Sunteți pe pagina 1din 30

Niharika Gottipati

Class IX

Chapter-1-India: Size and Location-
- India is located in the northern hemisphere.
- India’s latitudinal extent is 8˚4’N-37˚6’N, and the longitudinal extent is 68˚7’E-97˚25’E
- The Tropic of Cancer is 23˚30’N
- The extent of India from North to South is 3,214 kilometres, and the extent of India from East to
West is 2,933 km.
- The southernmost point of the Indian Mainland is Kanya Kumari.
- The southernmost point of the Indian Union is the Indira Point (Andaman & Nicobar).

- The total area of India is 328 million sq. km., which is 2.8% of the total land area.
- India is the seventh largest country in the world. (After Russia, Canada, United States, China,
Brazil, Australia)
- Land Boundary: About 15,200 km.
- Coastline (Including Islands): 7,516.6 km.
- Standard Meridian: 82˚30’E

India and The World:

- Importance of India’s Location:
● India has a central location, between East Asia, and West Asia and Europe, allowing for the
spread of culture.
● India is a southward extension of the Asian continent.
● No other country has such a long coastline in the Indian Ocean, this allows connections to East
Asian, and European countries, and justifies naming an ocean after India.
- India is connected with European nations through sea routes, the Suez canal has reduced the
distance between the two by about 7,000 km.

India’s Neighboring Countries:

- India has 29 States and 7 Union Territories
- Neighboring Countries to India are Pakistan and Afghanistan in the Northeast, Nepal, China, and
Bhutan in the North, Myanmar in the East, and Sri Lanka, and Maldives in the South. (There is a
narrow channel of sea between Sri Lanka and India, known as the Palk Strait.

Map Work:
- Longitudinal and Latitudinal extent of India
- States & Union Territories
- Tropic of Cancer
- Standard Meridian
- Bay of Bengal & Arabian Sea
- Neighboring Countries
- Palk Strait
- Northernmost Point - India Col
- Southernmost Point - Indira Point (Andaman & Nicobar)
- Southernmost Point of Mainland- Kanya Kumari
- Westernmost Point - Ghagal Moti
- Easternmost Point - Kibithu (Arunachal Pradesh)

Chapter-2-Physical Features of India:

Plates; Plate Theory; Plate Boundaries:
- Major Plates:
● North American
● South American
● African
● Eurasian
● Indo-Australian
● Antarctic
● Pacific
- Theory of Plate Tectonics: According to this theory, the crust of the Earth is formed of 7 major,
and several minor plates, the movement of these plates result in folding, faulting, and volcanic
There are three types of Plate Movement:
● Convergent Boundary: When two plates move towards each other, this causes folding, such as the
creation of the Himalayan Mountains.
● Divergent Boundary: When two plates move away from each other, this causes land separation,
and volcanic activity, such as the separation of the Indo-Australian plate.
● Transform Boundary: When two plates move horizontally across each other, this causes activities
such as earthquakes, such as the earthquakes that occur in West California.

Gondwana Land: The Gondwana Land was an ancient landmass, which consisted of India, Australia,
South America, South Africa, and Antartica.
- The currents split the crust into a number of pieces, leading to the splitting of the Indo-Australian
plate (into India and Australia), causing India to collide with the larger Eurasian plate, the
sedimentary rocks formed the Himalayas, and mountains of West Asia.

Major Geographic Divisions:

- The Northern Mountains: The himalayas are geographically young mountains, that stretch over
the north border of India from Indus to Brahmaputra, these form an arc covering a distance of
2,400 km.
The Himalayas are divided into three latitudinal divisions:
● The Greater Himalayas (Himadri): This is the northernmost and most continuous range,
consisting of the loftiest peaks of 6,000 metres on average. The mountains have granite centers,
suggesting previous volcanic activity. This range contains all prominent peaks, including Mt.
Everest (Northwest Nepal), Kanchenjunga (India, Sikkim), K2 (India, Mid-North Jammu and
Kashmir) etc.
● The Lesser Himalayas (Himachal): This range lays south of the Himadri, and it forms the most
rugged range. The altitude varies between 3,700-4,500 metres, and the mountains are made of
sedimentary rock. Notable ranges include Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, and Mahabharat.
● The Outer Himalayas (Siwaliks): This is the southernmost range, with an average height of
900-1,000 metres. The longitudinal valley between the Shiwaliks and Himachal are known as the
Duns, some of the notable Duns are Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun, and Patli Dun.
The Himalayas are also divided based on rivers:
● Punjab Himalayas (Kashmir Himalayas) - Between Indus and Sutluj rivers
● Kumaon Himalayas- Between Satluj and Kali Rivers
● Nepal Himalayas- Between Kali and Tista Rivers
● Assam Himalayas- Between Tista and Dihang rivers
Purvachal- Beyond the Dihang, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south, and cover the east
border of India. These are composed of sedimentary rocks, and mainly run as parallel ranges and
- The Northern Plains: The northern plains spread over 7 lakh sq. km., and was formed by the
Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra, the plains consist of rich alluvial soil, due to the deposition of
alluvium in a vast basin lying at the bottom of the Himalayas, over millions of years. The alluvial
soil is very fertile, which is combined with a favourable climate, and adequate water supply,
making this a very agriculturally productive part of India, hence it is densely populated.
The Northern Plains is divided into three sections:
● The Punjab Plains- Formed by the Indus, and its tributaries, most of it lies in Pakistan.
● The Ganga Plains- Formed by the Ganga, it lies between the Ghaggar and Tista rivers, spreading
over the states of North India.
● The Brahmaputra Plains- Formed by the Brahmaputra, lies to the east of the Ganga plains,
particularly in Assam.
The Northern Plains are also divided based on relief features into four sections:
● Bhabar- This section consists of pebbles, deposited by the rivers descending from the mountains
into a narrow belt, known as the Bhabar Belt. All the streams and rivers disappear in this Bhabar
Belt. This area has terrace like features, and is coarse in nature.
● Terai- This lies to the south of the Bhabar Belt, all the streams and rivers re-emerge, to create a
wet, swampy, and marshy region. This was a thickly forested area, full of wildlife.
● Bhangar- This is the largest part of the Northern Plains, lying above the floodplains of the rivers.
It is formed of less fertile, older alluvium.
● Khadar- This is the newer, younger deposits of the floodplains, they are renewed every year, and
thus, is very fertile, ideal for intensive agriculture.
- The Peninsular Plateau: The peninsular plateau was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the
Gondwana Land, and is one of the oldest landmasses in India. It is composed of old crystalline,
igneous, and metamorphic rocks. It has two major divisions:
● The Central Highlands: It is north of the Narmada river, and covers a significant portion of the
Malwa Plateau. These are wider in the west, and narrower in the east. It is bounded by the
Aravalli Hills in the northwest.
● The Deccan Plateau: It is a triangular landmass, south of the Narmada river.
i. The Western Ghats (Sayadri) : Marks the western edge of the plateau, they are continuous, and
can be crossed only through passes, the average height is 900-1,600 metres. The highest peak is
Anai Mudi.
ii. The Eastern Ghats: Marks the eastern edge of the plateau, they are discontinuous, and irregular,
and are dissected by rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal, the average height is 600 metres. The
highest peak is the Mahendragiri.
- The Indian Desert: The Indian Desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali hills. It is a
sand plain, covered with sand dunes. This region receives below 150 mm. of rain per year, and
has little vegetation. Luni is the only large river in this region.
- The Coastal Plains: The Coastal Plains are narrow coastal strips, at the edge of the Peninsular
Plateau. These are divided into two parts:
● The Western Coast: It is in between the Western Ghats, and Arabian Sea, it is a narrow plain
consisting of three sections:
i. Konkan (North)
ii. Kannad Plain (Central)
iii. Malabar Coast (South)
● The Eastern Coast: It is in between the Eastern Ghats, and the Bay of Bengal, and are wide and
level. It consists of two sections:
i. Northern Circar (North)
ii. Coromandel Coast (South)
Lake Chilika is an important feature of the Eastern Coast.
- The Islands: There are two Indian island groups:
● Lakshadweep: This island group is made of small coral islands, and covers an area of 32 sq. km.
Kavaratti is the administrative headquarters.
● Andaman & Nicobar: These islands are bigger in size, and are more numerous and scattered, the
entire group is divided into the Andaman in the north, and the Nicobar in the south. It is believed
that these islands are elevated portions of submarine islands. They are of great strategic
importance to the country.

