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BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO LEARNING GUIDE Science and Health-Grade IV Unit 1 - People/Digestive

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO LEARNING GUIDE

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO LEARNING GUIDE Science and Health-Grade IV Unit 1 - People/Digestive System

Science and Health-Grade IV Unit 1 - People/Digestive System Break It Down

ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO LEARNING GUIDE Science and Health-Grade IV Unit 1 - People/Digestive System Break It
ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO LEARNING GUIDE Science and Health-Grade IV Unit 1 - People/Digestive System Break It

COPYRIGH T NOTICE

Section 9 of the Presidential Decree No. 49 provides: “No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office within the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.” This material has been developed within the Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) project. Prior approval must be given by the author(s) or the BEAM Project Management Unit and the source must be clearly acknowledged.

Written, edited and produced by Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao, May 2009

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Information about this Learning Guide Recommended number

Information about this Learning Guide

Recommended number of lessons for this Learning Guide: 8

Basic Education Curriculum Competencies

Grade 4 science: People: The human digestive system

Demonstrate an understanding of the parts of the digestive system and the function of each part

Identify the parts of the digestive system.

Describe the function of each part.

Follow the path of food from mouth to the other parts of the digestive system.

Describe what happens to food in each part.

Discuss the importance of food digestion.

How the digestive system works through a diagram

Describe common ailments of parts of the digestive system (e. g. toothache, stomachache, gas pains).

Discuss ways of preventing injuries to the skeletal system and muscular systems.

Discuss prevention and cure of ailments described in #1 (e. g. chew food well, eating the right kinds of food, etc.).

Objectives

Identify the different parts of the digestive system;

Describe the function of the different parts of the digestive system;

Explain the digestive process;

Make model of the digestive system;

Identify some common ailments in the digestive system;

Describe some symptoms and causes of some common ailments in the digestive system;

Identify some tips to prevent/cure some common ailment in the digestive system; and

Name some ways in keeping the digestive system healthy.

Essential concepts, knowledge and understandings targeted

The digestive system is the organ system which takes charge in the breaking down of food into simple substances and absorbing the nutrients to nourish the cells throughout the body so they can function well.

Digestion starts in the mouth and ends in the small intestine.

The digestive system can be grouped into two: the digestive tract and the accessory organs.

The digestive tract is an open ended tube through which the food passes. It is composed of the following organs - mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN • The mouth is the first part

The mouth is the first part of the digestive tract. It is where the food enters. In the mouth, the food is cut into smaller pieces by the teeth by means of chewing. Saliva released by the salivary glands mixes with the food. Saliva contains enzyme called amylase which breakdown carbohydrates. The tongue helps in mixing the food and saliva by moving it around in the mouth until it becomes a soft mass. It is now ready to be swallowed. When it is ready to be swallowed, the tongue will push the soft mass of food or bolus to the larynx down the esophagus. When we swallow, the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage, will cover the trachea to prevent the bolus from entering into it. Instead, it directs the bolus into the esophagus.

The Esophagus is the second part of the digestive tract. It is a narrow tube, about 10 inches long which moves the bolus down the stomach by peristalsis. At the end of the esophagus, is a muscular ring which opens to release the bolus to the stomach and closes back to prevent the bolus from flowing back to the esophagus.

The stomach is the third part of the digestive tract. It is a stretchy sac-like structure with strong walls located at the left side of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. When empty, it looks like letter C and small but it can stretch to accommodate the meals. The stomach receives the partially digested food and the liquid that we take. As soon as the stomach receives the food, it releases gastric juice which contains hydrochloric acid and enzyme pepsin. Hydrochloric acid creates the acidic environment for the pepsin to breakdown the proteins. It also kills the microorganism that may have been ingested. The stomach moves in wavy motion (peristalsis) to compress, pummel, stir and mix the food with the pancreatic juice and moving it into the end part of the stomach. The food now turns into softer, porridge-like thing called chyme. At the end of the stomach is a muscular ring which controls the flow of chyme into the small intestine. It acts like a door which opens as the chyme flow and closes back to prevent it from flowing back to the stomach. It takes 4 hours or more for the stomach to empty itself from food.

The Small Intestine is the fourth part of the digestive tract. It is a narrow,about 1 1/2 in diameter and 22 ft. long, coiled tube which extends from stomach to the large intestine. It is in this part where most digestion and absorption happen. Small intestine has three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum and ileum. As the chyme enters the duodenum, digestive juices like bile from liver and gallbladder and pancreatic juice from pancreas are released. Bile emulsifies the fats and breaks it down from large globules to smaller droplets. It also helps the fat digesting enzyme to break down the fats. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes like amylase which breaks down the carbohydrates into simple sugar, lipase which breaks down the fats into fatty acids and glycerol and trypsinogen which breaks down protein into amino acids. Then, the digested food moves to the jejunum where more digestion and absorption of nutrients like vitamins, minerals, amino acids, simple sugar, iron, etc. occur. What is left after the absorption are the indigestible food material, some water and bacteria which moves to the last part of the small intestine, the ileum.

The inner surface of the small intestine is lined with millions of microscopic finger-like structure called villi. They absorb the nutrients into the bloodstream which nourish the cells.

The small intestine moves in peristaltic movement causing the digested food to move along it. It takes 3-6 hours for the small intestine to empty.

The Large Intestine is the last part of the digestive tract. It has larger diameter than the small intestine but very much shorter. Its diameter is 2.5 inches with the length of 5-6 ft and forms an inverted U over the small intestine. It has three sections: the cecum where the appendix is located, colon and rectum. No digestion occurs in the large intestine. But it performs several important functions like reabsorbing the water, dissolving the salts from the residue and the bacteria in the large intestine promote the breakdown of undigested food materials and make several vitamins like Vitamin K which the body needs for the

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN clotting of blood. As more and more

clotting of blood. As more and more water is absorbed the waste materials become compacted into soft mass called feces.

The large intestine moves its remaining contents towards the rectum. The rectum stores the feces until elimination. Then, muscle contractions in the walls of the rectum push the feces towards the anus where it passes out from the body.

The accessory organs are the tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gallbladder.

The teeth cuts the food into smaller sizes to make swallowing easy and accommodate digestion.

The t moves the food around so that it will be mixed with saliva and pushes the bolus to the pharynx when swallowed.

The salivary glands secrete saliva which contains enzyme amylase. This enzyme breaks down carbohydrates into simple substance.

The liver produces bile, a yellowish green substance which emulsifies fats and assists the fat digesting enzyme in breaking down fats.

The pancreas secretes digestive juices which contain enzymes like amylase, lipase and trypsinogen. These enzymes breakdown the starch and sugar into simple sugar, fats into fatty acids and glycerol and protein into amino acids.

The gallbladder stores the bile. During digestion, it releases the bile.

Digestive system can be inflicted with different ailments. Some are very minor like toothache while others are life-threatening like cancers. Some of the common ailments, their prevention/cure are described in the activity sheets for Activity 3.2 of the learning guide.

Tips in keeping the digestive system healthy is also enumerated in Background Information for Teachers (2) of this Learning Guide.

Suggested organizational strategies

Prepare the materials ahead of time.

Prepare the classroom for group activity.

Opportunities for Integration

MSEP-making of lap book

Mathematics-making a personal digestive system model with measurements

Health-identifying ways to keep the digestive system healthy

Activities in this Learning Guide

Activity 1: Which Way?

Multiple Intelligences

Visual/Spatial

Skills BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Skills

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN • Seeing patterns; Observation and recall of

Seeing patterns; Observation and recall of information

Activity 2: The Big Picture

Multiple Intelligences

Visual/Spatial

Skills

Seeing patterns; Organization of parts

Activity 3.1: Digestion: A Big Deal!

