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Alexander vоп Ниmhо|dt


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Contents

PRACTICES ОF TONIALITY

маriаппе whееldоп
Defending Tonality: The Musical Thought of Milhaud
and Koechlin .. . 14з

Mark DeLa.ere Jo.


"Autant de compositeurs, autant de polytonalitёs ditТбrепtеs":
Polytonality in Frепсh МusiсТhеоrу and Composition of the 1920s ...... . 157 \,...

Vllker НеlЬiпg
Nocturne in Вluе, Black and Рорру Red: Tonai and р
Formal Drаmаturgу in the Third Movement of Ravel's Sопаtе (,
pour violoп et violorLcelle . , . . . 1 73
\Ia
Дlаiп Frogley L

Tonality on the Town: Orchestrating the N4etropolis it:-.:

inVaughanWilliams's ДLопdопSуmрlлопу ........ 187 l]]


i-''

ullrich scheideler
Between Archaism and Modernism: Tonality in Music ,:--.
fоrАmаtеursiпGеrmапуаrоuпdl9З0. .....20З
Ric
Philip Rttpprecht ('.
Among the Ruined Languages: Britten's Triadic N4odernism. 19З0-1940 . , , 22З
til
Beth Е. Levy
Roy Наrris and the Crisis of Consonance. . . . . 241 :]]:'

Dапiеl Наrrisоп l1:


Samuel ВаrЬеr's Nосtttrпе,. An Ехреrimепt in Tonal Serialism ..,,. .261
\Ia
\a_

-j ]a

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262 Daniel Нагrisоп

Moderato

+
.+
t--J

Figure 1 : Sumuel ВаrЬеr, Nосturпе, пtп. ],5

homage Ьу composing а strong оvегtопаl foundation with characteristic lf chordal


arpeggios in the leti-hand accompaniment atrd providing а John Field-like "сhrо-
matically dесоrаtеd соlоrаturа melody" in the right,a This melody happens to Ье
serially structured. Notice the right-hand раrt. rvhich starts on middle С4, finds Сб
in the mjddie of m. З аtiеr completing ап aggregate, and then returns, via pitch-class
retrograde, to middle С оп the dorvnbeat of rn.5. This gesture is built очеr an arcade
of arpeggiated chords, all mаjоr оr miпоr triads except fоr the [026] сhоrds очеr ап
АЬ pedal point in mm.2-З.
The emphasis given pitch-class С discloses а crucial dераrturе fiоm classic
trvelve-tone techrrique. for С is both the first апr1 /a,lr pitch class of the rоrч, which
mеапs that. strictly, speaking. the Nlлсtчrпе is поt а trvelve- but а thirteen-tone work:
Сб is the pivot Ьеtч,ееп thе рrimе and ratrograde чеrsiопs of the tопе ror.v. The
1]_сuгаtiоп leading uр to С геiпtЪгсеs its delimiting function. Очеrсоmiпg а rhythmi-
cali1, stutterirl_g stагt. the melodv catches оп in m. З апd rapidly ассеlеrаtеs upwards
frоm the fburth octar-c Ьеfоrе rеасhiпg the climactic С6. The sudclen "stop & hold"
thеrе gives thе pitch ап exceptionally strong agogic accent. А similar technique is
used to mаrk middle С in m. _5 as vu,ell as mапу other endings throughout the piece.s
This consistent treatment of rоrч statements in the 1Уr;с:/иrrе suggests that their tele-
ological directive is not to seek сhгоmаtiс exhaustion in the aggregate, but to embed
ап openin_q/closing pitch into а tonal hierarchy аltеr discharging chromatic debts.

The quoted plrrase is frоm Robin Langley's ciescription of Field's nocturne style iп "F'ield,
John," in T'he Nеи,Gпlуе Dic,tioпttry o;f Music апd Musicjaпs,2nd ed.. ed. Stanley Sadie and
Jоhп Туrrе|l (London: Macnri]]an. 2001). 8:777.
This fЪаturе rvas identified Ьу Jalnes Р. Fairleigh, "Sorialism in BaTber's Solo Piano WoTks."
Ptallt) QLtarlerl\,. по. 72 (Summеr l970): lЗ 17.
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E9Z
264 Daniel Harrison

АЬ tonic to closing ЕЬ dominant: the middle is ап unstable development; and the


third, а recapitulation that maintains АЬ tonic tbcus throughout. The lorver of the
tr,vo trebte-staff lines shorvs this most сlеаrlу. rvith the large-scale activation of GD
(as ап agent of Dominant function) in the first part answered Ьу the maintenance of
АЬ/1 in the third.

