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“Development of an Automated Drilling System for Mechatronics

Laboratory Equipment”

A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty of College of Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Department

Adamson University

A Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Project Study 2

By

Barela, Aldy Gerald A.

Delocado, Osmund John G.

Sison, Mark Joseph D.C.

Tizon, Joanna Mae S.

May 2019

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, we would like to express our heartfelt thanks and gratitude to our co-

researcher and adviser, Engr. Basil P. Bautista for his continuous guidance and support

throughout the study and research. This project would not have been possible without his

recommendations and assistance despite of his hectic schedule.

We would also like to thank the Center for Research and Development (CRD) for

their trust in providing us financial assistance that helped us in conducting the study. We

are truly grateful for your generosity and support.

To our fellow classmates and friends, especially Jabie Paz, John Mark Carasig,

Elaine Caoile, Thea Orobia, Jojo Sace, Nic Sevilleja, and Ervel Marcelo. These are some

of those people who tagged along with us through ups and downs in conducting this

study.

Lastly, we would like to thank our loving families, Barela Family, Delocado

Family, Sison Family, and Tizon Family. These are the people behind our achievements

in life. They gave us their full support and understanding; from going home late until

being unable to go home at all. They were our inspiration from the beginning until the

end.

To God be all the glory!

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ABSTRACT

With Industry 4.0 being a new trend, the need of a mechatronics equipment is a

milestone to achieve. But a mechatronics equipment is expensive and is not accessible to

most of Filipinos, especially students. Constructing a cheap but effective mechatronics

equipment will be a stepping stone for Filipinos’ economic development. This research

focuses on the development of automated drilling system for mechatronics laboratory

equipment. The researchers aim to design the drilling equipment and simulate the drilling

process and also to create a laboratory activity with manual. The design of the prototype

is visualized using SolidWorks 2016. The geometric model of the drilling system consists

of parts such as angle bars for the base frame conveyor, piston cylinders, linear guides,

drill, dc motors and sensors. Meanwhile, the mechatronics process is programmed

through Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) using the software WPL Soft. The

workpiece to be drilled is produced using 3D Printer. The fabrication of the prototype is

composed of locally available products. However, some components such as mount,

specimen, feed and motor holder are not commercially available. Hence, these

components are also produced using 3D Printer with all the exact and necessary

dimensions needed. The design, fabrication, and process development of this station will

serve as an instrument for future creation of mechatronics laboratory that can possibly be

cost effective and beneficial for students in acquiring knowledge on the field of

mechatronics.

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Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 .......................................................................................................................1
Introduction ......................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background of the Study ........................................................................................1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................2
1.3 Objectives of the Study ...........................................................................................3
1.4 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................3
1.5 Scope and Limitations ............................................................................................4
CHAPTER 2 .......................................................................................................................6
Review of Related Literature ..........................................................................................6
2.1 Mechatronics ...........................................................................................................6
2.2 Automated Drilling System ....................................................................................7
2.3 Electropneumatic System .......................................................................................8
2.4 Electrical Connection/Control System....................................................................9
2.5 Mechanical Components.........................................................................................9
2.5.1 Pneumatic Cylinder .........................................................................................9
2.5.2 Conveyor .......................................................................................................10
2.5.3 Air Compressor .............................................................................................11
2.5.4 Flow Control Valve .......................................................................................11
2.6 Electrical Components ..........................................................................................12
2.6.1 Programmable Logic Controller ........................................................................12
2.6.2 Proximity Sensor................................................................................................13
2.6.3 Solenoid Valve ...................................................................................................13
2.6.4 Relay ..................................................................................................................14
2.6.5 Direct Current Motor .........................................................................................15
2.6.6 Circuit Breaker ...................................................................................................15
2.6.7 Power Supply .....................................................................................................16
2.6.8 Terminal Block ..................................................................................................17

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2.6.9 Push Button ........................................................................................................17
CHAPTER 3 .....................................................................................................................19
Methodology ..................................................................................................................19
3.1 Process Flowchart and Conceptual Framework....................................................19
3.2 Software ................................................................................................................22
3.2.1 SolidWorks....................................................................................................22
3.2.2 Ultimaker Cura ..............................................................................................22
3.2.3 WPL Soft .......................................................................................................23
3.3 Mechanical Components.......................................................................................24
3.3.1 Structural Frame ............................................................................................24
3.3.2 Pneumatic Cylinder .......................................................................................25
3.3.3 Conveyor .......................................................................................................25
3.3.4 Flow Control Valve .......................................................................................26
3.3.5 Air Compressor .............................................................................................27
3.3.6 3D Printed Parts ............................................................................................27
3.4 Electrical Components ..........................................................................................28
3.4.1 Panel Board ...................................................................................................28
3.4.1.1 Programmable Logic Controller ............................................................28
3.4.1.2 Circuit Breaker ......................................................................................29
3.4.1.3 Power Supply ........................................................................................30
3.4.1.4 Relay......................................................................................................30
3.4.1.5 Terminal Blocks ....................................................................................31
3.4.2 Prototype .......................................................................................................31
3.4.2.1 Sensor ....................................................................................................31
3.4.2.2 Push Button ...........................................................................................32
3.4.2.3 Octocoupler ...........................................................................................32
3.4.2.4 Solenoid Valve ......................................................................................33
3.4.2.5 DC Motor ..............................................................................................34
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3.4.2.6 Terminal Blocks ....................................................................................34
CHAPTER 4 .....................................................................................................................35
Results and Discussion .................................................................................................35
4.1 Geometric Modelling of the Automated Drilling System ....................................35
4.2 Fabrication of the Automated Drilling System .....................................................36
4.3 Evaluating and Testing of the Fabricated Prototype .............................................37
4.3.1 Electrical Connection ....................................................................................37
4.3.2 Program Analysis ..........................................................................................45
4.3.3 Stages of Automation ....................................................................................48
4.3.3.1 Initial Position .......................................................................................48
4.3.3.2 Stage 1 ...................................................................................................49
4.3.3.3 Stage 2 ...................................................................................................50
4.3.3.4 Stage 3 ...................................................................................................51
4.3.3.5 First Drilling Processs ...........................................................................51
4.3.3.6 Stage 4 ...................................................................................................52
4.3.3.7 Stage 5 ...................................................................................................52
4.3.3.8 Second Drilling Process ........................................................................53
4.3.3.9 Stage 6 ...................................................................................................54
4.3.3.10 Stage 7 .................................................................................................54
4.3.3.11 Third Drilling Process .........................................................................55
4.3.3.12 Stage 8 .................................................................................................56
CHAPTER 5 .....................................................................................................................57
Conclusion and Recommendation.................................................................................57
5.1 Summary and Conclusion .....................................................................................57
5.2 Recommendation ..................................................................................................58
Bibliography ......................................................................................................................59

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Fabricated Prototype of Abueejela, et.al. ............................................................8
Figure 2. Pneumatic Cylinder ...........................................................................................10
Figure 3. Conveyor ........................................................................................................10
Figure 4. Air Compressor ..................................................................................................11
Figure 5. Flow Control Valve ............................................................................................12
Figure 6. Programmable Logic Controller .........................................................................12
Figure 7. Proximity Sensor ................................................................................................13
Figure 8. Solenoid Valve ...................................................................................................14
Figure 9. Relay ...................................................................................................................14
Figure 10. Direct Current Motor ........................................................................................15
Figure 11. Circuit Breaker ............................................................................................16
Figure 12. Power Supply....................................................................................................16
Figure 13. Terminal Block ............................................................................................17
Figure 14. Push Buttom .....................................................................................................18
Figure 15. Process Flow Chart ...........................................................................................19
Figure 16 Conceptual Framework Chart............................................................................21
Figure 17. Print Preview of the 3D Printed Feed ...............................................................23
Figure 18 WPL Soft Logo ..................................................................................................23
Figure 19 Slotted Angle Bar ..............................................................................................24
Figure 20. Bolts and Nuts ..................................................................................................24
Figure 21. Pneumatic Cylinder (Actual) ....................................................................25
Figure 22. Pneumatic Cylinder (Actual) ............................................................................25
Figure 23. Conveyor (Actual) ...........................................................................................26
Figure 24. Flow Control Valve (Actual) ...........................................................................26
Figure 25. Air Compressor (Actual) ..................................................................................27
Figure 26. 3D Printed Parts ...............................................................................................27
Figure 27 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Panel Board ......................................28
Figure 28 Actual Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) .................................................29
Figure 29 Actual Circuit Breaker ......................................................................................29
Figure 30 Actual Power Supply .........................................................................................30
Figure 31. Actual Relay ....................................................................................................30
Figure 32. Terminal Blocks on Panel Board .....................................................................31
Figure 33. Proximity Sensor (Actual) ................................................................................32
Figure 34. Push Button ......................................................................................................32
Figure 35. Optocoupler (Actual) ........................................................................................33
Figure 36. Solenoid Valve (Actual) ...................................................................................33
Figure 37. DC Motor with 3D Printed Case .....................................................................34
Figure 38. Terminal block on the prototype .....................................................................34
Figure 39. SolidWorks Model of the Prototype. ................................................................35
Figure 40. Front View of SolidWorks Model of Prototype. ..............................................36
Figure 41 Fabricated Prototype ..........................................................................................37