Multiple Intelligences

Logical/Mathematical; Verbal/Linguistic

Skills

Use information; Solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Understanding information

Activity 3.2: Some Common Ailments, Prevention/Cure

Multiple Intelligences

Body/Kinaesthetic; Naturalist

Skills

Solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Activity 4 Option 1: Revisiting the Paper Twin

Multiple Intelligences

Visual/Spatial

Skills

Organization of parts

Activity 4 Option2: The Inside Story

Multiple Intelligences

Verbal/Linguistic; Intrapersonal

Skills

Translate knowledge into new context

Activity 5.1 Option 1: The Digestive System in Action

Multiple Intelligences

Body/Kinaesthetic

Skills BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Skills

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN • Translate knowledge into new context; Solve

Translate knowledge into new context; Solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Activity 5.1 Option 2: My Digestive Tract

Multiple Intelligences

Logical/Mathematical

Skills

Translate knowledge into new context; Solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Activity 5.2: Healthy Living Lap Book

Multiple Intelligences

Visual/Spatial; Verbal/Linguistic

Skills

Translate knowledge into new context; Relate knowledge from several areas

Activity 6: Thinking About My Learning

Multiple Intelligences

Intrapersonal

Skills

Mastery of subject matter; Knowledge of major ideas

Key Assessment Strategies

Assessment checklist

Rubrics

Reflective Journal

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

Mind Map

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Mind Map The Mind Map displays the

The Mind Map displays the organization and relationship between the concepts and activities in this Learning Guide in a visual form. It is included to provide visual clues on the structure of the guide and to provide an opportunity for you, the teacher, to reorganize the guide to suit your particular context.

to reorganize the guide to suit your particular context. Stages of Learning The following stages have

Stages of Learning

The following stages have been identified as optimal in this unit. It should be noted that the stages do not represent individual lessons. Rather, they are a series of stages over one or more lessons and indicate the suggested steps in the development of the targeted competencies and in the achievement of the stated objectives.

Assessment

All six Stages of Learning in this Learning Guide may include some advice on possible formative assessment ideas to assist you in determining the effectiveness of that stage on student learning. It can also provide information about whether the learning goals set for that stage have been achieved. Where possible, and if needed, teachers can use the formative assessment tasks for summative assessment purposes i.e as measures of student performance. It is important that your students know what they will be assessed on.

1. Activating Prior Learning

This stage aims to engage or focus the learners by asking them to call to mind what they know about the topic and connect it with their past learning. Activities could involve making personal connections.

Background or purpose

Digestive System is the organ system which takes care of the digestion of food to nourish the body.

In this stage, students will be working in groups where they will make one “paper twin” and draw the organs which help in the digestion and the path of food in the body. They will also explain according to their own understanding what happens to food as it enters the body.

Strategy BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Strategy

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Small Group Discussion is a strategy used

Small Group Discussion is a strategy used to generate ideas on a certain topic from all students in a limited time. This is done to increase the student-student interaction and to encourage participation especially in expressing his/her ideas.

Materials

1 manila paper, pentel pen/black crayon/pencil, a small basket of different foods ( actual samples or toys)

Activity 1: Which Way?

Advance Preparation

Prepare a basket and different kinds of food.

During the Activity

1. Show the basket and ask some volunteers to take out and identify the food. Let them explain the benefit they can get from the food.

2. Organize students into groups.

3. Distribute a manila paper, pencil/crayon /pentel pen and ask them to make one “paper twin” by tracing the outline of the body of one of their members.

4. After making the “paper twin”, have them imagine that they are eating. Ask them the following questions:

What do you do first when you eat?

Why do you think you have to chew the food that you eat?

5. Let them write their answers on the space below their paper twin.

6. When done, let them think about the following questions.

Where do you think the food that you eat go as you swallow them?

Where do you think will they pass?

7. Let them draw and label the path of food as it enters the body on their “paper twin” to answer the questions in number 6.

8. When done, let them present their output to the class.

9. Ask them to post their “paper twin” and revisit them after the topic will be fully discussed.

Formative Assessment

You may use the Small Group Assessment Checklist, (see page 21) to assess the group's performance on the activity.

Roundup

Students should have:

expressed their current understanding about the process on breaking of food; and

drawn and labeled the path of food in the body.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

2. Setting the Context

PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 2. Setting the Context This stage introduces the students to what

This stage introduces the students to what will happen in the lessons. The teacher sets the objectives/expectations for the learning experience and an overview how the learning experience will fit into the larger scheme.

Background or purpose

In this stage, the students will be working in groups to sequentially arrange the pictures of the organs of the digestive system sequentially to form the digestive tract. This picture will be used to introduce the topic, the concepts to be developed and the objectives.

Strategy

Small Group Discussion is a strategy used to generate ideas on a certain topic from all students in a limited time. This is done to increase the student-student interaction and to encourage participation of every student especially in expressing his/her ideas.

Materials

for teacher's use:

4 sets of pictures of the different organs of the digestive system (see Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 2 “Digestive System Organs”, page 22)

cardboard, paste or glue, a pair of scissors, envelope

for each group of students:

manila paper, pentel pen, paste, an envelope containing the set of pictures

Activity 2 – The Big Picture

Advance preparation:

1. Cut and paste the pictures (see Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 2 “Digestive System Organs”, page 22 ) separately on a cardboard.

2. Prepare four sets of the digestive system organs. Each set includes pictures of mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.

3. Put each set of digestive system organs in four separate envelopes.

During the Activity:

1. Organize students into four groups.

2. Distribute the materials and envelope to every group.

3. Instruct them to arrange the pictures in sequence (based on their own understanding) from the first to the last organ of the digestive system and paste them on manila paper. Then have them say something about this question:

What do you think happens to the food as it enters your body?

4. Give them enough time to do the activity.

5. Once done, let them show their work to the class and share their answer to the question posed in number 4.

6. Facilitate debriefing. Direct their attention on their output and ask: In which organ system do you think these organs belong?

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 7. Introduce the topic ( The Digestive

7. Introduce the topic ( The Digestive System), the concepts ( its parts and functions, the digestive process, the importance of digestion and some common ailments: their prevention/cure) and the objectives. You may write these words on the board or write

them on strips of paper and post them on the board.

Formative Assessment

You may use the Small Group Assessment Checklist, (see page 21) to assess the group's performance on the activity.

Roundup

Students should have:

arranged the pictures of the organs of the digestive system sequentially; and

been given the overview and objectives of the topic.

3. Learning Activity Sequence

This stage provides the information about the topic and the activities for the students. Students should be encouraged to discover their own information.

Background or purpose

This Learning Guide is about the human Digestive System. There are two activities in this stage. These activities are provided to build student's understanding on the basic concepts of the Digestive System like its parts and functions, the importance of digestion, the digestive process and some common ailments and their prevention/cure. These activities will help them increase their awareness on the importance of this organ system and to take care of it to prevent illness from occurring. They will also be able to help the members of their family how to take care or cure the ailments they might encounter.

The activities in this stage is anchored on BEC Competencies for Grade IV Unit 1, People, numbers 5.1 – 5.5 and 6.1 – 6.2.

Strategies for activity 3.1

1. Small Group Discussion

2. Learning Centers are any areas in your classroom which you designate for students to accomplish certain challenge.

Materials

for:

Learning Center 1 – pentel pen, bond paper, pencil, crayon, a pair of scissors, activity sheet for Activity 3.2 “Learning Center 1 – The Journey Begins”, page 23

Learning Center 2 – ruler, bond paper, pencil, crayon, pentel pen, a pair of scissors, activity sheet for Activity 3.2 “Learning Center 2 – On the Way Down”, page 24

Learning Center 3 – ruler, bond paper, pencil, crayon pentel pen, a pair of scissors, activity sheet for Activity 3.2 “Learning Center 3 – Mixing and Churning”, page 25

Learning Center 4 – ruler, manila paper, pencil, pentel pen, crayon, a pair of scissors, activity sheet for Activity 3.2 “Learning Center 4 – Passing Through”,

page26

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN • Learning Center 5 - ruler, manila

Learning Center 5 - ruler, manila paper, pencil, pentel pen, crayon, a pair of scissors, activity sheet for Activity 3.2 “Learning Center 5 – The Last Stop Over”, page 27

for teacher's use

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 – The Table for Digestive System, page 28

a big Digestive System Chart

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2, “The Process of Absorption in Small Intestine”, page 29, coconut milk, fine clean cloth, strainer/sponge, clear container

Activity 3.1 – Digestion: A Big Deal!

