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Chapter

Ch t 3 3:
Elements Compounds
Elements, Compounds,
and the Periodic Table

Chemistry: The Molecular Nature


of Matter,, 6E

J
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop
/B d /H l
Discovery of Subatomic Particles
 Late 1800s & early 1900s
 Cathode ray tube experiments showed that
atoms are made up of subatomic particles
g y charged
 Discovered negatively g particles
p
moving from
 Cathode – negative
g electrode to
 Anode – positive electrode

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 2


Discovery of Electron
JJ Thomson (1897)
 Modified cathode ray tube
 M
Made
d quantitative
tit ti
measurements on
cathode rays
 Discovered negatively
charged particles
 Electrons (e)
 Determined charge to mass ratio (e/m) of these
particles
 e/m = 1.76
1.76 x 108 coulombs/gram

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 3


Millikan Oil Drop Experiment
 Determining charge on Electron
 Calculated charge on electron
 e = 1.60 x 1019 C
 Combined with Thomson’s experiment to get
mass of electron
 m = 9.09 x 1028 g

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 4


Discovery of Atomic Nucleus
Rutherford’s
h f d’ Alpha
l h Scattering
i Experiment
i

 Most alpha () rays passed right through gold


 A few were deflected off at an angle
 1 in 8000 bounced back towards alpha ray source
 Gave us current model of nuclear atom
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 5
Discovery Of Proton
 Discovered in 1918 in Ernest Rutherford’s lab
 Detected using Mass Spectrometer
 Hydrogen had mass 1800x mass of electron
 Masses of other gases whole number multiples of
mass of hydrogen
Proton
 Smallest
positively
charged
h d particle
ti l

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 6


Rutherford’s Nuclear Atom
 Demonstrated
d that
h nucleus:
l
 has almost all of mass in atom
 has all of positive charge
 is located in very small volume at center of atom
 Very tiny, extremely dense core of atom
 Where protons (p+) &
neutrons (1n) are
located

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 7


Atomic Structure
 Electrons (e)
 Very low mass
 Occupy most of atom’s
atom s space
 Balance of attractive & repulsive forces controls
atom size
 Attraction between protons (p+) & electrons (e)
holds electrons around nucleus
 Repulsion between electrons helps them spread out
over volume of atom
 In neutral atom
 Number of es must equal number of p+s
 Diameter of atom ~10,000 × diameter of nucleus
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 8
Discovery of Neutron (1n)
 First postulated by Rutherford & coworkers
 Estimated number of positive charges on nucleus
based on experimental data
 Nuclear mass based on this number of protons
always
l far
f short
h t off actual
t l mass
 About ½ actual mass
 Therefore, must be another type of particle
 Has mass about same as proton
 Electrically neutral
 Discovered
sco e ed in 1932
93 by C
Chadwick
ad c
 Caused free neutron to be created
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 9
Properties of Subatomic Particles
Nucleus (protons
 3 Kinds of subatomic + neutrons)
particles of principal
interest to Chemists
Electrons

Electrical
P ti l
Particle M
Mass ((g)) S
Symbol
b l
Charge
0
Electron 9.1093910
9 109391028 1
1 1 e
1 1
Proton 1.672641024 +1 1 H, 1 p

Neutron 1.674951024 0 1
0n
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 10
Atomic Notation
At
Atomic
i number
b (Z)
 Number of protons that atom has in nucleus
 Unique to each type of element
 Element is substance whose atoms all contain
identical number of protons
 Z = # protons
Isotopes
 Atoms of same element with different masses
 Same number of protons (11 p )
 Different number of neutrons (10n )

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 11


Atomic Notation
I t
Isotope Mass
M number
b (A)
 A = (# protons) + (# neutrons)
 A=Z+N
 For charge neutrality, number of electrons &
protons must be equal
Atomic Symbols
 Summarize information about subatomic particles
 Every isotope defined by 2 numbers Z & A
A
 Symbolized by X
Z
Ex. What is the atomic symbol for helium?
4
He has 2 e–, 2n&2 p+ Z = 2, A = 4 2 He
H
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 12
Isotopes
 Most elements are mixtures of 2 or more stable
isotopes
 Each
E h isotope
i t has
h slightly
li htl different
diff t mass
 Chemically, isotopes have virtually identical chemical
properties
i
 Relative proportions of different isotopes are
essentially
ti ll constant
t t
 Isotopes distinguished by mass number (A):
Ex.
 3 isotopes of hydrogen (H)
 4 isotopes of iron (Fe)
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 13
Example:
Whatt iis the
Wh th isotopic
i t i symbol
b l for
f Uranium-
U i
235?
 Number of protons (p+) = 92
= number of electrons in neutral atom
 Number of neutrons (1n) = 143
 Atomic number (Z) = 92
 Mass number (A) = 92 + 143 = 235
 Chemical symbol
y =U
 Summary for uranium-235: 235
92 U
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 14
Learning Check:
 Fill in the blanks:
symbol
b l neutrons
t protons
t electrons
l t
60Co 33 27 27

