JOURNAL OF RESEARCH of the National Bureau of StandardsB_ Mathematics and Mathematical Physics
Vol. 64B, No. I , JanuaryMarch 1960
Solu tions ar e prese nted for t he lowfrequency elect romagn etic response t o a n oscillaL ing
m agnetic dipol e by condu cting bodies of s imple shape. The qu as istationa ry a pprox imation
is employed t hroughout, which is valid when the relevant dimension s of t he proble m are
all sm a ll compared to t he fr eespace wavelength. Thi s a moun ts to matching solu t io ns of
t he wave eq uation wi thin t he bod ies to so lu tio ns of Lap lace's eq uat ion outs ide. Th e results
have a pplication to geo ph ysical prosp ectin g.
1. Introduction
ElecLromag neLic method s of geophys ical exploration utiliz e th e fact that the co nductivity
of massive ore bodies is mu ch greater th an the surrounding barren rock. The gen eral sch eme
is to set up a primary or exciting fLCld by a curl'entcalTyiug loop and then to detect th e seconcl
ary fielcl or r esponse of th e body by m eans of a receiving loop. The operating frequen cy
should be sufficiently low that the attenuation by the surrounding b arren rock is n egl igibl e_
This usually r equires frequencies in the audio ran ge. The literature on th e subject is exten sive
and her e only ce rtain representative p ap ers are referenced [1 4]1
TheorcLical approaches to th e subject are usually restricted to highly simplified situations.
For example the exciting field is often assumed to b e uniform or th e body is taken t o be p erfectly
conductin g. Wl1ile such solution do indeed provide much useful informatioll, there is a need
to consider situations of a more general natme. For example, ill the practical m ethods of
electrom ag netic prosp ecting Lh e transmitting and receiving coils or loops m ay be lo cated at
dista nces from an ore body which are comparable to i ts m aximum dimension and thu s the
uniformexcitingfield assumpLion is not valid . Fur th ermore, th e frequency which is of th e
order of 500 cps is sufficiently low th at th e ore bodies seldom b eh ave as if they were of pOl'fecL
conductivity. For the above r easo ns, it seems worthwhile to set up solu tions for certain
idealized cases which do no t s uffer from s uch oversimplifying assumptions which are usually
present. The geometrical forms considered are th e prolate spheroid, the spher e, and t he
circular cylinder. Because of complexity the spheroid is taken to b e p erfectly conducting.
The sph ere and cylinder arc assigned a co nductivity a nd magnetic permeabili ty which a re
finite. In each case the solution is presented for the case of an arbitrarily lo cated mag netic
dipole. The r esults are in a form which is sui table for computation.
In each case treated, special attention is paid to t he equatorial plane which contains th e
source and observer. In the tlU'ee instances, th e source is at 0 and the observer at P as
indicated in figure 1. For a (ydil'ecLed) magn etic dipol e of stre ngth K at 0 , the primary
field at P is
where !Cdl is the magnetic moment. Note that Kdl = (amptuI'lls) X (coil area) . In what
follows the secondary fields are expressed in terms of x (distance from coil axes to center of
body) , y and y' (coordinates of source and observer), 8 (distance between 0 and P), rr con
ductivity of body (mhos/m) , and }.I / }.Io (magnetic p ermeability ratio).
1 Figures in brackets ind icate the literature references at the end of th is paper.
15
y
P(x,y,o)
C(x , y',o)
x
f.L (0 ~ 0)
(eq of spheroids),
(1)
(eq of hyperboloids),
where p and z are the us ual radial and axial coordinates in a cylindrical coordinate system.
It thus follows th at
and (2)
where c is the semifocal distance, These prolate spheroidal coordinates are taken to be con
focal with th e spheroidal body whose surface is defi ned by T} = T} o (see fig, 2),
15 =canst.