ТНЕ TONE ROWS

So fаr, the discussion of ВаrЬеr's Nосturпе has not taken opportunities to iпtеrрrеt
its tone row as anything other than соlоrаturа filigгee. Thrvarted fiirm underscoring
atonal chromatic аggrеgаtiоп Ьу its obsessive thirteen-tone behaviors as rvell as Ьу
ubiquitous tonal elements in the piece-ranging frоm details of accompaniment
figuration to очеrа]l form-the rоr,ч is also rеstrаiпеd Ьу а iimited motivic vocabu-
1аrу, а figurative ЬеII around the neck that prevents it from moving unnoticed any-
lvhere except the surface. And even thеrе, it рrочеs to Ье dispensable, as tone-row
organization is pointedly allowed to break down in the later раrts of the develop-
ment, mm.25-9, The rhythmic and contour motives cited above аrе stripped out of
their strict tone-row епчirопmепt and presented essentially as counterfeit rorv frag-
ments-so strong is the association of these motives lvith tone-row unfolding that а
Iess loaded characterization does not соmе easily to mind-so that these measures
sotпtd of а piece with the strict-row measures but аrе iп fact not organized Ьу tone
rоw at all.
The emphasis оп these features has steered the analysis close to substantiating
the label "tentative" that was applied to rоw usage in the piece. Furthеr, the weight
of evidence that ВаrЬеr subjected the гоr,ч to а domineering tonal lordship has iп-
timidated previous analysts of the work, r,vhose readings аrе, if not tentative them-
selves, somervhat iпсuriоus about the state of affairs.o Аrе thеге, horvever, enough
incongruities to lead us past the арраrепtlу settled matter of the merely decorative
and dispensable function of the tone rоr,ч'?
Figurе 3. а col1atiorr and analysis of all the rorv forms ttsed iп the Nосturпе,
initialli ýu_gsests that thеrе аrе not. Consider first опlу the top stafT, leavirrg aside
all the r агiоus annotations except fог the slurs. The notes аrе taken frоm the right-
hand рагt of Fig. 1, The аrhrthmiс representation in the рrеsепt figure brings оut
ап additional. prer-ioush,unnoted cliscipline upon the rоw in mm.2-3: the strict
segmentation into three. Т* related 4-6 L0127] tetrachords-or, rаthеr, into thrее
pitch-spaced tetrachords. eight semitones араrt and consistently ordered Ьу the in-
terval series (+5, -6, + l l ). This kind of pitch-space deployment is used throughout

Besides Fairleigh's аrtiсlе cited previor-rsly. other studies ot Ihe Nосturпе аrе tilund in James
SiffЫmап. "Samuel ВаrЬеr's Wclrks fЬr SoIo Piallo" (DMA diss., University of Texas, Austin,
1982) and Laurie Yоuпg, "The Solo Piano Music of Sarnuel ВаrЬеr" (DMA diss., University of
Cincinnati, l989). Another rvoTk of ВаrЬеr's that has received attention fbr its seTial elements
is the Piano Sonata. ор. 26, rvhich, besides being discussed in the studiesjust citecl. is also thc
subject of Напs Tischler's "ВаrЬеr's Piano Sonata. ор. 26"' Music апd Letters З З ( 95 2,;: 3_5 2-
1

5-1. N{any of Tisclrler's clbseTvations аrе pertinent to thc Nос,/иrllе.


:,цоJ эч] ]о uоlsJэл (рэцээlt)5 очl olul paмoq sr 1еq1 8urrls cI]sBIэ uе fq рэlээuuоэ
!!
эq ol sapou аq] эut8вrut uеJ ал\ 'sэл.вJs эч1 uээ,цlаq sJэqшпu ,.]эs.+.+о Iвuо]Ituэs,, ач1 JL]]
,эlе3 \1t:.-
шоlg ,л\оJ lsJg эч] Jo luэrцlsпГрв uE sE ,цоJ luаJэJJIр Е чJtlIп os lou sI 1т 'эсuа11
,
-аl3Бв 1uэrэд;lр ч]I,ý sэрtlu {7'9'6} эlqцs ач1 uээмlаq ээuds аlqвlsuп аql 8ull1цэr .1tl
,t'8'0S t,цоIэq '11,.
,tq вэрr ,цоJ-эuоl lв]uэLuврuпl эч1 sэJоJsJэрuп 3ut.tap:o sIчJ рэIэqеt \ i,_:
.+.+Els ач1
uо uл\очs sl ,lroJ рuосэs в sE р_эцltuарI элЕt{ sls;(1вuB sпот,лэrd 1еqд
,fprue.; IuJo_+-,\\oJ atuеs ач1 о1 3uolaq ol prвs
,8 ,0 ,t 8 04
эq [Ilл\ t Jo ssвlэ tlclTd uо ur3аq ]uч] 1I Jo SlUaLuэ}ElS рэlэqе1 SI ,troJ JJe]s ]11r'
-doi эr{t 'tloseэJ sIч} Joc ,sэtэuээвГрв ssвlэ-qэlrd aluus ач] БullеIпэ;tэ oi ,{11вrluэssэ -U]
slunoluв рuе ,,{1э,л.тlээdsа,l 'sэssвlэ qэlld ql;ц рuЕ чlu tu эч1 Ll() \\u.l tra r rS эql 8ur]rels
о1 1rrаlе,лtпЬэ sI sэuо}ltцэs 1ч3Iэ Jo ;no.; ,{q g,3Ig.+о _+]Bls do] сч] ttI i\\oJ эч1 Jo uoll ]-.]:
,sl ,uoI]E}(]J
-tsodsuBrl е'эсеds ssвlэ-rlэlrd uI рэJэрIsuоJ.+I ц]чJ рuЕ uOtllsodsueJ] ] ll t''
JoJ sэI]Illqlssod рэlrrrтr1 очl Kq uэ1}IJл\Jэрuп Jэччп; ýI \эр( ltl ацl 1,, itrlrquls аq1 -]t.
,1uэцI
,.\\oJ 'Г,
' ],,,
-BuJo рuе эаr3rlц Jo.+ эlqullпs эlqеlsuп prre Ёштssвd sl IIцtIl эчl эIIч \\ эuоl эч]
.+о ..sэроu.. alquls sI? элJаs pBtJ] {tr,B,o} эч] ]о slшэtuэlа
эq1 аtсSэ:SSu .lt}вurо;цэ
ч]l.\\ рэllцuI {t,B,o} pet-tl рэltIэttlSпu rtr: sE 1]эрI .\\оj-эuо] IЕ]LlэLuЕрuп_] эчl 1вч1 аэs О \,
,ilсlпqпэол
t11].] э,\\
,luIod slLll 1у,sэ.rпtsаi.l11оltiо.
рur: цэlrd _1о slэs pэ]ILtllI 1lue чi:
rrtriqt iц,r 11ешrs ,чStrlрtIi р111; ;-urLrtrriэq \\L),l 1о uL)I]Eln.1I]Jc рээLtтrоuо:d SuoIl -lL]
-E\-ta_\qo iвэтtilеLrr:.1t{1 LLIt).I.] чаSlаtttа_i]эt.tl:r ]IpoI-aLLl 1о Lrralqtird ulЕllэЭ V tl:
t itl ul PtIllOl \lL)]].1 \ lEaull ;EZilZ БuIРtlЭЭSВ ]ч:
.il]uо]srsuоэ эtli iq pazr.rэ1..1Elt]Llf
эlt] s]L]]ttlэ}Ills \\o_1 .lэрJо-эrttт_id lsOrLl :ээатd эq] i,,
ЭUr]
Sэj]
t] 1|
:..
JLr .
оr| -dt
L t-
l al -iu
-nq
lual
-iq
a_,_
1l Ll t
1a:d
Jоэ
/ lг
.-*:з---::у "чr
эч]
99Z IпsIIеIJэS lвuol uI 1uэrul:эdхЕ uу
266 Daniel Наrrisоп

