Sunteți pe pagina 1din 1
Design & Development of Organic Solar Cells Rahul Gaba B.E. Polymer Science & Chemical Technology

Design & Development of Organic Solar Cells

Rahul Gaba B.E. Polymer Science & Chemical Technology - 2009, Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering)

University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering) Abstract The growing global focus on development of

Abstract

The growing global focus on development of alternative sources of energy and the remarkable growth of photovoltaic market worldwide has made organic solar cells as the object of vivid interest from both industrial and academic sides. Cost effective solar cells could be vital in solving the shortage of clean power, especially, in developing countries. Based on the semiconducting properties of organic conjugated macromolecules, these devices possess the potential to be processed by common printing techniques and have therefore introduced the possibility of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light

of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light Organic Solar Cells Organic solar cell research has

Organic Solar Cells

Organic solar cell research has developed during the past 30 years, but especially in the last decade it has attracted scientific and economic interest triggered by a rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies. Today, up to 7% power conversion efficiencies are reported in this kind of plastic solar cells.

Introduction

This poster describes the fabrication of solution processed bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using common organic solvents and spin coating technique. These cells are based on blends of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophne) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 - butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporating polyaniline (PAni) nanotubes. PAni has been studied as layer providing aid in transport of charges which can improve device performance.

Conventional p-n junction Solar Cells v/s Organic Solar Cells

• In a conventional device, charge carriers (electrons and holes) are generated in the bulk of the material and the electrons and holes are not tightly bound to each other. They are separated by the built-in electric field of the device and travel to their respective electrode where they are transported out of the semiconducting material, while the charge carriers in organic semiconductors are tightly bound to each other in the form of excitons. The excitons only dissociate at interfaces, such as the interface b/w donor & acceptor organic materials. • In addition, the conventional devices are so-called minority carrier materials, while organic cells are majority carriers because holes exist primarily in one phase, electrons exist primarily in the other phase, and their movements result directly in current flow. The following diagram highlights the differences in carrier generation b/w the two types of devices:

in carrier generation b/w the two types of devices: The main advantages of Organic Solar Cells

The main advantages of Organic Solar Cells are:

easy preparation

low process temperature

low-cost materials & processing technology and

the possibility to produce flexible devices on plastic substrates

Such flexible cells are therefore candidates for gamut of applications, from handheld electronics to commercial power production.

Experimental Details

 

A

typical solar cell structure using organic bulk heterojunction materials looks

A typical solar cell structure using organic bulk heterojunction materials looks
A typical solar cell structure using organic bulk heterojunction materials looks

such as the one shown below:

heterojunction materials looks such as the one shown below: Spin Coater Nitrogen Glove Box The experimental
heterojunction materials looks such as the one shown below: Spin Coater Nitrogen Glove Box The experimental

Spin Coater

Nitrogen Glove Box

The experimental set-up & process described in brief below is also explained through pictures on the right side.

Here ITO coated glass or flexible plastic substrate is spin coated with poly (3,4- ehtylene dioxythiophene)- poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to a thickness of about 100nm to facilitate hole conduction, and also to smoothen the relatively rough ITO layer, which prevents short circuits in the solar cell. This is followed

and also to smoothen the relatively rough ITO layer, which prevents short circuits in the solar
and also to smoothen the relatively rough ITO layer, which prevents short circuits in the solar

by

a layer of PAni – prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization process.

Next, the cell is transferred to a nitrogen glove box and a bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene blend containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in its regioregular form as electron donor and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-Phenyl C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester) (PCBM) as electron acceptor is deposited to a thickness of about 100nm.

Mask for electrode (Al) deposition

Vacuum evaporator for Al deposition

Finally aluminum (100 nm) is vacuum evaporated onto P3HT:PCBM to form the back layer electrode to complete the solar cell device fabrication. To optimize the cell performance, they are heated to 140 o C.

The finished solar cells degrade quickly when they are in contact with oxygen and water in the atmosphere. Because of that, the solar cells have to be sealed before they can be measured for performance outside the glove box. To seal the cells, a cleaned glass plate is glued to the back side of the solar cell with a two-component epoxy resin.