15=1
FIGURE 2, Th e spheroid and spheroidal coordinate system,
16
In the r egion exterior to the body (i. e., '1/ > '1/0) the fi elds arc a solu tion of Laplace's equation
if the frequen cy is sufficiently low (i.e., signifi cant di stances should b e much less t han the
wavelength). Furthermore, in this case the field s ca n be derived from a magnetic poten tial
It. Thu s,
...;
H = grad It
wher e
for
N ow, solutions of Laplace's equation in spheroidal coordinates are well known and are of t he
form (for integral valu es of TIl, and n)
(3)
where A, B , A', and B' arc constants and, followin g Smythe [5], P ';: (}J. ) and Q%' (J.L ) ar e associated
Legendre functions of argument J.L . Th ey are defin ed by
(4)
or
(5)
in terms of t he (ordinary) Legendre fun ctions P n(J.L ) and Q,,(J.L ). It should be noted Hobson
introduces a factor ( 1)'" on tbe rightb and side of t he latter two equations and his definitions
are thus slightly different.
At the point C it is assumed that t her e is a magn etic point ch arge of strength , J( (see fig·
3). The magnetic potential at P can now be written
(6)
17
where R is the linear distance b etween Cat (1']' , 0', 1/) and P at (1'] , 0, cf» and ns is th e secondary
influence of the body . To express n in prolatespheroidal coordinates, we make use of th e
inversedistan ce formul a
(8)
where
(9)
at (9)
This is satisfied if
(10)
where t he prime indicates the deri vati ve with respect to the argument of t he Legendre fun c
tion . The solution is thus given by
n [1
4j{7r f"
".= I,
~ ~ M P ,;:'( 1'] o) Qm(
L...J L...J 1 mn Qm'( )
n= O m = O n 1'] 0
n 1']
)pm() (I. I.') J ,
n 0 cos m '1'  '1'
valid for 1»1']0' To simplify things a bi t we will consider our source to be a ydirected m agnetic
dipole T lo cated in the equatorial plane of the spb eroid (z= O) (sec fig . 4).
The potential at H (x, y , z) is thu s given by
o
4>=  dl "
u y" n
X P r;: (o) [O~~n cos m(cf> :cf>' ) +o~, cos m(cf>  cf>').MmnJ} . (12)
18
p
( x , y, z)
y
c (x', y', 0)
But
on = oQ . Ory + oQ . o<p, (14)
oy ory oy o¢ oy
and therefore
Since
and
x = c."l( l  f,z) (ry2_ l) cos <p,
19
where
,_
Q  4

K 2: '" 2:
n m
Em( I) (2n+l)
[(1' m!)]2P:~'(7]O) m 2/I,
( + ) ' Qm'() [Pn(O)] cosm(¢¢ )Qn(7] )Qn(7] ),
, In ,
(17)
'Ire n=O m=o 11 m. n 7]0
where
for m= O
for mrf O
and
0= 0' = 0.
Now
2
+ Q( 7] )Q( 7] ') m cos m,¢
f (COS
1
¢ =
 ¢ ')   )(COS ¢'
,~=7==
1 )
e ,17]2 1 e ,1(7]' )2 1
Finally,
where
Noting that
(20)
For the special case (i. e.,z=z' = 0, iy'  y !=s, and x=x ')
as shown in figure 5, we have
20
y
(x,y,o) or (",o,q»
Field Point P
s (y'y=s)
Source C
(x,y',o) or (,,' ,0 ,</>')
FrG U UE 5. Special configw'ation of (di pole) ~sow'ce C and observer P when they ar e located in equatol'ial plan e of
spheroid.
p= c.Jr/ l ,
and
where H = grad Q
} for r> a.
V2 Q= O
Inside the sphere the fields are a solution of the wave equation and are best derived in terms
of scalar str eam functions (following Schelkunoff) [6]. In the present problem we need only
21
8=0 p (r,e , <p)
C(r',8',cp')
FI GU RE 6. Th e spherical body and source C and observer P with the s pherica(coordinate system.
consider th e TE modes which are associated with the indu ced magnetic dipoles. Thus,
II T
1
= · 
~ /.lW
(0ur
2
~T )
0\ f
/
II 1 0 2f
q, i /.lwr sin 0 or o¢
H _ 1 0 2 fo _ _ oQ
q,  i /.lowr sin e oro¢  J' sin eo¢'
wh er e ifio is the stream function p ertin ent to the exterior r egion and is related to the magnetic
potential by
Q_ _ _ 1_ Ofo,
(24)
  i /.low or
22
The str eam functions satisfy
In the above J nand fc, are the sph erical modified B essel fun ction s defin ed by
a nd
, n (n+ m ) !