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Figure 42. Actual Electrical Wiring of the Prototype .......................................................38
Figure 43 Channel 5V Relay Circuit Diagram .................................................................38
Figure 44. PLC Panel Board ............................................................................................39
Figure 45: Terminal Block 1 Connection .........................................................................39
Figure 46: Terminal Block 2 Connection .........................................................................40
Figure 47: Terminal Block 3 Connection ..........................................................................41
Figure 48: PLC Connection ..............................................................................................41
Figure 49: Relay 1 Connection ..........................................................................................42
Figure 51: Relay 2 Connection ..........................................................................................42
Figure 52: Relay 3 Connection ..........................................................................................43
Figure 53: Relay 4 Connection ..........................................................................................43
Figure 54: PLC Circuit Diagram Input – Output ...............................................................44
Figure 55: Relay Circuit Diagram......................................................................................44
Figure 56: Process Flowchart.............................................................................................45
Figure 57: Program for Automated Drilling System created with WPL Soft....................47
Figure 58: Fabricated Prototype with Label ......................................................................48
Figure 59: Side View of the alignment ..............................................................................49
Figure 60: Side view of stage 1 showing the workpiece after pushing to the conveyor ....49
Figure 61: Front view of the workpiece reaching the sensor 1 ..........................................50
Figure 61: Front view of workpiece aligned to cylinder 2.................................................51
Figure 62: Front View of workpiece being drilled ............................................................51
Figure 63: Front view of workpiece passing by sensor 2 ..................................................52
Figure 64: Front view of workpiece aligned to cylinder 3.................................................53
Figure 65: Front view of workpiece being drilled .............................................................53
Figure 66: Front view of workpiece passing by sensor 3 ..................................................54
Figure 67: Front view of workpiece aligned at cylinder 4 .................................................55
Figure 68: Front view of workpieece being drilled ...........................................................55
Figure 69: Front view of workpiece at the end of the process. .........................................56

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Legend for the Components of the Electrical Circuits ........................................ 48
Table 2 Results of Testing of the Program. ......................................................................61
Table 3. Gantt Chart ...........................................................................................................75
Table 4. Budget Breakdown ............................................................................................. 76

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1.Background of the Study

Industrial manufacturing has come a long way producing economic growth in a

continuous developing country. Manufacturing has always been a great source of

producing income from large companies that created well-known products from raw

materials. From the first industry that uses water and steam-powered machines to produce

products. Next is the introduction of electricity which became the primary source of

power in manufacturing, the era of mass production. Then the third industry came about

the use of electronic devices such as computers and automation processes that has led to

today’s current trend of industry, which is Industry 4.0.

Industry 4.0 will incorporate technologies that include artificial intelligence,

cognitive and sensor technologies, as well as robotics and mechatronics in the

manufacturing and production system. Industry 4.0 is the next big technological

revolution in industrial manufacturing that takes advantage from digitalization as well as

the previous industry.

The advancement of connectivity in automation and robotics had a higher demand

for machine based, machine to machine, and machine to network technologies.

Mechatronic machine has a great development in Industry 4.0 initiatives. It helped

improve the performance, uptime and the operating life of the machine in automation and

robotics. Machine operators require resilience and shorter lead time to have a more

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brilliant machine layout and commissioning as industrial process is slowly becoming

connected.

The key to a successful Industry 4.0 initiative is to decipher the aspect of

mechatronic motion control. In manufacturing, packaging, logistics, and material

handling, automation and digital technologies must meet various objectives from

improving the efficiency and performance to scalability.

Mechatronics is being applied currently in different equipment such as drilling

which includes techniques in gas and oil industry. The extraction of gas and oil uses

mechatronics technology which helps both operators and service providers in improving

their efficiency and profitability as well as increasing the safety level of their operations.

Apparently, mechatronics is more pertinent than before in this milestone of

Industry 4.0. Rapid and ascendable drive technologies contribute more productive data

flow, visibility and control. Altering complicated motion control and automation into

more accessible drive solutions is the way for the Industry 4.0 to bloom.

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Industry 4.0 is quite challenging to achieve especially for a developing country

like the Philippines because the cost of a mechatronics equipment is expensive. Thus, the

accessibility of the equipment meant that less Filipino will acquire the skill. Hence,

constructing a cost-effective equipment can be an initial step, as well as an advancement

of skill in the field of mechatronics in reaching Industry 4.0. The mechatronics equipment

to be designed and fabricated will be a drilling station. Some manufacturing industry still

requires manual labor in drilling a particular product and construction of an automated


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drilling station for study purposes will serve as a guide for future application in the

industry

1.3. Objectives of the Study

This study aims to develop a mechatronics laboratory equipment that will

simulate an automatic drilling system of a hole on a workpiece. Furthermore, the study

also aims the following specific objectives:

1.3.1. To design and develop a working prototype which will perform an actual

automatic simulation of drilling system.

1.3.2. To fabricate a cost-effective mechatronics drilling equipment.

1.3.3. To evaluate and program the fabricated mechatronics drilling equipment through

the PLC with the use of WPL Soft.

1.3.4. To create a laboratory experiment with manual for the utilization of the working

prototype

1.4. Significance of the Study

1.4.1. Adamson University

This study will enable distinct universities, such as Adamson University, to

enhance the quality of teaching in the field of mechatronics. This will also enable the

universities to upgrade their laboratories that will help enrich students as well as

instructors. The mechatronics drilling equipment is cost efficient because it is made

manually and not bought as a whole.

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1.4.2. Laboratory Instructors

This study will also be useful for instructors as they impart their knowledge and

expertise to students about mechatronics. Furthermore, this will provide relative

information to the research that will contribute to the breakthrough of science and

technology.

1.4.3. Students

This study will serve as a stepping stone for students who will contribute to the

expansion of knowledge in the field of mechatronics. It will give them first-hand

experiences and equip them with skill as they encounter modern technologies in Industry

4.0.

1.4.4. Future Researchers

Future researchers will be able to use this research as a guide to help improve

further design and quality of materials used.

1.5. Scope and Limitations

This study aims to design and develop an automated drilling mechatronics system

for mechatronics laboratory equipment. It would be visualized using Solid Works. The

mechatronics process will be programmed through a Programmable Logic Controller

(PLC) and in WPL Soft. The prototype to be made will be composed of materials that are

locally available and will have 3 drills. It will be assembled at Adamson University

Mechanical Engineering Laboratory maximizing the use of the laboratory equipment

needed. The researchers will borrow necessary equipment in the workshop laboratory

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such as hacksaw, drilling machine, grinder, etc. in setting up the prototype. Components

that are not commercially available will be produced using a 3D Printer. The laboratory

activity will show a sequence drilling. Majority of the parts are electro-pneumatics which

is composed of four (4) proximity sensors, four (4) pneumatic cylinders, four (4) solenoid

valves, four DC motors, a conveyor and eight (8) flow control valves.

This study is limited in showing the drilling process only and it will not perform

the actual drilling of the workpiece. The mechatronics system will be composed of 3

drills. The workpiece is a cylinder that already has a hole in its center. The prototype to

be developed together with the laboratory manual produced will be used for educational

purposes only.