Conclusion: All of the physical features compliment each other, as follows:

- The Northern Mountains are major resources of water, and forest wealth.
- The Northern Plains are the granaries of the country, they provide a base for early civilisations.
- The Peninsular Plateau is a storehouse of minerals, playing an important role in the
industrialisation of India.
- The Coastal Plains and Islands provide sites for fishing, and port activities.
- The Indian Desert provides the country with solar energy.

Map Work:
- The Six Physical Features of India (+ Divisions)
- Mountain Ranges:
● Karakoram
● Zaskar
● Aravalli Hills
● Vindhya Range
- Mountain Peaks:
● Mt. Everest
● K2
● Kanchenjunga
● Anai Mudi
- Plateau:
● Chota Nagpur
● Malwa Plateau
● Deccan Plateau
- Coastal Plains:
● Konkan
● Malabar
● Konnad
● Coromandel Coast
● Northern Circar

‘Drainage’ is the River System(A river along with its tributaries), in an area. River systems drain into
large bodies of waters(Lakes, Oceans, etc.), and the area drained by a single river system is called its
‘Drainage Basin’. Any elevated area separating two drainage basins (an upland), is known as a ‘Water
- Tributary: A stream or river, which flows into a larger river or lake.
- Distributary: A steam or small river which separates from a larger river, and flows in a different

Drainage Patterns:
- Dendritic: The Dendritic River pattern is formed, when a river and its tributaries follow the slope
of a terrain. The river and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree, hence, the name
- Trellis: The Trellis River pattern is formed, where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other.
A trellis river is joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles.
- Rectangular: The Rectangular River pattern is formed, in a strongly-jointed rocky terrain.
- Radial: The Radial River pattern is formed, when a rivers tributaries flow in different directions,
from a central peak, or a dome like structure.

The Drainage System in India:

- The Himalayan River System: The Himalayan River system is a Perennial River System(flows
throughout the year), as it is fed from the melted snow of the Himalayas mountains. The major
Himalayan River Systems are Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra:
● Indus: The Indus flows westwards, into the Arabian Sea. A majority of it is located in Pakistan.
○ Origin: The Indus originates in Tibet, near Lake Manoswar
○ Enters India Through: The Indus enters India through Jammu & Kashmir
○ Tributaries: The major tributaries of the Indus are, Zaskar; Nubra; Hunza; Satluj; Beas;
Ravi; Chenab; Jhelum;
○ Length: The Indus is 2,900 km. long.
● Ganga: The Ganga flows eastwards, and drains into the Bay of Bengal, through its distributaries,
and through its joining of the Brahmaputra.
○ Origin: The Ganga originates from the Gangotri Glacier.
○ Tributaries: The tributaries of the Ganga river either originate from the Himalayas, or the
Indian Peninsula:
Himalayan Tributaries: The major Himalayan Tributaries of the Ganga are Yamuna;
Ghaghara; Gandak; Kosi;
Peninsular Tributaries: The major Peninsular Tributaries of the Ganga are Chambal;
Betwa; Son;
○ Length: The Ganga is over 2,500 km. long.
● Brahmaputra: The Brahmaputra flows eastwards, into the Bay of Bengal.
○ Origin: The Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, near Lake Manoswar (Near the origin of the
○ Enters India Through: The Brahmaputra enters India through Arunachal Pradesh.
○ Tributaries: The major tributaries of the Brahmaputra are, Dibang; Lohit;
In Tibet, the Brahmaputra contains a smaller amount of water and silt (as, it is a cold and dry
area), and in India the Brahmaputra contains a large amount of water and silt (as, it passes
through a rainy area). The Brahmaputra is marked by large deposits of silt on the riverbed, and it
overflows every rainy season(causing flooding).

- The Peninsular River System: The Peninsular River System is a Seasonal River System(flows
throughout a season). The main water divide of the Peninsular River System is the Western
Major Peninsular Rivers Flowing East into the Bay of Bengal: Krishna; Kaveri; Mahanadi;
● Krishna:
○ Origin: The Krishna originates in a spring, near Mahabaleshwar (a town in Maharashtra).
○ Area of Drainage Basin: The Krishna drainage basin covers area in Maharashtra,
Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
● Kaveri:
○ Origin: The Kaveri originates in the Brahmagiri range, in the Western Ghats.
○ Area of Drainage Basin: The Kaveri drainage basin covers area in Karnataka, Kerala, and
Tamil Nadu.
● Mahanadi:
○ Origin: The Mahanadi originates in Chhattisgarh.
○ Area of Drainage Basin: The Mahanadi drainage basin covers area in Maharashtra,
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha.
● Godavari: The Godavari is the largest Peninsular River. Because of its length and area, it is
known as the ‘Dakshin Ganga’
○ Origin: The Godavari originates in The Western Ghats, in Maharashtra.
○ Area of Drainage Basin: The Godavari drainage basin covers area in Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Andhra Pradesh.
○ Tributaries: The major tributaries of the Godavari are, Purna; Whardha; Pranhita; Manjra;
Penganga; Wainganga;
○ Length: The Godavari is 1,500 km. long.
Major Peninsular Rivers Flowing West into the Arabian Sea: Narmada; Tapi:
● Narmada: The Narmada is a long, Trellis River System.
○ Origin: The Narmada originates in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
○ Area of Drainage Basin: The Narmada drainage basin covers area in Madhya Pradesh,
and Gujarat.
● Tapi:
○ Origin: The Tapi originates in the Satpura ranges, in Madhya Pradesh
○ Area Drainage Basin: The Tapi drainage basin covers area in Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, and Gujarat

- Types of Lakes:
● Salt Water Lakes:
○ Chilika Lake (Largest Saltwater Lake in India)
○ Sambhar Lake (A Seasonal Saltwater Lake, used for producing salt)
○ Pulicat Lake
○ Kolleru Lake
● Freshwater Lakes:
○ Wular Lake (Largest Freshwater Lake in India)
○ The Dal Lake
○ Bhimtal
○ Nainital
○ Loktak
○ Barapani
● Man-Made Lakes: The damming of rivers have led to man-made lakes:
○ Guru Gobind Sagar
- Importance of Lakes:
● A lake helps regulate the flow of a river.
● A lake prevents flooding during heavy rainfall.
● A lake helps to maintain an even flow of water during a dry season.
● A lake can be used to develop hydro-power.
● A lake can moderate the climate of its surroundings.

Rivers in the Economy:

- Rivers provide water, which is a resource, essential to human activities.
- River banks were the place of settlements since ancient times. These settlements have grown into
big cities.
- Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, and hydro-power generation.

River Pollution:
- Reasons for River Pollution:
● Growing domestic, industrial, and agricultural demand for water from rivers, leads to large
quantities of water being drained from rivers. This reduces volume, and affects the quality of
● Heavy loads of untreated sewage and industrial waste are being emptied into rivers. This affects
the quality of the water, and reduces the self-cleansing capacity(ability of a river to dilute
pollution,) of the river.
Concern on the rising pollution in Indian rivers, has led to several plans to clean rivers, such as the
National River Conservation Plan(NRCP).

Map Work:
- Himalayan Rivers:
● Indus
● Ganga
● Brahmaputra
- Peninsular Rivers:
● Krishna
● Kaveri
● Mahanadi
● Godavari
● Narmada
● Tapi
- Lakes:
● Chilika Lake
● Sambhar Lake
● Pulicat Lake
● Kolleru Lake
● Wular Lake

Climate of India: The climate of India is the ‘Monsoon’ Type of climate.
- Weather & Climate:
● Weather: Weather is the state of the atmosphere, at any point of time.
● Climate: Climate is the sum of total weather conditions and variations over a large area of land,
for a long period of time (more than 30 years).

