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Two- phase flows

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Two- phase flows

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

ﬂow inside a medium temperature solar linear collector

⁎

R. López, A. Lecuona , R. Ventas, J. Nogueira

ITEA Research Group, Thermal Engineering and Fluids Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Keywords: Two-phase gravity-driven and gravity-stratiﬁed ﬂow regime inside a pipe, which is present in many engineering

1-D two-phase ﬂows applications, is an attractive option for solar cooling/heating/power production using Rankine cycles, absorp-

Runge-Kutta methods tion cycles or any other thermodynamic application by means of vapor as working ﬂuid. This paper oﬀers a

Finite volume method numerical model of this ﬂow conﬁguration that copes with transient phenomena, like unsteadiness of solar

Quasi-homogeneous model

radiation, among others. The mathematical model consists of 1-D balance equations for mass and momentum for

Solar collectors

Direct steam production

both ﬂuids and energy for both ﬂuids and the wall of the pipe that absorbs the solar radiation. The model is

Gravity driven and stratiﬁed counter-current characterized by the fact that the area (or height) of the liquid layer is treated as a dependent variable forming

ﬂow part of the solution. The numerical method consists in a ﬁnite volume staggered grid discretization of the

governing equations. Mass ﬂow and liquid area are calculated with a semi-implicit pressure based method and

the transient terms are treated with the explicit ﬁrst stage singly implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method. The

calculation of the mass transfer rate from liquid to vapor is calculated iteratively by a guess-and-correct mass

transfer algorithm, specially developed for stratiﬁed ﬂows. The results show the applicability and beneﬁts of this

model for the not so well known counter-current stratiﬁed two-phase with evaporation/boiling. Additionally, the

performance of the mass transfer algorithm is discussed showing that it is monotonic decreasing and linearly

convergent.

quired.

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource, its advantages Nowadays with the applications mentioned above, the liquid oc-

over other energy sources are clear, no polluting emissions, renewable, cupies entirely the straight pipe, which is normally horizontal; however

widely available and no fuel cost. All that makes this kind of source a in some other applications such as petroleum transport, steam genera-

very interesting choice in the years to come. Solar energy systems are tion equipment, chemical processes, distillation and nuclear reactors

encountered in many diﬀerent applications, such as power generation, the simultaneous ﬂow of liquid and vapor is used, e. g. Newton and

heating, hot sanitary water preparation and refrigeration applications Behnia [2] and the pipe can be inclined. If the vapor velocity is high

only to mention a few. Many are the available technologies for solar enough an annular stratiﬁcation can be established owing to the pre-

thermal energy production. Among these technologies, thermal con- valence of shear stresses over gravity force, Rohsenow, Hammet and

centrated solar technology stands out for its high ﬂexibility, high Cho [3], Wallis [4] and Friedel [5] among others, with the so-called

thermal eﬃciency, and low cost, Jebasingh and Joselin Herbert [1]. liquid holdup. This ﬂow layout has been much studied because it

Either parabolic trough or Fresnel type linear solar collectors are the happens in vertical pipes and also in horizontal and inclined setups.

most common. They work on the same principle and their layout is Usually, the pipe is completely ﬁlled with liquid at its inlet side and it is

similar for our purposes. The working principle is simple, a straight subjected to intense heating, releasing so much vapor that the vapor

absorber pipe is located along the focal line of either a single or a group velocity increases also very much downstream, especially at low pres-

of large area mirrors that concentrate solar radiation from below on its sures, driving the liquid ﬂow by shear stresses. In those layouts, a

external surface, tracking the sun, Fig. 1. With the resulting high ra- complete transformation of liquid into vapor is pursued. This is not the

diation ﬂux, a ﬂuid stream that ﬂows inside the straight pipe is heated. present case, where the velocities involved are low, making gravity

This ﬂuid can be a pure substance, like water or thermal oil, or can be a predominant. This type of regime is a gravity stratiﬁed ﬂow, which

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: lecuona@ing.uc3m.es (A. Lecuona).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.10.066

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

φ liquid cross angle

A cross section area θ angle coordinate

a butcher table of coeﬃcient matrix ω pointing vector

B discretised linear system coeﬃcient vector τ shear stress

b source term vector λ thermal conductivity

c butcher tabl of quadrature point location α convective heat transfer coeﬃcient

D pipe diameter μ dynamic viscosity

G mass ﬂux ν kinematic viscosity

h enthalpy Δ ﬁnite diﬀerence

hlv phase change enthalpy

K mass transfer coeﬃcient Subscripts

ṁ mass ﬂow rate

N number of ﬁnite volumes h hydraulic

n̂ unitary normal vector l liquid

Nu Nusselt number (= αDh / λ ) v vapor

P perimeter i inner

Pr Prandtl number (= Cpμ/ λ ) ip interphase

p pressure k zone index

r radius o output, outer

Re Reynolds number (= GDh / ν ) wall wall

S surface area 0 at z = 0

T temperature w,e,Ee,W ,P ,E cardinal coordinate system location index

t time

u velocity Superscripts

x quality (=(hl−hlsat )/ hlvsat )

z axial coordinate per unit length symbol, correction

′′ per unit area symbol

Greeks ∗ correction

sat saturation condition

β pipe tilting angle T transposed

ρ density (n) time level

δ ﬂow vein cross height (s ) stage level

counter-current gravity stratiﬁed ﬂow

layout.

excludes vertical and quasi-vertical pipes. It happens in horizontal and With this layout, the vapor is produced directly without intervening

inclined pipes, making the gravity force responsible for its stratiﬁcation any intermediate heat carrying ﬂuid, for that using pressurized water,

so that the heaviest phase occupies the bottom side, Rohsenow, steam or thermal oil, as customary. Cost, weight, and bulk are reduced