81Br
46 35 35
65
29 Cu 36 29 29

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 15


Your Turn!
206
An atom of Pb has ___ protons, ___
82
neutrons,, and ___ electrons.
A. 82, 206, 124
B 124
B. 124, 206,
206 124
C. 124, 124, 124
D. 82, 124, 82
E. 82, 124, 124

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 16


Carbon-12 Atomic Mass Scale
 Need uniform mass scale for atoms
Atomic mass units (symbol u)
 Based on carbon:
 1 atom of carbon-12 = 12 u (exactly)
 1 u = 1/12 mass 1 atom of carbon-12 (exactly)
Why was 12C selected?
 Common
 Most abundant isotope of carbon
 All atomic masses of all other elements ~ whole
numbers
 Lightest element, H, has mass ~1 u
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 17
Calculating Atomic Mass
 Generally,
Generally elements are mixtures of isotopes
Ex. Hydrogen
Isotope Mass %Abundance
1H 1.007825 u 99.985
2H 2.0140 u 0.015
How do we define Atomic Mass?
 Average of masses of all stable isotopes of given
element
How do we calculate Average Atomic Mass?
 Weighted average.
 Use Isotopic Abundances & isotopic masses
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 18
Learning Check
Naturally
N ll occurring
i magnesium
i is
i a mixture
i off 3
isotopes; 78.99% of the atoms are 24Mg (atomic mass,
23 9850 u)
23.9850 u), 10.00%
10 00% of 25Mg (atomic mass,
mass 24.9858
24 9858 u),
u)
and 11.01% of 26Mg (atomic mass, 25.9826 u). From
these data calculate the average
g atomic mass of
magnesium.

0 7899 * 23.9850
0.7899 23 9850 u = 18.946
18 946 u 24Mg
M
0.1000 * 24.9858 u = 2.4986 u 25Mg

0.1101 * 25.9826 u = 2.8607 u 26Mg

Total mass of average


g atom =
24.3053 u rounds up to 24.31 u
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 19
Your Turn!
A naturally occurring element consists of two
isotopes. The data on the isotopes:
isotope #1 68
68.5257
5257 u 60.226%
60 226%
isotope #2 70.9429 u 39.774%
Calculate the average atomic mass of this element.
A.70.943 u 0.60226 * 68.5257 u = 41.270 u
B.69.487 u 0.39774 * 70.9429 u = 28.217 u
C.69.526 u
69 487 u
69.487
D.69.981 u
E.69.734 u

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 20


Periodic Table
 Summarizes periodic properties of elements
Early Versions of Periodic Tables
 Arranged by increasing atomic mass
 Mendeleev (Russian) & Meyer (German) in 1869
 Noted repeating (periodic) properties
Modern Periodic Table
 Arranged by increasing atomic number (Z):
 Rows called periods
 Columns called groups or families
 Identified by numbers
 1 – 18 standard international
 1A – 8A longer columns & 1B – 8B shorter columns
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 21
Modern Periodic Table
with group labels and chemical families identified

Actinides
Note: Placement of elements 58 – 71 and 90 – 103 saves space
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 22
Representative/Main Group Elements
A groups—Longer
L columns
l
 Alkali Metals
 1A = first group
 Very reactive
 All Metals except for H
 Tendd to form
f +1 ions
 React with oxygen
 Form compounds that dissolve in water
 Yield strongly
g y caustic or alkaline solution (M
( 2O))

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 23


Representative/Main Group Elements
A groups—Longer columns
 Alkaline Earth Metals
 2A = second group
 Reactive
R i
 Tend to form +2 ions
 Oxygen compounds are strongly alkaline (MO)
 Many are not water soluble
 Accumulate in ground

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 24


Representative/Main Group Elements
A groups—Longer columns
 Halogens
 7A = next to last group on right
 Reactive
R i
 Form diatomic molecules in elemental state
 2 gases
 1 liquid
q
 2 solids
 Form –1
1 ions with alkali metals
metals—salts
salts