the closer to the nodes. the less semitonal displacement (i.e., l), and at the midpoint
between them, the most (2).7

--*ь
t

,J
.\?. ;1+

--, t

Figure 1: ВаrDе4 Nосturле, пп. 5-] 0

The rhetorical pulposes of the Р and S rоws сап Ье identified in Fig.4, which shows
the music immediately following Fig. 1. The first rоrч statement, mm.5-6, а ret-
rоgrаdе of Ро, exposes all fоur of the tопе-rоw nodes сlеаrlу fЬr the first time;
the agogic accents оп pitch classes 0, 4, and 8 cannot Ье missed. This statement
coincides with а shifting of tonal сепtеr into С Major, transforming the relationship
betrveen the first/last rоw еlеmепt (pitch-class 0) and the tonal center frоm chordal
third to chordal rооt. This рrоmоtiоп calls оut the first stretched чеrsiоп, Sn, which
арреаrs in rrr.6 and is repeated in m.8. (Imagine th. Su.r,,, ror.v in Fig. З lvith ап BYd
sign and соmраrе rvith the statements in mm.6 and 8; the elastic relationship to the
Р fоrm is unmistakable.) Signilrcantly, the S obliviates the "node & filt" rечеlаtiоп
of the previous RP() Ьу passing quickly and unagogically through the intermediate
nodes while locking ir"r the coincidence of С as tonal center and chief pitch class
of the tone row. The undillёrentiated rhythmic profile of the rоrч presentation, its
immediate repetition, апd the strопg sense of очеrtопаl aTival at С соmЬiпе to give
the imргеssiоп that S,, functions hеrе as rhеtоriсаl closure, sealing off the first раrt
of the exposition. The Ьеаmеd progression, раrt of this rhеtоriсаl function, will Ье
explained lаtеr.

Siffегmап, "ВаrЬеr's Works for Piano," 11zl, noticed the similarity of interval succession Ье-
trvcen the two rows but did not investipate it further.
,р,lочJI.ц
tBto] z t -г эIlt Jo suIJoJ ]JuI]sIp JnoJ ,(1uo эrе эJэчl se ]sпГ'tu:о,1 5 :о 4
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aqI
'(tэ = э alppllu) plopuols у5у brl;sli uвd
),\о1)() )L!1 91D)lpu1 uшпltlэ рuпц l{a1 :Mol |Ь аJпs,tlэlч Бttlltlцtltl 2ll7 -y-lt?za sJtIE]I
,]JDцJ а\I
Jаь^Ва]'эuJпlJоN 1aq,пg :с аlп3t1 ,
S]I
SSE1
(,у) uоrlеlпlrdеээц (у) uoцrsodxg э]ЕI
UOI]
+r\I,lV tlo пIэ +иIlY
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эчl
u ,S'
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ý
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'S]uэtUэlвlS 05 8urраээrd ,(1эlвrрэrurur ач1 рuе 1еur3шо эч} чlоq Jo JnoluOO эч1 tuоц
sцеdар ,(рэlurоd uol]вluэsэJd ащ 1пв ,sluаtuэlв]s 05 snot,tэrd эч} ,,tq uэлI8 Бut
-solc Jo uоIlsэ88пs эч] stuJцuOJ }еч] uollJunJ fiuцвrlrur uв sаrтпЬэв '1lnsal Е ss 'рuе f
,r
цIJoJ ,цоJ 8uluado эч1 .+о Lцчilч J a,г | g э;шеu3rs аq1 sэlеlпlтdвэаJ ,{{эlа{dluоJ
ц
,tU ш[ MoJ td эч].+о ээuвJluэ ач1-1 ssBlэ-qclrd uо mJoJ
II ..lUЕUппор,. эчl о1 0 SSЕlэ
-qclrd uО IпJO_J ,.JIuоl,, эч} LuоЦ uoIlISodSueJ}-uol]BzluBЗJo IBUOI}IpBJI 8urlээgаr
бII'€'td :,{1rruе;,цоJ-эuо],цаu BJo эсцЕJеаddе эчl
,(1snoT,tqg s,E,8lc UI рэlеu8ISар SB
,{q рэlлвrrт sl 'rоГв;ц {d puв Jоuпп э о] алоцI эч] 8lllule]uoэ 'uеd рuоJаs эчJ ]uJo
ulsцuIJэS IBuoI uI ]uэtut;эdхg uу
L9Z
268 Daniel Наrrisоп