Hammet, and Cho [3], Wallis [4] and Taitel and Duckler [6]. As in our with direct steam production as well as system complexity. For many

case, for low enough velocities, a smooth interphase is maintained se- industrial processes, the temperatures involved are in the order of

parating two continuous phases, not even reaching the wavy regime. 120–250 °C (medium temperature solar collection, Coccia et al. [8]),

The moderate vapor production and the large void fraction makes that depending upon the pressure levels. In any case, these temperatures are

this regime does not switch to another one. The ﬂow can be co-current lower than those required by steam generation for power production,

or counter-current depending upon the relative motion of both phases, around 400–500 °C, thus the pipe thermoelastic bending problem is of a

here each ﬂuid stream deﬁnes a phase. If both phases ﬂow in the same much lesser importance, e. g. [9,10]. With this layout, the ﬂow is es-

direction, it is called co-current, otherwise is counter-current, Kandlikar tablished when a pure substance liquid (or multicomponent mixture for

[7], which is the layout of interest in this paper. absorption cycle applications), slides continuously, under the eﬀect of

219

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

gravity, inside and inclined straight pipe of high slenderness, thus being dimensions much larger than surface tension curvatures. The descrip-

gravity driven. The inclination can be very diﬀerent, up to around tion of the main phenomena occurring with this innovative solar col-

β = −50°, see Fig. 1, depending on the latitude of the location and on lecting layout with a mathematical model is of high interest as it allows

the inclination of the roof where the solar collector is installed. quantifying the eﬀect of the design and operating variables on this

As a result of the heat produced by the sun rays absorbed at the rather unexplored architecture. It allows studying the sensitivity to the

external surface of the pipe, the liquid is heated, generating vapor, main parameters and also its extension to include further mechanisms,

which is collected on the upper side of the pipe and then is exhausted such as extended surfaces and ﬂow retardants.

on the upper end. No dry out is considered in this paper. The remaining The pipe is of a constant circular cross section, as customary in

liquid is exhausted in the lower end of the pipe. This layout is shown linear solar collectors, making both ﬂows a circular segment. This

schematically in Fig. 1. This double ﬂuid exhaustion system can be used shape, although relatively well studied for turbulent ﬂow friction and

for several applications; for example, the vapor produced can be con- heat transfer, has not been much described for evaporation and boiling.

densed and used as a refrigerant, as a product, or simply as steam for This work establishes a model in a progressive way by integrating into it

heat or power generation. In parallel, the exhausted liquid can be used the diﬀerent reﬁnements necessary to reach a correct and re-

as the hot ﬂuid for any other thermal process required or even it can be presentative physical behavior.

recirculated. Actually, this boiler conﬁguration adds the function of The heat conduction through the pipe wall determines the pipe

liquid/vapor separation in favor of compactness. This layout is original bending in the longitudinal z axis, Khanna, Singh and Kedare [17],

and no relevant open literature has been found on the topic, excepting what is important both for solar focusing and for structural integrity.

from the authors [11]. Considering the pipe wall as an extra phase, which is thermally coupled

As with any other technological development, the ultimate goal is to with both ﬂuid ones, allows determining its cross-section temperature

build prototypes and later a precommercial series; therefore numerical distribution under a non-conventional ﬂow regime. Its study will shed

modeling serves as an outstanding tool to perform optimisations before light on the possible structural problems. Moreover, the present study

materialisation, reducing drastically the overall cost of the development adds a more precise calculation than previously performed Lecuona,

and of the end product (design to minimize cost of maintenance and an Rosner, and Ventas [18].

easy operation, being the costs reduction evaluated in terms of CAPEX Within this scenario, the paper is organized as follows: In Sections 3

and OPEX). In that sense 1-D numerical models oﬀer high ﬂexibility, the basic geometry characteristics of stratiﬁed ﬂow are presented. In

capturing all the relevant physics of the problem in a reasonable Section 4, the derivation of the mathematical model is explained jointly

computational time. Many researchers have developed 1-D numerical with the empirical information needed to close the system. In Section 5,

models for parabolic mirror trough solar collectors for at least two in order to obtain approximate numerical solutions, the discrete form of

decades up to date, taking advantage of the high slenderness of the pipe the equations are formulated, followed by the thermal and mass

and the accumulated experience on these models. Good examples of transfer coupling algorithms, specially developed for this work. In

overall energy balance formulations can be found in Kalogirou et al. Section 6 the numerical experiments performed in this paper are stated

[12], more realistic models based on diﬀerential balances of mass, aiming at validating the model. The ﬁrst numerical experiment consists

momentum, and energy in transient-state can be found in Sivaram et al. in a steady-state fully adiabatic case, thus without mass transfer; the

[13], Nallusamy [14], Garcia- Valladares et al. [15] and Vázquez Pa- second test case consists in a transient thermal evolution of a start-up

dilla et al. [16], among others. Unfortunately, all the models mentioned operation problem. In Section 7, the results are shown and a compre-

above were developed for direct steam generators in which the pipe is hensive discussion is constructed around them with especial attention

completely ﬁlled with the entering ﬂuid thus with an initial null void on the correct physics, on beneﬁts of the present model and on the mass

fraction. No other model was found in the open literature capable of transfer algorithm performance. Finally, in Section 8, the conclusions of

simulating both gravity driven and stratiﬁed internal ﬂow in a counter- this work are pointed out.

current layout with mass transfer between both phases. In the opinion

of the authors, the development of such a 1-D transient model seems

useful and relevant for future developments, Lecuona et al. [11]. 3. Gravity stratiﬁed counter-current ﬂow