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 25


Representative/Main Group Elements
A groups—Longer columns
 Noble Gases
 8A = last group on right
 Inert—very
I t unreactive
ti
 Only heavier elements of group react & then very
limited
 Don’t form charged ions
 Monatomic gases

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 26


Transition Elements
B groups—shorter
h t columns
l
 All are metals
 In center of table
 Begin in fourth row
 Tend to form ions with several different charges
Ex.
 Fe2+ and Fe3+
 Cu+ and Cu2+
 Mn2+, Mn3+, Mn4+, Mn5+, Mn6+, Mn7+
Note: Last 3 columns all have 8B designation
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 27
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanide elements
 Elements 58 – 71
Actinide elements
 Elements 90 – 103
 At bottom of periodic table
 Tend to form +2 and +3 ions.
 All Actinides are radioactive

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 28


Metals, Nonmetals, or Metalloids
 Elements break down into 3 broad categories
 Organized by regions of periodic table
Metals
 Left-hand side
 Sodium, lead, iron, gold
Nonmetals
 Upper right hand corner
 Oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine
Metalloids
 Diagonal line between metals & nonmetals
 Boron to astatine
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 29
Metals, Nonmetals, or Metalloids

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 30


Metals
 Most elements in periodic table
Properties
 Metallic
M t lli luster
l t
 Shine or reflect light
 Malleable
M ll bl
 Can be hammered or
rolled into thin sheets
 Ductile
 Can be drawn into wire
 Hardness
 Some ha
hard
d – iron
i on & chromium
ch omi m
 Some soft – sodium, lead, copper
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 31
Properties of Metals
 Conduct heat & electricity
p
 Solids at Room Temperature
 Melting points (mp) > 25 °C
 Hg only liquid metal (mp = –39
39 °C)
C)
 Tungsten (W) (mp = 3400 °C)
 Highest known for metal
 Chemical reactivity
 Varies greatly
 Au, Pt very unreactive
 Na, K very reactive
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 32
Nonmetals
 17 elements
l t
 Upper right hand corner of periodic table
 Exist mostly as compounds rather than as pure
elements
 Many are Gases
 Monatomic ((Noble)) He,, Ne,, Ar,, Kr,, Xe,, Rn
 Diatomic H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2
 Some are Solids: I2, Se8, S8, P4, C
 3 forms of Carbon (graphite, coal, diamond)
 One
O isi liquid:
li id BrB2
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 33
Properties of Nonmetals
 Brittle
B ittl
 Pulverize when struck
 Insulators
 Non-conductors of
electricity and heat
 Chemical reactivity
 Some inert
 Noble gases
 Some reactive
 F2, O2, H2
 React with metals to form ionic compounds
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 34
Metalloids
 8 Elements
 Located on diagonal line between metals &
nonmetals
 B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
Properties
 Between metals & nonmetals
 Metallic shine
 Brittle like nonmetal
 Semiconductors
 Conduct electricity
 But not as well as metals
 Silicon (Si) & germanium (Ge)
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 35
Your Turn!

Which of the following statements is correct?


A. Cu is a representative transition element
B. Na is an alkaline earth metal
C. Al is a semimetal in group IIIA
D. F iss a representative
ep ese tat e halogen
a oge
E. None of these are correct

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 36


Your Turn!
All of the following are characteristics of metals
except:
A M ll bl
A.Malleable
B.Ductile
C.Lustrous
D.Good conductors of heat
E.Tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 37


Ions & Ionic Compounds
Ions
 Transfer of 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to
another
 Form electrically charged particles
Ionic compound
 Compound composed of ions
 Formed from metal & nonmetal
 Infinite array of alternating Na+ & Cl ions
Formula unit
 Smallest neutral unit of ionic compound
p
 Smallest whole-number ratio of ions
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 38
Formation of Ionic Compounds
Metal + Non-metal  ionic compound
2Na(s) + Cl2(g)  2NaCl(s)


+ 
Na + Cl Na + Cl NaCl(s)

e

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 39


Ionic Compounds
Cations
 Positively charged ions
 Formed from metals
 Atoms lose electrons
Ex. Na has 11 e– & 11 p+ Na+ has 10 e– & 11 p+
Anions
 Negatively charged ions
 Formed from non-metals
non metals
 Atoms gain electrons
Ex Cl has 17 e– & 17 p+
Ex. Cl– has 16 e– & 17 p+