Моrе information about the relationship of раrts in the оutег sections of the Nос-
turпе сап Ье gleaned from Fig.5. rvhich collates the rorvs used in the exposition and
recapitulation and elements to Ье noted include:

the consumption ofregistral space, denoted Ьу octave designators along the left
vertical (е.g., "3" = СЗ*ВЗ),
the direction in rvhich the ror,vs move, indicated Ьу ап аrrоwhеаdl
the раrtiсulаr rorv fоrm used, rvith labels drar,vn fiom Fig. З ("R" = retrograde);
the measure in r,vhich the rоiч form begins, shor,vn r,vith italic пumЬеrs; and
the tonal centers noted in Fig.2(b).

The figure highlights the uпusuаl rеgistrаI behavior of the Р, statement in m. 1l: its
registral flatness contrasts markedly with the оthеr rorv statements, almost all of
rvhich аrе uрwагdlу directed. Only trvo, at m. З and its recapltulatory соrrеsропdепt.
m. З l, аrе dorvnrvard, and these rhetorically balance the opening thematic launch Ьу
retrograding to the pitch of оrigiп, creating а lаrgе registral arch that can Ье heard til
magnity the shape of the accompanimental arpeggio figures.
Аfiеr its unusual lаuпсh, the second рагt of the exposition does, hor,vever, fbl-
lorv the registral template set Ьу the first: ап RP presentation tiom the fburth to fifth
octaves that uпсочеrs the "node & fiII" rоw struсturе follor,ved Ьу two closing S
fЬrms ascending frоm the fifth to the seventh. То rеmаiп parallel rvith the trаjесtоrу
of the first раrt, in r,vhich the first/Iast rоw element was eventually aligned r,vith the
local tonal сепtеr, the RP presentation in m. l4 begins on а ditlЪrепt node, pitch
class З. and finishes as the tonal сепtеr shifts to Еь.
Although Fig. 5 highlights the use of S rorvs fоr rhetorical closure in the exposi-
tion, the S. ror,v of mm. 1_5-19 has ап additional and rеmаrkаЬlе рrореrtу not enjoyed
Ьу the S,, rоrч of mm.6-10, which the bottom part of Fig. З reveals: Sr..,.,, ргеsеrчеs
dyadic adjacencies of Pu.r.., but rечеrsеs their оrdеr. The "Sr-P,, mapping" makes
this арраrепt Ьу shorving the оrdеr-пumЬеr mapping, rvith the extended dashes Ье-
trveett ttuпtbers connecting the reversed dyads. (Fоr ехаmрlе, сопsidеr the first tr,vo
pitclr classes оГ the S, . ,, rorv, shor.vn in the uрреr stafТ of the bracketed system in
Fig. З. These аге pitch classes 7 апd l. Using the "S; ,Ро mapping," note that the
fiгst pitch class rпарs to the 7tL. and the second to the бth. Going nor,v to these order
positions in Р,,.о..r. discover that the respective pitch classes аrе 7 and 1.)
This relationship betri,eerr the two rolv falTilies might Ье mеrеlу theoretical
had ВаrЬеr not composed а pointedly ambiguous S-, rоrч unt-olding of mm. 15*17,
shorvn in Fig.6. Despite the dераrturеs fтоm strict оrdеriпg (noted as "anomalies"
in the ехаmрIе), the rоrч оfТеrs the dyads as harmonic, unordered intervals.q These

9 It is, of соursе, irnpossible to dсtеrпliпе rvhat kind of events these "anomalies" аrе. Sif}ЪrrпаIi,
"ВагЬеr's Works fbr Рiапо," 122. suggcsts that they аrе deliberate dераrturеs frorn the rоlч tcl
accommodate очеrtопаI hаrmопу. Given ВагЬеr's deliberatc fbrsaking serial оrdеriпg iп
mm.25 29, this explanation cannclt Ье dismissed. Yet thc "missing" паlurаl signs iп rn. i11 (as
rr,ell as апоlhеr in m. l2) mау Ье шrсоrrесtеd misprirrts. The "ofТ Ьу а third" substitutions of Gb
ancl ЕЬ fЬг ЕЬ апd С, respectively, in пr.15 аrе mоrс likely candidates for editclrial согrесtiоп.
\ote hor,v the m. l7 чеrsiоп of the figure has the Е| and С iп ccrrect оrdсr. ard note as ri,e]I thc
.оlа сч1 lI
,L r'l'od ,uoIl
,с-J-с-J ,y--!-V-l ,Ltl tlt
',3,э :,rap:o ll'l'1q ur шаqt iuцttэsэrd 'рu,{р эt11
l рше чlоq
alou-puclэas-{1:IL|l эrп эJuIS',{тчвd,(1uо 1пg 0I 19 JO
.]о Sэlоtt O,\\t аЧl uэаI\lэq ,,sJэllпU,, uоI]пuIшIр
,рэlээ.LlоJ sl sэ]оu su.) t
,,fiшо:м,, ом1
эчl .+о-}SJц эч] lоu ltlсl-рtlОЭЭs аЧ] э.rэq,,rr
'g7,шr 'шоllвlп]rdеээ: ац1 ul эiussud iuтрuоdsэ::оэ
ut i
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''8'0d
эч1 оэuэJэJэJ о1 SneoJ €5 эц s,KolB эJIIеIIвлuI этрв{р'os uэаg 61'РЭSеlэ,{1uеd st ч.а]]
эч]
,фrn8rqurB ащ lsч1 ',(1вэrроlэШ рэluаSэJd ршв dn чэ,ryJq эJв SpEKp эЧ1 эJэчл 'бI
gS ,,(ршвз В'tOд эQl о1 &r_ugJв sll sцпBIcoJd \-1( \
-lr *-'лАо; puocas щlл dpo sr 1t
€5 "ql ь-,
ЭJЭЧ 1YlОJ lBqt pIBS эq ,{1лвд рlпоэ 1I Еч1 oS 'sad,ф лrод qlоq Ф 8uоlэq SэIluouos
Чrj,,
-
рэчJаш aJo 2zоSп MoJ ul
l'.
(
,рuац ,utш'эчJщJоN 2аqлg :9 аlп3lg
isацоlsttu) Sa1уolaouv щ31l '6уа1
о]г
iq
']u.]
- r.= .[() ,
S1l
(.
ЁsФ# :( эг
1-,qaa
iaa..
ш i..L la,
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\,rIlP l|llU\
цэI
рuЕ
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69Z uIsIlBlJэS lpuoJ uI 1uэrпt:эdхg uу
210 Daniei Harrison