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature

2.1. Mechatronics

Mechatronics system is a compound assembly of mechanical, electronic, and

electromechanical components into one device and model dynamics with developed

control algorithms are applied using mechatronic laboratory setups. (Bobtsov et al.,

2012). Mechatronics can also be defined as “synergistic combination of precision

mechanical engineering, electronic control and systematic thinking in the procession of

product design and manufacturing”. It not only requires pre-knowledge on areas such as

microcomputer principles, automatic control theory, but also in hands-on experience,

teamwork, and multi-module integration abilities. (Chen, Li, Li, & Wang, 2012)

The mechatronics system is the product of applying information technology to

physical setups that includes actuators, sensors, and real time interfacing (Bruns F. &

Heinz-H., 2004) as well as discipline in mechanical systems comprising of pneumatic,

fluid, chemical, thermal, acoustic, and others. (Shetty et al., 2002)

Its concept was introduced nearly as 50 years ago as a reflection and expression

on the rapid increase of computers. Furthermore, the availability of integrated circuits at

reduced cost, and the rise of microprocessors had presented an opening to design new

forms of integrated electronics that would shape the core of fresh and novel systems in

manufacturing application. (Bradley et al., 2015)

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Mechatronics Engineering have acquired large amount of interest in students

including Control and Automation, and Mechanical Engineering. It is an interdisciplinary

field requiring theoretical knowledge as well as practical in terms of modelling,

simulation, and dynamic systems control (Speranza Neto, Albuquerque, & Assad, 2016)

Various educational advantages can be attained in mechatronics. Mechatronics

laboratory can create opportunities to learn and understand the basics in terms of control

theory principles and adaptation of formulas in practice. Laboratory setups can also help

in enlightening the important value of the technical systems constraints during

experimentation. (Bobtsov et al., 2012)

Mechatronics highlights integration, product, system thinking and multi-

discipline. Many international institutions have acquired mechatronics teachings and

principles with multiple methods that achieved great results. (Chen, Li, & Wang, 2014)

According to the price listed in alibaba; an online shop for mechatronic laboratory

training equipment, most laboratory equipment cost ranges from one thousand (1,000) to

ten thousand (10,000) dollars.

2.2. Automated Drilling System

Manufacturers render their attention at the quality of drill, especially with small

diameters that work in various conditions. (V. Vekteris, Jurevichius, & Trumpa, 2005). It

is also important that the drills of small diameter, after operations and treatment, have

strength and bending stiffness that exceeds a certain value. (Vladas Vekteris, Jurevichius,

& Daktariunas, 2008)

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Machines that offer fully automated drilling capability can accomplish high

accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency as well as documentation of process parameters

and quality monitoring.

Shown in the figure below is the fabricated prototype of an automated drilling

system based on PLC. It consists of 4 stages: the first stage consists of sensors and

switches, the second stage is the controller or the PLC, then the third stage is the

actuators and indicators qof the drilling machine, and lastly, the fourth stage, is the

mechanical structure and design of the drilling machine process. (Abueejela, et.al. 2015)

Figure 2.1. Fabricated Prototype of Abueejela. Et.al.

End effectors equipped with drilling in an industrial robot can offer flexibility of

operation on the one hand, and quality, speed, and efficiency on the other

hand.(Frommknecht, Kuehnle, Effenberger, & Pidan, 2017)

2.3. Electropneumatic System

Electropneumatic servo drives can deliver precise position control for multiple

industries, increasing also the productivity and flexibility of the system. Its advantages
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include high positioning at high speed and ease in machine programming. (Ali, Bahari

Mohd Noor, Bashi, & Marhaban, 2009). Other advantages include good power/weight

ratio, easily available in the industrial field and possibly low cost. (Amaral, H. El Gamah,

1992)

2.4. Electrical Connection/Control System


Industrial and automated equipment uses Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

which are computer – based, solid – state, single processor devices that develop the

behavior of an electric ladder diagram capable of controlling the system. PLCs are

efficient and reliable in automotive applications involving sequential control,

synchronization of processes and other auxiliary elements in manufacturing industries.

(Alphonsus & Abdullah, 2016)

Control system involves programming that is concerned with implementing the

logic and switching operations. Input devices, such as push buttons, and output devices,

such as pneumatic actuators being controlled, are connected to the PLC and then it

monitors the inputs and outputs in the process. (Alphonsus & Abdullah, 2016)

Electrical operation involves handling at different voltage and current levels.

Devices may require 120VAC including PLC while sensors such as photoelectric and

proximity sensors may require 24 VDC. Actuators that are being controlled may operate

at higher voltage levels such as 240 or 480 VAC. (Hackworth & Hackworth, 2004)

2.5. Mechanical Components

2.5.1. Pneumatic Cylinder

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The Pneumatic Cylinders creates a straight-line reciprocating motion converted

from pneumatic power and can be sub-divided as single acting and double acting

cylinders. (Majumdar, 1995).

Figure 2.2: Pneumatic Cylinder

2.5.2. Conveyor

Conveyors are material handling system essential for large-scale production and

continuous processes. Diverse fields such as agriculture, food processing, plastics

manufacturing, and mining industries commonly use conveyors All fixed and portable

equipment that are capable of moving a material in continuous fashion from two or more

points along a fixed path are included in conveyors. (Fayed, M.E & Skocir, T.S, 1997).

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Figure 2.3: Conveyor

2.5.3. Air Compressor

Air compressor, specifically piston compressors, is an equipment used in the

pneumatic system that uses compressed atmospheric air as its operating medium

(Par,2011). It is used to increase the pressure of the gas or air by mechanically reducing

its volume inside the compressor casing which is done by compression. Piston type

compressors can compress gas to extremelyhigh pressures. (Barker, 2018)

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Figure 2.4: Air Compressor

2.5.4. Flow Control Valve

Flow control valves are used to direct and regulate the flow of fluid from

compressor to various load devices. The speed of the pneumatic actuator can be

controlled by adjusting the rate at which a fluid, which is air, is admitted to a device. It

allows a full flow in one direction but the other direction is reduced. (Parr, 2011)

Figure 2.5: Flow Control Valve

2.6. Electrical Components

2.6.1. Programmable Logic Controller

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) will serve as the brain of this study, as it is

where the ladder program will be inserted. PLC is a representation of a universal

controller. It is widely used in various applications and provides a simple means of

changing, extending, and optimizing control processes through the program installed in it.

(Festo Textbook)

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Figure 2.6: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

2.6.2. Proximity Sensor

Proximity Sensors includes all sensors that perform non-contact detection in

comparison to limit switches that detect objects by physically contacting them. The

conversion of information received from the movement or the presence of an object into

an electrical signal is done by proximity sensors. (Omron Website).

Figure 2.7: Proximity Sensor

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2.6.3. Solenoid Valve

The solenoid valve acts like an electric switch to the pneumatic system that can

simply be On or Off. In applications, is required to control remotely the force, pressure,

or speed via an electrical signal. (Parr, 2011)

Figure 2.8: Solenoid Valve

2.6.4. Relay

Relays are devices making or breaking electric circuits by their output section

driven by operational signal, which is triggered by electric input signal controlled by

switching devices. (Omron Website)

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Figure 2.9: Relays used in Mechatronics Automation

2.6.5. Direct Current Motor

The DC Motor may be viewed as an energy converter which produces mechanical

power from electrical power. The conversion of electrical power to mechanical power

occurs during acceleration and steady run, then returns to electrical power during

deceleration (Electro-Craft Corporation Handbook, 1972).


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Figure 2.10: Direct Current Motor

2.6.6. Circuit Breaker

Circuit breakers provide a manual means of energizing and de-energizing a circuit

and automatic overcurrent protection. A circuit breaker can be reset once the overcurrent

condition has been corrected and will no longer be replaced when opened unlike fuses.

The circuit restores after pushing the handle to the “OFF” position and then bringing it

back to the “ON” position. (E and M Training, Molded Case Breakers)

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Figure 2.11: Circuit Breaker

2.6.7. Power Supply

An electrical device supplying electric power to an electrical load which primarily

function as a converter of electric current from a source to the correct voltage, current,

and frequency to power the load. (BK Precision, 2019)

Figure 2.12: Power Supply

2.6.8. Terminal Block

Terminal blocks are modular, insulated blocks that secure two or more wires

together. It is used to secure and/or terminate wires and, in their simplest form, consist of

several individual terminals arranged in a long strip. (Engineering 360)

25
Figure 2.13: Terminal Block

2.6.9 Push Button

A push button is a simple type of switch that controls an action in a machine or

some type of process. Most of the time, the buttons are plastic or metal. The shape of the

push button may conform to fingers or hands for easy use, or they may simply be flat.

(RS Components Website)

Figure 2.14: Push Button

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27
CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter will focus on the methods that will be used on the fabrication of the

prototype, the necessary equipment, and facilities used. The software and materials

needed are also included, as well as the flowchart and conceptual framework.

3.1. Process Flowchart and Conceptual Framework

Figure 3.1: Process Flowchart


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Shown in the figure above is the Process Flowchart of the study. The first step is

the visualization of the prototype with the use of SolidWorks. After designing the drilling

equipment, the researchers have prepared the materials needed in creating the actual

prototype. The fabrication of the mechatronics drilling equipment was made with the use

of locally available materials. Also, some parts that are not commercially available and

have certain function which requires a specific dimension were also designed using

SolidWorks and are 3D Printed with the use of an Ultimaker Cura 3D Printer. The

electrical wirings of the system were connected correctly and carefully. Then, the

program was made by creating a ladder diagram with the use of WPL Soft and then

stored into the memory of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). After the

fabrication and programming, the finished prototype was evaluated and tested by the

researchers that will result to the production of laboratory manual activity for the

students’ future learnings.