2. Scope of the work can assume that in the pipe cross section a straight interphase is located

between liquid and vapor, but the height of the liquid vein δl can

The main interest of this research is the counter-current gravity change downstream. According to Fig. 2, some geometric relations can

stratiﬁed ﬂow layout, as described in the introduction, Section 1, with a be found:

smooth interphase owing to the low velocities involved and the

220

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

1

Al =

8

(2φ−sin2φ) Di2

(1) εk = {−11ififkk==l v (9)

1 Since the model is 1-D, heat ﬂuxes are approximated by means of

Atotal = πDi2 = Al + Av

4 (2) the Newton cooling law, using average temperatures:

D ″ ,k = α wall,k (Twall,k−Tk )

Qwall (10)

φ = π −cos−1 ⎡ ⎛δl− i ⎞ (Di /2)⎤

⎣ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎦ (3)

″ k = α ip (Tip−Tk )

Qip, (11)

Alv = Disinφ (4)

Here α is the convective heat transfer coeﬃcient, T is for absolute

temperature and the superscript (¯) refers to its surface mean value for

4. Mathematical formulation and discretised equations the wall:

φ

∫φk,ki,f rTwall (φ)dθ

In this section, the mathematical formulation is presented. For this Twall,k = φk ,f

purpose, the entire domain is separated as three independent zones ri ∫φ dθ

k ,i (12)

(phases) which interact with each other, Fig. 1. These three zones are:

(i) The liquid zone, located at the bottom side of the pipe. Here the On the other hand, the interphase heat ﬂux can be calculated as

heavy phase is located, which can be sub-cooled or saturated liquid. (ii) ″ = α ip,l (Tl−Tip) or Q ïp″ = α ip,v (Tip−Tv ) , depending upon which zone is

Q ïp

The vapor zone, located on the upper side of the pipe; this zone is where considered. In order to guarantee: temperature continuity between the

all the vapor generated in the liquid zone is collected and ﬁnally ﬂows liquid zone and the vapor zone, and heat ﬂux continuity in the inter-

away from the upper end of the pipe. (iii) The solid wall, it receives the phase Tip is deﬁned as:

net heating of the radiation heat ﬂux on its external surface, transmit- α ip,l Tl + α ip,v Tv

ting this heat to both ﬂows through its internal surface. Tip =

α ip,l + α ip,v (13)

The assumptions for the ﬂows are: both ﬂuids are Newtonian, the

ﬂow is 1-D in the pipe axis direction z , the ﬂows are completely stra-

tiﬁed, gravity driven and separated by a continuous smooth interphase; 4.1. Empirical information

each substance is perfectly mixed in their respective zone, and mass

transfer from the liquid to the vapor zone is made under saturated The model formed by Eqs. (5)–(8) requires some empirical in-

conditions. The ﬂuid velocities and the respective velocity between formation. For the momentum equations, the shear stresses are calcu-

them are small enough ∼ 1 ms−1 to guarantee that no signiﬁcant ripples lated using the Darcy formula.

or waves are present in the interphase [6,19]. The pipe inner diameter 1

Di is in the order of some centimeters, so that surface tension is af- τw,k = f ρ Uk2

2 k k (14)

fecting only a tiny region near the wall. The vertical hydrostatic pres-

sure can be neglected in front of the main pressure imposed by the 1

τip = f ρ Uip2

vapor-liquid equilibrium, thus both streams share the same pressure. 2 ip ip (15)

For the solid wall, the assumptions are that the axial heat conduction is Here f is the Darcy friction factor, which takes into account the wall

negligible in front of circumferential one, all properties are constant roughness. Uip is the average (bulk) velocity diﬀerence between both

and ﬁnally, the heat ﬂux by convection on the outer surface is taken phases in contact.

into account by a net solar radiation ﬂux. Many correlations to calculate the friction factors f have been de-

The mathematical formulation is based on balances for mass and veloped, unfortunately all of them are for stratiﬁed co-current ﬂows,

momentum for both ﬂows and energy balance for them and for the solid therefore if we assume that the total amount of vapor generated in the

wall. The equations are applied to an initially diﬀerential element of liquid zone is low compared to the liquid mass ﬂow, we can infer with a

length dz , according to Fig. 2. For such balances, 1st order Taylor series high level of certainty that the behavior of counter-current stratiﬁed

expansions are used, neglecting the higher order terms. The mass and ﬂow under this condition is similar than the co-current stratiﬁed

momentum for both ﬂuids (k = l or v ) and energy balance for both smooth pattern. In that sense, according to Andreussi and Persen [19],

ﬂuids and the solid wall can be written in integral form as: the shear stress at the wall interphases can be calculated as it were a

single-phase ﬂow, with the hydraulic diameter (Dh,k = 4Ak / Pk ) as the

∫z ∂∂t (ρk Ak )dz + ∫z ṁ k dz + εk ṁ ip′ = 0 (Mass) (5) characteristic length. For the liquid/vapor interphase, the shear stress is

highly important when relative velocity between both phases is high,

∫z ∂∂mṫ k dz + ∫z ⎛ ρ 1Ak ⎞ ṁ k2 dz = − ∫z pAk dz− ∫Sk τw,k dSk−εk ∫Sk τip dSip

⎜ ⎟

being responsible for the interfacial wave generation mechanism and

⎝ k ⎠ liquid holdup. Anyhow, the value for fip is again calculated by the

− ∫z ρk gAk sinβ dz (Momentum) criterion of Andreussi & Persen [19]. This criterion is based on their

(6)

observations, later conﬁrmed independently by Hanratty and Andritsos

[20], in which they concluded that for stratiﬁed smooth pattern the

∫z ∂∂t (ρk Ak hk )dz + ∫z ṁ k hk dz + εk ṁ ip′ hv sat = Qwall

′′ ′′

,k + εk Qip,k (Energy−flows)

interfacial friction factor is approximately equal to the one of the gas

(7) ﬂow ( fip = fv ). Some correction can be added because of the eﬀusion

velocity by vapor transfer, but it seems to be quite low so that it has

∂Tw λ wall ∂Twall

(ρCp) w ∫V ∂t

″ −Qwall

dV = Qrad ″ ,l−Qwall

″ ,k + ∫Sθ r ∂θ

dA (Energy−wall) been neglected.