K (z)=e z "" , , (29)
n 7~0 m !(n  m) !(2z)1n
where the primary so urce is denoLed QP and the influence of Lhe sp hcre by Q S. Assuming a
magnetic charge (strength K ) located at point C with coordin ates (1", 0' , <I>'), t he po tential Q P
at point P with coordin ates (1', 0, </» is given by
OP= K
" R
411'
for l' < 1" , usin g a \I'ellknown addiLion theor em fo1' the inverse distance in sp herical h armonics
[5]. This suggests writin g
T?
L1.... n ( n  1n ) 1. (n ) a 2n +1
s
Q = ~~ fmc
00
_ K iJ.1ow .0 ~ (n m) ! { ( 1' ) n+l a2n+ l } p~' (cos O)P':: (cos 0') ,
fo411' n=O
L..J L..J fm (
1>1=0
)1
n+ m . 1"  (1" )n+lr n S n (n + l) Xcos m(</></> ).
(33)
23
The boundary conditions require that th e normal flux (p.Hr) inside the sphere is contin
uous with the exterior normal flux (p.oHr) at r= a. Also the tangential fields He and H ",
must be continuous at r = a. These conditions are satisfied if
and
fl = 1/;ol' (36)
T= a r= a
This leads to
A n(a)  (n + 1) (1'/1'0)
(3 7)
Sn A n(a) + n(I'/l'o)
where
(38)
(39)
The above expressions can now b e used to obtain an expression for the magnetic potential
due to a dipole for r> a in terms of the potential n due to a point charge. For example in
the case of a y directed dipole at (1", e/>' , z') we have
<po= dl 
o n· (40)
oy'
(42)
Again we shall consider the equatorial plane (see fig. 7) which is Z= z' = 0 or
(j = 8' = 7r!2. Here x=1' cos cf> X' =1" cos cf>'
y = 1' sin cf> y' = 1" sin cf>' ,
and thus,
 o = Sll1
. e/> 0+ cos e/> 0 (43 )
oy or pOe/>
and
() . ,0+ , 0
(44)
{)y, = SIl1e/> or' cos e/> p'Ocp,'
. , .
H v= dl [ sme/> {)2 +., 02
Sll1e/>o1"or Sll1e/> cos e/>por'oe/>
+cos e/> ,.Sll1e/> p'0e/>'o1'
0 +' 2
0
2
J
cose/> cose/> p'POcpOcp' n.
(45)
24
It should be noted that
p' = 1" for 1:)' = 7r/2
(46 )
p = 1' for
Writing
it is seen that
=Jll 02 1
R = ~(X_X ') 2+ (y _ y') 2
H~= K47r oyoy' R where for z=z ' = 0, (47)
and thus,
Kdl
=  47rs3 where s=ly y' l· (48)
(50)
wher e
1
U nm =..::, [(n+ 1)2 si n 1>' sin 1> cos m(1)  1>')
1'1'
+ m(n+ 1) sin 1>' cos 1> sin m (1)1>' )
 m(n+ 1) cos 1>' sin 1> sin m(1)  1>')
+m 2 cos 1>' cos 1> cos m (1) 1>')]' (5 1)
wh ere
Y'
tan 1>' =_.
x
The quantity Sn plays rather an essential role in the final result. When the conductivity
is great or at high frequen cy, the argument 'Ya of the Bessel fun ctions may be large. In fact
if l'Yal> > 1, Sn approaches unity for all n. The behavior of Sn, as a fun ction of 'Ya and !J./!J.o, is
a convenient way to illustrate the frequency dependence of the secondary fields. Numerical
values of the real and imaginary parts of Sn are given in some detail for n = 1 in previous
papers [2, 8] and less adequately [9] for n = 2, 3, and 4. Fortunately, if the source C or the
observer P (for any respective orientations) are a distan ce from the center of the sphere which
is large compared to the radius, it is seen that only the term corresponding to S[ is important.