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• Designing of prototype with dimensions using
Visualization Solidworks

• Gathering necessary materials and components


Fabrication • 3D Printing of small parts
• Assembly of the system

• PLC
Programming • Ladder Logic Programming

Testing • Running simple drilling test on a sequence

Figure 3.2: Conceptual Framework Chart

With Industry 4.0 being a new trend, the need of a mechatronics equipment is a

milestone to achieve. However, a mechatronics equipment is expensive and is not

accessible to most of Filipinos, especially students. Constructing a cheap but effective

mechatronics equipment will be a stepping stone for Filipinos’ economic development.

In this study, as shown in Figure 3.2, a mechatronics equipment that focuses on

drilling will be designed and developed. Through the use of the program Solid Works, the

geometrical model of the prototype can be visualized. The prototype will be programmed

through a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and in WPL Soft. Then, the fabrication

will be composed of locally available materials. After the assembly of the equipment, it
30
will be tested and commissioned for educational purposes. A laboratory activity will be

created for the purpose of better understanding the principle of operation of an automated

drilling system created for a mechatronics laboratory equipment.

3.2 Software

3.2.1. SolidWorks

The Automated Drilling System is designed using SolidWorks 2016. SolidWorks

2016 is a software used to create solid models for mechanical and design applications.

SolidWorks is a software that provides complete 3D tools in creating, simulating,

publishing, and managing pertinent data. SolidWorks follows ease-of-use which allows

designers, engineers and other technology professionals to take advantage of 3D features

to bring their designs to reality. (SolidWorks Website). The automated drilling system is

designed and visualized using SolidWorks 2016 with all the exact and necessary

dimensions.

3.2.2. Ultimaker Cura

Ultimaker Cura is a software that prepares the model for 3D printing. The model

readily saved for printing will be sliced into thin layers until finished. (Ultimaker Cura

Website). Components that are not commercially available will be produced using a 3D

Printer. First, it will be designed in SolidWorks 2016 with the necessary dimensions

needed. Then, it will be imported to Ultimaker Cura and set necessary parameters such as

in fill density, and support.

31
Figure 3.3: Print Preview of the 3D Printed Feed

3.2.3. WPL Soft

WPL Soft is a program editor of Delta DVP series PLC for WINDOWS

computers. In addition to general PLC programming and WINDOWS editing functions

such as cut, paste, copy, multi-window display, etc. WPL Soft also provides various

comment editing as well as other special functions such as register editing and settings,

file accessing and saving, contacts monitoring and setting.

Figure 3.4: WPL Soft Logo

32
3.3. Mechanical Components

3.3.1. Structural Frame

The structural frame of the mechatronics drilling equipment is made with the use

of locally available materials such as angle bars, bolts, and nuts. The design of the

structural frame was visualized with the use of the SolidWorks and then created in actual

with proper dimensions and alignments.

Figure 3.5: Slotted Angle Bar

Figure 3.6: Bolts and Nuts

33
3.3.2. Pneumatic Cylinder

Four (4) 20mm x 100mm double acting cylinders are attached in the prototype.

One cylinder will serve as a supply feeding device to the conveyor. Meanwhile, three

cylinders are used for the downward motion of the drill assembly.

Figure 3.7 & 3.8: Pneumatic Cylinders (Actual)

3.3.3. Conveyor

The conveyor handles the workpiece and moves straight to the drill smoothly. It

will automatically stop before the drilling motion starts in every cylinder and will

continue to move after a certain period of time. The conveyor used in the system has the

following specifications: Belt dimensions: 85.5cm x 9cm x 9cm, Chassis dimensions:

88cm x 10.5cm x 11cm. Motor: 12V

34
Figure 3.9: Conveyor (Actual)

3.3.4. Flow Control Valve


Eight flow control valves are paired with the pneumatic cylinders. The bore

dimension of the flow control valve is 6mm. It is placed at every fitting attached in the

cylinders. It controls the flow of fluid coming from the compressor in order to regulate

the speed of the retracting and extracting motion of the pneumatic cylinder.

35
Figure 3.10: Flow Control Valve (Actual)

3.3.5. Air Compressor

Air compressor serves as the main supply of the whole system. It is connected

through a hose going to the pneumatic system which supplies air that flows through the

fittings.

Figure 3.11: Air Compressor (Actual)

3.3.6. 3D Printed Parts

Some components which are not commercially available such as workpiece and

feed are produced using 3D Printer. These components are designed in Solidworks with

all the necessary dimensions and then printed using Ultimaker Cura.

36
Figure 3.12 & 3.13: 3D Printed Parts

3.4 Electrical Components

3.4.1 Panel Board

All wirings coming from the terminal blocks from the prototype are connected to

the PLC through the PLC panel board. The panel board comprises of terminal blocks

connected to the PLC and different power supplies, 5V, 12V and 24V power supply.

Figure 3.13: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Panel Board


37
3.4.1.1 Programmable Logic Controller

Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a control system using electronic

operations. It's easy storing procedures, handy extending principles, functions of

sequential/position control, timed counting and input/output control are widely applied to

the field of industrial automation control.

Figure 3.14: Actual Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

3.4.1.2 Circuit Breaker

Circuit breaker is an electrical component used to protect the circuit from damage

caused by excess current. It us used for safety purposes.

38
Figure 3.15 Actual Circuit Breaker

3.4.1.3 Power Supply

Power supply is used to supply power to PLC, DC Motors, Solenoid Valves and

Sensors. Each power supply has different voltage rating. The power supply at the left has

5V, followed by two 24V power supply then 12V power supply.

Figure 3.16 Actual Power Supply

3.4.1.4 Relay

Relays are switches that open and close circuits electromechanically or

electronically.

39
Figure 3.17: Relay

3.4.1.5 Terminal Blocks

12 pairs, 15 Amperes terminal blocks are used in the panel board. It connects the

wirings from the prototype going to the PLC.

Figure 3.18: Terminal Blocks on Panel Board

3.4.2 Prototype
3.4.2.1 Sensors

40
Three (3) 5V proximity sensors are used in the study located before the cylinders

in order to detect the workpiece that will initiate and stop the drilling motion of the

cylinder and will activate the motor.

Figure 3.19: Proximity Sensor (Actual)

3.4.2.2 Push Button

Push buttons are used in the prototype. Green buttons indicate normally open

system while the red button indicates normally closed system. The green button on the

left enables the prototype to start to operate; the red button enables the system to

reset/stop while the green button on the right turns on the conveyor.

41
Figure 3.20: Push Button

3.4.2.3 Octocoupler

The 4 channel 5V relay was used for the proximity sensors of the prototype which

allows the 24 V input even though the sensor can only accumulate 5 V.

Figure 3.21: Optocoupler (Actual)

3.4.2.4 Solenoid Valve

42
Four (4) 24V 5/2 way solenoid valves are attached in the system. Each pneumatic

cylinder is connected to the solenoid valve. It also controls the motion of the cylinder

manually. Once the switch button is pressed, the cylinder will extract and/or retract.

Figure 3.22: Solenoid Valve (Actual)

3.4.2.5 DC Motor
Four (4) 12V DC motors represent the drill of the system. The rotating shaft of the

DC motors act as the drill bit that will move through the hole of the workpiece. It will

automatically operate after the proximity sensor detects the workpiece.

Figure 3.23: DC Motor with 3D Printed Case

43
3.4.2.6 Terminal Blocks

12 pairs, 15 Amperes terminal blocks are used in the prototype. The wirings from

the components are connected to the terminal blocks going to the terminal blocks on the

panel board then going to the PLC.

Figure 3.24: Terminal block on thr prototype

44
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Geometric Modelling of the Automated Drilling System

The Automated Drilling System was designed and visualized using SolidWorks

2016. The geometric model of the drilling system consists of parts such as angle bars for

the base frame conveyor, piston cylinders, linear guides, drill, dc motors and sensors.

Figure 4.1: SolidWorks Model of the Prototype.

45
Figure 4.2: Front View of SolidWorks Model of Prototype.

4.1.1 Parts and its Functions

 Pneumatic Cylinders – Four pneumatic cylinders are used in the prototype. Cylinder 1

(Y0) pushes the workpiece from the feed going to the conveyor, while Cylinders 2 (Y2),

3(Y2

 Sensors – Three sensors are attached in the prototype. The workpiece will pass by each

sensor which will initiate the downward motion of the cylinders and run the dc motors.

 DC Motor – DC motors represent the drill of the prototype. It will automatically operate

once the workpiece passed by the sensor.