For the local heat transfer coeﬃcients (both ﬂuids/wall and liquid/

(8) solid interphase), the Gnielinski correlation [21] is used for the calcu-

The balance equations for both ﬂows are similar, the only diﬀerence lation of the fully developed turbulent ﬂow Nusselt number, Eq. (16). It

is in the direction in which mass, momentum, and energy are trans- is modiﬁed by the entrance correction of Al-Arabi [22], Eq. (17). Both

ferred from one zone to the other, hence the ﬂuid zone integer function correlation and correction correlations can also be found in Sigalés

εk is introduced. This function deﬁnes the normal vector direction at the [23]. The solar heat ﬂux reaches a maximum in the order of 10 kW/m2,

interphase, being oriented in the direction of the liquid to the vapor a low value for ﬁred boilers. Consequently, in the present study, we

zone. This function is deﬁned as: neglect the enhancement by bubbles formation at the wall, Eq. (28);

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R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

Be,k = max[−ṁ w,k ;0] KP,k + max[ṁ e,k ;0] KE ,k + Sp ⎪

f

αDh 8

(Re−1,000) Pr B w,k = −max[ṁ w,k ;0] KP,k BEe,k = −max[−ṁ e,k ;0] KE ,k ⎪

Nu∞ = = ⎪

λ 1+ 12.7 f /8 (Pr 2/3−1) (16) 1

s−1

∼(j) ⎪

(s ) f

bk = (PP AP −PE AE )k + a ∑ asj F k + Sc + Sc ⎪

ss

j=1 ⎪

Nu (z ) D 0.8 Swall,k

⎪

⎪

= 1 + 0.56 ⎛ h ⎞ ⇒ Nu (z ) Δz ∗

Sp = a Δt + fk 4ρ A 2 sign(ṁ e,k ) ṁ e,k ∗

Nu∞ ⎝ z ⎠ ss k k

⎬

Δz ⎪

D 0.8

f

(Re−1,000) Pr Sc = a Δt ṁ e(,nk)

= ⎡1 + 0.56 ⎛ h ⎞ ⎤ 8 ⎪

ss

⎢ ⎝ z ⎠ ⎥ 1 + 12.7 f /8 (Pr 2/3−1) (17)

S w ,k

Scf = fk 8ρ A 2 sign(ṁ e∗,k )(ṁ e∗,k )2−ρk gAk sin(β )Δz ⎪

⎣ ⎦ ⎪

k k

∼(j) ⎪

(j ) (j ) (j ) (j ) (j )

F k = −Bi,k ui,k − ∑ Bnb,k unb,k + bi,k ⎪

nb ⎪

5. Discretised equations nb ≠ i ⎪ (18)

⎭

The model developed in the last section consists of non-linear PDEs. Energy(Flows) ⎫

As these equations do not have analytical solutions, the use of numer- BP,k = max[−ṁ w,k ;0] + max[ṁ e,k ;0] + Sp ⎪

ical methods is mandatory. In this work, the system of equations is ⎪

BW ,k = −max[ṁ w,k ;0]BE ,k = −max[−ṁ e,k ;0] ⎪

solved numerically using the ﬁnite volume method (FVM). Refs. s−1 ⎪

1 ∼ (j ) ⎪

[24–26] oﬀer more detailed information over FVM. Four coupled grids bk = a ∑ asj F k −εk ṁ ip h vsat + Sc0 + ScQ

ss ⎪

are used to transform the continuum model into a discrete algebraic j=1

⎪

system. The ﬁrst two grids (ﬂows) consist of a staggered grid arrange- Δz ⎪

Sp = a Δt ρk(s) Ak(s)

ment; here scalar variables Ø (pressure, enthalpy, area, vapor quality, ss ⎬

Δz ⎪

etc.) are collocated at the center of the volume and the mass ﬂow rate at Sc0 = a Δt ρk(s) Ak(s) hk(s)

ss ⎪

the boundaries, Fig. 3a. The integration of the momentum equations is (n) (n) (s ) (s ) (n) (n) (s ) (s ) ⎪

ScQ = α wall ,kAP ,k (T wall,k−TP ,k ) + εk α ip A ip (T ip −Tk ,P ) ⎪

made on the contrary, Fig. 3b. The third grid consists of a collocated

∼(j) ⎪

grid for the wet surface average wall temperature Fig. 3a–c. This tem- F k = −Bi(,jk) ui(,kj)− ∑ Bnb (j ) (j ) (j )

,k unb,k + bi,k ⎪

perature is collocated at the center of the volume and in the same axis nb ⎪

nb ≠ i ⎪ (19)

of the scalar variables in the ﬂuid main grid. Finally, an auxiliary grid is ⎭

also used for the collocation of the wall temperatures in order to cal-

Energy(Wall) ⎫

culate angular wall heat conduction. This temperature is also at the

BP,k = (ρCp) w a

ΔV

+2

λw Δr ⎪

center of each volume Fig. 3d. ss Δt r Δθ ⎪

The dependent variable vector is W = ( ṁ l ṁ v hl h v Twall p Al )T . λ Δr λ Δr ⎪

