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ED 090 725 EC 061 767

AUTHOR Thiagarajan, Sivasailam; And Others
TITLE Instructional Development for Training Teachers
of Exceptional Children: A Sourcebook.
INSTITUTION Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Center for Innovation in
Teaching the Handicapped.
SPONS AGENCY National Center for Improvement of Educational
Systems (DHEW/OE), Washington, D. C.
GRANT 0EG-0-9-336005-2452(725)
NOTE 192p.
AVAILABLE PROM Council for Exceptional. Children, 1920 Association
Drive, Reston, Virginia 22091 (single Copy, $5.50)


DESCRIPTORS Course Objectives; *Exceptional Child Education;
Handicapped Children; *Instructional Materials;
Material Development; Performance Based Teacher
Education; Task Analysis; *Teacher Developed
Materials; *Teacher Education; *Teacher Educators
Presented in the sourcebook for the teacher rduCgtor
is the Four -D model (define, design, develop, and disseminate) to be
used for developing instructional materials for training teachers of
exceptional children. Listed at the begOning of chapters are
instructional objectives; included when-appropriate are guidelines,
checklists, and flow charts. Given for use of the book are
instructions such as reading chapter 1 for an overview, choosing a
topic, and checking chapter objectives for essenttalnese to task
accomplishment. Noted in the introdUction are the transition in
special education that requires teachers to demonstrate competency,
the efficacy and validity of special training programs, and the role
of the Four-D model. The stage categorized as "define" is described
to be analytical and to involve five steps: front-end analysis
(problems facing the teacher trainer), learner analysis, task
analysis, concept analysis, and the specifying of instructional
objectives. The next stage is seen to involve the design of prototype
instructional material and to comprise four steps: construction of
criterion referenced tests, media selection, format selection, and
initial design for presentation of instruction through media such as
tests, textbooks, audiotutorial models, and computer assisted
instruction. The developmental stage is said to comprise modification
of the prototype material through expert appraisal and developmental
testing. Described for the final stage (disseminate) are summative
evaluation, final packaging activities such as securing copyright
releases, and diffusion. (MC)

t.(1 instructional development
CNI for training teachers
CD of exceptional children

O A sourcebook

Instructional development
for training teachers
of exceptional children
A sourcebook

Sivasailam Thiagarajan
Dorothy a'. ,ammel A joint publication of the Leadership Training
Institute/Special Education, University of Minnesota;
Melvyn I. Somme!
The Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handi-
Center for Innovation capped (CITH), Indiana University; The Council for
in Teaching the Handicapped Exceptional Children (CEC), and The Teacher
Education Division of CEC.
Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana
Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1974

The project presented or reported herein was performed

pursJant to Grants from the U. S. Office of Education,
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Writing of
the Sourcebook was oupported in part under subcontract
with the Leadership (raining Institute by Grant No. OEG-
0-9-336-005-2452(725) from the National Center for
Improvement of Educational Systems, USOE, and in part
by ne Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped
under Grant No OEG-0242178-4149-032 from the Bureau
of Education for the Handicapped, USOE. Publication
was performed under Orr It No. OEG-0-9-336-005-2452
(725). The opinions expressed herein are those of the
euthorS and do not necessarily reflect the position or
policy of the U. S. Office of Education, and no official
endorsement by the U.S. Office of Education should be

Th" use of the masculine gender or any titles that connote

masculine gender in this material is merely for convenient
reference to people of both sexes and should not be
construed as implying sex limitations.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 73-620230

Copies may be ordered from The Council for Exceptional

Children, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia 22091,
Single copy 85.50. Discounts on quantity orders shinped
to one address: 2-9 copies (10 %);10 or more copies (20%).
Orders totaling less than $7.50 must be accompanied
by remittance.

The authors wish to thank the many persons who version; to the staff of the Southwest Regional
contributed their assistance, counsel and judg- Media Center for the Deaf at Las Cruces, and the
ment during the writing, field testing, and revision participants of the ;972 Summer Institute in Pro-
of the Sourcebook. gramed Instruction and Instructional Systems, for
Our special thanks to Dr. Maynard Reynolds formative feedback on various sections of the book;
of the Leadership Trainiag Institute (LTI) for the and to Dr. Gary Borich for his comments ar4d
sustained encouragement and support he provided, suggestions on evaluation.
from initiation of the project through publication. To our co-workers at the Center for Innovation
Members of the LTI staff were also most helpful. in Teaching the Handicapped (CITH), our many
We wish to thank Karen Lundholm, LTI Ad- thanks for their -ooperation, professionalism and
ministrative Assistant, for her effort ; in organizing good will Barbara Senden, Gretchen Jones, and
the 1973 Chicago Conference, in which the Source- Leta Picklesimer, typists, Jan LaChappelle and
book was submiVed to a jury of our peers in Kathy Quirk, CITH editors, Diane Golob, secretary,
special education and instructional development, and Cherry Heffernan, administrative assistant, are
for critical evaluation; and Sylvia W. Rosen, LTI but a few of the many at CITH whose assistance is
Publications Editor, for getting us into print. gratefully acknowledged.
Welcome encouragement also came from the
Teacher Education Division of CEC, and we thank
Dr. Herbert Prehm for his leadership role in this
Appreciation is extended to Drs. Susan Markle,
James Okey, and David Gliessmann, and to Arthur
Babick for their contributions to the instructional
development model presented in the book; to Dr.
James Russell for editorial work on the earlier

