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AGC: AUTOMATED GRASS CUTTER

A DESIGN PROJECT

SUBMITTED TO

THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING

(BS CpE)

JAILANE ANN R. LABORDO

KORINA M. PANLILIO

IRENE A. RACAB

JANINA XUZA T. RAMIREZ

APRIL 2018
AGC: Automated Grass Cutter
J.A. Labordo K. Panlilio I. Racab J.X.T. Ramirez

Abstract—the present technology commonly used for granted a British patent on August 31, 1830.Budding's first
trimming the grass is by using the manually handle device. In machine was 19 inches (480 mm) wide with a frame made
this project we have automated the machine for trimming the
of wrought iron. The mower was pushed from behind. Cast-
grass. The device consists of blade which is operated with the
help of the motor the power supply for the motor is by using iron gear wheels transmitted power from the rear roller to
battery. The battery can be charge by using solar panel. In case the cutting cylinder, allowing the rear roller to drive the
of any obstacles in the path it is sensed by using a GP2Y sharp knives on the cutting cylinder; the ratio was 16:1. Another
sensor roller placed between the cutting cylinder and the main or
land roller could be raised or lowered to alter the height of
Keywords— GP2Y Sharp sensor, DC Motor, Solar panel,
Solar Controller, Android/Remote Control, PIC16F877A cut. The grass clippings were hurled forward into a tray-like
box. It was soon realized, however, that an extra handle was
I. INTRODUCTION needed in front to help pull the machine along. Overall,
Throughout the 20th century, technology plays an these machines were remarkably similar to modern mowers.
important role in our society. Using technology, a task can be
Reel mower history dates back hundreds of years.
easier and able to do things that we cannot. It’s more reliant
Prior to the early 1800s, a home's lawn maintenance fell
to the innovation that makes our life simpler and easier. It
innovates every day and gave us productive ways to help us largely to grazing animals or the manual use of scythes,
in our daily lives. These technological developments have swing blades and gardening sheers. For people with the time
greatly increased the growth in pollution which is a major and inclination to manicure their lawns, this worked just
issue on Earth. In some cases, Gas powered lawn mowers are fine. But the 19th-century world was experiencing rapid
responsible for pollution due to the emission of gases. Also change. Europe was riding the wave of technological
the cost of fuel is increasing hence it is not efficient. achievements and discoveries, known today as the Industrial
Traditionally, lawn mowers are often clunky pieces of Revolution.
machinery that involves a lot of strength and energy to use.
By conducting this study, the proponents decided to create an Inventors throughout the 1800s made huge strides,
Automated Grass Cutter that will help easier and sufficient from developing steam power to manufacturing machine
use in the field of grass cutting. These present and high-tech parts. Inventors aimed their efforts at improving vital
grass cutters however, have been creatively designed to make production processes such as coal mining, textile production
the whole landscaping process much simpler and easier for and transportation. New technologies, however, always have
the user and the whole machine operated on solar energy a way of trickling down to even the most mundane uses.
store in battery, the GP2Y sharp sensor is use for obstacle
detection to avoid any damage of human objects and animal.
Two of the earliest Budding machines sold went to Regent's
II. RELATED WORKS Park Zoological Gardens in London and the Oxford
Colleges. In an agreement between John Ferrabee and
For further understanding of the study, the proponents Edwin Budding dated May 18, 1830, Ferrabee paid the costs
made use of different reading materials related to the online of enlarging the small blades, obtained letters of patent and
system. These materials such as books, thesis and other web acquired rights to manufacture, sell and license other
articles are essential in broadening the knowledge of the manufacturers in the production of lawn mowers. Without
researchers. patent Budding and Ferrabee were shrewd enough to allow
other companies to build copies of their mower under
A. Related Literature license, the most successful of these being Ransoms of
1) Cylinder Lawn Mower Ipswich, which began making mowers as early as 1832.
The first lawn mower was invented by Edwin The two engineers simply took the bladed reel,
Budding in 1830 in Thrupp, just outside Stroud, mounted it on a wheeled cart and arranged a system of gears
to transfer wheel rotation to reel rotation. The mowers were
in Gloucestershire, England. Budding's mower was designed
heavy, cast-iron devices, but after Budding and
primarily to cut the grass on sports grounds and extensive
Ferrabee's patents expired, other inventors began improving
gardens, as a superior alternative to the scythe, and was
on the design. These new reel mowers were lighter and string, it produces the high speed rotation that exerts the
required less effort to push. Some inventors even replaced centripetal force to prevent the string from flying off in the
the gears with drive chains, like those on bicycles. straight line under the inertia law. The powerful rotation
occurs, it provide higher speed of the cutting section. String
During the 1890s, other inventors attempted to add a Trimmer mostly used in the small area of grass section. This
power source to reel mowers. They tried is because the design of this machine is created for the home
both horsepower and steam power before small-engine garden. It is suitable for a small area because of the designs
technology advanced enough to become the standard.
for cutting section is small and the users need to take on the
Today, most of the gas mowers used for home lawns are
rotary mowers, which employ a horizontal, fan-shaped string trimmer to cut the grass. This operation can be
blade. While gas-powered reel mowers are still around, determined as traditional concept because the users carry on
many of them are large, tractor-powered vehicles intended this powered handheld machine during cutting the grass.
for the upkeep of sports fields and farms.
The disadvantages of this concept design is when we
want to cut the big grass area such as golf field or
While gas and electric-powered mowers have
continued to evolve over the decades, the manual reel recreational field, it need such a long working time to reach
mower's basic design has remained the same. the goal of cutting process. It also requires more workers to
complete the work compare to the other machines.
His machine was the catalyst for the preparation of Therefore, it is produce the risk for the user during the
modern-style sporting ovals, playing fields (pitches), grass operation because of safety during the cutting process
courts, etc. This led to the codification of modern rules for requires the users to wear the safety tools such as eye
many sports, including for football, lawn bowls, lawn protection and safety boots. The operator should have the
tennis and others. Edwin Budding, (1827) proper personal protective equipment (PPE) including safety
glasses and hearing protection. A full face shield, long pants
and long sleeves are also recommended. A string trimmer
user must also be very aware of their surroundings. Flying
rocks and debris can injure onlookers and damage property.
George Charles Ballas, (1971)