BW ,k = − rwΔθ BE ,k = − rwΔθ ⎪

The ﬁrst ﬁve variables are determined with the momentum and energy

s−1 ⎪

equations of each ﬂuid and the wall respectively. The other two vari- 1 ∼(j) ⎪

bk = Sc0 + ScQ + a ∑ asj F k

ables, pressure and liquid cross section area, are calculated with a ss ⎪

j=1 ⎪

pressure correction method. Δ V

Sc0 = a Δt (ρCP ) w Ti(n) ⎬

For W = ( ṁ l ṁ v hl h v Twall )T the balance equations are integrated ss ⎪

(space and time) over the staggered ﬂow grid for ṁ k , the staggered grid ScQ = πDO ΔzQrad ″ −αl(,wn) Al(,Pn) (Tl,z−Tl,P )−α v(,nw) Av(,nP) (Tv,z−Tv,P ) ⎪

⎪

main grid for hk and the auxiliary angular wall temperature grid for ∼(j) ⎪

F P = −B(Pj) uP(j)− ∑ Bnb (j ) (j )

unb + bnb(j )

Twall . To perform this integration a 1st order upwind scheme is used for ⎪

nb ⎪

the non-linear terms due to convection; also the non-linear friction nb ≠ P ⎪

terms are approximated with a 1st order Taylor series expansion. For all ⎪

ΔV = r Δr ΔθΔz ⎭ (20)

the equations the transient terms are evaluated using the Explicit First

Stage Diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method (ESDIRK), [27,28]. With The two equations left are for mass conservation of both ﬂuids,

these simpliﬁcations the model written in the discrete form which integrated over the staggered main grid, in semi-implicit form,

Be / P We / P + B w / W Ww / W + BEe / E WEe / E = b is: results as follows:

Fig. 3. Meshes: (a) main ﬂuid staggered grid (scalar variable Ø), (b) ﬂuid staggered grid, (c) auxiliary wet surface average grid, (d) auxiliary angular wall temperature grid.

222

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

ṁ e,k −ṁ w,k = − (ρ Ak )Δz−εk ṁ P,ip

∂t k (21)

The 1-D ﬂow transient discrete model consists of momentum and

Here the mass accumulation term can be approximated under the

energy Eqs. (18), (19) and (20) plus the pressure/liquid area correction

ESDIRK fashion at every (s) stage as:

Eqs. (23) and (24). The system of discrete equations is solved with the

(s ) TDMA algorithm taking advantage of the form of the coeﬃcient ma-

∂ (ρk Ak )(s)−(ρk Ak )n

(ρ Ak ) ≈ trices. The numerical methodology consists in solving the corre-

∂t k P cs Δt (22)

sponding system of equations for each zone in a sequential manner in

This equation acts more of a restriction to the mass ﬂow ﬁeld than the following order: liquid, vapor, and wall. Because all variables are

as a dynamic equation for pressure and liquid area, therefore a pres- highly coupled the entire system of balance equations must be solved

sure/liquid cross area evolution equation must be constructed. Focusing iteratively on each (s) ESDIRK stage inside the interval t + Δt . To ensure

on both, liquid and vapor zones momentum equations, the driving force convergence a tolerance value must be settled, and this convergence

is given by pAk , so the same procedure to build this evolution equation criterion is applied to the mean average wall and ﬂows interphase

applies for pressure ( p ) in the vapor zone and for the liquid area ( Al ) in temperatures. The details of the algorithm are shown in Fig. 4.

the liquid zone. This is an old issue in incompressible ﬂows giving birth

to the so-called semi-implicit-pressure-linked-equation (SIMPLE) algo- 5.2. Mass transfer correction algorithm

rithm, Patankar [29]. The pressure/liquid area correction method starts

with a guessed mass ﬂow ﬁeld (ṁ k∗), and both mass ﬂow ﬁelds are At this point, the discrete conservation and pressure/liquid area

corrected on each iteration as ṁ = ṁ k∗ + ṁ k′. The mass ﬂow guess ﬁeld correction equations are solved with the mass transfer rate at the in-

is calculated with a guessed pressure/liquid area ﬁeld p = p∗ + p′ and terphase (ṁ ip ) as a parameter. Mass transfer through the interphase is

Al = Al∗ + Al′, With these corrections, equations combined with the controlled by many factors such as: shape of the interphase, interphase

discrete Eq. (18) and mass conservation Eq. (21) the pressure/liquid surface tension, molecular diﬀusion, turbulent mixing, plus convection

area correction on each (s ) level can be built. and concentration gradient in multicomponent mixtures. All this in-

(s ) formation is here modeled through the so-called mass transfer coeﬃ-

∂

(dv,e + dv,w ) P′P −dv,e P′E −dv,w P′W = −(ṁ v∗,e−ṁ v∗,w )− (ρ Av ) Δz −ṁ P,ip cient (K ); hence, if we assume that all the vapor is generated by the

∂t v P addition of latent heat and all this vapor is transferred instantly to the

(23) vapor phase (K = 1), the mass transfer rate can be modeled as

(s )

ṁ ip = xṁ . Particularized in discrete form in our integration stencil, the

∂ mass transfer rate ﬁnally becomes.

(dl,e + dl,w ) A′l,P −dl,e A′l,E −dl,w A′l,W = −(ṁ l∗,e−ṁ l∗,w )− (ρ Al∗,P ) Δz + ṁ P,ip

∂t l P

0 if xP,l ⩽ 0 (sub−cooled state)

(24) ṁ P,ip = ⎧

In the above equations, the coeﬃcients dk,e are obtained by algebraic ⎩ ̇ w,l xP,l if xP,l > 0 (liquid + vapor mixture)

⎨ m (25)

manipulation of the discrete momentum equation. More details can be Application of Eq. (25) to calculate ṁ P,ip requires to know ṁ w,l , hl

found in Patankar [24,29]. and p on each (s) stage, however, mass transfer rate in strongly coupled

stage ESDIRK algorithm.