 Conveyor – Conveyor holds the workpiece going to the three drill and will automatically

stop once the workpiece has finished passing through the three drills.

46
 Feed – 3D printed feed holds all the workpiece at its initial position.

 Push button – Push buttons are used to start/stop the whole system and also to start the

conveyor.

 Terminal blocks – The electrical wiring system from the prototype is connected to the

terminal blocks.

4.2. Fabrication of the Automated Drilling System

The construction of the Automated Drilling System is mostly made up of

commercially available materials. However, some components such as mount, specimen,

feed and motor holder are not commercially available. Hence, these components are

produced using 3D Printer with all the exact and necessary dimensions needed. Angle

bars are used for the frame of the prototype.

Figure 4.3: Fabricated Prototype

47
4.3. Evaluating and Testing of the Fabricated Prototype
4.3.1. Electrical Connection

Table 1: Legend for the Components of the Electrical Circuits

K0 Relay Switch 1

K1 Relay Switch 2

K2 Relay Switch 3

K3 Relay Switch 4

PB1 Push Button 1

PB2 Push Button 2

PB3 Push Button 3

S1 Sensor 1

S2 Sensor 2

S3 Sensor 3

Y0 Solenoid Feed

Y1 Conveyor

Y2M Motor 1

Y2S Solenoid 1

Y3M Motor 2

Y3S Solenoid 2

Y4M Motor 3

Y4S Solenoid 3

48
Shown in the table above are the legends for the components of the electrical

circuit diagrams. The figure shown below is the circuit diagram in the PLC for its input

and output. The push buttons and sensors are inputs while the solenoids and motors are

outputs. In the diagram the outputs go through a relay. It is further shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.4: PLC Circuit Diagram Input – Output

Figure 4.5: Relay Circuit Diagram

49
4.3.1.1. Panel Board Circuit Diagram

The PLC Panel Board is shown below, the panel board consists of the power

supplies needed to power the electrical components of the prototype such as, DC motors,

conveyor, solenoid valves and the PLC. The panel board also has relay, circuit breaker

and terminal blocks which are connected to the PLC, relay and power supplies.

Figure 4.6: PLC Panel Board Left Side

50
Figure 4.7: PLC Panel Board Right Side

Figure 4.8: PLC Panel Board Actual

51
Figure 4.9: PLC Connection

Shown in the figure above is the PLC connection of the prototype. PB1, PB2, PB3

and the 3 sensors are connected in the input while the outputs are connected in a relay

except for Y0.

Figure 4.10: Relay 1 Connection

52
Shown in the figure above is the Relay 1 connection. The relay is used to step

down the PLC output of 24V to 12V to the conveyor motor.

Figure 4.11: Relay 2 Connection

Shown in the figure above is the relay 2 connection. The relay is used to step

down the plc output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also used to power up a

solenoid valve.

Figure 4.12: Relay 3 Connection

53
Shown in the figure above is the relay 2 connection. The relay is used to step

down the plc output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also used to power up a

solenoid valve.

Figure 4.13: Relay 4 Connection

Shown in the figure above is the relay 2 connection. The relay is used to step

down the plc output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also used to power up a

solenoid valve.

4.3.1.2. Prototype Circuit Diagram

Shown in the figure below is the connection for terminal block 1 of the prototype.

The 4 solenoid valves, conveyor motor and 1 motor are connected to this terminal block.

The output are connected to terminal blocks 4 and 5 which will be shown later on.

54
Figure 4.14: Terminal Block 1 Connection

Shown in the figure below is the connection for terminal block 2 of the prototype

The 3 sensors of the prototype and 2 motors are connected into this terminal block. The

signals of the 3 sensors are connected directly to the octocoupler while the others are

connected to either terminal blocks 4 and 5.

Figure 4.15: Terminal Block 2 Connection

55
Shown in the figure below is the connection for terminal block 3. The octocoupler

is connected into this terminal block. The push buttons common are also connected into

this terminal block. Its outputs are connected into either terminal block 4 and 5.

Figure 4.16: Terminal Block 3 Connection

Shown in the figure below are the connections for terminal blocks 4 and 5. The

outputs of terminal blocks 1 to 3 are connected into these two terminal blocks. The

outputs of terminal blocks 4 and 5 are connected to the PLC panel board terminal blocks.

56
Figure 4.17: Terminal Block 4 Connection

Figure 4.18: Terminal Block 5 Connection

Shown in the figure below are the actual pictures of the terminal blocks in the

prototype. Terminal blocks 1 to 3 are located at the bottom area of the prototype while

terminal blocks 4 and 5 are located near the push buttons for easy access in connecting to

the panel board.

57
Figure 4.19: Terminal Block 1 (Actual)

Terminal Block 3
Terminal Block 2

Octocoupler

Figure 4.20: Terminal Blocks 2 and 3 (Actual)

58
Terminal Block 4 Terminal Block 5 Push Buttons

Figure 4.21: Terminal Blocks 4 and 5 (Actual)

59
4.3.2 Program Analysis

Figure 4.22: Process Flowchart

In the figure shown above, when push button 1 (PB1) 1 is pressed, the cylinder

feed (Y0) turns on and pushes the work piece, and turns off after 2 secs. When the

60
cylinder feed (Y0) turns off, the conveyor (Y1) turns on. When the workpiece reaches the

front of Sensor 1 (X1), after 11 milliseconds the first cylinder and motor (Y2) of the drill

assembly turns on, while the conveyor stops and turns off after 2 seconds while the

conveyor turns on. Then, when the workpiece reaches the front of Sensor 2 (X2), after 8

milliseconds the second cylinder and motor (Y2) of the drill assembly turns on, while the

conveyor stops and turns off after 2 seconds while the conveyor turns on. Lastly, when

the workpiece reaches the front of Sensor 3 (X3), after 9 milliseconds the third cylinder

and motor (Y3) of the drill assembly turns on, while the conveyor stops and turns off

after 2 seconds while the conveyor turns on. And finally, after 2 seconds the whole

system resets.

Table 2: Results of Testing of the Program


Y0 Y1 Y2S & Y2M Y3S & Y3M Y3S & Y3M
PB1
PB2
PB3
S1
S2
S3

Active
Stop
Unaffected

61
Y2 Y3 Y4

FEED X2

X1 X3

Y1

Y0

Figure 4.24: Fabricated Prototype with Label

The fabricated prototype is tested and evaluated to determine its performance and

integrity of the prototype. The program created for the system of prototype is inserted in

the PLC. The prototype will follow the process shown above and described.

4.3.3 Stages of Automation

The automated drilling system has eight (8) stages for the completion of its whole

process. The following stages are as follows:

4.3.3.1 Initial Position

All workpiece are placed in the feed that is aligned with the cylinder 1 and

conveyor.

62
Feed
Workpiece

Conveyor (Y1)

Cylinder 1(Y0)

Figure 4.25: Side View of the alignment

4.3.3.2 Stage 1

When the operator pressed the push button 1, the workpiece is being pushed by

the cylinder 1(Y1) going to the conveyor.

Feed
Workpiece
Cylinder 1(Y0)

Conveyor (Y1)

Motion of the Cylinder


1 (Y0)

Figure 4.26: Side view of stage 1 showing the workpiece after pushing to the conveyor

63
4.3.3.3 Stage 2

The conveyor will finally move passing by the sensor 1 (X1). Once the workpiece

is detected, the sensor 1 will be activated.

Cylinder 2 (Y3)

Workpiece

Sensor 1(X1) Conveyor (Y1)

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.27: Front view of the workpiece reaching the sensor 1

4.3.3.4 Stage 3

After 11 milliseconds, the conveyor will automatically stop such that the

workpiece will be aligned to the cylinder 2 (Y2).

64
Cylinder 2 (Y3)

Workpiece

Conveyor

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.28: Front view of workpiece aligned to cylinder 2

4.3.1.5 First Drilling Process

The cylinder 2 (Y3) will extract to drill the workpiece while the motor 1 will also

run.

Cylinder 2 (Y3)

Workpiece
Motor 1

Conveyor (Y1)

Figure 4.29: Front View of workpiece being drilled

65
4.3.1.6. Stage 4

After 2 seconds, the cylinder 2 (Y2) will retract while the motor 1 will be turned

off. The conveyor will begin to run again passing by the sensor 2 (X2). Once the

workpiece is detected, the sensor 2 is activated

Cylinder 2 (Y3)

Motor 1 Workpiece

Sensor 2 (X2)
Conveyor

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.30: Front view of workpiece passing by sensor 2

4.3.1.7 Stage 5

After 8 milliseconds, the conveyor will automatically stop such that the workpiece

will be aligned to the cylinder 3 (Y4).

