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Bones

Osama Yousef &


Neveen Nazzal
05/11/2010
Introducaiton
Bones
9th Lecture
B one is a specialized form of connective tissues
that has a calcified intracellular matrix. It supports fleshy
organs and protects Vital organs (such as those in the Cra-
nial and thoracic cavities). Also bones serve as a reservoir
Introducaiton..................................................................................2 of Calcium, phosphate, and other ions.They also form a
Osteoblasts..........................................................................................................3 system of livers that generate forces during skeletal muscle
Mineralization in bone matrix...............................................................4 contraction therefore bone has both metabolic and me-
Osteocytes................................................................................................................5 chanical functions to the skeleton.Bone is composed of :
Osteoclasts...................................................................................................................6 (a)Bone Matrix (intercellular material ) and (b) the three
Periosteum and endosteum Periosteum and endosteum...................................7
cells types : Osteocytes, Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts.
Types of bones............................................................................................................8
How laamellaes are organized.................................................................................9 Matrix : “Is the intercellular Material that is Impreg-
Bone Remodeling.....................................................................................................10 nated with Inorganic salt and its composed of Organic
Bone growth and repair..........................................................................................12 and Inorganic Material “. Inorganic material consists
Final word..................................................................................................................13 mainly of “Hydroxyapitite Crystals” whose cells is hydrat-
ed and facilitate the ion exchange between the crystal cell
and the intercellular fluid (Body Fluid). Other Ions are
available in the inorganic matrix like: Bicarbonate Citrate,
Magnesium,potassium,sodium and in addition to non-
crystalline Calcium phosphate (CaPO ). Organic Material
consists of “Type one (l) Collagen fiber, proteoglycan aggre-
gates and Multiadhesive glycoprotein(occur in the connec-
tive and cartilage tissue).
“The associations of minerals with collagen fibers give
the hardness and resistance of a bone, so removing the or-
ganic material will leave the bone fragile and can be easily
broken. “

2
Osteoblasts Mineralization in bone matrix

There are some examples about From their ends adjacent to the matrix , osteoblasts secrete :
the bone we should know about they are : 1) Type l collagen.
Fibro-nekton: Example of connective tis- 2) Several glycoprotens
sue, Condo-nekton: Example of Cartilage 3) Proteoglycans
tissue and Osseo-nekton: Example of Bone 4) Osteocalcin and some certain glycoprotens, they do the fellowing things :
Matrix.Now lets talk more about the cells They bind Ca with high affinity thus >> increasing the local concentration of
types of the bones , we will start wth the first Calcium.
type which is the Osteoblasts cells.They are 5) ) Small membrane-enclosed matrix vessels with alkaline phosphate and
Cells that are arranged in one layer (some- other enzymes, they do the fellowing things :
what resembling an epithelium cells ).They These enzymes hydroliaze PO thus having high local concentration of PO.
are found in cavities (lacunae) between lay- When there is a high level of Ca (osteocalcin effect) + high level of PO
-
ers (lamellae) of bone matrix. They Synthe- (small matrix vessels effect) the following series happens:
size and Secrete the organic matrix of bone -High conc. Ca & PO >>formation of CaPO4 crystals on the matrix ves-
which then hardens by calcification. They figure 2 showng the location of Osteoblasts sels >> these crystals undergo further growing + they form small growing
synthesis type I collagen fibers , proteogly- masses of Hydroxyaptie >> this Hydroxyaptie surrounds the collagen fibers
cans and several glycoproteins which all and all other macromolecules >> as soon as the calcification of the matrix is
of them is needed in the process of “Bone completed the small masses merge as a conflict solid bony matrix .
Mineralization” (discussed shortly) .
Their activity is stimulated by para-
thyroid Hormone (PTH) . The shape of
theosteoblasts depends on their synthetic
Activity (PTH) , when they have high syn-
thetic activity the shape will be “ Cuboidal
to Columnar “ and basophilic cytoplasm. If
the synthetic activity is low then the shape
will be “Flattened “and there will be a de-
creases in plasmatic basophilia. Osteoblasts figure 3 showing of Osteoblasts , the Osteoid and Osteo-
are developed (derived) from mesenchymal cyte
cells.
Look at figure 2 here we have Osteo-
blasts (OB) and Osteocytes(O). OB are de-
rived from the mesenchymal cells nearby
and they appear as a simple row of cells . In
figure 3 we can see the relatonship of Osteo- figure 4 showing the mineralzation process n the bone
blasts , the Osteoid and Osteocyte.Osteoid matrix
is : “Newly formed, less staind bone matrix
that is not yet calcified”.