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R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

with mass ﬂow, enthalpy and pressure, therefore Eqs. (18), (19), (20), are derived using the prescribed pressure and vapor ﬂow at both ends,

(24) and (25) must be solved sequentially in an iterative fashion. Un- in [31] some more details can be found. The boundary conditions for

fortunately Eq. (25) is not a dynamic equation for ṁ P,ip , so the way to the Poisson equation in the liquid there they are not straightforward so

fulﬁll the correct mass transfer rate is by a correction numerical pro- that a more detailed insight must be reserved for. One of the assump-

cedure, using Eq. (26) tions is that the ﬂow is gravity driven, this means that the inlet ﬂow is

accelerated by gravity until an equilibrium terminal velocity is reached.

ṁ ip = ṁ ip∗∗ + Δṁ ip (26) This transition from the inlet is supposed to occurs in a very small re-

Here ṁ ip∗∗ stands for the guess mass ﬂow through the interphase ﬁeld gion, thus at the inlet, the proper BC is of the Dirichlet type in mass

and Δṁ ip stands for its correction, which is calculated after every ﬂow. For the outlet, to ensure that the ﬂow is fully developed a Neu-

iteration level with Eq. (25) logically using the value of quality calcu- mann BC for the driving force ∂ (pAl )/ ∂z = ∅ is needed. At ﬁrst sight,

lated with enthalpies of the same iteration level.The idea behind this these BC’s are enough, but both BC’s do not produce a unique solution

correction procedure is that by successive iterations the mass transfer of the liquid area Poisson equation. The reason of the non-uniqueness is

rate is adjusted, such that the generated vapor is instantly transferred because the Dirichlet liquid mass ﬂow condition is numerically

and the liquid stream is always in saturation conditions. The mass equivalent to a Neumann liquid area condition, thus the liquid area is

transfer correction algorithm for the transient regime under the ESDIRK determined excepting adding a constant; in other words, a family of

method is shown in Fig. 5. solutions for Al is found on every iteration level. To avoid this problem,

the boundary condition at the inlet is transformed into a Dirichlet type

6. Numerical experiments condition. This change of the natural condition into a coherent math-

ematical boundary condition makes that the liquid area at the inlet

Veriﬁcation and validation both conform the essential procedure to must be iterated in a steady-state preconditioning algorithm. According

determine the reliability and accuracy of CFD codes and models [30]. to the previous discussion, the correct and mathematical coherent

The way to proceed is simple, with the aim of test cases as a benchmark, boundary conditions for vapor pressure and liquid area Poisson equa-

comparative simulations are performed. Unfortunately, there is a lack tions are:

of experimental data or analytical solution to be used as a benchmark

for the counter-current ﬂows with mass transfer between phases, a Liquid ⎫

Al (z = 0,t ) = Al,0 ⎪

layout that is of interest in this paper. For this reason, two numerical

−ṁ ip,z = L ṁ l,z = L ⎬

experiments will be carried out. First of all, a simple steady-state pro- (∂pAl / ∂z )|(z = L,t ) = ϕ = Δz (ρ A )|

l l (z = L,t ) ⎭

⎪ (29)

blem with no heat and mass transfer is solved in order to show the

reliability of the numerical model. Secondly, a simple conceptual

transient test case is proposed as benchmark hoping that in the near

future experiments can be carried out and serve as a basis for a required

fully comparison and from the results not only a further validation re-

sults, but the ﬁne-tuning of the empirical data used.

Both experiments share the same geometrical and initial data: The

pipe of the collector is 6 m long and is made of commercial steel,

λ wall = 15 W m−2 K−1, ρwall = 7900 kg m−3 , and Cpwall = 500 J kg−1 K−1

with an inner diameter Di = 30 mm and 5 mm wall thickness. The inlet

temperatures of the liquid and vapor streams are respectively 118.21 °C

(sub-cooled water), 125 °C and 30 °C for the wall, so that a transient

eﬀect will be evident when starting. Pressure for the liquid and vapor

are equal to 200 kPa. The initial mass ﬂow rates for the liquid and vapor

are 0.01 kg s−1 and 0 kg s−1 respectively inlet and for this case ∀z. The

inclination angle of the pipe is set to β = −30°.

For the second test case besides the data mentioned above other

inputs are required. Solar net irradiance is a function of the angle of the

pipe, Eq. (27). This function is for these cases the same for any z po-

sition at any time.

″ =⎧

Qrad −2

⎨

⎩ 800 W m for 210° ⩽ θ < 330° (27)

that the total net heat ﬂux at the outer diameter is, including losses to

ambient:

″ =⎧

Qrad −2

⎨

⎩ 7,680 W m for 210° ⩽ θ < 330° (28)

settled. According to our test cases, the initial conditions are:

pl (t = 0,z ) = pv (t = 0,z ) , Tl (t = 0,z ) = 118,21 °C, Tv (t = 0,z ) = 125 °C

and Twall (t = 0,z ,θ) = 30 °C. Additionally, the solution method requires

solving an intermediate pressure/liquid area Poisson equation. For the

Fig. 5. Flows interphase mass transfer algorithm.

pressure Poisson equation in the vapor zone, the boundary conditions

224

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

ṁ v (z = L,t ) = 0 kg s−1 In order to guarantee the consistency of the numerical model pro-

⎬ posed in this paper, with the initial and boundary conditions explained

pv (z = 0,t ) = 200 kPa ⎭ (30)

in Section 6.1, a grid sensitivity analysis has been carried out before the

Here ϕ stands for the equilibrium force between the pressure-area simulation results are presented in the next sub- section, now in-

driving force and the momentum transfer from the liquid to the vapor corporating mass transfer. As three diﬀerent grids are used, the analysis

zone. It is important to notice that ϕ = 0 implies that no mass is being is carried out in two ways. First, the number of volumes in the wall is

transferred ṁ ip = 0 . This term is small compared to other terms of the ﬁxed (Nw = 90 ) varying the volumes of both ﬂows (N ) and ﬁnally, the

momentum equation and can be neglected for practical purposes. same procedure is repeated in an opposite manner, ﬁxing the number of