66
Cylinder 3 (Y4)
Workpiece

Conveyor (Y1)

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.31: Front view of workpiece aligned to cylinder 3

4.3.1.8 Second Drilling Process

The cylinder 3 (Y4) will extract to drill the workpiece while the motor will also

run. Conveyor

Cylinder 3 (Y4)

Workpiece
Motor 2

Conveyor (Y1)

Figure 4.32: Front view of workpiece being drilled

67
4.3.1.9 Stage 6

After 2 seconds, the cylinder 3 (Y4) will retract while the motor will be turned

off. The conveyor will begin to run again passing by the sensor 3. Once the workpiece is

detected, the sensor 3 is activated.

Cylinder 3 (Y4) Sensor 2 (X2)

Motor 2

Workpiece

Motion of the Conveyor Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.33: Front view of workpiece passing by sensor 3

4.3.1.10 Stage 7

After 9 milliseconds, the conveyor will automatically stop such that the workpiece

will be aligned to the cylinder 4 (Y5).

68
Cylinder 4 (Y5)

Workpiece

Conveyor (Y1)

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1)

Figure 4.34: Front view of workpiece aligned at cylinder 4

4.3.1.11 Third Drilling Process

The cylinder 4 (Y5) will extract to drill the workpiece while the motor will also

run.

Cylinder 4 (Y5)
Conveyor (Y2)

Motor 3

Workpiece

Figure 4.35: Front view of workpieece being drilled

69
4.3.1.12 Stage 8

After 2 seconds, the cylinder 4 (Y5) will retract while the motor 3 will be turned

off. The conveyor will begin to run again. After 20 milliseconds, the whole system will

stop.

Cylinder 4 (Y5)

Motor 3

Conveyor (Y1)

Motion of the Conveyor


(Y1) Workpiece

Figure 4.36: Front view of workpiece at the end of the process.

70
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1. Summary and Conclusion

In this paper, the prototype and programming of the automated drilling station

was done. Geometric modelling was developed first using Solidworks 2016 to establish a

prototype made with materials that are locally available however, some components are

3D printed due to unavailability and requires a specific dimension and function. The

prototype is programmed using WPL Soft and is executed by moving the specimen on the

conveyor to the drills, which are made by assembling three pneumatic piston cylinders

and three dc motors that will initiate a “drilling” process, and are attached vertically on

the station therefore creating a hole on the specimen.

In conclusion, the automated drilling system is successfully designed and

developed. It is also executed well on the PLC and able to follow the objective. The

developed prototype in this study is cost-effective when compared to commercially

available mechatronics laboratory equipment. In terms of function, it can compete to

those available in the market. According to the price listed in alibaba; an online shop for

mechatronic laboratory training equipment, most laboratory equipment cost ranges from

one thousand (1,000) to ten thousand (10,000) dollars.

The design, fabrication, and process development of this station will serve as an

instrument for future creation of mechatronics laboratory that can possibly be economical

and beneficial for students in acquiring knowledge on the field of mechatronics.

71
5.2. Recommendation

In line with the prototype developed in this study, the researchers recommend the

following:

 Create a design that will hold three workpieces on the conveyor.

 Create a program that will drill the three workpieces simultaneously.

 Create a program that will drill the three workpieces on a sequence

procedure.

72
BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] S. R. Majumdar, Pneumatic Systems: Principles and Maintenance, 1995

[2] Retrieved from: http://www.ia.omron.com/support/guide/41/introduction.html

[3] M. Fayed, and T. Skocir, Mechanical Conveyors: Selection and Operation, 1997

[4] Electro-Craft Corporation, DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo Systems: An

Engineering Handbook, 1972

[5] Hazem I. Ali, Samsul Bahari B Mohd Noor, S.M. Bashi, M.H. Marhaban, A Review

of Pnuematic Actuators (Modeling and Control), 2009

[6] P.F.S. Amaral, H. El Gamah, J.G. Fontaine, and J.Rabit, Motion Control of an

Electropneumatic Driven Legged Robot

[7] A.A. Bobtsov, S.A. Kolyubin, A.A. Pyrkin, A.S. Borgul, Mechatronic and Robotic

Setups for Modern Control Theory Workshop, 2012

[8] D. Chen, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Wang, A mechatronics control engineering class at Beihang

University, China: Practicing and exploring, 2012

[9] F. Wilhelm Bruns, Heinz-H. Erbe, Remote Learning of Mechatronics, 2004

[10] D. Bradley, D. Russel, I. Ferguson, J. Isaacs, A. Macleod, R. White, The Internet of

Things – The future or the end of mechatronics, 2015

[11] M.S. Neto, A.N. De Albuquerque, M.M. Assad, Small Scale Mechatronics Devices

as Educational and Research Engineering Tools, 2016

73
[12] D. Chen, Z. Li, T. Wang, Exploration and practice: A competition based project

practice teaching mode, 2014

[13] V. Vektris, M. Jurevichius, A. Trumpa, Mechatronical system of drill testing, 2005

[14] V. Vektris, M. Jurevichius, A. Daktariunas, Mechatronical system for testing small

diameter drills, 2008

[15] A. Frommknect, J. Kuehnle, I. Effenberger, S. Pidan, Multi-sensor measurement

system for robotic drilling

[16] A. Yousef M., A. Albagul, Mansour, Ibrahim A., et. al. Automated Drilling Machine

Based on PLC,2015

[17] Andrew Parr, Hydraulics and Pneumatics (Third Edition), 2011

[18] Geoff Barker, The Engineer’s Guide to Plant Layout and Piping Design for the Oil

and Gas Industries, 2018

74
APPENDICES

Appendix A: Laboratory Manual Discussion

75
ADAMSON UNIVERSITY
College of Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department

LABORATORY MANUAL

FOR

AUTOMATED DRILLING SYSTEM

Presented By:

BARELA, Aldy Gerald A.


DELOCADO, Osmund John G.
SISON, Mark Joseph D.
TIZON, Joanna Mae S.

Adviser:
Engr. Basil Aloysius P. Bautista

76
I. OBJECTIVES
a. To be able to understand how a drilling machine operates with the use of
a pneumatic system and be able to conduct an experiment with it.
b. To design a sequence drilling process.
c. To be familiarized with the components of the pneumatic system and PLC
programming using Delta WPL Soft.
II. Introduction
Industrial manufacturing has come a long way producing economic
growth in a continuous developing country. Manufacturing has been a great
source of producing income from large companies that created well-known
products from raw materials. With the advancement of technology, the
current industry came about the use of electronic device such as computers
and automation processes, which is Industry 4.0.
Industry 4.0 will incorporate technologies that includes artificial
intelligence, cognitive and sensor technologies, as well as robotics and
mechatronics in the manufacturing and production system. Industry 4.0 is
the next big technological revolution in industrial manufacturing that takes
advantage from digitalization as well as the previous industry.
A drilling machine is used to cut holes into or through metal, wood, or
other materials. Drilling machines use a drilling tool that has cutting edges at
its point. Drilling machines may be used to perform other operations. They
can perform countersinking, boring, counter boring, spot facing and tapping.
An automated drilling machine is used in some manufacturing factories that
needs its process. Its system usually consists of sensors, actuators, the
drilling assembly and the programmable logic controller (PLC).

77
III. Control Specification
The following operation should be performed in this unit. Study the
required specification and then create the program and confirm the operation.
1. When [PB1] (X1) on the operation panel is pressed, Supply Cylinder (Y0) for the
conveyor is turned ON.
When [PB1] (X1) is released, Supply Cylinder (Y0) is latched on until the supplied
part is on the conveyor.
When Supply Cylinder (Y0) turns off, the Conveyor (Y1).
2. When Sensor 1 (X1) detects a part, Drill (Cyl & Motor) 1 (Y2) will turn on and the
Conveyor (Y1) will stop after 11 milliseconds.
When Sensor 1 (X1) no longer detects a part, Drill 1 (Cyl & Motor) (Y2) is latched
on for 2 seconds.
When Drill 1 (Y2) turns off, the Conveyor (Y1) will start.
3. When Sensor 2 (X2) detects a part, Drill (Cyl & Motor) 2 (Y3) will turn on and the
Conveyor (Y1) will stop after 8 milliseconds.
When Sensor 2 (X2) no longer detects a part, Drill 2 (Cyl & Motor) (Y3) is latched
on for 2 seconds.
When Drill 2 (Y3) turns off, the Conveyor (Y1) will start.
4. When Sensor 3 (X3) detects a part, Drill (Cyl & Motor) 3 (Y4) will turn on and the
Conveyor (Y1) will stop after 9 milliseconds.
When Sensor 3 (X3) no longer detects a part, Drill 3 (Cyl & Motor) (Y4) is latched
on for 2 seconds.
When Drill 3 (Y3) turns off, the Conveyor (Y1) will start.
After 20 milliseconds the whole system will stop.
5. When PB2 (X4) is pressed, the whole system will stop.
Caution:
1. In this Exercise, write the program on the assumption that only one part is put
on the conveyor at a time.
78
2. An advance program is required to control two or more parts. This program is
beyond the scope of limitation.
IV. System Diagram
Y4
Y3
Y2