Advance preparation:

1. Prepare five learning centers. Label them as:

Learning Center 1 – The Journey Begins

Learning Center 2 – On the Way Down

Learning Center 3 – Mixing and Churning

Learning Center 4 – Passing Through

Learning Center 5 – The Last Stop Over

2. Put in each learning center the materials specified on the list.

3. Make a “Table for Digestive System” on a manila paper. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2, “Table for Digestive System”, page 28 and post it on the board.

4. Prepare the materials for the absorption process in small intestine. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 “The Process of Absorption in Small Intestine”, page 29.

During the Activity:

1. Ask students what they think about the words “digest” and “digestion”. Publish their answers on the board.

2. Organize students into about five groups. Assign more members to groups four and five.

3. Inform students that they are going to do a specific activity in their learning center.

4. Post the following questions on the board to guide the students:

Where does digestion begin?

What happens to the food in the mouth and to the other organs after we swallow it?

How is the food digested?

What are the organs involved in the digestive process?

5. Lead each group to their learning center.

6. In their learning center, have them take out their activity sheets and introduce the table posted on the board(refer to “Table for Digestive System”, page 28). Let them make a table similar to the one posted on the board to be filled in with information from the paragraph/s they will read.

7. Give them enough time to accomplish the task.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

8. When done, let each group

SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 8. When done, let each group • fill in the Digestive System

fill in the Digestive System Table posted on the board. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.1, “Table for the Digestive System”, page 28.

connect the picture they made to the picture which comes before it.

share the concepts they learned from their reading starting from learning center 1 to learning center 5.

9. Facilitate debriefing every after a group shared their output. Revisit their answers for the motive questions in number 2 and make necessary adjustments, if there are. In addition, you may also ask the following questions:

What are the different organs in the digestive system? Into how many groups can we divide them? What are these groups? What are the organs that belong to each group?

What are the functions of each organ?

How long is the digestive tract?

What is digestion?

Where does it begin? Where does it end?

How does the food reach the cells in the body?

Is digestion important? Why do you say so?

10. Demonstrate the Absorption process in small intestine after the debriefing of group five. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 “The Process of Absorption in Small Intestine”, page 29.

11. Provide lecturette about the digestive system: its function as a whole and the parts and functions of digestive tract and the accessory organs. See Background information for teachers (1), pages 31 - 34.

12. Show the Digestive System Chart so students would be able to see the location of the parts and how they look like. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.1, “The Parts of the Digestive System”, page 30.

Formative Assessment

You may use Small Group Assessment Checklist, (see page 21) to assess the group's performance in the activity.

Roundup

Students should have:

identified the parts of the digestive system and described their functions;

made a model for each part;

described what happens to the food in every part of the digestive tract;

explained digestion and its importance; and

described the digestive process.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

Strategy for Activity 3.2

SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Strategy for Activity 3.2 1. Simulation is a strategy where pupils play

1. Simulation is a strategy where pupils play the role of a certain character in a scenario. It promotes evaluative and critical thinking as they contemplate on the implications of the scenario.

2. Small Group Discussion

Materials

Activity sheet for Activity 3.2 , “ Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure”, pages 35 - 41

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2, “Table for Some Common Ailments, Prevention/Cure”, page 42

Activity 3.2 – Some Common Ailments/Prevention/Cure

Advance preparation:

1. Prepare five learning centers. Label them as:

Learning Center 1 – Gastritis

Learning Center 2 – Appendicitis

Learning Center 3 – Diarrhea

Learning Center 4 – Dyspepsia

Learning Center 5 – Constipation

Learning Center 6 – Cholera

Learning Center 7 – Tooth Decay and Toothache

2. Put in each learning center the appropriate activity sheets as specified in number 1. See activity sheets for Activity 3.2, pages 35 - 41.

3. Make a “Table for Some Common Ailments, Prevention/Cure” on a manila paper. See Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2, “Table for Digestive System”, page 42 and post it on the board.

During the lesson:

1. Ask the students to name ailment in the digestive system which they had experienced. Publish them on the board. (toothache, diarrhea, gas pain, etc.)

2. Let them describe their feeling when they experience the ailment.

3. Ask them the possible cause/s of their ailment and what they did to cure it.

4. Inform students that they will be working in groups to perform some challenges in learning centers which is in connection with common ailments in the digestive system, their causes, prevention/cure.

5. Organize students into seven groups to match with the seven learning centers. Have them organize themselves by assigning tasks to each member like the coordinator who will take the lead in the activity, recorder who will record their responses, etc.

6. Orient them that they will do the following in their learning center:

Read the activity sheet and talk about it, with the coordinator leading the group.

Present what they learned from their reading through role play (e.g. dramatize how a child get tooth decay, what he feels, and the tips for prevention/cure)

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 7. Show the enlarged table for some

7. Show the enlarged table for some common ailments, prevention and cure. Refer to Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2, “Table for Digestive System”, page 42. Orient them that the observers should observe very well and fill in the table posted on the board based on the role play of the group.

8. After the group's performance, have them provide input to clarify some information.

9. Process students output/presentation. Make sure students should identify the ailment, describe the symptoms and causes and provided some tips for its prevention/cure.

10.Facilitate debriefing after every performance of the group. You may ask the following questions:

What are some of the digestive system ailment?

What are the common causes?

What should be done to keep our digestive system healthy?

11. Provide lecturette on some tips to keep the digestive system healthy. See Background Information for Teachers (2)”, pages 43 - 44.

Formative Assessment

You may use Small Group Assessment Checklist, (see page 21) to assess the group's performance in the activity.

Roundup

Students should have:

identified some common ailments of the digestive system;

described the causes and symptoms of the ailments; and

shared some tips in the prevention/cure of the digestive system ailment.

4. Check for Understanding of the Topic or Skill

This stage is for teachers to find out how much students have understood before they apply it to other learning experiences.

Background or purpose

Students will be working in groups to assess their understanding on the different concepts on Digestive System.

Strategy

Small Group Discussion

Materials

manila paper, pentel pen, pencil, crayon

Activity 4. 1 Option 1: Revisiting the Paper Twin

1. Using the same group in Activity 1, let them revisit their paper twin.

2. Ask them to

make amendments on their drawing using different color of pentel pen; and

describe at least two common ailments, their causes, symptoms, prevention/cure.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 3. Give them enough time to finish

3. Give them enough time to finish the task.

4. When done, let them post their output on the wall.

5. Have the other groups visit the different output in round robin manner.

Activity 4.1 Option 2 – The Inside Story

This activity may be done individually or in pair. You may also use this for summative assessment.

1. Inform students that they are going to have an activity to assess what they learned about the parts and functions of digestive system and the digestive process.

2. Distribute activity sheets for Activity 4.1 Option 2 “Inside Story”, page 45.

3. Give them enough time to do the task.

4. When done, ask them to exchange output with their seat mate for marking.

Formative Assessment

Check students' output using the key answer on page 30 for Activity 4.1, Option 1 “Revisiting the Paper Twin”.

For Activity 4.1, Option 2, “The Inside Story”, you may use the Possible Answers on page

46.

Roundup

The students should have:

identified the different parts and functions of the digestive system

described the digestive process;

described some common ailments in the digestive system, their causes, symptoms, prevention/cure.

5. Practice and Application

In this stage, students consolidate their learning through independent or guided practice and transfer their learning to new or different situations.

Background or purpose

Students will be working in groups to use what they learned about the digestive system in different situations.

Strategy

Simulation is a strategy where pupils play the role of a certain character in a scenario. It promotes evaluative and critical thinking as they contemplate on the implications of the scenario.

Materials

for teacher to prepare

2 ripe bananas/any available food, 2 ziplocks/smoked cellophane, four glasses, four food coloring (red, yellow, green, blue), water, 8 ice candy wrapper

for each group of students

a banana in a ziplock/smoked cellophane and 4 packs of different – colored water

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 5.1 Option 1 – The Digestive

Activity 5.1 Option 1 – The Digestive System in Action

Advance Preparation:

1. Peel the ripe banana/any food available in your locality. Put it in a ziplock/smoked cellophane and seal.

2. Get water and put it in three different containers.

3. Put a color (red/green/yellow/blue) in every container which contains water.

4. Pack the colored water in an ice candy cellophane wrapper. Make sure that each group should have four packs of different - colored water.