Factors Affecting India’s Climate:

- Latitude: The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India. Almost half of India, South of
the Tropic of Cancer is known as the Tropical Area, while all the remaining area, North of the
Tropic of Cancer lies in the Subtropical Area. Therefore India’s climate has characteristics of
tropical, as well as subtropical climates.
- Relief: India has mountains to the north, which are an average height of 6 000 meters. The
Himalayas prevent the cold winds from central Asia from entering India, hence India experiences
comparatively milder winters compared to Central Asia.
- Pressure & Winds:
● Pressure and Surface Winds: Pressure and Surface Winds in India are unique. In winter, a
high-pressure area forms, north of the Himalayas. In summers, a low-pressure area forms over
Interior Asia, and North-Western India.
● Upper Air Circulation: Upper Air Circulation in the Indian mainland is dominated by a Westerly
Flow. An important component of this flow is the Jetstream (a narrow belt of high-altitude
westerly winds in the troposphere) The Western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north
and northwest parts of of the Indian subcontinent are brought in by this Westerly Flow. An
Easterly Jet Stream, called the Sub-Tropical Easterly Jet Stream, blows over peninsular India
during the summer months.
● Western Cyclone Disturbance: The Western Cyclonic Disturbances are weather phenomena of the
winter months, brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. These usually
influence the weather of the north and the north-western regions of India.
- Altitude: In higher altitudes, the atmosphere is less dense, and temperature decreases. Therefore,
hills are cooler during summers.
- Distance From Sea: As distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases, and
the people experience extreme weather conditions.
- Ocean Current: Ocean Currents, along with onshore winds affect the climate of coastal areas. Any
coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it, will be warmed or cooled.

Indian Monsoon:
- Mechanisms of Monsoon:
● The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the
landmass of India, while the seas around experience high pressure.
● The shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a broad of low pressure in
equatorial latitudes.
● The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar. The intensity and position of
this high-pressure area affects the Indian Monsoon.
● The Tibetan Plateau gets immensely heated, which results in strong vertical air currents,
and formation of low pressure over the plateau.
● The movement of the Westerly Jet Stream to the north of the Himalayas, and the presence
of the Tropical Easterly Jet Stream over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
- Southern Oscillation: Changes in pressure conditions over the southern oceans also affect
monsoons. In certain years there is a change in the pressure conditions. This periodic change in
pressure conditions is known as the Southern Oscillation, or SO.
● El Nino: El Nino is the phenomenon, in which a warm ocean current that flows past the Peruvian
Coast, in place of the cold Peruvian Current, every 2 to 5 years, the changes in the pressure
conditions of the Southern Oscillation are connected to the El Nino, hence the phenomenon is
referred to ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillations).
- Onset & Withdrawal of Monsoon: The duration of the Monsoon is between 100 - 120 days, from
early June, to mid-September. The Monsoon, unlike the trade winds, are pulsating in nature,
affected by the different atmospheric conditions acting on it.
● The Burst of a Monsoon is when, around the time of the arrival of a Monsoon, the normal rainfall
increases suddenly, and continues constantly, for several days.
● Breaks in a Monsoon, is when there are breaks in rainfall, causing wet and dry spells. They are
spread in between rainless intervals. These breaks in the monsoon, are related to the movement of
the monsoons trough.
- Distribution of Rainfall:
- Monsoon as a Unifying Bond:
● The seasonal alteration of wind systems, and the associated weather conditions, provide a
rhythmic cycle of seasons.
● The Indian Landscape, Plant and Animal Life, entire Agricultural Calendar, and the Life
of the People, including festivities, revolve around the monsoon.
● Monsoon winds bind the whole country, by providing water to set agricultural activities
in motion.
● The River Valleys that carry the water, unite as a single river valley unit.

The Seasons:
- The Cold Weather Season (Winter): The Cold Weather Season lasts from mid-November to
● During Winter, Northeast Trade Winds prevail over India, causing it to be a dry season.
Some rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as, here the winds blow
from sea to land.
● In the northern part of India, a high pressure region forms.
● The weather consists of clear skies, low temperatures, low humidities, and feeble winds.
Days are warm, and nights are cold.
● The peninsular region doesn’t have a well-defined winter, as there is hardly any change in
temperature during winters, due to the moderating influence of the seas.
● A characteristic feature of winter, in the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the east,
and north west. There are low pressure systems, which originate over the Mediterranean
Sea and West Asia, and move into India. These cause the winter rains over the northern
plains, and the snowfall in the mountains.
● The total amount of winter rainfall is known as ‘Mahawat’, and they are of immense
importance to ‘Rabi’ crops.
- The Hot Weather Season (Summer): The Hot Weather Season lasts from March to May, because
of the northward movement of the Global Heat Belt, due to the northward movement of the sun.
● Temperatures range from 38​°C to 4​ 5​°C in the north.
● A low pressure region forms, in the area extending Thar Desert in the northwest, to the
Patna and Chotanagpur plateau in the east and south east.
● Localised thunderstorms known as ‘Kaal Baisakhi’, are common in summer. These are
associated with violent winds, and heavy downpour with hail.
● A characteristic feature of summer, is the ‘loo’. There are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds,
which blow during the day, over north and northwestern India. Such dust storms are
common during May, in northern India.
● Towards the end of summer, pre-monsoon showers are common, especially in Kerala and
Karnataka. These help in the early ripening of mangoes, and hence, are called ‘Mango
- Advancing Monsoon (The Rainy Season): By early June, the low-pressure condition over the
northern plains intensifies. It attracts the south-east trade winds of the southern hemisphere,
which cross the equator, entering India as the southwest monsoon. As these winds blow over
warm oceans, they bring abundant moisture and rain to the subcontinent. Mawsynram receives
the largest amount of rain in the world.
● The monsoon is known for its uncertainties. The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in
intensity, frequency, and duration. It is responsible for causing heavy floods in one part,
and droughts in others. The monsoon is often irregular in arrival and retreat. Hence, it
disturbs the farming schedule of millions of farmers all over India.
- Post/Retreating Monsoon (The Transition Season): The Transition Season lasts from October to
● The low-pressure region over the northern plains becomes weaker. This is is gradually
replaced by a high-pressure system. Hence, the south-west monsoon winds weaken, and
start withdrawing gradually.
● The low-pressure conditions over north India get transferred to the Bay of Bengal, by
November. This shift is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions, which
originate over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones generally cross the east coast of India,
and cause widespread and heavy rain, making them very destructive. The majority of
rainfall in the Coromandel Coast originates from depressions and cyclones.
● The months of October to November form a period of transition, from the hot rainy
season, to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies, and
a rise in temperature. Day temperatures are high, while night temperatures are cool and

Chapter-1-The Village of Palampur-
This is the story of a hypothetical village, called Palampur.
- Palampur is well-connected with neighboring villages and towns (Raiganj is a big village, which
is 3 km. from Palampur). Farming is the main production activity in Palampur, the other
production activities (referred to as non-farm activities), include dairy, small scale manufacturing,
shop keeping, transport, etc. (Similar to villages across India). There are 450 families in
Palampur. Most of the houses have electricity, and electricity also powers the tubewells in the
fields(used for irrigation). Palampur has two primary schools, and one high school. There is a
public health care centre.
● Hence, Palampur is a village with well-developed roads, transportation, electricity, schools, and a
health centre.

Production: The aim of production is to produce the goods we want.

The factors affecting production are:
- Land: Land is a natural(fixed in nature) input, and required for any production. Land can neither
be created or destroyed. Land includes other natural resources, such as water, forests, minerals,
- Labour: Labour is the people who will do the work, some labour requires education, while others
require manual work.
- Physical Capital: Physical capital is the variety of inputs, required at every stage of production.
● Fixed Capital: Capital that can be used in production over many years, tools, machines, etc.
● Working Capital: Capital that is used up in production, money, raw materials, etc.
- Human Capital: Human capital is the human knowledge and enterprise, required in production.