In addition, some numerical parameters are also required. In this ﬂows volumes and varying the wall ones. The selected tracking vari-

work, the temporal integration is performed with the 3rd order of ac- ables are the vapor enthalpy and mass ﬂow, both measured at the vapor

curacy ESDIRK method developed by Alexander [32]. This temporal outlet (z = L ). Fig. 7 shows the temporal evolution of these variables. It

numerical scheme is implicit, making the numerical method to be un- can be observed that the grid reﬁnement makes that the solution tends

conditionally stable, not requiring any restriction on the time step. asymptotically to a stable solution while N → ∞ or Δz → 0 . This be-

There is no rapid variation in the boundary conditions, so no rapid havior evidences the consistency of the numerical schemes; in other

transient phenomena will occur, hence the time step was set to words, the numerical ﬂuxes that cross the volumes boundaries tend to

Δt = 0.25 s . The total simulation time is 120 s, a time long enough to the real numerical ﬂux as Δ z→ 0 . This result is not surprising due to

reach the steady-state condition. The relaxation factor for pressure the fact that the employed 1st order UPWIND scheme is consistent. On

chosen is constant and set to 0.5. On the other hand, the relaxation the other hand, in the case of vapor mass ﬂow of Fig. 7a, it can also be

factor for liquid area correction equation is inversely proportional to observed that the solutions for N = 50 and N = 100 volumes are very

the number of volumes employed; in our numerical experiments, it was close with an error respect to the solution with N = 150 of −0.067%

varied from 0.05 for N = 150 to 0.25 for N = 20 . The selection of the and of −0.051% respectively. A similar result is observed for the en-

liquid area relaxation factor is an important issue in this numerical thalpy evolution, Fig. 7b. From an asymptotic point of view, both so-

model. The reason behind this unusual small value for the area cor- lutions are acceptable. When the number of volumes is increased the

rection equation is because the liquid area must be always a positive computational eﬀort increases. This behavior is explained not only

quantity and the use of the area correction equation makes that the because the dimension of the linear systems to solve is larger, but also

intermediate solution can oscillate around the solution point at any because of the relaxation factors for the liquid area correction Eq. (24)

iteration level, bringing the risk of negative liquid areas. must be lower for a larger number of volumes, see Section 6.1 for the

deﬁnition of the relaxation factors.

For the next sensitivity experiment carried out, the number of ﬂow

6.2. Test case #1: Steady-state test

volumes is settled to N = 50 and the inﬂuence of the number of wall

volumes Nw is analyzed. Fig. 8 shows the results. They indicate that for

Stratiﬁed gravity driven ﬂows are characterized by an initial hy-

a low number of volumes Nw < 20 a spurious high vapor enthalpy ap-

drodynamic development. Once the ﬂuid enters the pipe, gravity acts as

pears for large times; this occurs because for a low number of volumes

the main driven force accelerating or decelerating the ﬂow to a terminal

the mean wall temperatures, calculated with Eq. (13), are not well

velocity leading to a certain liquid area. In the physical modeling used

approximated, so that in this case the vapor mean wall temperature is

in this paper this transition zone is neglected, thus for this particular

high in excess, transferring more heat to the vapor zone. With the grid

case the liquid area is constant along the pipe. The purpose of this ﬁrst

reﬁnement, the solution tends asymptotically to a stable solution, but

case is to verify that the liquid area calculated with the numerical

again the computational cost increases, in this case, when Nw > 48. It

model reproduces the stratiﬁed gravity driven behavior. An analytical

also can be observed that respectively for 50 s< t < 100 s and t > 100 s

expression can be derived with the aim of the momentum and mass

a decrease and later an increase in vapor enthalpy is found; this eﬀect is

conservation equations for the liquid zone, Eqs. (5) and (6) for k = l .

because the initial wall temperature is lower than the initial vapor

According to the assumptions it can be supposed that ∂ (pAl )/ ∂z = 0 ∀ z .

temperature (Section 6), therefore heat is transferred from the vapor

Correspondingly, the momentum equation can be reduced to an ana-

zone to the wall for t < 100 s and later on the heat ﬂux is reversed when

lytic expression where Ul is the terminal velocity:

the mean vapor wall temperature equals that of the vapor zone.

1 According to this analysis, N = 50 (Δz = 0.03 m ) for the liquid and

fl Sw,l (Al ) fl Sw,l (Al ) ṁ l2 ⎤3

Al (z ) = Ul2 = ⎡

⎢ 2 ⎥

vapor zones and Nw = 48 volumes (Δθ = 0.1308 rad ) for the wall at each

2g sinβ ⎣ 2ρl g sinβ ⎦ (31) z location are enough to ensure an asymptotically consistent solution.

With this simple equation one can calculate the liquid area in terms

of the mass ﬂow. Eq. (31) is implicit, so it must be solved iteratively.

Several simulations were carried out for diﬀerent angles of inclination

of the pipe varying the mass ﬂow. Fig. 6 shows the comparison of the

numerical solution with the theoretical solution for the steady state test

case #1. The numerical solution is for the mass ﬂow and liquid area at

the inlet and the theoretical solution is found solving Eq. (31). In can be

observed that both results coincide for diﬀerent angles of inclination.