To seal the cells, a cleaned glass plate is glued to the back side of the
To seal the cells, a cleaned glass plate is glued to the back side of the

When illuminated, the asymmetry of the work functions between the cathode and the anode creates an internal electric field such that the holes move toward the ITO layer and the electron towards the aluminum cathode. By externally connecting the electrodes a current can be generated.

Solar Cell Characterization Data:

Cell Characterization is done by measuring the performance of the cell under illumination using solar simulator and in dark.

Cell Characterstics in Light -

Annealing and Encapsulation of the cells using epoxy resin and glass plate

Characterization of the Cells using Solar Simulator
Characterization of the Cells using Solar Simulator
Characterization of the Cells using Solar Simulator

Characterization of the Cells using Solar Simulator

Cell Characterstics in Dark -

Cell Characterstics in Dark -
Cell Characterstics in Dark -
Cell Characterstics in Dark -

Testing Cells under direct sunlight

With Dr. Ingo Riedel, Head-Thin Film PV, University of Oldenburg, Germany

Calculations & Results

From the characterization data obtained in light, we get:

Short Circuit Current I SC = 6.92 X 10 -4 mA Open Circuit Voltage V OC =4.10 X 10 -1 mV Cell Area= 1mm 2 Current Density J SC =(I SC /Area)= 6.92 X 10 -3 Fill Factor= [(I MAX X V MAX )/ (I SC X V OC )] = 0.4088 Power Input= 80 mW/cm 2 Efficiency (η)= [(Power MAX / 80) X 1000 X 100)]

Therefore, Efficiency (η)== 1.45%

Conclusions

In conclusion, we have fabricated P3HT/PCBM blended Organic Solar Cells by a simple spin coating method.

We have incorporated one-dimensional PANINs) also into it, as an interfacial layer.

acid-doped polyaniline nanotubes (a-

The power conversion efficiency of an annealed device lacking the a-PANIN layer reached as high as 1.45% under (80 mW/cm 2 ) illumination.

It has been reported in some research papers that incorporation of polyaniline layer leads to an increase in efficiency by 26% relative to that of the annealed device lacking an a-PANIN interfacial layer.

But on incorporating a polyaniline layer no such increase was observed. The result obtained in our experiments on this aspect was not in accordance with that reported in other research papers.

Future Prospects

Conjugated polymers can exhibit electron–hole conduction similar to inorganic semiconductors.

Although the best photovoltaic polymers produced so far are less efficient than their silicon counterparts polymerization methods are being developed that increase the structural order, producing more efficient charge transport properties.

Perhaps one day, we can convert the outside of the house into one big solar collector using photovoltaic polymer paint.

The flexible, large-area applications of organic solar cells may open up new markets like “textile integration”.

The next generation of microelectronics is aiming for applications of “electronics everywhere,” and such organic semiconductors will play a major role in these future technologies.



LET US MAKE ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS HAPPEN!!!

References

1.

Gilles Dennler and Niyazi Serdar Sacriciftci, Flexible Conjugated Polymer-

Based Plastic Solar Cells: From Basics to Applications, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 93, No. 8, August 2005.

2.

Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman, Organic solar Cells: An overview

focussing on active layer morphology, Photosynthesis Research (2006) 87:73-81, Springer 2006.

3.

Herald Hoppe and Niyazi Serdar Sacriciftci, Organic Solar Cells: An Overview,

J. Mater. Res., Vol. 19, No. 7, July 2004.

4. Virang G. Shah and David B. Wallace, Low-cost Solar Cell Fabrication by Drop- on-Demand Ink Jet Printing, Proc. IAMPS 37 th Annual International Symposium on Microelectronics Long Beach, Ca, November 14-18, 2004.

5. http://ehf.uni-oldenburg.de/pv/26317.html

6. Jean-Michel Nunz, Organic photovoltaic materials and devices, C. R. Physique

3 (2002) 523–542.

The photographs used for experiment description are from the work done by the author at University of Applied Sciences-Emden and Semiconductor & Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, Germany in 2008. Further research work including cell fabrication and incorporation of polyaniline as interfacial layer was carried out at Delhi Technological University in 2009. Author can be reached at r.gaba@qmul.ac.uk or rahulgaba@gmail.com