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 40


Experimental Evidence for Ions

Electrical
El t i l conductivity
d ti it requires
i charge
h movementt
Ionic compounds:
 D
Do nott conduct
d t electricity
l t i it ini solid
lid state
t t
 Do conduct electricity in liquid & aqueous states
where ions are free to move
Molecular compounds:
 Do not conduct electricity in any state
 Molecules are comprised of uncharged particles
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 41
Ions of Representative Elements
 Can use periodic table to predict ion charges

 When we use North American numbering of


groups: Cation positive charge = group #

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 42


Ions of Representative Elements
 Noble gases are especially stable
Nonmetals
 Negative () charge on anion = # spaces you
have to move to right to get to noble gas
 Expected charge on O is
 Move 2 spaces to right N O F N
Ne
 O2–
 What
Wh isi expected
d charge
h on N?
 Move 3 spaces to right
 N3 –
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 43
Rules For Writing Ionic Formulas
1. Cation given first in formula
2. Subscripts
p in formula must p produce
electrically neutral formula unit
3. Subscripts must be smallest whole numbers
possible
 Divide by 2 if all subscripts are even
 May have to repeat several times
4 Charges on ions not included in finished
4.
formula unit of substance
 If no subscript
subscript, then 1 implied

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 44


Determining Ionic Formulas
Ex. Formula off ionic compound fformed when
magnesium reacts with oxygen
 Mg is group 2A
 Forms +2 ion or Mg
g2+
 O is group 6A
 Forms –2
2 ion or O2–
 To get electrically neutral particle need
 1:1 ratio of Mg2+ & O22–
 Formula: MgO

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 45


Determining Ionic Formulas
“Criss-cross” rule
 Make magnitude of charge on one ion into
subscript for other
 When doing this, make sure that subscripts are
reduced to lowest whole number.

Ex. What is the formula of ionic compound


formed between aluminum & oxygen yg ions?

Al3+ O2– Al2O3


46

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Your Turn!
Which of the following is the correct formula for
the formula unit composed of potassium and
oxygen ions?
A.KO
B.KO2
C.K2O
D.P2O3
E K2O2
E.K

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Your Turn!
Which of the following is the correct formula for
the formula unit composed of Fe3+ and sulfide
ions?
A.FeS
B.Fe3S2
C.FeS3
D.Fe2S3
E Fe4S6
E.Fe

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Cations of Transition Metals
T
Transition
iti metals
t l
 Center (shorter) region of periodic table
 Much less reactive than group 1A & 2A
 Still transfer electrons to nonmetals to form ionic
compounds
 # of electrons transferred less clear
 Form more than 1 positive ion
 Ca
Can form
o more
o e than
t a 1
compound with same non-metal
Ex Fe + Cl
Ex.
FeCl2 & FeCl3
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 49
Cations of Post-transition Metals
P t t
Post-transition
iti metals
t l
 9 metals Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi, Uut, Uuq, Uub
 After transition metals & before metalloids
 2 very important ones – tin (Sn) & lead (Pb)
 Both have 2 possible oxidation states
p
 Both form 2 compounds with same nonmetal
Ex. Ionic compounds of tin & oxygen are
 SnO & SnO2
 Bismuth
 Only has +3 charge
 Bi3+
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 50
Ions of Some Transition Metals &
Post-transition
Post transition Metals

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 51


Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
Binary compounds
 Compounds formed from 2 different elements
Polyatomic ions
 Ions composed of 2 or more atoms linked by
molecular bonds
 If ions are negative, they have too many electrons
 If ions are positive,
positive they have too few electrons
 Formulas for ionic compounds containing
polyatomic ions
 Follow same rules as ionic compounds
 Polyatomic ions are expressed in parentheses

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 52


Table 3.4 Polyatomic Ions
(Alternate Name in
parentheses)

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 53


Learning Check
Ex. What
h is the
h formula
f l off the
h ionic compound
d
formed between ammonium and phosphate
i
ions?
?
 Ammonium = NH4+
 Phosphate = PO43–
((NH4)+ ((PO4)3– ((NH4)3PO4
Ex. Between strontium ion and nitrate ion?
 Strontium = Sr2+
 Nitrate = NO32–
Sr2+ (NO3)– Sr(NO3)2
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 54
Nomenclature (Naming)
 IUPAC system to standardize name of chemical
compounds
 One system so that anyone can reconstruct
formula from name
 We will look at naming Ionic Compounds of
 Representative metals
 Transition metals
 Monatomic ions
 Polyatomic ions
 Hydrates

