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Anatomical position

The erect position of the body with the face directed forward, the arms at the side, and
the palms of the hands facing forward, used as a reference in describing the relation of body
parts to one another.

The anatomical position is of importance in anatomy because it is the position of

reference for anatomical nomenclature. Anatomic terms such as anterior and posterior, medial
and lateral, abduction and adduction, and so on apply to the body when it is in the anatomical

The purpose of the anatomical position is so that when medical professionals use terms
such as medial, lateral, superior and inferior, they know where it is.

2. Directional Terms

The Directional terms are used to locate structures and regions of the body relative to the
anatomical position .These terms are very useful when describing the locations of structures to
be studied in dissection. without these terms medical professions would have to spend a lot of
time pointing . and giving instructions. so basically , these terms are a easy way to memorize the
body and specfic locations in the human body.

Directional terms describe the positions of structures relative to other structures or

locations in the body.

Superior or cranial - toward the head end of the body; upper (example, the hand is part
of the superior extremity).

Inferior or caudal - away from the head; lower (example, the foot is part of the inferior

Anterior or ventral - front (example, the kneecap is located on the anterior side of the leg).

Posterior or dorsal - back (example, the shoulder blades are located on the posterior side of the

Medial - toward the midline of the body (example, the middle toe is located at the medial side of
the foot).

Lateral - away from the midline of the body (example, the little toe is located at the lateral side
of the foot).

Proximal - toward or nearest the trunk or the point of origin of a part (example, the proximal end
of the femur joins with the pelvic bone).
Distal - away from or farthest from the trunk or the point or origin of a part (example, the hand is
located at the distal end of the forearm).
3. Movement Terms

Movement is a fundamental aspect of life. Movement is more than just ‘exercise’ and
does not necessarily require effort, though it does require action. Movement affects everything,
from circulation to digestion to metabolism to immunity. With movement, our bodies regulate
hormone activity, detoxify and respire.

Benefits of regular physical activity

 Healthy growth and development including being a healthy weight and reducing the risk of
disease like diabetes or cancer later in life
 Building strong hearts, muscles and bones
 Learning fundamental movement skills
 Improved movement, balance, coordination and reaction time
 Increased mental wellbeing
 Improved social skills, self-esteem and confidence

4. Physical fitness

Physical fitness is your ability to carry out tasks without undue fatigue. Learn about the
components of physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance,
flexibility and body composition and why they are important.

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to
perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved
through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest.

The 5 components that make up total fitness are:

 Cardiovascular Endurance.
 Muscular Strength.
 Muscular endurance.
 Flexibility.
 Body Composition.

5. Physical Activity

Physical activity or exercise can improve your health and reduce the risk of developing
several diseases like type 2 diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity and
exercise can have immediate and long-term health benefits. Most importantly, regular activity
can improve your quality of life. A minimum of 30 minutes a day can allow you to enjoy these

Benefits of regular physical activity

If you are regularly physically active, you may:

 reduce your risk of a heart attack

 manage your weight better
 have a lower blood cholesterol level
 lower the risk of type 2 diabetes and some cancers
 have lower blood pressure
 have stronger bones, muscles and joints and lower risk of developing osteoporosis
 lower your risk of falls
 recover better from periods of hospitalisation or bed rest
 feel better – with more energy, a better mood, feel more relaxed and sleep better.

6. Exercise Variables and Principles

The principle of progression states that you should increase overload, which can be
achieved by using FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) when your body adapts to its
present routine. The specificity principle states that only targeted exercises will improve specific
fitness goals.


Overload has been mentioned often throughout this article, as it is a central and key aspect of
weight training.

The principle of progression says that he must progressively or gradually increase the
workload for improvement to continue. Now that John's legs have adapted to his new workout,
he must use the overload principle once again to progress to a new level of fitness. He might add
more weight, increase the number of reps, lengthen the amount of time he does the workout, or
try more difficult exercises.
Both progression and overload can be achieved by using the FITT approach to guide your

 Frequency - how often you train (once or twice per week)

 Intensity - how hard you train (workload, high or low intensity)
 Time - how long you train (20 min or an hour)
 Type - the kind of training you do (circuit training or cardio)
7. Overloading Principles

The Overload Principle is a basic sports fitness training concept. It means that in order to
improve, athletes must continually work harder as they their bodies adjust to existing workouts.
Overloading also plays a role in skill learning.

Overloading taps the body's mechanisms that bring about the desired changes that go
hand-in-hand with specificity. Improving cardiovascular fitness involves sustaining submaximal
activities for extended periods of time. Increasing strength requires lifting progressively heavier
weight loads. The principle applies to duration and volume of training, as well.