Farming in Palampur: Farming is the main production activity in Palampur, (as in villages around India),
and 75% of the people are dependant on Farming for their livelihood (Farmers & Farm Labourers).
- Land is Fixed: Land under cultivation is fixed, there exists no further scope to increase farm
production by adding land for cultivation.
- Multiple Cropping & Irrigation: All land is cultivated in Palampur, and no land is left idle (similar
to a city in Western Uttar Pradesh). During the rainy season(Kharif), farmers grow Jowar & Bajra
(which is used as cattle feed), from October to December, farmers grow potato, and during
winter(Rabi), farmers grow wheat. This is multiple cropping(Growing more than one crop on a
piece of land in a year). Farmers are able to grow three crops a year, due to a good system of
irrigation. Electricity came early to Palampur, transforming the system of irrigation, as till then,
Persian Wheels were used for irrigation. However, farmers started using tubewells, to irrigate
larger areas of land more effectively.
- The Green Revolution & Modern Farming Methods: Till the mid-1960s, traditional seeds were
used in farming. Traditional seeds have a relatively low yield, however they need less irrigation.
Natural manure was used as fertilizers. All of these materials were readily available to the
● The Green Revolution: The Green Revolution in the 1ate 1960s introduced High Yield Variety
Seeds(HYV), which had much higher yields than traditional seeds. However, HYVs require a
larger amount of irrigation, and usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Modern farming
methods involve a combination, of HYVs, irrigation, chemical fertilisers, and pesticides. Farmers
of Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana were the first to try modern farming methods.
- Sustainability of Land: Modern farming methods often create infertility of land due to usage of
chemical fertilisers, and the usage of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the
groundwater levels. Land is a natural resource, and must be used carefully, as it is limited.
- Distribution of land in Palampur: Not all people engaged in farming have sufficient land for
cultivation. In Palampur, 150 families are landless, 240 families have less than two hectares of
land(small farmers), and 60 families have over two hectares of land(medium/large framers).
- Labour: Small farmers, along with their families, cultivate their own land. Medium and large
farmers hire labourers. Labourers are from landless families, and they unlike farmers, do not have
a right over crops grown in the land. Instead they are paid wages, which are often low, due to the
fact that labour is in surplus. (Compare to land)
- Capital Needed During Farming: Modern farming requires a large amount of capital, so farmers
require more money to sustain it. Many small farmers have to borrow loans of money to arrange
for capital, and the rate of interest on such loans are very high. Medium and large farmers have
their own savings from farming, allowing them to arrange for capital needed.
- Sale of Surplus: Small farmers have little surplus due to the fact that total production of crops are
small, and kept for family needs. Therefore medium and large farmers provide crops for the
market by selling surplus, and a part of the earnings is saved for buying capital the following
year. Thus, medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming, allowing them to
arrange for capital needed.

Non-Farm Activities:
- Dairy: Dairy is the most common non-farm activity in Palampur. People feed their buffalos
various kinds of grass, and Jowar and Bajra(Grown during Kharif). The milk produced is sold in
Raiganj(The nearby large village), from where the milk is transported to large towns & cities.
- Small Scale Manufacturing: Not many people in Palampur are involved in small scale
manufacturing. Small scale manufacturing involves simple methods, done at home or in the
fields. Outside laborers are rarely hired, and most of the production is carried out with the help of
family labour.
- Shopkeeping: Not many people in Palampur are involved in trade(exchange of goods). The
traders of Palampur are shopkeepers, who buy goods from markets in cities, and sell them at
Palampur in general stores.
- Transport: People involved in transportation ferry goods and people, from one place to another,
and in return get paid for the service. This section has been growing over the last several years.

Chapter-2- People as Resource-

‘People as Resource’, refers to a country’s working population, in terms of their productive skills, and
ability to contribute to Gross National Capital(GNP).
● Asset: A person who contributes to GNP is an Asset to the economy.
● Liability: A person who doesn’t contribute to GNP is a Liability to the economy.
Human Capital/Resource:
- Population as Human Capital: Population becomes human capital, when there is an investment
made, in the form of education, training, and medical care. Investment in Human Capital yields a
return, similar to investment in Physical Capital. This is the advantage of having a large
- Human Capital Formation/Investment: Human Capital Formation is when the existing ‘Human
Resource’ is developed into human capital, by investing in education, training, and health.
Investment in human capital can give high returns in the future, such as higher earnings and a
greater contribution to society, furthermore, human capital is superior to other forms of capital, as
it can make use of land, physical capital, etc.
● Children’s Human Capital Formation/Investment: Investment in the human capital of children can
also give high returns in the future, such as higher earnings and a greater contribution to society.
○ Educated parents invest more on the education and healthcare of their child, as they have
realized the importance of a good education and proper health. Thus, a virtuous cycle is
○ Uneducated parents invest less on the education and healthcare of their child, as they
don’t know the importance of a good education and proper health. Thus, a vicious cycle
is created.

Economic Activities:
- Three Sectors of Activities:
● Primary Sector: The Primary Sector consists of activities, extracting raw materials: Examples are,
agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry, mining, etc.
● Secondary Sector: The Secondary Sector consists of manufacturing activities: Examples are, food
processing, etc.
● Tertiary Sector: The Tertiary Sector consists of activities, producing goods and services:
Examples are, health, trade, education, etc.
- Market/Non-Market Activities:
● Market Activities: Market activities (also known as, Economic Activities), are activities which
people are paid for doing.
● Non-Market Activities: Non-Market activities, are activities in which people produce goods for
- Division of Labour Among Men & Women: Due to historical and cultural reasons, there is a
division of labour between men and women, with men working in the fields, and women doing
the domestic chores. Women are not paid for domestic chores, and it is not recognised in the
Women are often paid less than men, when performing a market job, due to the following
● A majority of women have a meagre education, and low training.
● A majority of women work in jobs without job-security, jobs in this sector have low and
irregular wages.
However, women with high education and training are paid equal to men.
Quality of Population: The quality of population in an area depends on literacy rate, and health(measured
by life expectancy). The quality of the population decides the growth rate of a country.
- Education: Education contributes to the growth of a society, enhances the national income,
cultural richness, and increases efficiency. Furthermore, literacy is a basic right, required for
citizens to perform their duties, and enjoy their rights properly.
Efforts made to Improve Literacy & Education in India:
● A provision was made for providing nationwide access and quality in education, with a special
emphasis on girls.
● Vocational streams have been developed, to provide high-school students with occupations
related to knowledge and skills.
● ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ was a plan, formulated to provide nationwide access to education to
children, from ages 6-14.
Along with ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’:
○ Bridge courses, and back-to-school camps have been started, to increase enrollment in
elementary schools.
○ The Mid-Day Meal Scheme has been implemented, to encourage the school attendance of
children, and improve their nutrition.
- Health: The health of a person, allows him/her to reach his/her potential, and fight illness. An
unhealthy person is a liability, hence, health is necessary for one’s well-being. Therefore, the
national policy of India aims at improving accessibility of healthcare, family welfare, and
nutrition service, with a special focus on the underprivileged sections of the population.
Efforts made to Improve Healthcare in India: The following measures taken, have helped to
increase the life expectancy to over 67.5 years.
● Decrease of Infant Mortality Rate [IMR] (Death of children, below one year of age)
IMR is decreased by providing infants with protection from infection, nutrition, and childcare.
● Decrease of Crude Birth Rates (Number of babies born for every 1,000 people, in a particular
period of time)
● Decrease of Death Rates (Number of deaths per 1,000 people, in a particular period of time)

Unemployment: Unemployment is when a person who is in the workforce (aged 15-59), and is willing to
work, is not able to find work.
- Types of Unemployment: There are three types of unemployment. In India, Disguised
Unemployment, and Seasonal Unemployment is common in rural areas, and Educated
Unemployment is common in urban areas.
● Disguised Unemployment: Disguised Unemployment is when a person appears to be employed,
however the person does not add to the productivity of the activity, and hence, the activity would
be just as productive without the person. This is common among family members in agricultural
● Seasonal Unemployment: Seasonal Unemployment, is when a person is unable to find a job
during certain months of the year. This is common people in agricultural activities, as some
months are busy, while others do not provide much work.
● Educated Unemployment: Educated Unemployment, is when a person with a proper education is
unable to find a job. This is an unusual problem as, there are surplus of workers in some fields,
while there are shortages of workers in other fields.
- Effects of Unemployment: There are many negative effects of unemployment:
● Unemployment leads to a wastage of ‘human resource’.
● People who are an asset to the economy turn into a liability.
● People do not have enough money to support their families.
● The dependance of the unemployed on the employed increases.
● The quality of life of the individual, as well as the society decreases.
Hence, unemployment has a negative effect on the growth of an economy.

