed to the process contains 30% mol CO,
60% mol H2 and 10% mol N2. The combined feed stream to the reactor,
containing 22% mol N2, consists of 4 mol recycle per mol of fresh feed. In
the reactor, 9 moles of CH3OH is produced per mole H2CO. The reactor
effluent gas goes to the condenser where two streams emerge: a gas
containing all CO, H2 and N2 and a liquid stream CH3OH and H2CO. The gas
stream is split into two fractions: one stream is purged and the other is
combined with fresh feed to the reactor. Calculate the fraction of CO in the
purge stream, single pass conversion with respect to CO and overall
conversion with respect to CO.
Combustion Basics
• Percentages of gaseous fuels are in moles
• Percentages of liquid and solid fuels are in mass
• Cetane Number = % by volume cetane in a cetane-methyl
naphthalene mixture
• Octane Number = % by volume isooctane in an isooctane-n-heptane
mixture
𝑉𝐶𝑀 1.55
• C = 5.88 + 2.206 𝐺𝐶𝑉 − .094 𝑆 + 0.0053 80 − 100
𝐹𝐶
𝑀𝐽 𝑂
• 𝐺𝐶𝑉 = 0.338 𝐶 + 1.44 𝐻 − + 0.094(𝑆)
𝑘𝑔 8
• Ethane is burned with 50% excess air. The percentage conversion of
the ethane is 90%. 25% of the reacted ethane formed CO, the rest
𝐶𝑂2 . Calculate the molar composition of the stack gas on a dry basis
and the mole ratio of water to dry stack gas.
• Petroff gasoline was burned and was analyzed to have the following
flue gas composition: 12.54% mol 𝐶𝑂2 , 2.21% mol CO, 3.09% mol 𝑂2 ,
and 82.16% mole 𝑁2 . Assuming fuel contains cetane, 𝐶16 𝐻34 ቀ𝜌 =
• A low volatile bituminous coal has the following analysis on an as-
received basis:
M FC VCM N S Ash
10.76% 68.12% 13.63% 0.94% 0.65% 7.49%
• The calorific value of this coal was analyzed to be 30.45 MJ-kg-1. The
coal was burned in a burner with excess air at 50°C at 750 mmHg and
15% RH. Partial dry analysis of the stack gas showed 8.05% CO2 and
3.87% CO. Stack gas leaves the burner at 300°C and 760 mmHg. Vapor
pressure of water at 50°C is 92.53 mmHg. Calculate the % excess air,
the volume of wet air (𝑓𝑡 3 ) per 100 g coal and the %CV lost due to
uncondensed water.
• Raw sulfur containing 10% inert was burned using excess air and
produced a flue gas with the following Orsat analysis – 12.05% 𝑆𝑂2 ,
4.93% 𝑂2 and 83.02% 𝑁2 . Calculate the fraction of sulfur lost in the
cinder if 1150 grams of raw sulfur was burned per 100 moles of dry
stack gas.
• Pyrite, containing 78% 𝐹𝑒𝑆2 and 22% gangue, is burned with excess
air to produce a stack gas with the following analysis: 7.29% 𝑆𝑂2 ,
8.92% 𝑂2 , 82.44% 𝑁2 1.35% 𝑆𝑂3 . If the cinder was found to have a
partial analysis of 62.10% 𝐹𝑒2 𝑂3 , determine the % of FeS2 lost in the
pyrite.