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# University Of Antique

## College of Teacher Education

Sibalom, Antique
Subject: ED 104 (STATISTICS)
Teacher: PROF. ELIZABETH V. BACAY

## Name of Student: LORIE MAE P. VALENZUELA

I. Identify the appropriate statistical test to be used in the following situations. Justify your answer.
1) Pearson – r
 To determine whether an academic performance and coping skills affect one another. The
degree of relationship between academic performance and coping skills is measured using the
correlation coefficient denoted by r whether academic performance changes as the coping
skills changes.
2) Z – test
 To find out if there is a significant difference in the grade point average of students coming from
public and private schools with a sample of 135 university freshmen students and since the
sample size is greater than 30 and it involves computing the two sample mean, z-test is the most
appropriate test statistics.
3) Spearman Rank Order Correlation
 Calculating the relationship between the qualities of teaching to quality of research done by
university professors is classified according on how professors were evaluated on a 5-point scale
on their quality of instruction. Calculating the relationship between variables, Spearman rank is
an appropriate statistical test.
4) F-test
 Used to test hypothesis about differences between two or more means of graduate school
professors taken from the three programs with a random sample of 120 graduate students.
II. Answer each of the following using the steps in hypothesis testing.
1)

## PhD MEd MaEd

80 94 75
65 72 63
98 80 87
70 85 84
94 62 96
82 73 81
76 92
54 59
74

Solution:
PhD MEd MaEd
X X2 X X2 X X2
80 6400 94 8836 75 5625
University Of Antique
College of Teacher Education
Sibalom, Antique
65 4225 72 5184 63 3969
98 9604 80 6400 87 7569
70 5040 85 7225 84 7056
94 8836 62 3844 96 9216
82 6724 73 5329 81 6561
76 5776 92 8464
54 2916 59 3481
74 5476
Total 489 40829 596 45510 711 57417

## Step 1: Formulate the Null and Alternative Hypothesis

 Ho: There is no significant difference in the Achievement test in Science of three different
groups of students.
 Ha: There is a significant difference in the Achievement test in Science of three different
groups of students.
Step 2: Compute for the sum of squares (SS).
1. SST ( Total Sum of Squares)
(∑ 𝑋𝑇 )2
SST = ∑ 𝑋 𝑇 2 -
𝑁
3,225,616
SST = 143, 756 -
23
SST = 143, 756 – 140, 244.17
SST = 3, 511.83
2. SSB ( Between Sum of Squares)
(∑ 𝒙𝟏 )𝟐 (∑ 𝒙𝟐 )𝟐 (∑ 𝒙𝟑 )𝟐 (∑ 𝒙)𝟐
SSB = [ + + ]−
𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐 𝒏𝟑 𝑵
𝟒𝟖𝟗𝟐 𝟓𝟗𝟔𝟐 𝟕𝟏𝟏𝟐 𝟏𝟕𝟗𝟔𝟐
SSB = [ + + ]−
𝟔 𝟖 𝟗 𝟐𝟑
SSB = [39, 853.50 + 44, 402 + 56, 169] – 140, 244.1739
SSB = 140, 424. 50 – 140, 244.1739
SSB = 180.326
3. SSW = SST - SSB
SSW = 3, 331. 50
Step 3: Solve for the mean squares (MS).
Df = 22 Dfb = 2 Dfw = 20
𝑆𝑆𝑏
MSb = 𝑑𝑓𝑏
180.326
MSb = 2
MSb = 90. 163
𝑆𝑆
MSw = 𝑑𝑓𝑤
𝑤
3,331.50
MSw =
20
MSw =166.575

## Step 4: Solve for F.

𝑀𝑆𝑏
F=
𝑀𝑆𝑤
90.163
F= 166.575
F = 0.54
Step 5: Find the tabular value of f.
Dfb = 2
Dfw = 20
University Of Antique
College of Teacher Education
Sibalom, Antique
Ftabular = 3.49
Step 6: Make a conclusion.
Therefore, accept Ho and Reject Ha.
Therefore, there is no significant difference in the Achievement test in Science of three different
groups of students.

2) Chi-square
High Average Low
Male 29 10 11 50
Female 13 18 9 40
42 28 20 90

## 1. Formulate the Null and Alternative Hypothesis

Ho: Sex is independent to the Academic Performance.
Ha: Sex is dependent to the Academic Performance
2. Level of Significance to be used:
Level of significance = 0.05
3. Decide the test statistics to be used and the Critical Vaue.
Use Chi- Square;
df = (2-1)(3-1)
df = (1)(2)
df = 2
x2tabular = 5.991
4. Compute for the value of test statistics.
(O − E)2
Sex o p NP = E O-E (O-E)2
𝐸
Male 50 0.5 45 5 25 0.5556
Female 40 0.5 45 -5 25 0.5556
Total N = 90 1.00 90 (O − E)2
∑ = 1.112
𝐸

x2computed = 1.112
5. Make a decision.
Therefore, accept Ho, Reject Ha.
6. State the conclusion.
Therefore, Sex is independent to the Academic Performance.