able in its skin despite the beautif'ully florving cantilena and accompaniment, the
familiar ехргеssiче rhetoric, and the lucid очеrtопаl fоrm. We await furthеr clarifi-
cation, rvhich the development section supplies.

ТНЕ DEVELOPMENT

The development, like the expositicln, is in two parts, finished off Ьу а fiee, small-
note cadenza that is almost lengthy enough to Ье considered its own part. The first
part, mm,20J. gives the serial element grеаtеr structural iпfluепсе than it has еп-
joyed up to this point rvhile tully exposing it as а сrеаturе of tetrachordal tTansposi-
tion. AlI the while, John Field's alpeggios gamely soldier оп in the iпtеriоr. Figure
7 analyzes the first parI. condensing the arpeggios into block chords and separating
them into а separate staff. The first developmental move is to сопlirm the sugges-
tion that S, has initiating powers (because of the dyadic-exchange рrореrtу with Р0)
Ьу marking each of the {7,З,l 1 } nodes with the ) ] J._J Л J. rhуthm characteristic
of P-form exposition. Fufiher development results tiom the intense tbcus on node-
to-node motion through unpredictably spaced points of imitation. Whеrеаs the RP
presentations of mm. 5 and 14 had tentatively uncovered the nodal structure of the
tone rоws, the opening of the development emphatically ргосlаims it. Also ampli-
fied here, оп two levels, is the teleological spin of rоw struсturе and presentation
encountered in the exposition. Just as the Р and S rоw fЬrms were апсhоrеd Ьу а
thirleen-tone technique in which the Iirst and last notes of the ror,v r,чеrе the same
pitch class, the presentation of rhythmicized row nodes iп the development рrо-
ceeds frоm and concludes rvith the same element. Thus, 57 to Sз to S,, and conclud-
ing r.vith S, in mm, l9-2|, and similaгly with the S,,.r.. family in mm. 221.11 Оп а
smaller scale, the figuration of the сусlе is likervise end-directed, departing tiom
one node and arTiving at the next thanks to the rhythmic figurе, whose five elements
сочеr not only the nodal tetrachord Ьut also the follorving node, agogically accented
as usual.
Other annotations on Fig.7 deal with the harmonic and linear aspects of the
pilssil_se. UndeT pressure frоm S-rоr.ч sаturаtiоп. the accompanimental arpeggios
verticalized оп the top staff dеlЬrm into gепегаIlу whole-tone tetrachords, depaПing
frоm the expositional поtm clf consonant triads. The deployment of S-rоw nodal еп-
triеs сгеаtеs gently ascending rvhole-tone step progressions, which the beams bring
out, another departure frоm the generally diatonic progressions of the exposition.
As the расе of imitative епtrу picks up in m,2l, appoggiature chords contrib-
ute to the buildup, which culminates in the highest tension сhогd (third chord in
m.21), rеsоlчiпg to the relatively relaxed fourth сhоrd, rvhich in turп prefaces а
low-tension ЕЬ-miпоr triаd оп the downbeat of m.22. А somewhat inelegant seam
separates this chord frоm а Т, гepetition of the preceding music that reestablishes
the "tonic" {0,8,1} nodes after а period of "dominant" {7,З,1l}. This takes рlасе