With this test case, it can be ensured that the numerical model jointly

with the boundary conditions reﬂects satisfactorily the stratiﬁed gravity

driven steady-state hydrodynamics.

been performed. Before showing the numerical results it is necessary to

Fig. 6. Theoretical and numerical solution comparison for the steady-state test case #1.

check the consistency in a grid sensibility analysis.

225

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

Fig. 7. Grid sensitivity for Nw . ﬁxed and varying N for two tracking variables, (a) vapor mass ﬂow rate, (b) vapor enthalpy.

6.3.2. Transient numerical solution generated and instantly is transferred to the upper vapor zone. Even

Once the number of volumes is settled, the spatial distribution is that initial conditions for temperature were constant for both liquid and

analyzed in this section. Fig. 9 shows the results for liquid temperature. wall, the way in which they evolve thermally downstream is not uni-

For t < 90 s there is the washout of the cold entering liquid with a form, the reason of this is that the convective coeﬃcient αl is not

thermal wave traveling downstream. This phenomenon is caused by the constant along the pipe, as Fig. 10b shows, mainly due to the entrance

initial wall temperature that was set at a lower than the initial liquid correction in the Nusselt number, Eq. (17). This non-uniformity aﬀects

temperature, hence heat is transferred from the liquid to the wall and the vapor generation and can be clearly observed in Fig. 10a as a bulge

therefore the wall is heated not only by sun radiation but by the liquid shaped curve for ṁ ip , especially for 50 s< t < 120 s .

heat as well, until its large heat capacity allows a temperature gain. One of the novelties incorporated in the model is the simultaneous

This is coherent with the results shown in Fig. 9, which shows that for calculation of the wall temperature dynamics. Fig. 11 shows the wall

t = 40 s , the pipe wall is still cold well downstream. This kind of be- peripheral temperature distribution at four diﬀerent locations for

havior is an important aspect to take into account if an analysis of t = 40 s . It can be observed how the lower part of the pipe is hotter than

startup or shutdown of the installation has to be carried out. Later on, the upper part, mainly near the inlet of the pipe in spite of the increased

for example at t > 50 s , in some sections of the pipe near the liquid inlet, heat transfer near the liquid inlet, also it shows the heating of the upper

the wall temperature is recovered, switching the direction of heat ﬂux. part by thermal diﬀusion, aﬀecting this way the eﬃciency of the solar

Once the heat ﬂux is towards the liquid, it begins to increase its tem- system and eventually superheating the vapor. The full description of

perature until the saturation condition is reached at the inlet pressure of wall temperature distribution allows studying problems with non-

200 kPa. It is important to highlight that as part of the numerical al- symmetric solar angular concentration that happens when tracking the

gorithm the pressure inside the pipe is maintained constant until vapor sun along the day. Relevant information can be extracted for extended

is generated, this is because pressure is determined by the coupling of analysis like the determination of pipe thermal fatigue and for the

the momentum and mass equations in the vapor zone; hence this cou- evaluation of pipe longitudinal bending.

pling is not performed until there is vapor ﬂow on top; this is to avoid

having zeros in the main diagonals of the matrices involved in the

SIMPLE algorithm for the vapor zone. The exact subcooled pressure 7. Performance of the mass transfer algorithm

downstream gradient would be slightly positive owing to the counter-

current vapor ﬂow. The subcooled region corresponds to the almost The mass transfer algorithm developed for this work is a key part of

linear temperature increase wit z near the liquid inlet, more clearly the numerical procedure. It allows logically determining the mass

shown in Fig. 9b, as only sensible heating is produced. transfer rate and also to fulﬁll the here assumed saturation conditions of

Once the saturation condition is locally reached, vapor begins to be the liquid stream. This is the reason why some attention must be paid to

its performance. Fig. 12 shows the mass transfer correction (Δṁ ip ) for

Fig. 8. Grid sensitivity for N ﬁxed varying Nw , (a) vapor mass ﬂow rate, (b) vapor enthalpy.

226

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

Fig. 10. Transient evolution, (a) mass transfer through the ﬂows interphase ṁ ip , (b) wall/liquid convective coeﬃcient.

diﬀerent locations at t = 54 s , the instant at which vapor generation has same for all z points and moreover, Δṁ ip approaches zero mono-

already started, coherently with Figs. 9 and 10. Inside the interval tonically decreasing. Hence, it can be argued that the algorithm is al-

0.5 m< z < 1.8 m is where saturation is reached and the mass transfer ways convergent; furthermore, if one calculates the convergence se-

algorithm operates; outside this interval, the ﬂuid is still sub-cooled and quence as Δṁ ipk + 1/Δṁ ipk , where k is the iteration level, we found that this

no mass correction is needed because x < 0 . It can be observed from sequence converges to 0.921, 0.904 and 0.909 for z = 0.541 m ,

Fig. 12a how the mass transfer correction is larger in the ﬁrst iteration z = 0.78 m and z = 1.5 m respectively. This means that the mass

levels. After the iteration level advances, the mass correction mono- transfer corrections are linearly convergent with a mean order of con-

tonically decreases toward zero. This means that the energy transfer vergence of 0.901. These results evidence the potential of using this

through the interphase source term εk ṁ ip h vsat is being recalculated for algorithm for the determination of transient mass transfer rates in

accuracy. In other words, the algorithm is transferring the correct en- stratiﬁed evaporation/boiling ﬂows.

ergy ﬂux so that the liquid stream remains saturated. It could be ob-

served that at all locations the mass transfer correction exhibits the 8. Conclusions

same convergence performance. Fig. 12b shows a sample, again for

t = 54 s . It can also be observed that the convergence rate is almost the A 1-D numerical model has been developed for the transient

227

R. López et al. Energy Conversion and Management 155 (2018) 218–229

Fig. 12. Mass transfer algorithm performance, (a) mass transfer correction performance, (b) convergence historical.

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