Fig.1 Cylinder Lawn Mower

Fig. 2 String Trimmer


2) String Trimmer

The String Trimmer was designed by the American 3) Hover mower


entrepreneur, George Charles Ballas in 1971. This design
also called as “weed eater” in the beginning of the
The first Hover Mower was reportedly invented by a
development because when it chewed up the grass and
Swede by the name of Karl Dahlman in 1964. Originally
weeds around tress. Ballas got the ideas to develop this
powered by a 2-stroke Italian engine, the Hover Mower was
device while watching the rotating brushes when he driving
available in only a 19″ model, but by the late 60’s an electric
through the automatic car washes. For the Ballas ideas, this
model was added to the line. Flymo was the name for the
concept use the concept of rotating the fishing line in high
mower and has since become the generic name for Air
speed rotation using the power from the gasoline engine that
Cushioned Hover Mowers.
driven by the propeller. When the propellers rotate the
Flymo was introduced to the United States in the late plastic bodies with an electric motor. The most significant
60’s under the slogan “Mowing made easy on a cushion of downside, however, is the cumbersome usability in rough
air.” Ongoing quality, distribution and legal issues led to the terrain or on the edges of lawns, as the lifting air-cushion is
demise of the company’s sales in North America. Flymo destroyed by wide gaps between the chassis and the ground.
continues to be a very strong brand name in Europe. It has Hover mowers are built to operate on steep slopes,
essentially retreated completely from the domestic waterfronts, and high-weeded areas, so they are often used
landscape. by golf courses and commercial landscapers. The quality of
cut can be inferior if the grass is pushed away from the
The Allen Hover Mower first appeared in 1982 under blade by the cushion of air. Flymo, (1960)
the name Crown Hover Mowers. It was first designed and
built by the Templar Tillers Company in the United
Kingdom. Using the same air cushion idea seen in the
Flymo machines, Templer Tiller improved on the
performance and durability of hover mowers with a newer
deck design and by using commercial grade materials (like
ABS Plastic) in manufacturing.

Hover mowers are powered rotary push lawn mowers


that use a turbine above the spinning blades to drive air
downwards, thereby creating an air cushion that lifts the
mower above the ground. The operator can then easily move
the mower as it floats over the grass. Hover mowers are Fig. 3 Hover Mower
necessarily light in order to achieve the air cushion and
B. Related Studies
typically have plastic bodies with an electric motor. The
most significant downside, however, is the cumbersome
usability in rough terrain or on the edges of lawns, as the
1) Smart Solar Lawn Mower
lifting air-cushion is destroyed by wide gaps between the
chassis and the ground.

These have a rotary action, but hover on a cushion of The fully automated solar grass cutter is a fully
air so there are no wheels required for mowing. However, automated grass cutting robotic vehicle powered by solar
transport wheels are occasionally provided. These mowers energy that also avoids obstacles and is capable of fully
generally have a lower footprint than other mowers and are automated grass cutting without the need of any human
relatively lightweight so are easy to store. They are ideal for interaction. The system uses 6V batteries to power the
small to medium sized gardens. vehicle movement motors as well as the grass cutter motor.
We also use a solar panel to charge the battery so that there
These mowers are easy to man oeuvre round complex is no need of charging it externally. The grass cutter and
obstacles like beds, paths and stumps; but they are not all vehicle motors are interfaced to an 8051 family
that good on large areas of open ground. Having said that, microcontroller that controls the working of all the motors.
they do not leave wheel marks as four-wheelers do. The It is also interfaced to an ultrasonic sensor for object
other strengths of hover lawn mowers are that they are detection. The microcontroller moves the vehicle motors in
designed for grassy banks and that they can be hung up in forward direction in case no obstacle is detected. On
the shed. These are powered rotary push lawn mowers that obstacle detection the ultrasonic sensor monitors it and the
utilize an impeller above the spinning blades to push air microcontroller thus stops the grass cuter motor to avoid any
downwards, thereby creating an air cushion that lifts the damage to the object/human/animal whatever it is.
mower above the ground. The lawn mower then can be Microcontroller then turns the robotic as long as it gets clear
easily moved as it floats over the grass. Hover mowers are of the object and then moves the grass cutter in forward
light in order to achieve enough lift so typically they have direction again.
Fig.1. Smart Solar Lawn Mower