During the activity:

1. Divide the class into two groups.

2. Have a quick exercise on the digestive process to refresh students about it.

3. Tell them that they are going to simulate the digestive process. Explain that when they simulate, they are going to play the role of the organs (teeth, tongue, mouth, salivary gland, esophagus, stomach, etc.) of the digestive system and show how the digestion happens. Remind them to include all the accessory organs.

4. Provide each group with the materials that you prepared. Explain that the banana is their food and the four packs of colored water represents saliva and the digestive juices

5. Let students organize themselves into different organs they are going to simulate.

6. Give them enough time to prepare for the simulation.

7. Tell them that while one group is performing, the others will observe and make comments on the performance made by the other group.

8. When done, facilitate debriefing. You may address some misconceptions, if there are.

Formative Assessment

You may use Presentation/Simulation Rubric on page 47 to assess student's performance.

Roundup

Students should have simulated the digestive process.

Strategy for Activity 5.1 Option 2

Model Building is a strategy where students will make a model of the organs of the digestive system.

Materials

bond paper, paste/glue, crayon, scissor, ruler, tape measure, activity sheet for Activity 5.1, Option 2 “My Digestive Tract Measurement Guide”, page 48

Activity 5.1 Option 2 – My Digestive Tract

1. Tell students that they will be working in pairs with individual output in making a model of their own digestive tract.

2. Before they find their pair, ask students to locate the following parts of their body to help them accomplish their task:

jawline, sternum, pinky,thumb, index finger tip

3. Organize the class into groups of two.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 4. Distribute activity sheet for Activity 5.1,

4. Distribute activity sheet for Activity 5.1, Option 2 “My Digestive Tract Measurement Guide”, page 48 and other materials. Tell them that the measurements are just estimate sizes of their organs.

5. Give them enough time to do the task.

6. When done, let them display their output. Facilitate debriefing. Let them compare the length of their digestive tract and ask: How long is your digestive tract? Do you have the same length of digestive tract? How does your digestive tract fits in your body?

Formative Assessment

You may assess students' output using the key answer on page 30.

Roundup

Students should have measured their body parts and made a model of their digestive tract.

Strategy for Activity 5.2

Lap Book Making is a strategy where students is provided opportunity to enhance their skills in writing by making a lap book from a file folder. It integrates reading, writing, literature and critical thinking. It is named lapbook/lap book because it can fit on to their laps.

Materials

1 file folder, construction paper, paste, a pair of scissors, pictures/drawings, crayons

Activity 5.2 – Healthy Living Lap Book

1. Show a folder to the students and ask them if they can make a book from it. After they have shared their opinion whether or not they can make a book from a folder, tell them that they are going to make a lap book. Explain to them why it is named a lap book.

2. Show them an example of a lap book (if available) and have them identify its parts like the front cover, body and the back cover.

3. Demonstrate to them how to start in making a lap book by folding the two sides of the folder to the center. (Sample shown below)Then, instruct them that they can start filling in the pages or add pages/flip-ins in the folder with the information and pictures of some common ailments in the digestive system, their causes, prevention/cure.

in the digestive system, their causes, prevention/cure. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Organize students into

1

2

3

4

5

4. Organize students into groups of about three or four. They may draw or cut out pictures from magazine/newspapers. Their lap book should include the following information:

Title of the Lap Book

Description of some common ailments, their causes, prevention and cure

Pictures/drawings

Formative Assessment

You may assess students' output using the Lap Book Rubric on page 49

Roundup BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Roundup

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Students should have made a lap book

Students should have made a lap book of some common ailments of the digestive system, their causes, prevention/cure.

6.

Closure

This stage brings the series of lessons to a formal conclusion. Teachers may refocus the objectives and summarize the learning gained. Teachers can also foreshadow the next set of learning experiences and make the relevant links.

Background or purpose

In this stage, students will be working in groups to reflect about what they learned from the lessons. This provides them opportunities to express their feelings and ideas about the unit of work and how can they use the

Strategy

Think-Ink-Pair-Share (TIPS) is a strategy which deepen student's thinking, create more engagement and lively discussion in the classroom. It helps students retain information and deepen understanding through the sharing.

Materials

Activity sheet for Activity 6, “Thinking About My Learning”, page 50

Activity 6: Thinking About My Learning

1. Tell students to reflect on the activities they did and the lessons they have on digestive system. Ask them the following questions to think about:

What are the three most important things you learned?

How can you use what you learned?

How will you improve your performance next time?

2. Show them the activity sheet for Activity 6 “Thinking About My Learning” on page 50 and talk about how to do it.

Think – have students think about the questions found in it.

Ink – have them record their thoughts about the questions in this box.

Pair – have them find a partner, share their ideas and record common ideas.

Share – using their “pair” ideas, let them choose one major idea to be shared with the whole class.

3. When they are done, call for some volunteers to share their output with the class.

Roundup

Students should have expressed and shared what they learned and ways they can use their learning on the digestive system.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Evaluation (To be completed by the

Teacher Evaluation

(To be completed by the teacher using this Teacher’s Guide)

The ways I will evaluate the success of my teaching this unit are:

1.

2.

3.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet Small Group Assessment Checklist

Teacher Resource Sheet Small Group Assessment Checklist

Group Number/Name

Name of Activity:

DIRECTIONS: This form is designed to help you evaluate student work in cooperative learning groups. Read each statement below. Then, fill in the column with a check mark (/) for the behavior demonstrated by the group in an activity.

Criteria

1. Each member had a clear understanding of the group's task.

2. Group members listened willingly to one another.

3. There was strong leadership within the group.

4. Group members encouraged others to express opinions or

contribute information.

5. The group fulfilled all the requirements of its assigned task.

6. Overall, the group worked well together.

Additional Comments:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 2 The

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 2 The Digestive System Organs

Resource Sheet for Activity 2 The Digestive System Organs Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.1 Learning Center 1 – The

Activity 3.1 Learning Center 1 – The Journey Begins

Challenge 1

Read the paragraph and fill in the table.

The mouth, or oral cavity, serves as door and the first part of our digestive tract. It is where the food enters. Within it are the teeth and the tongue. In the mouth, the teeth break the food into small particles as we chew so they can fit in the esophagus when we swallow it. The tongue helps in mixing and pushing the food around while we chew the our teeth. As we chew the food, a watery substance called saliva is released by the salivary glands. Saliva aids in chewing ,moistens the food and gathers them into lump (bolus) so that food can be easily swallowed. It contains enzyme amylase which breaks down the carbohydrates in the food that we eat like rice, bread and sweet potatoes into simple substance.

like rice, bread and sweet potatoes into simple substance. Challenge 2 Draw a mouth on manila

Challenge 2

Draw a mouth on manila paper including the organs which help in chewing the food.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.1 Learning Center 2 – On

Activity 3.1 Learning Center 2 – On the Way Down

Challenge 1

Read the paragraph and fill in the table.

When we are ready to swallow( take in) the food, the tongue pushes a little bit the lump called bolus towards our throat/pharynx. The Throat or Pharynx is a tube between the mouth and esophagus, about 5 inches long which serves as a passageway of food and air into the opening of Esophagus and larynx respectively. When we swallow, the Epiglottis, a flap of cartilage, covers the larynx directing the food towards the Esophagus. See illustrations a and b.

Esophagus is the second part of the digestive tract. It is like a stretchy narrow pipe which is about 10 inches long. It moves the food from the back of your throat to the stomach. It is well lubricated to ease the passage of food. Once the food/bolus is in the esophagus, the muscles in its walls move in wavy way called peristalsis to slowly squeeze the food into the stomach.

At the end of the esophagus is a muscular ring called esophageal sphincter which opens to allow the food to enter the stomach. Then it closes back to prevent the food or liquid from flowing back to the esophagus.

Challenge 2.

Make a pharynx/throat and an esophagus using the measurements from the paragraph. Color the pharynx dark pink and the esophagus light pink.