Y1
Y0

X3
X2
X1

X0
X4
X5

V. Parts and Label


Y0 Cylinder Feed
Y1 Conveyor
Y2 Cylinder 1 and Motor 1
Y3 Cylinder 2 and Motor 2
Y4 Cylinder 3 and Motor 3
X0 Push Button 1
X1 Sensor 1
X2 Sensor 2
X3 Sensor 3

79
X4 Push Button 2
X5 Push Button 3

VI. Ladder Diagram

VII. Control Evaluation


VIII. Conclusion
IX. REFERENCES

[1] https://smithy.com/machining-handbook/chapter-6/page/1
80
Appendix B: Programs

Program for Automated Drilling System created with WPL Soft


81
Appendix C: Journal

Development of an Automated Drilling System


for Mechatronics Laboratory Equipment
Barela, Aldy Gerald A. [1] · Delocado, Osmund John G. [2]
Sison, Mark Joseph D.C. [3] · Tizon, Joanna Mae S. [4]
BS Mechanical Engineering · Adamson University
Engr. Basil Aloysius P. Bautista, RME
Thesis Adviser · Adamson University
ABSTRACT
With Industry 4.0 being a new trend, the need of a mechatronics equipment is a milestone to achieve. But a
mechatronics equipment is expensive and is not accessible to most of Filipinos, especially students. Constructing a
cheap but effective mechatronics equipment will be a stepping stone for Filipinos’ economic development. This
research focuses on the development of automated drilling system for mechatronics laboratory equipment. The
researchers aim to design the drilling equipment and simulate the drilling process and also to create a laboratory
activity with manual. The design of the prototype is visualized using SolidWorks 2016. The geometric model of the
drilling system consists of parts such as angle bars for the base frame conveyor, piston cylinders, linear guides, drill,
dc motors and sensors. Meanwhile, the mechatronics process is programmed through Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC) using the software WPL Soft. The workpiece to be drilled is produced using 3D Printer. The
fabrication of the prototype is composed of locally available products. However, some components such as mount,
specimen, feed and motor holder are not commercially available. Hence, these components are also produced using
3D Printer with all the exact and necessary dimensions needed. The design, fabrication, and process development of
this station will serve as an instrument for future creation of mechatronics laboratory that can possibly be cost
effective and beneficial for students in acquiring knowledge on the field of mechatronics.

Keywords – Industry 4.0, Mechatronics Equipment, Automated Drilling System, Programmable Logic Controller

I. INTRODUCTION Industry 4.0 will incorporate technologies that


include artificial intelligence, cognitive and sensor
Industrial manufacturing has come a long way technologies, as well as robotics and mechatronics
producing economic growth in a continuous in the manufacturing and production system.
developing country. Manufacturing has always Industry 4.0 is the next big technological
been a great source of producing income from revolution in industrial manufacturing that takes
large companies that created well-known products advantage from digitalization as well as the
from raw materials. From the first industry that previous industry.
uses water and steam-powered machines to
produce products. Next is the introduction of The advancement of connectivity in
electricity which became the primary source of automation and robotics had a higher demand for
power in manufacturing, the era of mass machine based, machine to machine, and machine
production. Then the third industry came about to network technologies. Mechatronic machine
the use of electronic devices such as computers has a great development in Industry 4.0 initiatives.
and automation processes that has led to today’s It helped improve the performance, uptime and
current trend of industry, which is Industry 4.0. the operating life of the machine in automation
and robotics. Machine operators require resilience
and shorter lead time to have a more brilliant

82
machine layout and commissioning as industrial with developed control algorithms are applied
process is slowly becoming connected. using mechatronic laboratory setups. (Bobtsov et
al., 2012). Mechatronics can also be defined as
The key to a successful Industry 4.0 initiative “synergistic combination of precision mechanical
is to decipher the aspect of mechatronic motion engineering, electronic control and systematic
control. In manufacturing, packaging, logistics, and thinking in the procession of product design and
material handling, automation and digital manufacturing”. It not only requires pre-
technologies must meet various objectives from knowledge on areas such as microcomputer
improving the efficiency and performance to principles, automatic control theory, but also in
scalability. hands-on experience, teamwork, and multi-
Mechatronics is being applied currently in module integration abilities. (Chen, Li, Li, & Wang,
different equipment such as drilling which includes 2012)
techniques in gas and oil industry. The extraction The mechatronics system is the product of
of gas and oil are the use of mechatronics applying information technology to physical setups
technology which helps both operators and that includes actuators, sensors, and real time
service providers in improving their efficiency and interfacing (Bruns F. & Heinz-H., 2004) as well as
profitability as well as increasing the safety level of discipline in mechanical systems comprising of
their operations. pneumatic, fluid, chemical, thermal, acoustic, and
Apparently, mechatronics is more pertinent others. (Shetty et al., 2002)
than before in this milestone of Industry 4.0. Rapid Its concept was introduced nearly as 50 years
and ascendable drive technologies contribute ago as a reflection and expression on the rapid
more productive data flow, visibility and control. increase of computers. Furthermore, the
Altering complicated motion control and availability of integrated circuits at reduced cost,
automation into more accessible drive solutions is and the rise of microprocessors had presented an
the way for the Industry 4.0 to bloom. opening to design new forms of integrated
1.0 Objectives of the Study electronics that would shape the core of fresh and
novel systems in manufacturing application.
This study aims to develop a mechatronics (Bradley et al., 2015)
laboratory equipment that will simulate an
automatic drilling system of a hole on a workpiece. Mechatronics Engineering have acquired large
Furthermore, the study also aims the following amount of interest in students including Control
specific objectives: and Automation, and Mechanical Engineering. It is
an interdisciplinary field requiring theoretical
 To design and develop a working prototype knowledge as well as practical in terms of
which will perform an actual automatic modelling, simulation, and dynamic systems
simulation of drilling system. control (Speranza Neto, Albuquerque, & Assad,
 To fabricate a cost-effective mechatronics 2016)
drilling equipment.
Various educational advantages can be
 To evaluate and program the fabricated
attained in mechatronics. Mechatronics laboratory
mechatronics drilling equipment through the
can create opportunities to learn and understand
PLC with the use of WPL Soft.
the basics in terms of control theory principles and
 To create a laboratory experiment with
adaptation of formulas in practice. Laboratory
manual for the utilization of the working
setups can also help in enlightening the important
prototype
value of the technical systems constraints during
experimentation. (Bobtsov et al., 2012)
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Mechatronics Mechatronics highlights integration, product,
system thinking and multi-discipline. Many
Mechatronics system is a compound assembly
international institutions have acquired
of mechanical, electronic, and electromechanical
mechatronics teachings and principles with
components into one device and model dynamics
2
multiple methods that achieved great results. Electropneumatic servo drives can deliver
(Chen, Li, & Wang, 2014) precise position control for multiple industries,
increasing also the productivity and flexibility of
According to the price listed in alibaba; an the system. Its advantages include high positioning
online shop for mechatronic laboratory training at high speed and ease in machine programming.
equipment, most laboratory equipment cost (Ali, Bahari Mohd Noor, Bashi, & Marhaban, 2009).
ranges from one thousand (1,000) to ten thousand Other advantages include good power/weight
(10,000) dollars. ratio, easily available in the industrial field and
2.2 Automated Drilling System possibly low cost. (Amaral, H. El Gamah, 1992)

Manufacturers render their attention at the 2.4 Electrical Connection/Control System


quality of drill, especially with small diameters that Industrial and automated equipment uses
work in various conditions. (V. Vekteris, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) which are
Jurevichius, & Trumpa, 2005). It is also important computer – based, solid – state, single processor
that the drills of small diameter, after operations devices that develop the behavior of an electric
and treatment, have strength and bending ladder diagram capable of controlling the system.
stiffness that exceeds a certain value. (Vladas PLCs are efficient and reliable in automotive
Vekteris, Jurevichius, & Daktariunas, 2008) applications involving sequential control,
Machines that offer fully automated drilling synchronization of processes and other auxiliary
capability can accomplish high accuracy, elements in manufacturing industries. (Alphonsus
repeatability, and efficiency as well as & Abdullah, 2016)
documentation of process parameters and quality Control system involves programming that is
monitoring. concerned with implementing the logic and
End effectors equipped with drilling in an switching operations. Input devices, such as push
industrial robot can offer flexibility of operation on buttons, and output devices, such as pneumatic
the one hand, and quality, speed, and efficiency actuators being controlled, are connected to the
on the other hand.(Frommknecht, Kuehnle, PLC and then it monitors the inputs and outputs in
Effenberger, & Pidan, 2017) the process. (Alphonsus & Abdullah, 2016)

Shown in the figure below is the fabricated Electrical operation involves handling at
prototype of an automated drilling system based different voltage and current levels. Devices may
on PLC. It consists of 4 stages: the first stage require 120VAC including PLC while sensors such
consists of sensors and switches, the second stage as photoelectric and proximity sensors may
is the controller or the PLC, then the third stage is require 24 VDC. Actuators that are being
the actuators and indicators of the drilling controlled may operate at higher voltage levels
machine, and lastly, the fourth stage, is the such as 240 or 480 VAC. (Hackworth & Hackworth,
mechanical structure and design of the drilling 2004)
machine process. (Abueejela, et.al. 2015)
III. METHODOLOGY

This chapter will focus on the methods that


will be used on the fabrication of the prototype,
the necessary equipment, and facilities used. The
software and materials needed are also included,
as well as the flowchart and conceptual
framework.