III. PROPOSED WORK Figure 3.2 Top View


AGC: Automated Grass Cutter is a design project is
made up of GP2Y Sharp sensor, DC Motors, Solar panel,
Android/Remote Control, PIC16F877A, battery, collapsible
blades and a link mechanism. The D.C. motor forms the
heart of the machine and provides the driving force for the
collapsible blades. This is achieved by the combined effect
of mechanical action of the cutting blades and the forward
thrust of the mower.

Solar power as an energy source will address a number


of issues that standard internal combustion engine mowers
do not. There is no messy dangerous gasoline to deal with
most importantly it eliminates the emissions of an internal
combustion mower. Lawnmowers employing a blade that
rotates about a vertical axis are known as rotary mowers,
while those employing a blade assembly that rotates about a
Figure 3.3 Back View
horizontal axis are known as cylinder or reel mowers.

Figure 3.1 Conceptual Design of Robot Grass Cutter


Figure 3.4 Side View
Figure 3.5 Bottom View

Figure 3.7 The Motion Platform of the Grass Cutter


with remote control Access

Figure 3.6 SDLC Model

Figure 3.8 Block Diagram


IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Almost all electronics components generate, store,
control or switch electricity in some way. A circuit is made
of various components that act together to produce a desired
effect.
There are two types of current: DC, which stands
for Direct Current and AC, which stands for Alternating
Current. DC is what you get from a battery and flows in
only one direction. AC on the other hand is alternating
current, alternating because it changes direction a number of
times per second, which is specified as frequency. The AC
we get from the power company has a frequency of 50 or 60
cycles per second.
Table 4.1 Open Area for Manual

Covered Area
TIME(Minutes) DISTANCE(meter)
(Completion)
10 minutes 6m
15%
20 minutes 12 m
30%
Figure 3.9 System Flowchart 30 minutes 18 m
45%
40 minutes 24 m
60%
50 minutes 30 m
75%
60 minutes 36 m
90%

Table 4.2 Open Areas for Automated

Covered
TIME(Minutes) DISTANCE(meter)
Area(Completion)
10 minutes 8m
20%
20 minutes 16 m
40%
30 minutes 24 m
60%
40 minutes 32 m
80%
50 minutes 40 m
100%

The table shows the output of the actual testing for the open
area lawn in automated and manual mode. The distance it
traveled in minutes and how wide the area the robot
Figure 3.10 Schematic Diagram covered.
Assessment of the Proponents on Manual and REFERENCES:
Automated Grass Cutter

[1] Ashish Kumar Chaudhari, YuvrajSahu, PramodkumarSahu,


Table 4.3 System in terms of Accumulated Time Subhash Chandra Verma, Smart Solar Grass Cutter Robot for Grass
Trimming, International Journal of Advance Research and
DISTA ELAPSE Innovative Ideas in Education, Vol. 2, 2016, 1246-1251.
TEST RUN START END
NCE D TIME

X [2] Ashish Kumar Chaudhari, YuvrajSahu, Prabhat Kumar Dwivedi,


40m 2
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in Education, Vol. 2, 2016, 68-73.
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& Technology, Vol. 2, 2016, 711-714.

V. CONCLUSION
[4] T. Karthick, S. Lingadurai, K. Muthuselvan, M. Muthuvanesh, C.
In this chapter, the main findings with regard to the PravinTamilselvan, Grass Cutting Machine Using Solar Energy,
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VI. RECOMENDATION
[6] Ms. Lanka Priyanka, Mr. Prof. J. Nagaraju, Mr. Vinod Kumar
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include an automated grass cutting robotic vehicle powered International Journal and Magazine of Engineering, Technology,
by solar energy that also avoids object/obstacles and is Management and Research, Vol. 2, 2015, 386-390.
capable of automated grass cutting. It is portable and easy to
move from one place to another. However, the robot might
not cover the entire lawn in a fastest way possible and might [7] Dipin.A, Dr.Chandrasekhar.T.K, Solar Powered Vision Based
be difficult to operate in rainy seasons. But still the best way Robotic Lawn Mower, International Journal of Engineering
to puts forth a completely automated lawn mower Research and Reviews, Vol. 2, 2014, 53-56.
mechanism.

Engineering students can maintain the safety and they have


the ability to check the use of it. And the enhancement and [8] SachinPrabha,Dattatray G. Biradar,
the ability to upgrade applications and maintenance of the SachinPanshette,Veernhadrappa, Solar Grass Cutter Machine,
devices are within their reach. International Journal For Technological Research In Engineering,
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