Color the pharynx dark pink and the esophagus light pink. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning
Color the pharynx dark pink and the esophagus light pink. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.1 Learning Center 3 – Mixing

Activity 3.1 Learning Center 3 – Mixing and Churning

Challenge 1

Read the paragraph and fill in the table.

The third part of the digestive tract is the Stomach which lies on the left side of the abdomen. It is a stretchy sac shaped like letter C. It changes its shape and size depending on its position in the body and the amount of food in it. It is about 12 inches long and 6 inches wide at its widest. The top of the stomach is attached to the end of Esophagus while the bottom end is attached to the small intestine.

The Stomach acts like a mixer. It mixes, churns and mashes all the balls of food and liquids that came down from the Esophagus into even smaller particles. The stomach walls release gastric juices which consist of water, Hydrochloric Acid and an enzyme called Pepsin which mix with the food and liquid that we eat and take. Hydrochloric Acid creates an acidic environment that pepsin needs to breakdown proteins. The food processed by the stomach will look like porridge or “lugaw” called Chyme. It takes about 4 hours for the stomach to completely empty. But may take it longer if the meal contains lots of fats.

At the end of the stomach is another muscular ring known as Pyloric Sphincter which acts like a traffic policeman. It controls the flow of Chyme to the small intestine and ensures that it is not over-filled.

Challenge 2.

Make a stomach made of manila paper using the measurements from the paragraph. Color it red.

using the measurements from the paragraph. Color it red. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.1 Learning Center 4 – Passing

Activity 3.1 Learning Center 4 – Passing Through

Challenge 1

Read the paragraph and fill in the table.

After the food is mixed and partially digested in the stomach, it slowly proceeds in the small intestine.

The Small Intestine is the fourth organ of the digestive tract. It is a long tube about 1 ½ inches around and 22 inches long packed below the stomach. It is made up of three parts, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Its inner part is covered with millions of microscopic, finger-like projections called Villi. They absorb the nutrients in the food mixture in the small intestine.

When chyme from the stomach enters the small intestine, it already contains the partially digested proteins, fats and carbohydrates. For over 3 to 6 hours , the small intestine moves in wave-like manner, moving the chyme through it. During this time, its three neighboring organs , the Pancreas, Liver and Gallbladder release juices which mixes with and help digest the chyme and allow the body to absorb the nutrients from it. The Pancreas produces pancreatic juice that contain enzymes which help digest fat into fatty acids and glycerol, carbohydrates into simple sugar and proteins into amino acids. The Liver release bile which helps absorb fats in the bloodstream and the Gallbladder serves as the storehouse for bile. It stores the bile until the body needs it.

By the time chyme reaches the end of the small intestine, 80% of all digestion in the body has been taken place. Water, fatty acids, glycerol, amino acids, simple sugar, vitamins and minerals are absorbed. These nutrients pass through the villi into blood capillaries, to the liver and distributed to all parts of the body where they are needed. What remains at the last part of the small intestine is some water, indigestible food matters (fiber from plants) and bacteria.

At the end of the small intestine is another valve called ileocecal valve which opens to allow the undigested food matters, water and bacteria to enter and closes to prevent those materials from flowing backward.

Challenge 2

Make a small intestine made of manila paper using the measurements from the paragraph.

of manila paper using the measurements from the paragraph. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.1 Learning Center 5 – The

Activity 3.1 Learning Center 5 – The Last Stop Over

Challenge 1

Read the paragraph and fill in the table.

Large Intestine is the fifth organ in the digestive tract. It is about 3 to 4 inches around and 5 feet long. It is made up of three parts, the Cecum, Colon and the Rectum. The large intestine does not produce digestive enzyme, so there is no digestion taking place.

After the nutrients from the food are absorbed in the small intestine, there are wastes/undigested food materials (e.g. fiber from fruits and vegetables), some water and bacteria left which our body can not use. These wastes move into the large intestine. Some water and few minerals from the waste product of digestion are reabsorbed into the bloodstream. As the water leaves the waste, it gets harder and harder as it keeps moving along until it becomes solid which we know as the “poop”or stool/feces. The “poop” is pushed into the rectum, the very last stop of the digestive tract. It stays there until we are ready to get rid of it where it passes through our anus. The bacteria produce intestinal gas (methane and hydrogen sulfide) that gives the stool/feces their odor. The amount of that gas called flatus, may increase if foods rich in carbohydrates (like beans) are eaten.

Millions of bacteria living in the large intestine feed on the waste products which they were able to produce Vitamin K and some B vitamins that are absorbed through the walls of the large intestine into the bloodstream and transported to the liver.

The movement of large intestine in wavy like motion is very slow that it takes the waste 12 to 24 hours to pass through it.

Challenge 2

Make a large intestine made of manila paper using the measurements from the paragraph.

of manila paper using the measurements from the paragraph. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 Table

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 Table for Digestive System

The Path of Food (The Digestive Tract )

Its Function

Appearance of food in it during its activity

Organ/s which assisted on its activity

Its/Their work

Enzymes/Digestive Juice that help in digestion.

Its/Their function

(Accessory Organs)

1

           

2

           

3

           

4

           

5

           
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 The

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 The Process of Absorption in Small Intestine

What to do:

1. Tell students that they are going to see a simulation on how absorption of nutrients in the small intestine looks like.

2. Show the materials like the coconut milk, fine clean cloth/sponge, strainer and a clear container to the class. Let them identify and describe each.

3. Explain that each material represents the things involved in the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. They are:

coconut milk - the chyme in the small intestine

fine clean cloth/sponge - the villi

strainer - the small intestine

clear container - the bloodstream

4. Put the fine clean cloth/sponge in a strainer into a clear container. See illustration below.

a strainer into a clear container. See illustration below. fine cloth/sponge strainer clear/transparent container 5.

fine cloth/sponge

strainer

clear/transparent container

5. Call a pupil to slowly pour the coconut milk into the strainer.

6. Let them observe what happens and answer the following questions:

Questions:

1. What went through the strainer? What did not?

2. What does this activity illustrate?

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 4 The

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 4 The Parts of the Digestive System

Sheet for Activity 4 The Parts of the Digestive System Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Background Information for Teachers (1) The Parts

Background Information for Teachers (1) The Parts and Functions of the Digestive System

The human body needs food to function well. These foods contain the nutrients to nourish the cells and organs in body and to provide energy. They should be broken down into simple form before they can be used.

The Digestive System is the organ system in the body which takes care in the breaking down of food into simple substances. This process is called digestion. Once digestion has occurred, the nutrients are absorbed and transported to cells to all parts of our body.

Two ways of digestion happens in the body, the mechanical and the chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion is the physical break down of tissues of meats and fiber into smaller pieces by chewing and compressing, pummeling and stirring in the stomach. The smaller pieces are acted upon by the digestive enzymes which breakdown complex substances into simple substance the body can use. This process which involve enzymes is called chemical digestion.

The digestive system organs can be grouped into two, the digestive tract and the accessory digestive organs.

The digestive tract is an open-ended tube which starts with the the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and ends with large intestine. The accessory digestive organs are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder.

The Digestive Tract

1. The Mouth is the first organ in the digestive tract. It serves as the door where food enters. The digestive process begins here. In it are some of the accessory digestive organs which assist in the digestion of food. They are the teeth, tongue and salivary glands. They perform important work in the digestive process.

In the mouth, the food is cut and break into tiny pieces by the teeth by chewing it to make swallowing easy. This is called mechanical digestion. The salivary glands release saliva to moisten the food. The tongue helps in mixing the food and the saliva by turning the food around while it is being chewed. The saliva is made up of water and an enzyme called amylase which break down the carbohydrates in the food. This is called chemical digestion. By the time the food is ready to be swallowed, it is formed into balls of moist and pasty mixture.

When the food is turned into soft masses/bolus, they are now ready to be swallowed. The tongues push bolus a little bit into the pharynx (a tube like structure which serves as the passageway of air and food into the opening of larynx and esophagus). The epiglottis, a flap of cartilage covers the larynx/windpipe and direct the bolus towards the esophagus.

2. The Esophagus

The Esophagus is a muscular tube of about 10 in. long. It is found behind the trachea and heart down the diaphragm into the stomach.