11 Theanomalynotedinm.2l thesubstitutionof F4forG4inm.2l inthemidstof thisvery


stric1 motivic treatment-iS most likely а mistake.
S'цo[Io.+
,uollвInlldEcэl ач} uэч] рuв 'SэпSUа ,
i:a
эsnвd тЕJаuэ; uочs V ,[orstt to] t E-l tэs эuо sпuIцI-JIuоJв]эо ач1 Jэло a]EIIIJэJ о,ц1
pue o]|olll",r..lptttl8,ttl11o uB ч}Lц }no s"rэlэd еzuэрвэ эч]'JIрвu эIuоlвlэо,(1q3rr1 uе
otuT ;-uт1lla5 ,turod q8rq 8rrтuэdо эч1 luo4 sрuаэsэр .{1]uэlstsuоэ lвч1 Bzuapвc аlоu ээ1]
-IIELtlS Е r{llrr 1п9 рэIlU Sl бZ'iuJо JэрuIЕшэ_I эq] :s,{еrэр alou SsBq эч] SB Jnoluoc Sэч
рUЕ 'SuоllЕIэ: qэlrd 'sшq1,{q.r ,цэu oJ ,(вм sэлl8 .,{1рuц uоtlеrп8ц эIлtlоIц JвцIIUвJ tuЕ:
,э.\оqV ,рJочJ-ч]uэлаs
lueultuop в 3urцoddns fa ssвq в :6Z,Lu tIl papunos st эsачl ?s;
;о lsэiuоJ]s эQf 'SlýoJ эuо} рэlвJэlIIqо эчl tuоg эIоJ IEJnlJnJls 3urpeal ачl Jало a>Iet UIi
э-ýэчl puе ,uоIlJэs slчl uI sрJочс 1ооr-рацrldrrтв до ээuэ8:аruэ эчi рамочs 7 arn8rg -qIl
,sоriБэd-rе эч] 3uоlе 'з7,ru fq aJe ool эsэч1 эq uвэ sэроu{y'з'9} ,U
чч,ц 1so1 1nq'рJвэч
,,цоJ iuв ,{q
рэlвлIlэвэJ ,(1моu'acByns 8urlвr8эlulslр srчl моIэq lsnr рэztuе8лоuп iui-
sэqэlrd рuпоs (1. г r рuв Еffjг) saлIlolu Jno]uoJ pue rrruцl,,{ql iEIIltцBJ sЕч хешrIэ -uэ
IвсIJо1эчJ sрJв,цо] элоlu в 'ЕZ,ш ul 8urчщS ,эsdвllоэ 8utstrd;пs в ,{q рэмоllод sT Бur
1uаrudоlэ,tэр эqt зо чеd lsJц эчl ut uотlеzтшв8Jо ,цоJ Jo uоtцахэ э,л.lssэrdшl aq1 SO li
,элпlsэ3 лэ3rе1 в оluт
эч]
I]'€'/d ol t'8'0d шоц э8uеqэ ачl-uоIlls
рэрIо_+ 1uаrudоlэ,tэр ачl uI sт-sэIIILце.+,\\о]
-оdхэ эq] ur рэIll]цJ I{э.\\
uэаq рЕч lеч \\ os ,uоIsп[:lсо leuot Jo Jэлоэ Jэрuп '{1чэлоэ рэ]l
Slu:
',l)Ll.illg LUL\
-- ь' :1l:,|, ,\:, ]]:ll' at]lll]]1]\ : | ).ltlb'1:!
Е tI(
-Ргt
-L)lt
эLu
Bi,
lIOI:
-tIi
ач]
dE
-эa,
]I] !
snor,rэrdJo ý; (d
*
-sэ
Su t
эlп:
-ISr
1SJ
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ILZ LuslleIlaS Ieuol ul 1uarrrr:эdxg uy
212 Daniel HarTison

The еmеrgепсе ofthe octatonic soundscape in the cadenza is puzzling, since по


r,vell-marked events that could have fогеtоId it have been previously sounded in the
Nclctttrпe. А search for clues that mау рrоче to Ье heuristically productive yields
tr,vo pieces of evidence. Опе is the introduction of the S roiv type, {rrst епсоuпtеrеd
in m.6, rvhich involved а change of nodal tetrachord from the non-octatonic 4-6
[0l27] of Pto the (possibly) octatonic 4-1З [0I36] of S. but these tetrachords are
not highlighted in the presentation of the rоrч, and the change is not easily реr-
ceived. [t is attended, hotvever, Ьу the оthеr, а noticeable bit of accompanimental
соmmепtаrу: ап utrambisuously octatonic scale sеgmепt,4-З [0tЗ4|, is sounded in
the highest polyphonic melody line of mm. 6-7
-а step рrоgrеssiоп highlighted Ьу
the Ьеаm in Fig.4. This octatonic comment is partially rеtrасtеd in the immediately
tbllorving repetition. in rvhich ап appogiatura рrеfiх, F, charrges its сhаrасtеr frоm
octatonic to сhгоmаtiс. In Fig.4. а notated tепutо with uprvard stems (N.B., Bar-
ber's notation) сап Ье seen to Ьriпg out this altered line.
This retraction is of а piece l,vith the "change of subject" hеаrd in the use of S to
соvег цр the nodal ехроsurе offered Ьу RP, rvhich trvo events оссur nearrly sin-rulta-
neously. А trope of diffidence seems to Ье in play hеrе, а kind of subtle reluctance
to ехрlоrе implications. This trоре сап also Ье rеаd in other features аlrеаdу noted:
the stuttering start of the opening melody, the short-breathed l3-tone ror,v realiza-
tions, and the motir,ic laconism of both melody and accompaniment. The end of
the development also participates iп this reading; the octatonicism is puzzling only
in that it seems not to result frоm сlеаrlу marked pitch relationships еаrliеr irr the
piece, but Ьу this чеrу disconnection, it continues and fulfills а pattern ofbehavior,
Неrе, this Ьеhачiоr is mоrе очеrt than in the exposition. The nodal ехроsurе of
the development's first раrt is muсh mоrе intense than iп the exposition, with the
r,vhole-tone implication of the {0,8,4} struсturе made explicit Ьу step progressions
and accompanying harmonies. Рrороrtiопаtе tcl the interrsity of the ехроsurе is the
retraction. r,vhich involves the чеrу disintegration of гоr,ч organization апd {0,8.4}
аrtiсulаtjоп iп tъчоr of octatonic ideas. This is а mсlrе t'orceful and dramatic version
of events irr ihe exposition. ,"vhere node ехроsurе in the RP presentaticlns rras im-
rllcJiltelr .LIt,cccr-led Ы tlц,tlltonic eVenlS.
Whегеаs the exposition describecl а conflicted and hагd-tо-rеаd relationship
bettr ееп torlalitr arrcl sеriаlitул the story of the development is сIеаrеr, and сап ечеп
Ье told in а t-nore сlrаrпаtiс tone: an attempted Ьrеаkоut of combined serial elements
(pitches fiom S. гhl,thпrs iiorn Р) tiorn the arcaded overtonal prison results in а
struggle. during rvhich the sегiаl pitch relatiorrs аrе lost uпdег the Ьооmiпg call-
nonade of amplified-root bass notes. The struggiе ends inconclusively in пеutrаl
tеrritоrу dorvnsloped, clctatonic, attd out of time.