As its name implies, this book is a source cf ideas supported projects almost uniformly netted nothing
and procedures for the development and dis- that they could use.
semination cf instructional materials for teacher The failure to share the results of developmental
preparation programs. Although it focuses on work is particularly disastrous in relatively small
needs in the field of special education, this work fields such as special education. The absence of a
can be used productively in other fields that lack mass audience does not encourage commercial
sufficient or adequate instructional tools. The initiative and, consequently, only a thin trickle
authors have brought together and graphically of materials is produced for the market. Since units
systematized a number of theoretical constructs and preparing special education personnel tend to be small,
practical skills. Step by step, they have taken the their resources tend to be limited. Further-more, the
reader from the determination of the need for new resources that do exist in special edu-cation are
instructional materials, through the processes of unevenly distributed. As a result, some colleges have
cleating and evaluating module. of instruction, been able to afford lavish instructional materials while
to the mass production and distribution of the other colleges have struggled to
finished module. The purpose of the Sourcebook is maintain quality teaching with minimal tools. One
to help the teacher educator use his hard-won of the reasons that resources and materials for
expertise to produce instructional modules which teacher education have not been shared in the past
can be shared with colleagues for the improvement is that colleges and universities were virtually
of the field. The Sourcebook may well be the first forced to compete for federal funding. Thus, ideas
resource of its kind in any area of education. were hoarded for grant possibilities rather than
The emphasis on the dissemination of productive shared for instructional improvement.
ideas was not included idly. It is a partial response to Happily, this situation is changing. The federal
the paucity of processes in education for sharing government is increasingly stressing the co-
ideas and procedures. Over the past two decades, ordination of plans among training centers and
many universities and other educational agencies state agencies to meet carefully documented needs.
have had substantial federal support for projects In addition, teacher education in general is moving
which, it was hoped, would reach a highly visible and toward the explication of specific goals and a re-
exemplary state and produce "ripple effeds" in other cognition that, for accreditation purposes, out-
service centers, both near and far. Un-lot tunntely, comes are more important than processes. As a
many programs, although highly in-novative and result, the demand is growing for teaching modules
rewarding, culminated in poorly edited, that correspond to specific objectives in teacher
iargely unread "final reports," or in not-quite- education. Just as important, perhaps, is the move
Finished audio-visual or graohic materials, which by the Office of Education to bloc training grants
only be used t,y their producers. Altfiough which may accelerate the improvement of teacher
cl; Qsemination was an early goal for most of the education.
projects, widespread sharing never seemed to Another obstacle in times past has been the lack
materialize. Persons who have gone searching for of systems for recognizing and reinforcing good
"modules" or even minor products from handsomely and generous performances in teacher education.

Research professors have had clear access to high- materials are already in the planning stage and,
status channels for the dissemination of the pro- thus, it may not be amiss to celebrate a new spirit
ducts of research, mostly through peer-juried of mutual support as well as 2 new surge in quality
research journals and monographs. No comparable in our field. This form of "sharing," it is hoped,
channels exist for teacher educators. Research will add further strength to the Teacher Education
publications have been given much weight Li Division of CEC and lead to other activities cf
documenting faculty performance, which has led equal importance.
to Individual promotions and other rewards. On It is most fortunate that Melvyn and Dorothy
the other hand, outstanding performances in teacher Semmel and Sivasailam Thiagarajan were willing and
education have been difficult to document and have able to bring their competencies and commit-ments
been given only cursory recognition. Obviously, to this complex of activities. Their conception and
some system for the dissemination of training realization of this Sourcebook are an outgrowth of
materials is needed if excellent teaching abilities their involvement in tho BEH-supported Center
and innovations are to be given their due as a for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped at
legitimate basis for professional rewards. Indiana University.
Fortunately, a new course Is underway which may Thiagarajan and the Semmels have created a
resolve some of the past problems and, at the same systematic guide for materials development and
time, lead to more effective teacher preparation evaluation which all of us in special education can
in The field of speciall:ducation. As part of its build upon in constructing a dissemination system that
mandate from the National Center for the Improve- eradicates the deficiencies of the past and offers
ment of Educational Systems, U. S. Office of opportunities for the future. The authors have
Education, the Leadership Training Institute/ exemplified the best of "sharing" in developing
Special Education has initiated the publication of this work; they plan to implement it with
resource material (Reynolds & Davis, 1971, Reyn- correlative instruction modules in the near future.
olds, 1971) lately in cooperation with the Council I wish to express my appreciation to Don
for Exceptional Children (Deno, 1973). Other Davies, William Smith, Stewart Tinsman, Malcolm
dissemination activities of CEC have been centered Davis, and Ed Moore, past and present staff officers
in its Teacher Education Division (TED). TED of tke National Center for the Improvement of Edu-
leaders, starting with Richard Schofer, William cational Systems, for giving me the opportunity to
Carriker, and Herbert Prehm, saw their plans. come help bring this interesting and valuable Sourcebook to
to fruition in April 1973 when TED officially special educators.
adopted policies on, and set in motion, a program
for the dissemination of instruction: nodules and Maynard C. Reynolds, Director
materials in the field of teacher preparation. Leadership Training InstitutelSpecial Education
The Sourcebook is the first of what, I hope, will University of Minnesota
be a long series of instructional materials shared
among colleges, universities, and other training
centers for special education personnel. Additional