3) Pearson – r
Faculty 99 110 113 116 138 174 220
Students 1353 1290 1091 1213 1384 1283 2075

## a. Test if r is significant. If it is, proceed to (b) and (c).

N Faculty(x) Students(y) xy X2 Y2
1 99 1353 133, 947 9, 801 1,830,609
2 110 1290 141, 900 12, 100 1, 664, 100
3 113 1091 123, 283 12, 769 1, 190, 281
4 116 1213 140, 708 13, 456 1, 471, 369
5 138 1384 190, 992 19, 044 1, 915, 456
University Of Antique
College of Teacher Education
Sibalom, Antique
6 174 1283 223, 242 30, 276 1, 646, 089
7 220 2075 456, 500 48, 400 4, 305, 625
N=7 ∑ 𝑥 = 970 ∑ 𝑦 = 9689 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 = 1, 410, 572 ∑ 𝑥 2 = 1, 455, 846 ∑ 𝑦 2 = 14, 023, 529

𝑁 ∑(𝑥𝑦)−(∑ 𝑥)(∑ 𝑦)
Rxy =
√[𝑁 ∑(𝑥 2 )− (∑ 𝑥)2 ] [𝑁 ∑(𝑦 2 )−(∑ 𝑦)2 ]

7(1,410,572)−(970)((9689)
Rxy =
√[7 (1,455,846)−(970)2 ] [7 (14,023,529)−(9689)2 ]

9,874,004−9,398,330
Rxy =
√[10,190,922−940,900][98,164,703−93,876,721]

475,674
Rxy =
√[9,250,022][4,287,982)]

475,674
Rxy =
√3.966392784 𝑥 1013

475,674
Rxy =
6,297,930.441

Rxy = 0. 0755
Df = n-2
Df = 7-2
Df= 5

## At alpha level 0.05 with df = 5 the critical value is 0.754492.

 R = 0.0755 < critical value = 0.754492

## b. Find the equation of the regression line

y= 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥
wherein,
y= 1377.0203 + 0.0514x

## c. How many students are there with 120 faculty (x=120)

∑ 𝑥𝑦−𝑛 ( 𝑥̅ )(𝑦̅ )
b=
∑(𝑥 2 )− 𝑛(𝑥̅ )2

1,410,572− 7(138.5714)(1,384.1429)
b=
1,455,846−7(138.5714)

1,410,572− 1,342,618.3361714
b=
1,455,846−134,414.23028572

67,953.6638286
b=
1,321,431.7697142
b= 0.0514
University Of Antique
College of Teacher Education
Sibalom, Antique

a= 𝑦̅ − 𝑏𝑥̅
a= 1384.1429 − (0.0514)(138.5714)
a= 1384.1429 − 7.12256996
a= 1377.0203

y= 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥
y= 1377.0203 + (0.0514)(120)
y= 1377.0203 + 6.168
y= 1383.1883 or 1383 students

## 4) Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test

absolute value of
difference of the difference
Pre-test of Pre-Test
Pre-test Post-test and Post test and Post rank signed rank
79 79 0 0 1 1
56 65 -9 9 2 -2
65 75 -10 10 3 -3
72 83 -11 11 4 -4
78 89 -11 11 4 -4
69 80 -11 11 4 -4
70 81 -11 11 4 -4
53 64 -11 11 4 -4
75 87 -12 12 9 -9
63 76 -13 13 10 -10
73 86 -13 13 10 -10
80 93 -13 13 10 -10
72 85 -13 13 10 -10
71 85 -14 14 14 -14
83 97 -14 14 14 -14

Sum of W+ = 1
Sum of W- = 102
Decision: reject H0 since 1 < 16 at alpha level = 0.01
Conclusion: Reject H0 because 1 < 16. Therefore, we have statistically significant evidence at
α=0.01, to show that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test in the
mean score of the students.

## III. Consider the results of analysis shown in the following tables.

1) T-test
d. State the null and alternative hypothesis.
H0: There is no significant difference in the problem solving performance of students
hen classified according to family monthly income.

Ha: There is a significant difference in the problem solving performance of students hen
classified according to family monthly income.
University Of Antique
College of Teacher Education
Sibalom, Antique
e. Make the decision.
Accept H0, Reject Ha at alpha level 0.05.
f. Conclusion.
There is no significant difference in the problem solving performance of students hen
classified according to family monthly income.
2) One-way ANOVA
a. State the null and alternative hypothesis.
H0: There is no significant difference on students’ achievement when they are classified
according to the teachers’ educational attainment.
Ha: There is a significant difference on students’ achievement when they are classified
according to the teachers’ educational attainment.
b. Make the decision.
Accept Ha, Reject H0 at alpha level 0.01.
c. Conclusion.
There is a significant difference on students’ achievement when they are classified
according to the teachers’ educational attainment.