3 4
Osteoclasts
Osteocytes
Osteoclasts are very large (giant multi-
The osteocytes are the Osteboblasts Look at figure 5 (a) This TEM section nucleated).They are multi- nucleated and
that gradually become surrounded by shows the osteocyte with its ctytoplasmic very large because they are derived from
their own secretion and become Osteo- processes surrounded the by the matrix monocytes which are from the bone mar-
cytes and they become enclosed singly you can see that this cell is inactive by row.Look at figure 6 (a) and (b) this con-
within spaces called Lacunae. In the pro- looking to it cytoplasm .There is no rough cavity at the surface of the bone (ruffled
cess of transforming the osteoblasts into endoplasmic reticulum (RER) neither is border) it’s modify the surface of osteo-
osteocytes the cells extend many long cy- there well-developedm Golgi apparatus. clasts.You can see can see an area of clear
toplasmic process so an osteocyte and its (b) this is dried section; all organic ma- zone this is the circumferential adhesion
cytoplasmic process occupy two things, trix is gone. Lacunae and Canaliculi ap- zone from its name you can see that it is figure 6 showng Osteoclasts and thier cavities
Osteocytes occupy Lacuna and Cytoplas- pears dark and show the communication for the adherence for the osteoclasts,to
mic process occupy canaliculi. ** Note : between these structures where nutrients the bone surface which is rich in actin
Canaliculi & Lacuna have the same name derived from blood vessels passed from filament, you can also see an area of clear
of space in Chondrocytes Osteocytes with cell to cell in this living bone zone rich of actin filaments Which is the
Osteoid (classified osteoid). site of adhesion to the bone matrix “cir-
Gap Junction (Nexus): cumferential adhesion zone “as the name
indicate it source for the adhesion for os-
cytoplasmatic Processes of adjacent cells
teoclasts to the bone surface
make contact via these gaps. Molecules
also pass from cell to cell through it The
communication between osteocytes oc-
curs by gap junction (cytoplasmatic pro-
cess of the canaliculi communicate)