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 55


Naming Ionic Compounds
Cations:
 Metal that forms only 1 positive ion
 Cation
C name = English
l h name for
f metall
 Na+ sodium
 C
Ca2+ calcium
l i
 Metal that forms more than 1 positive ion
 Use
U Stock
St k S System
t
 Cation name = English name followed by numerical
value of charge written as Roman numeral in
parentheses (no spaces)
 Transition metal
 Cr2+ chromium(II) Cr3+ chromium(III)
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 56
Naming Ionic Compounds
Anions:
 Monatomic anions named by adding
“ ide”
“– id ” suffix
ffi to stem name ffor element
l

 Polyatomic ions use names in Table 3.5

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 57


Learning Check: Name The
Following
 K2O potassium oxide
 NH4ClO3 ammonium chlorate
 Mg(C2H3O2)2 magnesium acetate
 Cr2O3 chromium(III) oxide
 ZnBr2 zinc bromide

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 58


Learning Check: Determine The
F
Formula
l
 Calcium hydroxide
 Ca(OH)2
 Manganese(II)
M (II) bromide
b id
 MnBr2
 Ammonium phosphate
 (NH4)3PO4
 Mercury(I) nitride
 (Hg2)3N2
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 59
Your Turn!
Which is the correct name for Cu2S?
A. copper sulfide
B. copper(II) sulfide
C. copper(II) sulfate
D. copper(I) sulfide
E
E. copper(I) sulfite

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Your Turn!
Which is the correct formula for ammonium sulfite?
a) NH4SO3
b) (NH4)2SO3
c)) ((NH4)2SO4
d) NH4S
e) (NH4)2S

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 61


Naming Hydrates
 Ionic compounds
 Crystals contain water molecules
 Fixed proportions relative to ionic substance
 Naming
 Name ionic compound
p
 Give number of water molecules in formula using
Greek prefixes
mono- = 1 hexa- = 6
di- = 2 hepta- = 7
tri- = 3 octa- = 8
tetra- = 4 nona- = 9
penta- = 5 deca- = 10
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 62
Learning Check: Naming Hydrates
 CaSO4 · 2H2O
y
 calcium sulfate dihydrate
 CoCl2 · 6H2O
 cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate
 FeI3 · 3H2O
 iron(III) iodide trihydrate

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 63


Your Turn!
What is the correct formula for copper(II) sulfate
pentahydrate?
A C SO4 · 6H2O
A.CuSO
B.CuSO3 · 5H2O
C.CoSO4 · 4H2O
D.CoSO3 · 5H2O
E.CuSO4 · 5H2O

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 64


Molecular Compounds
Molecules
l l
 Electrically neutral particle
 Consists of two or more atoms
Chemical bonds
 Attractions that hold atoms together in molecules
 Arise from sharing electrons between 2 atoms
 Group of atoms that make up molecule behave as
single particle
Molecular formulas
 Describe composition of molecule
 Specify # of each type of atom present
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 65
Molecules vs. Ionic Compounds
M l
Molecules
l
 Discrete unit
 Water = 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom
Ionic Compounds
p
 Ions packed as close as possible to each other
 Sodium chloride =
Each cation has 6
anions; each anion
has 6 cations
 No one ion “belongs”
t another
to th

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 66


Molecular Compounds
 Formed when nonmetals combine
 C + O2  CO2 2H2 + O2  2H2O
 Millions of compounds can form from a few non-
metals
 Organic chemistry & Biochemistry
 Deal with chemistry of carbon + H, N & O
 A few compounds have only 2 atoms
 Diatomics: H2, O2, Cl2, HF,
HF NO
 Most molecules are far more complex
 Sucrose (C12H22O11) urea (CON2H4)

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 67


Hydrogen-containing Compounds
Nonmetal hydrides
 Molecule containing nonmetal + hydrogen
 Number of hydrogens that combine with nonmetal =
number of spaces from nonmetal to noble gas in
periodic table
N O F Ne

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 68


3-D Shapes of Molecules
 Space filling models
 Used to give shapes of simple nonmetal hydrides
 Blue = nitrogen
 Red = water
 Yellow = fluorine
 White = hydrogen

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 69


Organic Compounds
 Carbon compounds
 Carbon + hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen
 Originally thought these compounds only came
from living organisms
 Now more general
Hydrocarbons
 Simplest organic compounds
 Contain only C & H
 Always have ratio of atoms CnH2n+2
 Named using prefix designating number of C atoms
 All have –ane suffix
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 70
Table Hydrocarbons Belonging to the
3.8 Alkane Series