RECAPITULATION

The resumption of A-section mаtегiаI in the recapitulation shorvs а пumЬеr of signs


оГ harving been аllЪсtеd Ьу developmental events. N4ost significant is the change in
tгL,ittment of the поdаl-ехроsurе figurе, RPo. r,vhich in the exposition (m.5) had Ьееп
tIэёс
.pBTl1
JоГвru |у F]uо] {с.в'о}
рuU эч] olul ur э_
Sэ.\IоSэ-I рJочJ Iepou эr11 :эldurвхэ эч] ш paxoq .эээrd
tt'B.o} эq1 Jo элоuJ сIUоцJ -cui:
-.IЕч IЕUЦ эqt .iq qэпо1 эllrrэЗ в .UоIIЕIIIэuоJэJ
чlI.ц раlUJцuос lsэроrп е о]ul ореш
еро] эчl ut st 1uаrudоIэ^эр ач1 uт эssеdшт ач1 ,роочаIесS
рuЕ [InJ Sэ^эIчсв uol}
-в:пig lЕрJочJ JIuоlЕ]Jо эlэldtuоэ-эllпЬlоu эq] .эZIs
Iеццоu о] Mo.r8 Sа]оu [IешS
:Бulllэt э,lе SаJUаJэJJIр ачJ,6,3lg uI u,цочS'Sэ[ЕэS JIuolB]Jo
рэuulц' uI luэсSор
э.\еlсо-аэJчl в :]uэлэ cIuolвlco
Jo ptтрt эIqBlS эJоIu Е о] SреэI lI 'л\о|{ .luэurdоlэ,tэр
эч] t'l вZuэреJ э]оu-IIешs эчl Sв,ц чсIч,ц 'рUпо]3 1е.l1пэu ]е assedmT uв Il..j]"
рэrпЗgэ-rd
рвч luаl\э sTq1 ',(1rэш-lоg ,эtпIl SIч] }UэJалIр эJЕ S]InSaJ эt{] ]nq xUard эtuоlеlэошоu -tir',
е ,{q рэlэеrlэ"t flэlетраurШт uачt puв - 1] l..
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slr эlтdsа11
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ffi',:",,lТ;;
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tl(] :, _
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sasod:nd Зuцеtlтuт
lo_J э.\1]]эо ч]LIа\эs эLl]
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a:n]saS Suruado рэ]еlпtrdт:rэ.r эL1] s.lrtS ]uэtU11l.rl1 SIч1 ,lUа]_ýЕ
Sr:zБlz эцt рuэlхэ эUi t
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о] lэрJО uI Ia,LtI ur эsсrld tlt)l]Еlэlэf.rЕ аql Silт.rпР Lltl: .
S Ui]dn 1rBq-iLrrlqnop Е tUо4
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ч]I рё.1l-.dLUL).] \э \E],f о эаJчl SэшпSuсlэ (u:п]а.t }uэпЬ эtj] _-
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}rl Э|II1.1d 1сlttrЁаl эL11
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зо ,{1rрпЬ .,8utsеэ1., tll l]э.
ащ :(6, pUB 8Е,шru) dn рэJ_э,\оJ ,tlаiвrрэurшi ]оU эJе
lвч1 uоI]ЕIпlIdеээl аql .+о;рч IЕ]LIё'!,
,_
рuоээS эt1] uT sэrпЗg эrпsоdхЭ 84ц э,ttssоээflS Oi\?.;tl ээuе.lвэddu aqt 'эldu,вха loj -lэd
'эlол ,эээrd эч1 Jo lэрurеruэJ ач1 S]ээJJв ,(pqns tBt1l эрпlll}в мэU е UI SlачSп S]uэlLI
э:u il
-эIэ [Buol рше рllэS.+о UоIIеIIIсuосэJ SIчJ (,1slлэlsв uE чlt.ц рэ>[JвuJ SI }uацlош SIч] o-]_ ^.
'Z,3lg Jo urел8етР IBIUJ.J эql u1) ,sluаr-ulsпГрВ эlfls-Blerroi
рэrrпЬэr u1 ,"р рэ.lа}L.
-Jo uI louIшI g o1uT ,(-тоlсэГвл1 rаluээ-lеuоl эчt SlJэлlр pBIJ] ",1t "1,rо,
tвч1 раluэru8пе uв se 8ut sрlэr i
-рuпоS 'эJnlcnJJS l'uolJaлo о1 эlв:lэuэd ,{1впlэе sэроu
{y.g.O} эttl .в .3rg ul u^oqs ач1 ul
()u
'uоtlвlпltdвэЭJ эч1 UI э3вssеd 8ulрuоdsэrrоэ эч] JэIJV .rrn.o1" u5
uir1 ,{q рэ,лrоllо1 э]t.
Cl7 LusIlBIJaS Tl]tloJ ur 1uэrut.lаdхg rry
214 Daniel HarTison

{0, 8. 1} reconciled to
д, ol,erlona]ity

Figure 9: ВzzrЬеr, Nосturпе, пtm.14-5

WHY UNDERTAKE THIS EXPERIMENT?