Overload and Sport Skill Learning

Sport skills are learned through a variety of techniques and concepts. It is the quality of
practice that counts, rather than quantity and intensity.

Learning movements correctly the first time is ideal. But when learned skills require
substantial corrections, overlearning helps.

Overlearning means repeatedly practicing a skill beyond what is required to perform it.
Simply, it is a method of overloading learning where quality and quantity are used to overcome
errors. Normally, skills are best learned when fatigue does not affect the athlete's ability to
correctly pattern movements.

Tips on Applying the Overload Principle

The following advice is commonly accepted and practiced:

1. Increase loads gradually and progressively. Training loads should become more intense
over a period of time, not increased too abruptly or with too much intensity.

2. Test maximums. Through testing, the intensity of training loads can be controlled and

3. Avoid muscular failure. Burnout sets are not advised for most sports training. It is not
necessary to train until muscles fail or the athlete collapses.

4. Allow ample recovery time. Too little recovery over time can cause an overtraining effect.
Too much recovery time can cause a detraining effect.

5. Plan and monitor training loads. Design long-range, periodized training programs, test
athletes, and evaluate their progress to guide training decisions about overload.
6. Track team and individual progress. Identify general areas where there are common deficits
compared to other fitness components and skill qualities. If athletes "run out of gas", for
example, training can be overloaded to improve skilled performances when fatigued.

7. Alternate activities. Organize workouts to allow recovery on some aspects of training while
increasing intensity on others. Use periodized planning to link into weekly and daily activities.

8. Coordinate all training activities and schedules. Fitness training loads should be adjusted
for technical and tactical activities, travel, competitions, and other factors that could influence
how overloading should occur.

The Overload Principle must work in concert with other Sports Training Principles:

The Balance Principle

The Individualization Principle

The Transfer Principle

The Specificity Principle

The Recovery Principle

The Reversibility Principle

8. Law of Adaptation Principles

To play its part, law and law-making must become more agile in changing to meet new
conditions. Existing laws must be closely scrutinized for their potential to limit or prevent
adaptation. The design and development of new laws should be informed by three principles.

There are three different types of adaptations:

 Behavioural - responses made by an organism that help it to survive/reproduce.
 Physiological - a body process that helps an organism to survive/reproduce.
 Structural - a feature of an organism's body that helps it to survive/reproduce.

9. Progression Principle

The Principle of Progression in endurance training implies that there is an optimal level
of overload that should be achieved, as well as an optimal time frame for this overload to occur.
The Progression Principle instructs that the overload process should not be increased too slowly,
or improvement is unlikely to occur. However, overload that is increased too rapidly can result in
injury issues or muscle damage. Thus, exercising above the target zone is counterproductive and
can be dangerous and potentially result in injuries.

10. Variety in Principles of Training

The variety principle states that variety in a training program is important to maintain the
motivation and interest of the athlete. While specificity is a key principle, athletes who complete
similar training activities and drills over an extended period of time may become bored and lose

variety training

Duration refers to the amount of time spent performing an activity. Variety refers to the
number of different exercises you perform for a specific exercise type -- for example, the number
of different cardiovascular exercises you do or the number of different strength-
training exercises you do.

11. Specificity

The principle of specificity derives from the observation that the adaptation of the body or
change in physical fitness is specific to the type of training undertaken. Quite simply this means
that if a fitness objective is to increase flexibility, then flexibility training must be used. If one
desires to develop strength, resistance or strengthening exercises must be employed. This
principle is indeed simple; however, it is frequently ignored. Many fraudulent claims for an
exercise product or system promise overall physical fitness from one simple training technique.
A person should be suspicious of such claims and should consider whether or not the exercise
training recommended is the type that will produce the specific changes desired.

12. Warm up

A warm-up helps your body prepare itself for exercise and reduces the chance of injury. The
warm-up should be a combination of rhythmic exercise which begins to raise the heartrate and
raise muscle temperature, and static stretching through a full range of motion. The rhythmic
exercise may be a slower version of the aerobic activity to come. For example, you might want
to walk before you jog, or do some aerobic dance movements before an aerobic or step class.
The stretches in the warm-up should be non-ballistic and cover all of the major muscle groups.
Always stretch the lower back before doing any lateral movement of the upper torso such as side

The purpose of a warm-up is to prepare your body for physical activity. The warm-up is
generally used to increase body temperature, increase heart rate and breathing rate, and also help
you mentally prepare for exercise.