figure 6 showng Osteoclasts and thier cavities

figure 5 showing the gap junctions 6


5
Periosteum and endosteum Types of bones
Similar to the pericardium there is Look at figure 8 By looking at the bone
something called “ periosteum (( peri : microscopy the gross observation shows
means around or supporting the oste- dense area without cavities it is called “Com-
um bone )) remember that most these pact bone “ the other type you can see that
connective tissue has “ Osteoprogenitor it contains numerous cavity and it is called
cell “ that means that the cells have high Cancellous or (spongy ) bone. In living tissue
potential to synthesize and form bone. the compact bone is covered externally with
The Osteoprogenitor cells is differenti- periosteum and all surface of cancellous bone
ate into osteoblasts which synthesize with endosteum .Now lets talk about the types
the bony matrix which then undergoes of bones we have.There is primary bone and fgure 9 shownig the primary bone
calcification forming the bone .” Perios- Secondary bone.
teum and Endosteum are both connective primary bone >>> Newly formed , im- Look at figure 9 This figure shows the
tissue , they have blood vessels to provide figure 7 showing Periosteum and endosteum mature bone , rich in osteocytes.It is charac- primary ( Woven ) bone undergoes a
the bone with nutrition and have the terized by 1) random disposition of fine col- repair process ,they are newly formed
prominent role in bone growth and repair lagen fibers and therefore it is called “Woven , immature bones , rich in osteocytes
because they contain the osteoprogenitor bone” 2) ) lower mineral content 3) higher and with randomly arranged bundles
cell.” proportion of octeocytes than that in sec- of calcified collagen
1) The periosteum is composed of 2 ondary bones 4) due to not having the lamel-
layers : (a) The outer layer >>> consists lae ( will be discussed shortly ) thus we call it
of dense fibrous rich in collagen fibers the moving bone , there is just random dis-
bundles and fibroblasts .Bundels of per- position of fine collagen fibers without being
iosteal collagen fibers called Perforatng arranged in lamellae.5) it is temporary, it is
or (sharpe). (b)The Inner layer (Inner- replaced by secondary bone tissue , (only few
most layer ) >>> contains mesenchymal placed like near the sutures , tooth sockets
stem cells called osteoprogenitor cells and in the insertions of some tendons ).
, they play an important role n bone
growth and repair.
2) Endosteum(inside): A single thin
layer of connective tissue that surround
long bone that cover the internal & ex-
ternal surfaces of bone ( lines the inter-
nal narrow cavity ) they contain the os-
teoprogenitor cells and the osteoblasts.
Figure 7 shows the Periosteum and en-
dosteum P = Periosteum and E= Endos-
teum.

figure 8 showing the compact and cancellous bone

7 8
Secondary bone This type is usually
found in adults. And it is the permanent
Bone Remodeling
bone type , it can be characterized as : 1) Involves a combination of bone removal Intrambranous ossification
having multiple layers of calcified matrix and synthesis. In secondary bone remode-
referred to as lamellar bone. These laamel- (figure 12) : This figure shows the
ling resorption part of old Osteons and pro-
laes are quite organized they can be seen intramembranous ossification, so first a
duce new ones in tunnel-like cavities having
either parallel to each other or concentri- cluster of mesenchymal cells differentiate
the approximate diameter of new Osteons
cally around a vascular canal.2) each com- into osteoclasts remember that osteo-
you have population of Osteoclasts that cav-
plex of concentric bony lamellae surround- clasts secrete the osteoid .You can notice
ity lining it and producing Osteoid , after
ing a small canal contains blood vessels , that groups of mesenchymals found in
that the Osteoid goes calcification and min-
nerves and loose connective tissue is called a membrane ( sheet ) of the embryonic
eralization forming the bone.Remember
an Osteon; or haversian system.By look- tissue producing osteoid . Oseoblasts
that bone remodeling involve bone resorp-
ing at figure 10 In this micrograph you can figure 10 showing the secondary bone have cytoplasmatic process trapped in
tion by osteoclasts and forming osteoid .
see the secondary bone shows matrix or- bone which is called osteocytes instead of
Bone can be formed by two ways : 1) In-
ganized as lamellae. Each complex of con- osteoblasts you can see only the primary
How laamellaes are organized tramembranous ossification >> from inside
centric-lamellae surrounding a small canal bone .This woven bone is surrounded
the membranes that the bone formed 2)En-
containing blood vessels, nerves and loose by developing periosteum . Continuous
In compact bone ( beside forming dochondral ossification >> The matrix of
connective tissue is called Osteon ( Harver- remodeling produces two layer of com-
osteon ) , the lamellae exhibit a typical pre-existing hyaline cartilage is eroded and
sian system ) Remember that secondary pact lamellar bone with cancellous bone
organization of multiple External cir- replaced by osteoblasts producing osteoid.
bone is permanent Mature and major bone. in between which is characteristic of the
cumferential lamellae ( located beneath In both process ,the bone tissue that appears
Looking at figure 11 we can see Secondary flat bone .
the periosteum ) and the Inner circum- first is primary or woven. Primary bone is
bone shows many osteon(O) and the outer temporary and is soon replaced by the de-
ferential lamellae ( located around the
boundary of each osteon is called cement finitive secondary lamellar bone During
marrow cavity ) Among the osteons be-
line( more collagen –rich layer. bone growth , areas of primary bone , areas
tween the two circumferential systems
and irregularly shaped groups of paral- of resorption , areas of secondary bone all
lel lamellae called Interstitial Lamellae appear side by side.Most flat bone formed
The central canals communicate with by Intramembranous ossification but in the
the marrow cavity and the peiosteum short and long formed by Endochondral os-
and with one another through trans- sification .
verse or oblique “Perforatng canals”
also known as Volkmann canals.