In the esophagus, the bolus is squeezed downward by the rhythmic muscle movement . The walls of esophagus contract and relax one after the other. This movement is called peristalsis.

At the end of the esophagus is a muscular ring which separates it from the stomach. It opens as the bolus enters the stomach and closes back to prevent the bolus from flowing back to the esophagus.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 3. The Stomach The Stomach is a

3. The Stomach

1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN 3. The Stomach The Stomach is a sac-like structure

The Stomach is a sac-like structure with strong muscular walls located on the upper left side of the abdomen below the

diaphragm. When empty, it looks like letter

C and it can expand significantly to store

all the food from a meal for both mechanical and chemical digestion.

As food fills the stomach, its walls begin to stretch. This initiates mechanical digestion in the stomach. The stomach moves in regular rhythmic pattern,contracting and relaxing, compressing, pummeling and stirring the food breaking it apart physically. At the same, chemical digestion occur because it is being mixed with gastric juices released by the stomach wall. The gastric juice is consist of water, hydrochloric acid, an enzyme called pepsin and mucus. Hydrochloric acid creates an acidic environment that pepsin needs to digest/breakdown proteins. It also kills microorganisms that may have been ingested in the food. The mucus coats the stomach, protecting it from the effects of Hydrochloric Acid and pepsin. Digestion of carbohydrates and fats also happen in the stomach.

After the compressing, pummeling, stirring and mixing in the stomach, the food turns into porridge like thing called chyme. It begins moving to small intestine after four hours through a muscular ring called pyloric sphincter found at the end of the stomach.

The pyloric sphincter controls the amount of chyme that enters the small intestine. It opens just a little and allow a bit of chyme to enter into the small intestine. Then it closes again to prevent the chyme from flowing back to the stomach.

It takes about four hours for the stomach to empty completely.

4. The Small Intestine

The Small intestine is a narrow, twisting tube,

about 1 to 1½ inches in diameter, extending about 20 ft. long from the stomach to the large intestine.

It fills most of the lower abdomen. Most digestion

and absorption of digested food occur in the small intestine.

The small intestine is divided into three sections. The first section is the Duodenum. The chyme from the stomach and secretions from liver, pancreas and gallbladder mixes here. The liver secretes bile breaks/digests large fat globules into small droplets. The Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contain enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars into simple sugar, fats into fatty acids and glycerol and proteins into amino acids. The second section is the Jejunum. It is where most of the absorption of nutrients occur. The final section is the Ileum. The ileum ends at ileocecal valve, a sphincter that controls the flow of chyme from the ileum to the large intestine.

The inner lining of the small intestine is covered with finger-like projections called villi. Nutrients are absorbed/passed through the walls of the villi into the bloodstream and distributed to the body.It takes about 3-6 hours for the chyme to move through the small intestine by peristalsis. What is left after the absorption are the indigestible food

What is left after the absorption are the indigestible food Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN materials (e.g. fiber from plants), some water

materials (e.g. fiber from plants), some water and bacteria which is considered as waste.

5. The Large Intestine

which is considered as waste. 5. The Large Intestine The large intestine is a tube which

The large intestine is a tube which extends from small intestine to the anus. It has bigger diameter than the small intestine but very much shorter. Its diameter is about 2.5 inches with the length of 5 - 6 feet. It forms an inverted U over the coils of small intestine. It starts on the lower right hand side of the body and ends at the lower left hand side. It is divided into three regions: the cecum, colon and rectum.

Attached on the cecum is a slender, finger - like appendix.

The undigested food materials, some water and bacteria leaves the small intestine through the ileocecal valve and moves into the large intestine. No digestion takes place in it but it serves several important functions, to wit:

it reabsorbs the water

dissolves the salts from the residue passed on by the small intestine

bacteria in the large intestine promote the breakdown of undigested materials and make several vitamins, notably, vitamin K, which the body needs for blood clotting

Peristaltic movement in the large intestine is very slow that it takes about 12 to 24 hours for the waste to pass through. As more and more water is removed from the waste, it becomes compacted into masses called feces. Feces are composed of water, cellulose and other indigestible materials and dead and living bacteria. The bacteria produce intestinal gas – methane and hydrogen sulfide- that gives feces their characteristic odor. The amount of that gas, known as flatus may increase depending on the food you eat.

The large intestine moves its remaining contents towards the rectum. The rectum stores the feces until elimination. Then, muscle contractions in the walls of the rectum push the feces towards the anus. When sphincters between the rectum and anus relax, the feces pass out of the body.

The Accessory Organs

1. The Salivary Glands

The salivary glands produce saliva on a continuous basis to keep the mouth moist and to digest carbohydrates in the mouth. They are located below and in front of the ears, on the lower jaw and under the tongue.

2. The Pancreas

Pancreas is a soft, pink, triangular-shaped gland which lies behind the stomach. It produces pancreatic juice that flows from pancreatic duct to the small intestine.It helps breakdown carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the small intestine. This juice has enzymes which include amylase, lipase and trypsinogen. Amylase breaks down starches into simple sugar, Lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol and the Trypsinogen breaks down proteins into amino acid.

3. The Liver BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 -

3. The Liver

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Liver is the largest gland in our

Liver is the largest gland in our body. It lies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. It is an extremely important organ. It performs different tasks which includes the processing of nutrients and the production of bile, a watery, greenish yellow liquid consist mainly of water, bile salts, cholesterol and assorted lipids or fats.

In the small intestine, bile salts emulsify fats, breaking them down from large globules to smaller droplets. Bile salts aid the fat digesting enzyme in the small intestine.

4. The Gallbladder

Gallbladder is a small pouch-like, green organ located on the under surface of the right lobe of the liver. It stores the bile secreted by the liver. When digestion is not occurring, the bile enters the gallbladder. The gallbladder removes the water from it, making it more concentrated. When fatty food enters the duodenum , the gallbladder contracts spurting out the stored bile.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 1 – Gastritis

Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It is a troublesome condition which may lead to many complications.

Persons with gastritis loss their appetite, feel discomfort in the region of the stoma ch, nausea ted, diz z y, ha ve hea da che, feel fullness in the abdomen especially after meals, and experience heartburn. If left untreated, it will result to loss of weight, anemia and occasional bleeding in the stomach.

Some of the causes of this ailment are habitual overeating, eating of badly combined or improperly cooked food, excessive intake of strong tea, coffee and a lcoholic drinks, ha bitua l use of condiments (soy sa uce, vinega r, fish sauce/patis), some diseases like measles, diptheria and influenza and some bad emotions (worry, grief and tension).

Some remedies/tips to avoid gastritis

1. Ta ke ca rrot a nd spina ch juice. They a re very beneficia l in the treatment of gastritis.

2. Eat juicy fruits such as apple, orange, grapes, etc.

3. Avoid eating/drinking foods with alcohol, nicotine, spices and condiments, chillis, flesh foods, sour things, pickles, strong tea and coffee.

4. Drink lots of water but not during meals.

5. Chew the food thoroughly.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 2 – Appendicitis

Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is caused by a toxic bowel movement. When an excessive amount of poisonous waste material accumulates in the first part of the large intestine, the appendix is irritated and over-worked and becomes inflamed. Other causes of Appendicitis is an infection from certain germs which are usually present in the digestive tract.

It usually begins with a sudden pain around the navel which gradually moves to the lower right side of the abdomen. The patient will feel discomfort in the abdomen, indigestion and diarrhea/constipation and may vomit. A mild fever will also occur. If the inflammation continues, the appendix may rupture and discharge pus into the abdominal cavity. The patient's temperature will rise, become pale and clammy.

Prevention/cure

1. In minor cases, the patient should take a rest and fast (should not eat any food) but may drink water.

2. Apply hot compress on painful area several times a day.

3. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables and drink milk, fruit and vegetable juices.

4. In severe cases, surgical operation should be done to remove the appendix.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 3 – Diarrhea

Diarrhea is the frequent passage of loose or watery stools accompanied by abdominal pain. There are many causes of this ailment. These are overeating, infection by parasites, germs, virus, bacteria or a poison which entered the body through the food, water or air and allergies to certain substances or foods like milk, wheat, eggs and sea foods. It may also result from the use of antibiotic drugs.