The response of the sphere is thus proportional to the quantity
S 'Yal;('Ya)  2Kl,ha) wb er e
1 'Ya1;('Ya) + Kl l ('Ya)
The real and imaginary part.s of S, are plotted in figure 8 as a function of the "r elative radius" X
defined by
or
25
For small valu es of X correspondin g to the lower frequencies, 8) is negative and, in fact,
it approaches the value  2(J{ 1) / (J{ + 2). This could have been derived directly from
magnetostatics. At the higher frequencies 8) approach es unity which corresponds to no
penetration of magnetic flux into the body.
where
>
11*= (0,0,11;') (53)
and
>
11= (0,0,11,), (54)
Solutions of the wave cquation
(55)
are of the form
(56)
where a = Ci+ h2 )! and 1m and J{m are cylindrical Bessel functions of tbe modified kind defin ed
by G. N. Watson [7].
P(r,;,cp)
7T
C (r' cp' )
'2'
FIGURE 7.SpeciaZ configuration of (dipole) source C and observer P when they are located in equatorial plane of
sphe1·e.
26
0.7
0.6
0.5
cii
.; 0.5 en 0.4
a::
E
0.3
1 .0
0.1
1 .5
0.1
1.0
I 10 10 50 100 100 500 10
FIGURE 8. The variation of the response oj a conducting 8pheTe as a function oj X (=(<TiLw)}a) fOT various
permeability mtios I\" ( = ill iLO),
'r110 real and imaginary parts of 81 arc shown.
00
P(p,CP ,z }
z, y
p
fl o
00
FIGURE g. Th e cylindrical body and SOUTce C and observer P with the cylindrical coordinate system.
For a I11H,gnetic ch arge at C' (pI, q/, z') l1. ncl the observe r at P (p, ¢ , z),
(59)
27
y
P(x,y,o)
C (x . yl. 0)
FIGURE 1O. Special configumtion of (dipole ) source C and observer P when they are located in equatorial plane
of cylinder .
where R is the usual linear di stan ce b etween C and P. Using a formula giv en by V\"atson [7}
we find
(60)
where
(61)
with
(62)
(65)
(66)
wh ere r is the op erator
K m~
+00 oo J _00
4 1T2
+oo K ",(hp' ){ . . . . }e ih (ZZ'l dh eim (</></>'l . (67)
28
for the external fields and
(70 )
(71 )
for the internal fi elds. The corresponding magnetic field components are
Hp=  rh[I~(hp)+ A", (h)K~,(hp )] }
~m
H q,= r. p [I", (hp) + A ", (h)K", (hp )] T~ a (72)
(73)
The unknown coefftcienLs am, b"" and A m, which are fun ctions of h, arc determined from
the boundary condiLions. Th ese are th e normal flu x, (i.e., /J.IIp) fLnd t he t a ngenLial field s,
(i. e. , IIq, and H z) ar e con Linuous a t T= a. Th e explicit r esult for A m(h) is found to b e
(74)
wh er e
I
" () I ;"(a) (75)
"" a =
a1 
()
a 'fit
and
(76)
Th e precedin g results can now b e employed to calculate th e magnetic field of a m agn eLic
dipole. In tb e case of ,1, ydirecLed dipole ft t C t he potentiftl fL t Pis  dlo Qjoy'. Th e ycom
ponen t of th e field aL P is ob tained from
0 2Q
Hy=+ dl ~ · (77 )
uyuy
R es tricting our attention again to t he plane z= z' = 0 and for x= x' (see fi g. 10), we h ave
(78)
where s= y  y' > O. Noting t hat
o . 0+ 0
oy = sm cp op cos cp pO¢' (79)
it readily follows t h at
l1..dl + 00 J + oo [ , . im ]
H~ = 4.7T":;m~ oo  A mCh) hKm (l~p)
00 S ill cP P K m(hp ) cos cp
X [hK~ (hp) sin cp' + i;: K mChp') cos cp' ] e ih(Z Z'ldhe im (q,  q,'l , (80)
(81)
where K = /1//1o. In the case of very high conductivity iT'al> >1this simplifies further to
A",(h) ~ (82)
The square bracket term in eq uation (81) thus characterizes the frequency dependence of the
response and is a function only of K and 'Ya.