figure 11 showing osteons

9 10 figure 12 shownig Intrambranous ossification


Endochondral (figure 13) : In this remodeling to bone to be longer and at the
end of growth both the ossification center
figure you can notice the hyaline cartilage
that will give rise to form the bone , after that effuse & the epiphyseal plate ( growth plate Bone growth and repair
you have the perichondrium that surrounded ) disappear . Note : Bone collar is produced
By looking at fiugre 14 we can see pho- “Bone is very plastic and capacity for
the hyaline cartilage and become the perios- by local osteoblasts activity within the sur-
tomicroscope of the epiphyseal plate with changes in the structure due to remodeling
teum >>producing the color of the bone ,the rounding perichondrium .
its five zone.1)Resting zone : consists of and according to various stresse. Synthe-
collar impedes diffusion of oxygen and nu- hyaline cartilage.2) Proliferative zone : size of new bone . Example : can seen in
trient into the underlining cartilage promot- increase the number of cells.3) Hyper- change of the teeth position of the ortho-
ing the degenerative change , after that the trophic cartilage zone : increase number dontic treatment .”
osteoblasts with the blood vessels degenerate of sites of the cell.4) calcified cartilage
this area where the color of bone is formed zone : happens the calcification.5) Ossifi-
THE END
and followed by invasion.The osteoblasts se- cation zone. you can see from figure these -Neveen Nazzal : “Finally …. 5l9na W Sala-
crete osteoid m, after that there will be min- zones first the resting the second zone is me la kol al Dof3a Bs 7aba a7ke akm $a3’la
eralization and calcification . The area where Proliferative(increase num of cells) then Tsnem ... Ur the best(TB) Ra3’s … I trust U
the ossification start the bone forming in di- the hypertrophic (blue color area ) then Do7a w Nada … Thnx 4 supporting me in
aphysis ( shift of bone ) is called the primary every Thing ,,, I’ll geel U “
the calcified and the ossification zone .
ossification center. Later in development an- -Osama Yousef : “I made the design of this
Bone repair Bone have high potential lecture diffrent from the others , here the
other ossification center development in the cavity for repair regeneration because of design is more like the textbook we read
epiphyses of the cartilage model is called the the presence of the osteoprogenitor stem enshallah you like it and enshllah I’ll make
secondary ossification centers Between the cells and extensive of blood supply both more of the lectures in the near future.Mo-
primary and the secondary you have the epi- are important for bone growth . The rate hamed Al-Esayi , Majd Hdmi , Amr Alsade ,
physeal plate ( growth plate ) that provides of bone remodeling ( bone turnover ) is Mohamed Haroon , Ali-Alqdsi and Ahamad
the elongation of bone They stay at there ca- Kesate thank you all.And ofcourse thank you
very active and faster in young children Neveen for your writnig/editing this lecture.
pacity ( merge ) and there will be than in adult . Bone remodeling in adult is Kepada rakan-rakan Malaysiaku, Semo-
not always related to bone Growth. ga Berjaya di dalam peperiksaan ini. Teruta-
ma kepada Ulya, Najib, Furqon, Azzam dan
Anur

figure 13 showing Endochondral ossification


figure 14 showing epiphyseal growth plate.
11 12