Iпtеrрrеtiче engagement rvith analytic artifacts has led to а rаthеr conventional


reading of the piece: ап inseclrre and ditfident exposition is follorved Ьу intense
rvorking tlut in the development and concludes rvith ап irenic settlement in the
гecapitulatiorr. This геаdiп_ч is consonarlt rvith other conventional elements of the
ilirlсturtte- its пlеtег. 1Ъrtп. rпаппеr of surface ornamentation. even its чеrу title.
А hermeneutical реrрlехitч remains. hor,vever. r,vhich is the yoking of John
Field to Аrпоld Schoerrberg as inventors of а gепrе and technique, respectively.
Field's presence is, of cor.rrse. explicit; Schoenberg's, slightly less scl (since опе has
to discover the serial eletTlents гаthеr than rеаd them from а subtitle). Yet mапу рrе-
vious соmmепtаtоrs have noted the poor fit of ВаrЬеr's piece with Field's nocturnes
and have made strong cases that it is Chopin rаthеr than Field r,vho is honored.l2
The subtitle thus is а bit of misdirection" and the diffidence detected in musical
processes арреаrs to extend ечеп t() the subtitling, Hiding behind Field is Chopin.

l2 Sifferman. "ВаrЬеr's Works for Piano,'' 78-9З adduces а пumЬеr of features that аrе uпсоm-
rnon in Field's посtuгпеs but typical of Chopin's. Additiona1 comparisons are cl11'ered Ьу Yorrng.
"Pialio Music of Sarnuel ВаЬгЬеr"' 15,1 60. Pianist John Bror.vning. rvho premiered the piecc,
a]sil сопсurs in "Sarnltel ВаrЬеr's Nосturпе, ор, ЗЗ"' Сlачiеr25 (Jапuаrу l986): 20-21.

г
,Si.Ied SЕ,ц SэсuеIпJоJJэd
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SэчlЕоI эн) ,ý^ISB эч ..i,,цоJ Е E]auL,qPH at1l s1,, ,tuэls,{s эuо]-эл|э,t\} эrll lnOqB uвшч)tIаlJ IBJ
-tols эчl spl] Jэqlеg ,zэUlов эJJэId'{qlл,,tsruетd lus]Еачэl ач} sI очлд ,iulp,tclэa,t lo1 о]-lэ.)tlо)
s lэqла Вrruвdэ:d э:е,{эq1 ,Jэullu ]f,пчэ isIuI[оIл ч]Iл\ sэлl.uu lэq.tвg IэпruеS
,осбI ,sI.IBd
1:
:эJеJ lIэч] oJ uэла 'SэIdпоJЗ S1I Jo unJ БurlBr-u алоqв lоu SB,\\ ач рuЕ
'JэqJвв раJоq.{IIuJэuэ8 .)ISпш эuо]-эл[ал\t :]uJцJJэрIIмэq dээр в Ja]sI;эl о} эJвdS
--
эшоS SMOIIE чэIчм tЗJэquэOчэS }е 1ool рuоээS Е эlЕl Sn SЕч эсuЕlSшпсJIэ SlчJ
9LZ ruslIеIJэS lBtIoJ uI 1uэrutrэdх1 uу
216 Daniel Наrrisоп

particular. the interval-cycle quality of ВаrЬеr's rows, especially the опе frоm the
sonata shor,vn in Fig. 10, is а Berg calling-card.]5
Perhaps ВаrЬеr's ambivalent f'eelings about "modern" composition and his
"tentative experimentation" rvith its signature technique аrе the rеаsоlls behind tire
misdirecticln in the subtitle and the expressive diftdence detectable in the composi-
tion: ostensibly hопоriпg the tЬuпdеr, he models the work of а f'ollorver. Reading
all the r,vay through. might we conjecture that the Nслсturпе is an homage to Alban
Веrg? In that case, overtonal and sеriаl techniques аrе not really incompatible arfter
all if а посturпе оп опе side сап make соmmоп cause. thou_ch secretly, with а violin
сопсеrtо оп the оthеr.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bror.vning. Jоhп. "SamLrel ВаrЬеr's Nосturпе, ор. З3." Clcгlcr (Jапuаrу 1986): 20 2l.
Fаirlеigh, James Р. "Serialism in ВаrЬеr's SoIo Piano Works." Рiапо Quurterlr,(Summeг l970):
l з_l7.
Headlam. Dave. Ziе Music of АlЬап Веlз. Nerv Начеп: Yale University Press, 1996.
Неуmап, ВаrЬаrа В, Saпltel Barber: The Coпtposer апd his Mu.sic, Nerv Yоrk: OxfoTd University
Рrеss.1992.
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15 In this respect, it is instructive to rеаd Dave Headlam's descripticln of Berg's general ti.velve-
tone technique iпТhе Music о.[ДlЬап Berg (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 194
209, as соmmепtаrу оп the twelve-tone composer ВатЬет could have developed iпtо.