This ailment can lead to serious complication like dehydration due to loss of body fluids and washing out of minerals. A dehydrated person is very weak, have sunken eyes, dry mouth and skin, thirsty and has low flow of urine. If left unattended, this can lead to death.

Remedies for diarrhea:

1. take carrot soup because it supplies water to fight dehydration, replenishes sodium and other minerals, coats the intestine and prevents vomiting. You may also use Hydrite to replenish the minerals lost in the body;

2. avoid milk and milk drinks, cheese, fruits except banana, nuts, meats, fatty foods and vegetable;

3. eat banana;

4. wash hands properly before eating.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 4 – Dyspepsia

Dyspepsia is an ailment caused by indigestion or difficulty in digestion. A person who suffers from this ailment will experience abdominal pain, a feeling of over fullness after eating, heartburn, loss of appetite, nausea or vomiting and flatulence.

Dyspepsia is caused by :

overeating. Overeating or frequent eating produces a feverish state in the system and overworks the digestive system organs. It produces too much acid which results to hyperacidity. It also makes the work of the stomach, liver, kidneys and bowels harder.

eating too fast neglecting the proper chewing and salivation of food. When food is swallowed in larger chunks, the stomach works harder and more hydrochloric acid is released. It also causes one to swallow air. These habit of eating forces some digestive fluid into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation or a sour taste giving an illusion of stomach acid.

excessive smoking and intake of alcohol

e ating and drinking toge the r. Taking liquids with mea ls dilutes the digestive juices and diminishes their potency.

Insomnia a nd other emotions like fea r, anger, etc.

Some remedies/tips to avoid dyspepsia

1. Adopt an all fresh, juicy fruit diet for several days and avoid tinned or dried ones.

2. Avoid overeating.

3. Chew the food properly and never hurry through meals.

4. Avoid smoking and taking alcohol.

5. Ta ke wa ter or other liquids ( except milk and vegeta ble soup) ha lf an hour before and an hour after meals.

6. Always steam vegetables; and

7. Wait for your bad emotions ( angry, worried, tired, excited, etc) to subside before eating.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 5 – Constipation

Constipation is a common disturbance in the digestive tract. The bowels do not move regularly or are not completely emptied when they move. It is the chief cause of many diseases because it produce toxins(poison) which are carried to all parts of the body through the bloodstream.

The some of the most common symptoms of constipation are irregularity or not frequent elimination of stool due to hard fecal matter, foul breath, headache, dizziness, nausea and constant fullness in the abdomen.

Constipation is caused by insufficient intake of water, consumption of meat in large quantities, excessive use of strong tea and coffee, insufficient chewing, overeating and frequent use of purgatives.

Prevention/Cure

1. Drink 8 – 10 glasses of water daily. Water is needed for digesting and dissolving food nutrients so they can be absorbed and utilized by the body.

2. Eat green and leafy vegetables and fresh fruits like papaya, mangoes, grape fruits and oranges.

3. Chew the food properly.

4. Avoid purgatives and laxatives because they weaken the large intestine.

5. Sugar and sugary foods should be strictly avoided because they steal B vitamins from the body. Without it, the intestines can not function well.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 6 – Cholera

Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but sometimes can be severe. Infected persons can experience sudden and profuse watery stools and vomiting which leads to rapid dehydration and shock. The infected person may die within an hour if untreated.

A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with

the cholera bacterium. In an epidemic, the source of the contamination is usually the feces (stool) of an infected person. The disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

Patients can be treated with oral rehydration solution (hydrite, oresol, etc.),

a prepackaged mixture of sugar and salts to be mixed with water and drunk in

large amounts. This solution is used to treat diarrhea. Severe cases should

seek medical attention promptly as they require intravenous fluid

replacement

Below are some tips to avoid cholera.

1. Drink only safe and clean water. If unsure, boil it. Upon reaching boiling point, extend boiling for two or more minutes), or do water chlorination.

2. Eat only foods that have been thoroughly cooked and are still hot, or fruit that you have peeled yourself.

3. Wash and cook food properly.

4. Keep food away from insects and rats by covering it.

5. Avoid foods and beverages from street vendors.

6. Sanitary disposal of waste.

7. Use toilet properly and clea n it everyda y.

8. Wash hands with soap after using toilet and before eating.

9. Keep surroundings clean to prevent flies and other insects and rodents from breeding.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning

Activity 3.2 Common Ailment, Its Prevention/Cure Learning Center 7 – Tooth Decay and Toothache.

Tooth decay and toothache is one of the most common ailment in children.

It starts when acids produced by the bacteria in plaque eat away at tooth enamel (the hard covering of the teeth). Plaque is a paste-like substance that adheres to the teeth and is formed by the combination of bacteria, acid, food, and saliva. Bacteria in plaque convert all foods, especially sugar and starch, into acids. The acids in plaque dissolve the enamel of the tooth, causing tooth decay or cavities. A person with tooth decay experiences toothache, may have bad breath and if left untreated, an abscess can develop.

Some of the causes of tooth decay is eating food rich in sugar or starch and poor dental care.

The treatment of tooth decay depends on its severity. A Dentist ( a person who is trained and licensed in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases of teeth and gums) will recommend a treatment that preserves the tooth or teeth and also prevents complications. Some recommendations can be cleaning and treatment, filling, extraction and replacement of artificial teeth.

Tips to a void tooth deca y.

1. Brush your teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.

2. Floss at least once a day. Flossing will remove plaque and debris in areas that your toothbrush can not reach.

3. Eat nutritious meals and limit snacking. If you must eat sweet foods, do so during regular meals, when your mouth contains more protective saliva.

4. Visit your dentist regularly.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 Table

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 3.2 Table for Some Common Ailments, Prevention/Cure

Ailments

Organs affected

Some symptoms

Some cause/s

Some tips for prevention/cure

1

       

2

       

3

       

4

       

5

       

6

       

7

       
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Background Information for Teachers (2) Taking Care

Background Information for Teachers (2) Taking Care of the Digestive System

Digestive system plays a very important role in the proper functioning of our body. It is in this organ system where food is broken down into simpler substance so that our body can absorb the nutrients which our body needs. If our body can not get the nutrients, it will not function properly.

Our digestive system is subject for ailment/breakdown. Some are just minor like toothache, others can be life threatening like colon cancer. These ailments occur due to some factors. Most of the time it is how a person handles himself and and diet.

So it is important that people should maintain a healthy digestive system. Below are some tips:

maintain a healthy digestive system. Below are some tips: 1. Practice personal hygiene • keep your

1. Practice personal hygiene

system. Below are some tips: 1. Practice personal hygiene • keep your body clean, wash your
system. Below are some tips: 1. Practice personal hygiene • keep your body clean, wash your

keep your body clean, wash your hands before each meal and brush your teeth properly and clean your tongue regularly.

brush your teeth properly and clean your tongue regularly. 2. Eat healthy diet • Eat food

2. Eat healthy diet

Eat food rich in fiber (fruits, vegetables and whole grains/cereals).

Reduce the intake of processed food because they contain little nutrients and large amount of saturated fats, salt and preservatives that can be harmful to the body.

salt and preservatives that can be harmful to the body. • Be cautious of the fat
salt and preservatives that can be harmful to the body. • Be cautious of the fat

Be cautious of the fat intake. Eat moderate amounts of good fats (omega 3 and omega 6) and reduce your intake of bad fats (animal fats). A diet high in fat can make the digestive system sluggish and may cause or aggravate diseases of the digestive system.

and may cause or aggravate diseases of the digestive system. • Drink less alcohol because alcohol

Drink less alcohol because alcohol can inflame the lining of the stomach or esophagus. Excessive intake can lead to disease in the liver.

Drink plenty of fluids especially water. Water encourages passage of waste through the digestive system and helps soften stool.

waste through the digestive system and helps soften stool. • Take medications as directed because some

Take medications as directed because some medicines can have harmful effects on the digestive system.

3. Eat moderately, slowly and regularly.

Don't overeat. Overeating is putting too much stress on the digestive system which can lead to ailments.

Relax when you eat. Take time and eat slowly. Chew the food properly so that it will be easier to digest.