Chapter-1- The French Revolution-
- 1774:
● Louis XVI of the Bourbon Dynasty ascended the French throne.
- 1789:
● May 5: Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates General, to pass new taxes.
● July 14: An agitated crowd stormed the Bastille, The French Revolution started.
● August 4: The assembly passed a decree, banning the feudal system of obligations and taxes.
- 1791:
● The French Legislative elections were held in September.
● The first draft of the French constitution was drafted by the national constituent assembly.
● The rights of the privileged classes were abolished, and "The Declaration of Rights of Man &
Citizen"(A document stating the rights of French citizens) was passed by the national assembly.
- 1793:
● Louis XVI is executed, due to the fact that he was sentenced to death for treason.
- 1793-1794:
● Robespierre's reign of Terror.
- 1804:
● Napoléan Bonaparte declared himself emperor of France.
- 1815:
● Napoléan was defeated at Waterloo.

- Louis XVI became the king of France in 1774, upon his accession he found an empty treasury,
due to four major reasons:
● Past, long years of war
● Maintenance of an extravagant court
● France had helped the American colonies gain independence against Britain.
● Lenders, who gave the state credit began to charge 10% interest on loans.
- France during the "Old Regime" (French society before the French Revolution of 1789) was
divided into three estates:
● First Estate (Clergy): Were exempt of taxes; Extracted taxes from the peasants (Tithes)
● Second Estate (Nobility): Were exempted of taxes; Extracted feudal dues from the peasants.
● Third Estate (Commoners): Paid Tithes to the Clergy and Feudal dues to Nobility;Obliged to
render services to the landlord; Payed direct tax to the state (Taille);
- Therefore France was forced to increase taxes, however this would not have sufficed, as only
members of the third estate paid taxes.

- Due to the large increase in French population by 1789, there was a large increase in demand for
food grains than what could be produced. The price of bread (A staple in the French diet) rose.
Wages of labourers did not keep pace, increasing the gap between rich and poor. This led to a
subsistence crisis, something that occurred often in France during the "Old Regime".
- The eighteenth century saw the rise of a middle class, consisting of the more educated members
of the third estate (lawyers, administrative officials, etc.). All of these people believed that no
group in society should be privileged by birth, and that a person’s rank should depend on merit.
These ideas of a free and equal society were put forward by:
● John Locke- Wrote “Two Treatises of Government”, contracting doctrine of divine, and absolute
right of monarchy.
● Jean Jacques Rousseau- Wrote “The Social Contract”, proposing a government based on social
contract between it, and it’s people.
● Montesquieu- Wrote “The Spirit of Laws”, proposing a division of power in the government
between legislative, executive, and judicial.
- During the “Old Regime”, the monarch could not impose taxes alone, he had to call a meeting of
the Estates General, who would vote on the proposal.
The Estates General consists of:
● 300 members of the First Estate
● 300 members of the Second Estate
● 600 members of the Third Estate
Previously, each Estate has one vote, however the third estate demanded that voting be done by
the assembly as a whole, with each person receiving one vote. When the king refused this, the
members of the third estate walked out in protest.
- On June 20, the third estate representatives assembled in an indoor tennis court in the Versailles,
they declared themselves a national assembly, and swore not to disperse until they drafted a
constitution for France, limiting the powers of the monarch.
- Due to the subsistence crisis, people grew agitated, at the same time the king ordered his troops to
move into Paris. Rumour spread that the troops were ordered to attack citizens, and the agitated
crowd stormed the Bastille on July 14, 1789; In the countryside , rumour spread that the manor
hired bands to destroy ripe crops. Peasants revolted, and attacked, burning down important
documents containing manorial dues, and looting grain.
- Louis XVI, with no other choice, accepted that his powers would be checked by a constitution.
- On August 4, 1789, the national assembly passed a decree, banning the special rights of clergy
and nobility, tithes and feudal dues were banned, and the land of the church, confiscated.

- The national assembly completed the draft of the constitution in 1791, which began with a
statement, ensuring rights of life, freedom, opinion, and equality before law. The main objective
of this constitution was to limit the powers of the monarch, and transform France into a
constitutional monarchy (separating powers into Legislative, Executive, and Judicial). Men above
25, who paid taxes equivalent to three day workers wage, were allowed to vote.
- Although Louis XVI signed the constitution, he entered into secret negotiations with the king of
Prussia. However in 1792 the national assembly declared war against Prussia, thousands of
people volunteered for the army.
- Many people were convinced that The French Revolution could be advanced, as the constitution
only included prosperous members of society. Political clubs became popular for those who
wanted to voice their opinion, and plan forms of action, the most successful of which was The
Jacobin Club.
● The Jacobin Club: This club consisted of the less prosperous members of society, they were led
by Robespierre. In the morning of August 10, 1792, they stormed the Palace of Tuileries, killed
the king’s guards, and held the king hostage.
- Later the assembly voted to imprison the royal family, Elections were held. From now on all men
of 21 and above could vote. The newly elected assembly was called the convention. On
September 1792, it abolish monarchy, and France became a republic.
- Louis XVI was sentenced to death for treason, and was executed on January 21, 1793.
- Robespierre became the new ruler, his reign (1793-1794) is known as the “Reign of Terror”, as he
followed a policy of strict control and punishment. All those seen as ‘enemies’ of the republic
were arrested, tried, and executed.
Policies introduced by Robespierre were:
● Maximum ceiling on wages and prices
● Rationing of wheat and bread
● Peasants were forced to send grains to the city, and sell it at prices fixed by the government.
● Use of the more expensive white flour was forbidden, wheat flour was to be used.
● Churches were shut down, and converted into offices and barracks.

- Finally, Robespierre was convicted by a court in July 1794, arrested, and executed the next day.
- The fall of the Jacobin government allowed the wealthier middle class to seize power. A new
constitution was introduced, denying vote to non-propertied sections of society, it introduced two
legislative councils, and a directory, however this led to political instability.

- Political instability led to the rise of Napoléan Bonaparte, a military dictator, who crowned
himself emperor of France in 1804. He set to conquer, and saw himself as the modernizer of
He introduced many laws including:
● Protection of private property
● A uniform system of weight and measures, provided by the decimal system

- Napoléan Bonaparte, was defeated at Waterloo in 1815.

The ideas of democracy and liberty spread from France, to the rest of Europe, where feudal systems still
existed, in the 19 century. Woman gained right to vote, and slaves were freed, and given right to vote.

Chapter-2-The Russian Revolution:

Socialism in Europe:
- Liberals, Radicals, & Conservatives: Approaching the 19th Century, there were three main social
● Liberals: Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. Liberals opposed the uncontrolled
power of dynastic rulers, and wanted to protect the rights of individuals against the government.
They wanted a representative, elected, parliament, and laws interpreted by a well-trained
judiciary. However, they were not democratic, as they did not believe in universal adult franchise.
● Radicals: Radicals wanted a nation in which the government was based on a majority of the
country’s population. Unlike liberals, they did not support the rights of wealthy land, and factory
owners. They were not against private property, but the disliked the concentration property in the
hands of so few.
● Conservatives: Conservatives before the French Revolution opposed change, After the French
Revolution, they accepted change, however felt that it had to be brought about in a slow process,
which respected the past.
- Industrial Society: The 19th century was a time social and economic changes, of the industrial
revolution. Industrialization brought men, women, and children into factories, where work hours
were long, and wages were poor. Unemployment was common, and housing and sanitation
problems were growing rapidly. Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues, they
believed in the value of individual labour, capital, and enterprise, and that if the poor could labor,
and those with capital could operate without restraint, that society would develop. Many working
men and women supported liberal and radical groups, in the early 19th century.
- Socialism in Europe: By the mid-nineteenth century, socialism was a well-known body of ideas,
which attracted widespread attention. Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the
root of all social ills at the time, as the individuals who controlled property were only concerned
with personal gain, and not the welfare of those who made it productive. They wanted for society,
as a whole to control property, so that more attention would be paid to collective social needs.
● Socialists:
○ Robert Owen: Robert Owen was an English manufacturer, who wanted to build a
cooperative community (Cooperatives were associations of people, who produced goods
togethers, and divided profits, based on work done.), called New Harmony, in Indiana
○ Louis Blanc: Louis Blanc was a French king, who wanted to encourage cooperatives, and
replace capitalist enterprises.
● Karl Marx’s Theory of Socialism: Karl Marx claimed that industrial society was ‘capitalist’.
Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, while the profit was produced by workers. The
conditions of workers could not improve, if this profit was gained by capitalists. In order to free
themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a socialist society, where all
property was socially controlled(Communist Society). He was convinced that workers would
triumph in their conflict with capitalists, and that a communist society was the natural society of
the future.
● Support for Socialism: By the late 19th century, socialist ideas had spread throughout Europe. In
order to coordinate their efforts, socialists formed an international body, The Second
International. By 1905, socialists formed a Labour Party in Britain, and a Socialist Party in