The secondary magnetic field Fls for the ease of finite 'Ya can then be written in terms of
7
value of Fls for infinite 'Ya in the following way (for a given mode numbrr m)
(m = 1,2,3, .. . ), (83)
where
and
(87)
30
L
The structure of thi s exact twodimensional solu tion is very similar to tbe approximated form
of tltO threedim el1sional solution ment ioned above. Apparently if a is reasonably small, the
induced currents flow mainly in the axial direction even for a lo calized excitation and thus Lite
fr equen cy depenrlence of the induced eddy currents are adeq uatcly desc rib ed by t he form of the
solution of tlte corresponding twodimensional problem .
TltO 11 umerical values of the real and imaginary parts of the function Tm a re illustrated in
figure 11 , where they are plotted as a funetion of X, t ltO " relative radiu s" of the cylinder , for
vfl,rious val ues of the permeability ratio K. It is noted t hat the factor T I , corresponding to
the dominant mode, is very similar to the factor 8 1 for the sphere shown in fi g ure 8.
0.5
08
0.6 OA
OA
0.1 0.3
;. ..:
'"
a:
E
0.1 0.1
 0.4
0.6 0.1
0.8 zoO
1000
I
0.5
0.8 
0.6  OA
0.4
0.1 0.3
~ ~
'"
a: .§
0.1 0.1
OA
0.6 0.1
0 8
I
0.5
0.8
0.6 OA
OA 
0.1 0.3
~ ;. '"
E
'"
a:
0.1 0.1
OA
0.6 0.1
0 8
1000 200
I 0
0.5 10 30 0.5
RELATIVE RADIUS x
FIGURE ll.The variation oJ the res ponse oJ a conducting cylinder as a Junction oJ XC = Ca.uw)t a) for variolls
permeability ratios K ( = .u/.uo).
rrhc real and imagin ary p arts of "/\, 7'2, and T a arc sho\\"n .
31
The work in this paper was carried out while the author was employed by N ewmont Explo
ration Limited, Danbury, Conn. The author thanks Drs. A. A. Brant and N. F . Ness of this
organization for their h elpful suggest.ions and advice.
6 . References
[1] C. A. H eila nd, Geophysical exploration (PrenticeHall, Inc., New York , N.Y., 1940).
[2] J . R. Wait, A co ndu cting sphere in a time varying magnetic field , Geoph ysics 16, 666 (195 1).
[31 J . R . 'W ait, Mutual electromagnetic cou pling of loops over a homogeneo us ground , Geophysics 20, 630
(1955); contains many references to related work.
[4] S. H . 'Yard and H . A. Harvey, E lectromagnetic s urveying of di a mo nd drill holes, Can. Mining Manual,
1 (1954).
[5] \'V. R. Smythe, Static an d dynamic electri city, 2d ed. (McGrawHill Boo k Co ., New York, N.Y., 1950);
such functions are tabulated in Tables of assoc iated Legendre pol y nomials (Columbia Univ . Press,
New York, N.Y.).
[6] S. A. Schelkunoff, E lectro magnetic waves (D . Van Nostrand Co ., In c., New York, N.Y., 1943).
[7] G. N. vVatson , Theo ry of Bessel fun ctions (Cambridge Un iv. Press, Engla nd, 1945).
[8] S. H . vVard, A method for meas urin g the electri cal co ndu ctivi ty of diamond drill core spec imens, Geoph ysics
18, 434 (1953) .
[9] J. ll. vVait, A co ndu ctin g permea ble sphere in t he prese nce of a coil cal"l'ying an oscillating current, Can.
J. Phys. 31, 670 (1953) .
[lO J J . ll. vVait, The cy lindrical ore body in the prese nce of a cable car rying an oscillating current, Geoph ys ics
17, 378 (1952) .
32
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