Eat regularly and do not skip meals.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Source: 4. Exercise regularly. This helps to

Source:

4. Exercise regularly. This helps to strengthen the muscles of the abdomen and reduces sluggish by stimulating the intestinal muscles to push digestive contents through the system.

muscles to push digestive contents through the system. 5. Reduce/manage stress. Stress effects the nerves of
muscles to push digestive contents through the system. 5. Reduce/manage stress. Stress effects the nerves of

5. Reduce/manage stress. Stress effects the nerves of the digestive system and can upset the intricate balance of digestion. In some people, stress slows the process of digestion, causing bloating, pain and constipation while others may need to frequently empty their bowels and the stools may be more loose and watery. It can even worsen some conditions such as peptic ulcers.

6. Quit Smoking. Smoking lowers the pressure at the junction between the stomach and esophagus, promoting back flow of stomach acid into the esophagus which can result in heartburn and other complications. It also aggravates peptic ulcer and inflammatory conditions of the bowel, and is linked with an increased risk of many cancers.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

Activity 4 The Inside Story

SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 4 The Inside Story Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning Guide,
I am a banana. I was eaten by a boy/girl. BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO
I am a banana. I was eaten by a boy/girl.
I am a
banana. I was
eaten by a
boy/girl.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

Activity 4 The Inside Story – Possible Answers

When I entered the mouth, I was chewed and broken into tiny pieces by the teeth so that I will be easier to swallow and digest. The tongue turned me round and round until I became soft mass mixed with saliva. The saliva has enzyme amylase and it broken down my carbohydrates partially.

I was then moved slowly towards a very narrow and very long tube through a pyloric sphincter. In the first part of the small intestine, I was mixed with bile and pancreatic juice from the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. These juices digest the carbohydrates, fats and protein even more. As I was moved along, I felt that my liquid part was absorbed including all the nutrients. What was left of me was the undigested food materials, some water and bacteria.

was the undigested food materials, some water and bacteria. The tongue pushed me a little bit
was the undigested food materials, some water and bacteria. The tongue pushed me a little bit

The tongue pushed me a little bit and I fell into narrow tubes, first into the throat. Epiglottis covered the larynx and directed me into the esophagus. I was squeezed and moved down until I reached a door which they call esophageal sphincter.

until I reached a door which they call esophageal sphincter. The esophageal sphincter opened and I

The esophageal sphincter opened and I was moved to a much bigger place which they call stomach. Here, I was stirred and mixed by the strong walls of the stomach with gastric juice which contain enzyme pepsin and help digest the carbohydrates, protein and fats. I looked like a porridge after the mixing and stirring.

I looked like a porridge after the mixing and stirring. The undigested food materials that was

The undigested food materials that was left of me, some water and bacteria were moved to a more spacious tube called large intestine. Here, some water and few minerals were reabsorbed. That's why I became harder. The smell was so bad which was a result of the activity of bacteria which feed on me. I moved very slow along with the bacteria that it took us 12 to 24 hrs to leave. Then I reached the last stop which is the rectum. Then, out I go through the anus.

Now, I'm out of the body but does not look like a banana anymore and
Now, I'm out of the body but
does not look like a banana
anymore and my smell is so
bad. That is why I am kept
below the ground. People call
me stool or feces or poop.
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Teacher Resource Sheet Presentation/Simulation Rubric

Teacher Resource Sheet Presentation/Simulation Rubric

Criteria

4

3

2

1

 

Presents the information in logical , interesting sequence which audience can follow.

Presents the

Audience has

Audience can not understand the presentation because there is no sequence of information.

Organization

information in

difficulty

logical ,

following the

 

sequence which

presentation

audience can

because members

 

follow.

jump around

Presentation

Convincing communication of character's feelings, situations and motives

Competent communication of character's feelings, situations and motives.

Adequate communication of character's feelings, situations and motives.

Limited communication of character's feelings, situations and motives.

of Characters

Use of Props

Impressive variety of props are used in exemplary ways. It reinforced the simulation.

Good variety of props are used in competent ways. which related to the simulation.

Satisfactory variety of props are used in an acceptable way. They rarely support the simulation.

Props are inappropriate or uses no props at all.

Group Work

Works very well with others. Assumes clear role and responsibilities.

Works well with others. Takes part in most decisions and shares in the responsibilities.

Works with others but has difficulty sharing decisions and responsibilities.

Can not work with others in most situations. Can not share decisions or responsibilities.

Source:

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 5.1 Option 2 My Digestive Tract

Activity 5.1 Option 2 My Digestive Tract Measurement Guide

hallenge:

Make a model of your digestive tract using the guide below. Label them.

1. Approximate the distance from your lips to the back of your jaw line. Record this as the length of your mouth.

2. Approximate the distance from the back of your jaw line to the bottom of your sternum (the sternum is the bone in the front center of your rib cage). Record this as the length of your esophagus.

3. Spread your fingers. The length from the tip of your pinky (little finger) to the tip of your thumb is approximately the length of your stomach. Record this measure as the length of your stomach.

4. Measure your height and multiply it by three to calculate the length of your small intestine.

5. Spread your arms out. The distance from the index finger tip of one hand to the index finger tip of the other is about equal to the length of the large intestine.

6. Color your digestive tract.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK
BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

Teacher Resource Sheet for Activity 5.2

Lapbook/Lap Book Rubric

Resource Sheet for Activity 5.2 Lapbook/Lap Book Rubric P o i n t s 4 3

Points

4

3

2

1

Category

Content

Covers all the information about some common ailment in the digestive system, causes, preventive measures/cure and presented in a logical manner.

Covers most of the information about some common ailment in the digestive system, causes, preventive measures/cure and is well presented.

Covers some of the information about some common ailment in the digestive system, causes, preventive measures/cure .

Covers very few information about some common ailment in the digestive system, causes, preventive measures/cure.

(name of some common ailment in the digestive system, causes, preventive measures/cure)

Spelling/Grammar

No error in spelling / grammar

One or two errors in spelling/grammar

A few errors in spelling/grammar.

Lots of spelling and grammatical errors.

Presentation

Well organized presentation, neat and clean.

Legible writing with few erasures.

Almost illegible.

Illegible, messy.

Pictures/drawings/diagrams

Attractive and effectively enhanced the theme; show considerable originality which illustrates important points.

A few are not attractive but all support the theme content.

All are attractive but a few do not seem to support the theme/content.

Unattractive and detract the content.

Creativity

Very clever or unique approach in which originality makes the lapbook entertaining as well as informative.

Unique and creative presentation with several original touches.

At least one original touch or creative idea is evident.

No original touches or creative ideas in the presentation.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN Activity 6 Thinking About My Learning The

Activity 6 Thinking About My Learning

The challenge

Think

• What are the three most important things you learned from the activities/ lesson? •

What are the three most important things you learned from the activities/ lesson?

How can you use what you learned?

How will you improve your performance next time?

Ink

• Write your thoughts from the above questions here

Write your thoughts from the above questions here

Pair

Find a partner and exchange ideas. Then write your common ideas in the box

Find a partner and exchange ideas. Then write your common ideas in the box

Share

Using your common ideas, choose one major idea to share it with the whole class.

Using your common ideas, choose one major idea to share it with the whole class. Write that major idea below.

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK

BASIC EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR MINDANAO SCIENCE AND HEALTH-GRADE IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN

IV UNIT 1 - PEOPLE/DIGESTIVE SYSTEM BREAK IT DOWN For the Te ache r: Tra nsla

For the Te ache r: Tra nsla te the informa tion in this Lea rning Guide into the following matrix to help you prepa re your lesson pla ns.

Stage

1. Activating Prior Learning

2. Setting the Context

3. Learning Activity Sequence

4. Check for Understanding

5. Practice and Application

6. Closure

Strategies

           

Activities from the Learning Guide

           

Extra activities you may wish to include

           

Materials and

           

planning needed

Estimated time for this Stage

           

Total time for the Learning Guide

      Total time for the Learning Guide Total number of lessons needed for this

Total number of lessons needed for this Learning Guide

Guide Total number of lessons needed for this Learning Guide Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao Learning