The Russian Revolution:

Russian Empire in 1914: In 1914, Tsar ruled the Russian Empire, which consisted of current-day Russia,
Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, and parts of Poland. The majority religion was
Russian Orthodox Christianity.
Pre-Revolution Economy & Society:
● Economy: At the beginning of the 20th century, a majority of Russia’s people were
agriculturists(earning their living from agriculture). In the Russian Empire, agriculturists
produced for both personal needs, and the market, and hence, Russia was a major exporter of
● Industry & Factories: Prominent industrial areas in Russia were St. Petersburg, and Moscow.
Most industry was the private private property of industrialists. The government supervised large
factories, to ensure minimum wages, and limited working hours, however they could not prevent
these rules from being broken, and the working day in factories ranged up to 10 - 12 hours.
○ Workers: Workers were a divided social group, divided on the basis of skill, heritage, etc.
Women made up 30% of the factory labour force by 1914, but were paid less than men.
Despite divisions, workers united to strike work, when they disagreed with employers
about dismissals, or working conditions.
● Peasants: Peasants in Russia cultivated most of the land in the countryside. Peasants in Russia
were different from other European governments peasants, because, except in a few cases they
had no respect for nobility, unlike in other European countries, where peasants respected, and
fought for nobles, peasants in Russia were also different, they pooled their land and commune
together regularly (mir), and divided it according to individual family needs.
- Socialism in Russia:
● Social Democratic Party: The Russian Social Democratic Party was founded in 1898, by
socialists. It set up a newspaper, mobilised workers and organised strikes. The party was divided
on strategy for organisation, Vladimir Lenin (who led the Bolshevik Group), felt that the party
should control the number and quality of its members.
● Social Revolutionary Party: The Social Revolutionary Party was founded in 1900, by socialists
who felt that the main force of a socialist revolution should be peasants, and not workers. They
wanted peasants’ rights, and for land belonging to nobles to be transferred to peasants. The Social
Democrats, disagreed with Social Revolutionaries, and felt that peasants were not one united
- The 1905 Revolution:
● Factors Leading to the 1905 Revolution:
○ Russia was an autocracy, as, unlike other European countries at the beginning of the 20th
century, Tsar was not subject to parliament, liberals campaigned to end this, and were
supported by nationalists, and jadists(Muslims who wanted modernised Islam to lead
their societies).
○ The year 1904 was a particularly bad one for Russian workers, prices rose so quickly, that
real wages(The quantity of goods that wages can buy), declined by 20 percent.
● Bloody Sunday: When four members of the Russian Assembly of Workers were dismissed, there
was a call for action. Over the next few days, over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg, went on
strike, demanding a reduce in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages, and an
improvement in working conditions. When the workers reached Winter Palace, they were
attacked by the police, and over 100 workers were killed. This incident was known as Bloody
● The 1905 Revolution: Bloody Sunday started a series of events, known as The 1905 Revolution.
Strikes took place all over the country, universities closed down when student bodies arranged
walkouts, and lawyer, doctors, and other middle-class workers established the Union of Unions,
demanding a constituent(constitutional) assembly.
● Duma: During the 1905 Revolution, Tsar allowed the creation of an elected parliament, Duma.
However, Tsar dismissed the first Duma in 75 days, and re-elected the second Duma, as he didn’t
want any questioning of his power. After dismissing the second Duma, he changed the voting
laws, and filled the third Duma with conservatives, Liberals, and Radicals were kept out.
- World War I: In 1914, war broke out between two European alliances, Germany,
Austria-Hungary, and The Ottoman Empire(The Central Powers), and France, Britain, and
Russia(The Allies). This was the First World War. In Russia, the war was initially popular, and
the people supported Tsar. Anti-German sentiments ran high, and St. Petersburg(A German
Name) was renamed to Petrograd. However, as the war continued, Tsar refused to consult Duma,
and support was thin. Russian defeats were shocking, and demotivating. Able-bodied men were
called up to the war, hence, there were labour shortages. Large supplies of grain were sent to the
army, hence, bread and flour became scarce for those living in cities.
- The February Revolution of 1917:
● Factors Leading To The February Revolution: In February 1917, the conditions in Petrograd were
○ The layout of the city emphasised the division between it’s people, with the worker’s
quarters and factories located on the right bank of the river Neva, and the official
buildings located on the left bank.
○ Food shortages were devastating in workers quarters, as large supplies of grain were sent
to the army.
○ The winter was very cold, and there had been heavy frost and snow.
○ Parliamentarians, who wished to preserve the elected government, opposed Tsar’s desire
to dissolve Duma.
● The February Revolution: On February 22, a lockout(dismissal of workers, until certain
conditions are met) occured in a factory on the right bank of the river Neva. The next day,
workers in 50 factories called a strike. (In many factories, women led the strikes, hence, the day
became known as International Women’s Day.) The workers crossed the river, from the factory
quarters, to the centre of the capital. As the official buildings were surrounded by workers, the
government imposed a curfew, and the workers dispersed by the evening. On February 25th, the
government suspended Duma, politicians spoke out against this, and the striking workers returned
to the streets of the left bank of the river on the 26th. The government tried to control the
situation, by calling out on the cavalry, however, the cavalry refused to fire, voting to join the
striking workers. That evening, soldiers, and striking workers had gathered the form a
‘Soviet’(council), in the building where Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet. Military
commanders advised Tsar to abdicate the throne, and he did so on March 2. Soviet Leaders and
Duma Leaders formed a provisional government to run the country. Russia’s future would be
decided by a constituent assembly, elected based on universal adult suffrage. Petrograd had led
the February Revolution, which brought down the monarchy in February 1917.
● After The February Revolution: In April 1917, Vladimir Lenin, and the other Bolsheviks felt that
it was the time for Bolsheviks to take over, and created three demands, known as Lenin’s April
○ April Theses: The Bolsheviks demanded that,
1. Russia’s involvement WWI be brought to a close
2. Land be transferred to the peasants
3. Banks be nationalised (Government takes ownership and control of banks)
Through the summer, the socialist/workers’ movement spread. As the provisional government
saw a reduce in its power, and an increase in the influence of the Bolsheviks, it took immediate
action, and began arresting Bolshevik leaders, and oppressed Bolshevik staged strikes. Many
Bolshevik leaders had to hide or flee.
- The October Revolution of 1917:
● The October Revolution: As the conflict between the provisional government and the Bolsheviks
grew, Lenin feared that the Provisional Government would set a dictatorship. On October, Lenin
persuaded the Petrograd Soviet, and the Bolsheviks to agree on a socialist seizure of power. The
Soviet appointed a Military Revolutionary Committee to organise the seizure. The uprising began
on October 4th. The prime minister summoned troops, and troops loyal to the government seized
the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers, took over telephone and telegraph offices, and
protected the Winter Palace. In response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered it’s
supported to seize government offices, and arrest ministers. By nightfall, the city was under the
committee's control, and the ministers had surrendered. Uprisings took place in other cities, and
by December, Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd area.
● After The October Revolution:
Changes after the October Revolution:
○ The Bolsheviks were opposed to private property, and most industries and banks were
nationalized in November 1917.
○ Land was declared social property, and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the
○ Bolsheviks enforced the partition of houses in cities, according to family requirements.
○ Bolsheviks banned the old titles of aristocracy.
○ New uniforms were designed for the army, and officials.
- The Civil War: When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution, the Russian army began to
break up, as soldiers wished to go home for the redistribution, and deserted. However,
Non-Bolshevik socialist, liberals, and supporters of autocracy were against the Bolshevik
uprising. Their leaders moved to South Russia, and organised troops to fight the Bolsheviks (the
‘reds’). During 1918, and 1919, The Socialist Revolutionaries(the ‘greens’), and Pro-Tsarists(the
‘whites’) controlled most of the Russian Empire. However the ‘whites’ took harsh measures
against peasants who seized land, losing popular support for Non-Bolsheviks, and by January
1920, the Bolsheviks controlled most of the Russian Empire, due to cooperation from non-russian
nationalities, and Muslim Jadists. The Bolsheviks created the Soviet Union(USSR) state, from the
Russian Empire in December 1922.
● Society After the Civil War:
○ After the civil war, the Bolsheviks kept banks and industries nationalized, and they
allowed peasants to cultivate land that had been socialized.
○ A system of Centralized Planning was introduced, in which officials assessed how the
economy could work, and set plans for five year periods. Centralized planning led to
industrial development, and economic growth.
○ An extended schooling system was developed, and arrangements were made for peasants
to go to school.
○ Cheap, public health care was provided.
○ Better living quarters were set up for workers.
● Stalinism & Collectivism: During 1927-1928, the towns of the Soviet Union were facing a grain
problem, as the government fixed prices at which grains should be sold, however peasants refused
to sell grains at these prices. Stalin, who headed the party after the death on Lenin, believed that
Kulaks (Well-to do peasants) were holding stocks of food, in hope of higher prices. In 1928,
party members toured grain producing areas, raiding Kulaks. Stalin thought that to develop
modern farms, it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks, take away land from peasants, and establish
collective farms. From 1929, Stalin began his collectivisation program, and the party forced all
peasants to cultivate in kolkhoz(collective farms). A majority of the land was transferred to the
kolkhoz. Peasants worked on the kolkhoz, and the profit was shared. Those who resisted
collectivization were severely punished. Stalin lost support when, in spite of collectivization,
production of grains did not increase immediately, which led to devastating famines. Many
members within his party criticized the consequences of collectivization, Stalin charged these
critics with conspiracy against socialism. Accusations were made throughout the country, and by
1939, over 2 million people were in prisons or labour camps.
- The possibility of a workers’ state intrigued people around the world.
- Communist parties were formed in many countries. (Like the Communist party of Great Britain)
- The Bolsheviks founded Comintern. (An international union of Pro-Bolshevik Socialist parties)
- By WWII, the USSR gave socialism global recognition.
- However, by the end of the 20th century, the popularity of the USSR was decreasing, as it was
not keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution.