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 71


Alkanes
 Boiling
l point increases as number
b off carbon
b
atoms increases
 Space filling models of alkanes
 Black = carbon
 White = hydrogen

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 72


Your Turn!
Which is the correct name for C4H10?
A. methane
B. ethane
C. propane
D. pentane
pe ta e
E. butane

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Other Hydrocarbons
Alkenes
 Hydrocarbons with two less H’s than alkanes
 CnH2n
 Name = number prefix + ene
Ex. C2H4 = ethene (ethylene)

Alkynes
 Hydrocarbons with four fewer H’s than alkanes
 CnH2n – 2
 Name = number prefix + ene
Ex. C2H2 = ethyne (acetylene)
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 74
Other Organic Compounds
 Hydrocarbons are basic building
blocks of organic chemistry
 Many other classes of
p
compounds derived from
them
Alcohols
 Replace H in alkane with -OH group
 Name
N = number
b prefix
fi + anoll
Ex. CH3OH = methanol (methyl alcohol)
C2H5OH = ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 75
Your Turn!
What is the name of C4H9OH?
A. hexanol
B. propanol
C. pentanol
D. tetranol
tet a o
E. butanol

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Writing Formulas for Organic Compounds
Molecular formula
 Indicates # of each type of atom in molecule
Ex C2H6 for ethane or C3H8 for propane
Ex.
 Order of atoms
 Carbon | Hydrogen | Other atoms alphabetically
Ex. sucrose is C12H22O11
Emphasize alcohol – write OH group last
 C2H5OH
St
Structural
t l formula
f l
 Indicate how carbon atoms are connected
 Ethane
Eth = CH3CH3
 Propane = CH3CH2CH3
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 77
Your Turn!
Octane is a hydrocarbon with 8 C atoms that is
the major component of gasoline. What is the
correct molecular formula for octane?
A. C8H14
B. C8H16
C. C8H18
D. C8H17OH
E C8H15OH
E.

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 78


Your Turn!
What is the correct structural formula for octane?
a)CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
b)CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
c)C
) 8H18
d)CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
e)CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2OH

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 79


Nomenclature of Molecular Compounds
 Goal is a name that translates clearly into molecular
formula
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
 Which 2 elements present?
 How many of each?
Format:
 Fi
Firstt element
l t iin fformula
l
 Use English name
 Second
S d element
l t
 Use stem & append suffix –ide
 Use
U Greek
G k number b prefixes
fi to
t specify
if hhow many
atoms of each element
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 80
Naming Binary Molecular Compounds
1 hydrogen chloride
1.
1 H 1 Cl HCl
2. phosphorous
p p pentachloride
p
1 P 5Cl PCl5
3. triselenium dinitride
3 Se 2N Se3N2
 Mono always omitted on 1st element
 Often omitted on 2nd element unless more than
one combination of same 2 elements
Ex. Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon dioxide CO2
 When prefix ends in vowel similar to start of
element name, drop prefix vowel
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 81
Learning Check: Name Each
Format:
 Number prefix + 1st element name
 Number
b prefix
f + stem + –ided for
f 2ndd element
l
 AsF3 = arsenic trifluoride
 HBr = hydrogen bromide
 N2O4 = dinitrogen tetroxide
 N2O5 = dinitrogen pentoxide
 CO = carbon monoxide
 CO2 = carbon dioxide

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 82


Your Turn!
Which is the correct formula for nitrogen
triiodide?
A.N3I
B NI3
B.NI
C.NIO3
D.N(IO3)3
E.none of the above

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Your Turn!
Which is the correct name for P4O10?
A phosphorus
A. h h oxide
id
B. phosphorous decoxide
C. tetraphosphorus decoxide
D. tetraphosphorus oxide
E. decoxygen tetraphosphide

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E


Exceptions to Naming Binary Molecules
Binary compounds of nonmetals + hydrogen
 No prefixes to be used
 G
Gett number
b off h
hydrogens
d ffor each
h nonmetal
t l ffrom
periodic table
 Hydrogen sulfide = H2S
 Hydrogen telluride = H2Te
Molecules
l l with
i h Common
C Names
 Some molecules have names that predate IUPAC
systematic
i names
 Water H2O ▪ Sucrose C12H22O11
 Ammonia NH3 ▪ Phosphine PH3
Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 85
Summary of Naming

Jespersen/Brady/Hyslop Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter, 6E 86