13. work out proper

A practice or exercise to test or improve one's fitness for athletic competition, ability, or
performance. A test of one's ability, capacity, stamina, or suitability. An undertaking or plan
intended to resolve a problem of indebtedness especially in lieu of bankruptcy or foreclosure

Activity Specific Skills

Non-Locomotor Movements

Skills are fundamental body movements that do not incorporate traveling. They are stability
skills that include movements of limbs or body parts, and sometimes even the whole body.

Bracing the Core

Bracing the spine just be the set up for all/most of our strength training exercises. Everything
from dedicated core work to squats, jumps, presses, and deadlifts.Bracing creates the most
amount of tension and stability in the system.

Dead bug series

The “dead bug” exercise (which looks exactly like it sounds) is one of the simplest moves out
there when it comes to strengthening your abs and core without putting extra strain on your back.
That’s because “the dead bug exercise works your deep inner core: your transverse abdominis,
multifidus, diaphragm, and pelvic floor,” says Adam Rosante, certified personal trainer and
author of The 30-Second Body. “And building a strong core will protect and stabilize your spine,
particularly when your limbs are in motion.”

Rolling series

Rolling mean and frequency. In this exercise, some hourly weather data is pre-loaded for
you. You will continue to practice resampling, this time using rolling means. Rolling means (or
moving averages) are generally used to smooth out short-term fluctuations in time series data
and highlight long-term trends.

Bird dog exercise

The bird-dog is a bodyweight floor exercise that strengthens the core—more specifically,
the abdominal muscles, lower back, butt, and thighs. Although it is called an isolation exercise, a
lot is going on from head to thigh. As a bodyweight exercise, you need no equipment as your
own body provides the resistance.

Press up scapular protraction and retraction

The scapular retraction is a movement that focuses on strength and improving the integrity of
your shoulder blades. This specific exercise requires you to pull your shoulder blades closer
together to the spine while preventing your shoulder from doing an upward motion or a shrug.

Plank Series

The plank (also called a front hold, hover, or abdominal bridge) is an isometric core strength
exercise that involves maintaining a position similar to a push-up for the maximum possible

Squat Series
It's an effective lower-body exercise that works a bunch of muscles at once, including the
glutes, quads, and core. ... The squat is a very functional exercise, which means it trains a
movement pattern that you use in everyday life (you should be squatting when you try to lift
something heavy off the floor).

Locomotor Movements

These are movements where the body travels through space from one location to
another. Locomotor movements primarity use the feet for support however, the body can
travel on other parts such as the hands and feet. Even Rhythm. Walk - The walk is a transfer
of weight from one foot to the other.

Crawl and Creep

Crawl is simply to move forward on your hands and knees. Creep means to move
stealthily (especially to avoid being noticed) or to behave obsequiously. If it's intended to
mean something similar to crawl, then I would imagine it to be more like sliding along on
your belly.

Jumping and landing series

Applies the concept of the depth jump, but in a safer and less demanding exercise.
Single Leg Box Jumps-Emphasize. Landing. Same as the box jumps above, but with a single
leg landing. Jump off of two feet, but land on one.

Linear Movements

Linear motion is movement in a straight line. An example of linear motion in sport is a

ball moving in a straight line, or when an athlete, such as a downhill skier, holds a particular
body position as they move in a straight line.

Lateral Movements

Lateral movements or lateral flexions within equestrianism, have a specific meaning,

used to refer to movements made by a horse where the animal is moving in a direction other
than straight forward.
Mobility Training

Mobility training is the process in which you work to improve mobility in all or a single
joint. Through daily activities, injuries, exercise, or sport, joint range of motion can decrease
resulting in what is known as a compromised joint. Meaning your joint is vulnerable

Healthy Eating Habits

Healthy eating means eating a variety of foods that give you the nutrients you need to
maintain your health, feel good, and have energy. These nutrients include protein,
carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals.

Nutrition is important for everyone. When combined with being physically active and
maintaining a healthy weight, eating well is an excellent way to help your body stay strong
and healthy. If you have a history of breast cancer or are currently undergoing treatment,
eating well is especially important for you. What you eat can affect your immune system,
your mood, and your energy level.

No food or diet can prevent you from getting breast cancer. While researchers are still
studying the effects of eating unhealthy food on breast cancer and recurrence risk, we do
know that being overweight is a risk factor for both first-time and recurrent breast cancer. In
this section, you can learn how to eat in a way that keeps your body as healthy as it can be.

Filipino Food Pyramid

Pinggang Pinoy is a new, easy to understand food guide that uses a familiar food plate
model to convey the right food group proportions on a per-meal basis, to meet the body’s
energy and nutrient needs of Filipino adults. Pinggang Pinoy serves as visual tool to help
Filipinos adopt healthy eating habits at meal times by delivering effective dietary and healthy
lifestyle messages.