Chapter-1-What is Democracy? Why Democracy?-
Democracy, is a form of government in which the rulers are elected by the people.
Features of Democracy:
- Major Decisions are Made by Elected Leaders-
● In Pakistan, General Musharraf led a military coup in 1999, and overthrew the democratic
government, and declared himself ‘Chief Executive’, he later changed his position to president,
and held a referendum (When an entire electorate is asked to accept or reject a proposal.),
granting him 5 years. In 2002 he amended the constitution of Pakistan, allowing the president to
dismiss national, and provincial assemblies. Though Pakistan had elections, and the elected
representatives has some powers, the final powers resided with the military officers, and
Musharraf, which is why this government was not a democracy.
● In a democracy, the final decision making powers must rest with those elected by the people.
- Free and Fair Electoral Competition-
● In China elections are held every five years for electing the parliament, The National People’s
Congress, who appoints the president for the country, however only members of the Chinese
Communist Party, or eight smaller parties allied to it are allowed to contest in the elections. The
government is always formed by the Communist party.
● Mexico holds elections every 6 years, to elect its president, till 2000, every election was won by
the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party).
The tricks used by the PRI to win the elections were:
i. All those employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings .
ii. Teachers of government schools had to force parents to vote for the PRI.
iii. Media ignored opposing parties, except to criticise them.
iv. Sometimes polling booths were shifted at last minute, making voting difficult
v. The PRI spent a large sum of the money in its campaign for its candidates
● A democracy must be based on a free and fair election, where those in power have a fair chance
of losing.
- One Person, One Vote, One Value-
● In Saudi Arabia, women don’t have the right to vote.
● In Estonia, people belonging to the Russian minority find it difficult to obtain the right to vote.
● In Fiji, the vote of an indigenous Fiji, has more value than that of an Indian-Fijian.
● In a democracy, every adult citizen must have one vote, and each vote must have one value.
- Rule of Law and Respect for Rights-
● Since Zimbabwe attained independence, it was ruled be the party ZANU-PF, which helped it gain
freedom. It’s leader,President Mugabe is popular , however he uses unfair practices in elections,
and the government has tried to change the constitution several times, to increase powers of the
president, and make the government less accountable. This shows that popular approval of the
leaders, albeit necessary in a democracy, is not sufficient.
● A democratic government rules within limits set by constitutional law, and citizens’ rights.

Arguments Against Democracy:

- Leaders keep changing, this leads to instability.
- Democracy is all about political competition, and power play, there is no scope for morality.
- So many people must be consulted for decision making, that is leads to delays.
- Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people, this leads to bad decisions.
- Democracy leads to corruption, as it is based on electoral competition.
- Ordinary people do not know what is in their best interest.

Arguments for Democracy:

- Democracy is a more accountable form of government.
- Democracy improves the quality of decision making.
- Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.
- Democracy enhances dignity of citizens.
- Democracy allows us to correct it’s own mistakes.

Broader Meaning of Democracy:

- In a democracy, every citizen must play an equal role in decision making
- In modern democracies, not all the citizens rule. A majority is allowed to take a decision on
behalf of all the people, even this majority is not allowed to rule directly, as they rule through
their elected representatives. This is necessary because:
● Modern democracies involve such a large amount of people, that it is physically impossible for
them to all sit together, and take a collective decision.
● Even if they could, not all citizens have the time, the desire, or the skill to take part in all the
- A democratic decision involves consultation of all those affected by the decision. This concept
can be applied to all fields of life, society, office, family, school, classroom, etc.

Chapter-2-Constitutional Design-
Democratic Constitution in South Africa:
- Struggle Against Apartheid: Apartheid was a legalised system of racial discrimination imposed
by white Europeans, unique to South Africa. The African National Congress (ANC) was an
organisation leading the struggle against Apartheid. This included many workers’ unions, and the
communist party. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC.
The Apartheid system was particularly oppressive for blacks because:
● They did not have voting rights.
● They were forbidden from living in white areas.
● They could only work in white areas with a permit.
● Public buildings and services were all separate for blacks. (Segregation)
● They could not visit the churches whites worshipped.
● They could not form organisations, or protest against the horrible treatment.
- A New Constitution: On 26, April 1994, the new flag for South Africa was unfurled, marking the
start of a new democracy. The apartheid system came to an end, paving the way for a multi-racial
government. After two years of discussion and debate, the South African Constituent Assembly
created a constitution, with the most extensive rights of any constitution in the world.
Some Features Are:
● The constitution gave its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.
● They agreed that in the search for the solution for problems, no one should be excluded.
● They agreed that everyone should become a part of the solution.

The Indian Constitution:

- Making of the Constitution: In 1928, Motilal Nehru, and eight other Congress leaders drafted a
constitution for India. Many of the leaders gained inspiration from other countries, such as the
ideals of the French Revolution, Parliamentary Democracy in Britain, and The Bill of Rights in
the US. The Indian constitution was drafted under difficult circumstances:
● Making a constitution for such a large country was not a easy task.
● The people of India were changing from subjects to citizens.
● India was born through a partition based on religious differences.
● The British had left the princely states to decide their future on their own.
● At the time, India’s future did not look very secure.
- The Constituent Assembly: The drafting of the constitution was done by an assembly of elected
representatives, called the constituent assembly. The elections for the constituent assembly were
held in July 1946, and the assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress, the party
that lead the freedom struggle. The assembly worked on the constitution for 144 days, spread over
3 years. The assembly adopted the constitution on November 26, 1949, but is came into effect on
January 26, 1950.
We should accept this constitution made over 60 years because:
● The constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus
of its time.
● The constituent assembly represented the people of India, it was elected by the members of the
existing provincial legislatures, and included representatives of all religions, castes, and sections
of society, both male and female.
● The constituent assembly worked in an open and consensual manner.
- Philosophy of India’s Constitution: The constitution of India begins with a preamble, which is a
short statement of it’s basic values. Values that guided the freedom struggle are embedded in the
Values in the Indian Constitution Preamble :
● Secular
● Socialist
● Fraternity
● Liberty
● Equality
● Justice
● Democratic
- Amendments: The Indian constitution is a very long and detailed document, therefore it needs to
be amended regularly to keep it updated. These changes are called constitutional amendments.
Amendments are necessary because:
● The constitution must change along with changes in citizen’s aspirations.
● It is long, and needs to be amended regularly to keep it updated.
● These are not considered unalterable, sacred, and static laws.
Why do we need a Constitution?:
- The constitution of a country, is a set of rules that are accepted by all people living together in a
country. The constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living
in a territory, and also the relationship between people and government.
- The constitution does many things:
● It generates a degree of trust and confidence.
● It specifies how the government will be constituted.
● It sets limits on the powers of government.
● It expresses the aspirations of the people
- A constitution is essential for a democratic nation, although not all nations with constitutions are

