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UNIT 1: INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Purchase, sale, or exchange of goods


International trade Thương mại quốc tế
and services across national borders
Sending goods to another country for
Exporting Xuất khẩu
sale or trade
Bringing in goods from another
Importing Nhập khẩu
country for sale or trade
Trade theory holding that nations
should acumulate financial wealth,
Mercantilism Chủ nghĩa trọng thương usually in the form of gold, by
encouraging exports and discouraging
imports
Ability of a nation to produce a good
more efficiently
Absolute advantage Lợi thế tuyệt đối If a country can produce something
more than cheaply than anywhere else
in the world
Comparative Inability of a nation to produce
Lợi thế so sánh
advantage
Factor proportions
Lý thuyết tỷ lệ - nhân tố
theory
Term of trade Điều kiện thương mại
The balance of trade Các cân thương mại
The difference between the money
value of s country’s visible imports and
The balance of
Cán cân thanh toán exports.
payment
Adding trade in services to trade in
goods gives you...
Tài khoản vãng lai/Tài
Current account
khoản hiện hành
Capital account Tài sản vốn
Financial account Tài sản tài chính
Imposing trade barriers in order to
Protectionism Chủ nghĩa bảo hộ
restric imports.
Quantitative limits on the import of
Quota Hạn ngạch
particular products or commodities
An import quota Hạn ngạch nhập khẩu
Taxes charged on imports
A tariff Thuế nhập khẩu Unlike quotas, tariff produc revenue
for the government
The (impossible) situstion in which a
Autarky Tự cung tự cấp country is completely self-sufficient
and has no foreign trade
Surplus Thặng dư A positive balance of payments
A country exporting more than it
import has a trade surplus
Deficit Thâm hụt A negative balance of payments
Selling goods abroad at (or below) cost
Dumping Bán phá giá
price
Invisible imports and Trade in services (banking, insurance,
Xuất/Nhập khẩu vô hình
exports tourism, and so on)
Visible trade (GB) or Trade in goods
merchandise trade Xuất/Nhập khẩu hữu hình
(US)
Barter or counter Direct exchange of goods, without the
Mậu dịch đối lưu
trade use of money
Inputs (raw materials, chep or skilled
Factors of production Yếu tố sản xuất (đầu vào)
labor, capital,etc)
Specialization of work into different
Division of labor Phân công lao động
jobs
Saving in unit costs arising from large-
scale production
Economies of scale Kinh tế quy mô
When two companies merge they have
greater...than as saparate companies
Tự do hóa
Liberalize
Free trade Thương mại tự do
In the maturity phase of product life
Stabilize Ổn định
cycle, sales growth slows and ...
Subsidize Trợ cấp
Multinational companies usually have
Subsidiaries Công ty con
... in different countries
Infant industry Ngành CN non trẻ
Freight Vận chuyển hàng hóa