Chapter-3-Electoral Politics-
An election is the process by which people choose their representatives at regular intervals.
What makes an Election Democratic?:
● Universal Adult Franchise: Every person has one vote, and every vote has one value.
● Parties and candidates should be free to contest, and a real choice should be offered to voters.
● Elections must be held at regular intervals.
● The candidate preferred by the people should be elected.
● Elections should be conducted in a free and fair manner, in which voters can vote for whom they
- Challenges to Democratic Elections:
● Bigger parties and candidates with a lot of money, have an unfair advantage over smaller parties,
and independents.
● In some areas, candidates with criminal connections have been able to push others out, hence,
securing party nomination.
● Some families dominate political parties, and only relatives from these families receive party
● Often, elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, as both parties are similar to each other in
- Malpractices Used In Elections:
● Inclusion of false names, and exclusion of genuine names from the voters list.
● Misuse of government facilities by the ruling party.
● Excessive use of money by rich candidates.
● Intimidation of voters and rigging, on election day.

Merits & Demerits of Elections:

- Merits:
● Elections force political parties and leaders, to serve the people, in order to be reelected.
- Demerits:
● Elections create a sense of disunity in society.
● Different political parties and leaders level allegations against one and another.
● Parties and candidates often use unfair tricks to win elections.
● Pressure to win elections does not allow the creation of sensible, long-term plans.
● Some good people who wish to serve the country, do not like being dragged into unhealthy
electoral competition.

Indian System of Elections:

● General Elections: General elections are held within all constituencies, either on the same day, or
within a few days. Lok Sabha (Parliament) and Vidhan Sabha (State Legislative Assembly)
general elections are held every five years.
● By-Elections: By-elections are held within one constituency, to fill in the vacancy caused by the
death or resignation, of a member of the Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha.
- Indian General Election Procedure:
1. i.) Electoral Constituencies: India is divided into different areas for the purpose of elections, these
areas are called electoral constituencies. The voters who live in an area elect one representative.
In the Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into 543 constituencies, and each member
elected is called a Member of Parliament (MP). Similarly, in the Vidhan Sabha elections, each
state is divided into a specific number of constituencies, and each member elected is called a
Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA). Sometimes these constituencies are referred to as seats,
as each constituency represents a seat in the assembly.
ii.) Reserved Constituencies: Reserved constituencies, are constituencies which are reserved for
the weaker sectors of society (Scheduled Caste [SC], and Scheduled Tribe [ST]). The number of
seats reserved are proportionate to the sector's share in the total population, hence, SC and ST
seats do not take away from the share of any other social group. This system extended to urban
and rural, local bodies, and a number seats in local bodies are reserved for Other Backward
Classes, similarly one-third of the seats in local bodies are reserved for women.
2. Voters List: The list of those who are eligible to vote, is officially known as the Electoral Scroll,
and commonly known a the Voter’s List. In India, all citizens above 18, with a sound mind, can
vote. It is the responsibility of the government to get the names of all the eligible voters on the
electoral scroll, names of citizens who attain voting age are added, and these who die or move out
of a place, are removed. Recently, the Election Photo Identity Card(EPIC), has been introduced.
The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote, so that no one can vote for
someone else. However, this card is not yet required for voting, and other proofs of identity
(driver’s license, etc.) can be shown.
3. Nomination of Candidates: Everyone who is eligible to vote is eligible to be a candidate, the only
difference is that the minimum age to be a candidate is 25 (There are also some restrictions on
criminals, etc.). Political parties nominate their own candidates, and a Party’s Nomination is often
called the Party ‘Ticket’. Every person who wishes to contest in an election must fill a
‘nomination form’, and give some money as a ‘security deposit’.
Recently, a system of declaration had been introduced by the supreme court, requiring each
candidate to make a legal declaration, giving full details of:
● Serious criminal cases, pending against this candidate.
● Details, of the assets and liabilities of the candidate, and his/her family.
● Education qualifications of the candidate.
This information must be made public, providing an opportunity for voters to make their decision,
based on the information provided by the candidates.
4. Election Campaign: Election campaigns in India take place within the two-week period, in
between the announcement of the final list of candidates, and Election Day.
Methods of election campaign include:
● Candidates contact voters.
● Political leaders address election meetings.
● Political parties mobilize their supporters.
● Advertisements and articles are published in newspapers:
● Slogans are used to attract voters.
Some successful slogans are:
● The Congress Party, led by Indira Gandhi gave the slogan ‘Remove Poverty’, in
the Lok Sabha elections, promising to change government policies, in order to
remove poverty.
● The Janata Party, gave the slogan ‘Save Democracy’, in the Lok Sabha elections,
promising to undo atrocities committed by the government, and restore civil
● The Left Front gave the slogan ‘Land to the Tiller’, in the West Bengal Assembly
elections, promising to protect the rights of peasants.
● The Telugu Desam Party, led by N.T. Rama Rao, gave the slogan ‘Protect the
Self Respect of Telugus’, in the Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections.
There are several laws in place, for candidates and parties during Election Campaigns:
Indian Election Law: According to the Indian Election Law, no party can:
● Bribe or threaten voters.
● Appeal to voters, in the name of religion.
● Use government resources for the Election Campaign.
● Spend more than Rs.25 lakh per constituency, in a Lok Sabha election, and more than
Rs.10 lakh per constituency, in a state assembly election.
Code of Conduct: According to the Code of Conduct, no party can:
● Use a place of worship for election propaganda.
● Use government vehicles, aircrafts, and officials for elections.
● Once the elections are announced, ministers shall not start any big projects, or make any
promises of providing public facilities.
5. Polling & Counting of Votes: The final stage of an election, begins with Election Day (the day
when voters cast or ‘poll’ their vote). In the past, voters used to indicate the candidate they
wanted to vote for, by putting a stamp on a ballot paper (a sheet of paper, on which the names of
contesting candidates, along with party names are listed), however, recently, Electronic Voting
Machines (EVM) have been introduced to record votes. A few days after election day, the votes
secured by each candidate, in a specific constituency are counted. The candidate who secures the
highest number of votes in a constituency is declared elected.

What makes Indian Elections Democratic:

- Independent Election Commission: In India, elections are conducted by an independent and
powerful Election Commission (EC). The Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the
president of India, however neither the CEC, nor the EC are answerable the the president or the
government. Even if they ruling party does not like what the EC does, it has to obey.
The Election Commision has the Following Powers:
● The EC takes decisions on all aspects of conduct and control in the elections.
● The EC implements the Code of Conduct, and punishes any candidate or party which disobeys it.
● During the election period, the EC can order the government to follow some guidelines, in order
to prevent the misuse of governmental powers.
● When on election duty, government officers work under the EC, not the government.
● If the EC comes to the conclusion that polling was not fair in a particular area, they can order a
- Popular Participation: People’s participation in elections is measured by voters turnout (the
percent of eligible voters, who cast their vote).
Voting in India:
● In India, the voters turnout has either remained stable, or gone up.
● In India, poor, illiterate, and underprivileged people vote in a larger proportion, compared to the
rich and privileged sections.
● Common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections, as they feel that through
elections, they can pressure political parties to adopt programs favorable to them.
● The interest of voters in election-related activities has been increasing, over the years.
- Acceptance of Election Outcome: If elections are rigged, the ruling party will always win, and the
losing party does not accept the outcome.
Indian Election Outcomes:
● The ruling parties regularly lose elections in India, both at the National, and the State level.
● About half of the incumbent (elected), MPs or MLAs lose elections.
● Candidates who spend a lot of money buying votes often lose elections.
● Candidates with known criminal connections often lose elections.
● The election’s outcome is often accepted by the losing party, as ‘people’s verdict’.