3.1 Process Flowchart and Conceptual


Figure 2.1. Fabricated Prototype of Abueejela. Et.al. Framework

2.3 Electropneumatic System


3
•Designing of prototype with dimensions
Visualization using Solidworks

•Gathering necessary materials and


components
Fabrication •3D Printing of small parts
•Assembly of the system

•PLC
Programming •Ladder Logic Programming

•Running simple drilling test on a


Testing sequence

Figure 3.1: Process Flowchart Figure 3.2: Conceptual Framework Chart


Shown in the figure above is the Process With Industry 4.0 being a new trend, the need
Flowchart of the study. The first step is the of a mechatronics equipment is a milestone to
visualization of the prototype with the use of achieve. However, a mechatronics equipment is
SolidWorks. After designing the drilling expensive and is not accessible to most of
equipment, the researchers have prepared the Filipinos, especially students. Constructing a cheap
materials needed in creating the actual prototype. but effective mechatronics equipment will be a
The fabrication of the mechatronics drilling stepping stone for Filipinos’ economic
equipment was made with the use of locally development.
available materials. Also, some parts that are not
commercially available and have certain function In this study, as shown in Figure 3.2, a
which requires a specific dimension were also mechatronics equipment that focuses on drilling
designed using SolidWorks and are 3D Printed will be designed and developed. Through the use
with the use of an Ultimaker Cura 3D Printer. The of the program Solid Works, the geometrical
electrical wirings of the system were connected model of the prototype can be visualized. The
correctly and carefully. Then, the program was prototype will be programmed through a
made by creating a ladder diagram with the use of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and in WPL
WPL Soft and then stored into the memory of the Soft. Then, the fabrication will be composed of
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). After the locally available materials. After the assembly of
fabrication and programming, the finished the equipment, it will be tested and commissioned
prototype was evaluated and tested by the for educational purposes. A laboratory activity will
researchers that will result to the production of be created for the purpose of better
laboratory manual activity for the students’ future understanding the principle of operation of an
learnings. automated drilling system created for a
mechatronics laboratory equipment.

3.2 Software
3.2.1 SolidWorks

The Automated Drilling System is designed


using SolidWorks 2016. SolidWorks 2016 is a
software used to create solid models for

4
mechanical and design applications. SolidWorks is
a software that provides complete 3D tools in
creating, simulating, publishing, and managing
pertinent data. SolidWorks follows ease-of-use
which allows designers, engineers and other
technology professionals to take advantage of 3D
features to bring their designs to reality.
(SolidWorks Website). The automated drilling
system is designed and visualized using
SolidWorks 2016 with all the exact and necessary
dimensions.

3.2.2 Ultimaker Cura


Figure 3.4: WPL Soft Logo
Ultimaker Cura is a software that prepares the
model for 3D printing. The model readily saved for
printing will be sliced into thin layers until finished.
(Ultimaker Cura Website). Components that are 3.3 Mechanical Components
not commercially available will be produced using 3.3.1 Structural Frame
a 3D Printer. First, it will be designed in SolidWorks
The structural frame of the mechatronics
2016 with the necessary dimensions needed.
drilling equipment is made with the use of locally
Then, it will be imported to Ultimaker Cura and set
available materials such as angle bars, bolts, and
necessary parameters such as in fill density, and
nuts. The design of the structural frame was
support.
visualized with the use of the SolidWorks and then
created in actual with proper dimensions and
alignments.

Figure 3.3: Print Preview of the 3D Printed Feed Figure 3.5: Slotted Angle Bar
3.2.3 WPL Soft

WPL Soft is a program editor of Delta DVP


series PLC for WINDOWS computers. In addition to
general PLC programming and WINDOWS editing
functions such as cut, paste, copy, multi-window
display, etc. WPL Soft also provides various
comment editing as well as other special functions
such as register editing and settings, file accessing
and saving, contacts monitoring and setting.

Figure 3.6: Bolts and Nuts

5
3.3.2 Pneumatic Cylinder

Four (4) 20mm x 100mm double acting


cylinders are attached in the prototype. One
cylinder will serve as a supply feeding device to
the conveyor. Meanwhile, three cylinders are used
for the downward motion of the drill assembly.

Figure 3.9: Conveyor (Actual)

3.3.4 Flow Control Valve

Eight flow control valves are paired with the


pneumatic cylinders. The bore dimension of the
flow control valve is 6mm. It is placed at every
fitting attached in the cylinders. It controls the
flow of fluid coming from the compressor in order
to regulate the speed of the retracting and
extracting motion of the pneumatic cylinder.

Figure 3.7 & 3.8: Pneumatic Cylinders (Actual)

3.3.3 Conveyor Figure 3.10: Flow Control Valve (Actual)


The conveyor handles the workpiece and 3.3.5 Air Compressor
moves straight to the drill smoothly. It will
automatically stop before the drilling motion Air compressor serves as the main supply of
starts in every cylinder and will continue to move the whole system. It is connected through a hose
after a certain period of time. The conveyor used going to the pneumatic system which supplies air
in the system has the following specifications: Belt that flows through the fittings.
dimensions: 85.5cm x 9cm x 9cm, Chassis
dimensions: 88cm x 10.5cm x 11cm. Motor: 12V

6
Figure 3.13: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Panel Board

3.4.1.1 Programmable Logic Controller


Figure 3.11: Air Compressor (Actual)
Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a
3.3.6 3D Printed Parts
control system using electronic operations. It's
Some components which are not easy storing procedures, handy extending
principles, functions of sequential/position
commercially available such as workpiece and
control, timed counting and input/output control
feed are produced using 3D Printer. These
are widely applied to the field of industrial
components are designed in Solidworks with automation control.
all the necessary dimensions and then printed
using Ultimaker Cura.

Figure 3.14: Actual Programmable Logic


Controller (PLC)
Figure 3.12: Cylindrical Workpieces
3.4.1.2 Circuit Breaker
3.4 Electrical Components
3.4.1 Panel Board Circuit breaker is an electrical component
used to protect the circuit from damage caused by
All wirings coming from the terminal blocks
excess current. It is used for safety purposes.
from the prototype are connected to the PLC
through the PLC panel board. The panel board
comprises of terminal blocks connected to the PLC
and different power supplies, 5V, 12V and 24V
power supply.

7
3.4.1.5 Terminal Blocks

12 pairs, 15 Amperes terminal blocks are used


in the panel board. It connects the wirings from
the prototype going to the PLC.

Figure 3.15 Actual Circuit Breaker

3.4.1.3 Power Supply

Power supply is used to supply power to PLC,


DC Motors, Solenoid Valves and Sensors. Each Figure 3.18: Terminal Blocks on Panel Board
power supply has different voltage rating. The
3.4.2 Prototype
power supply at the left has 5V, followed by two
3.4.2.1 Sensors
24V power supply then 12V power supply.
Three (3) 5V proximity sensors are used in the
study located before the cylinders in order to
detect the workpiece that will initiate and stop the
drilling motion of the cylinder and will activate the
motor.

Figure 3.16 Actual Power Supply

3.4.1.4 Relay

Relays are switches that open and close


circuits electromechanically or electronically.

Figure 3.19: Proximity Sensor (Actual)

3.4.2.2 Push Button

Push buttons are used in the prototype.


Green buttons indicate normally open system
while the red button indicates normally closed
system. The green button on the left enables the
prototype to start to operate; the red button
enables the system to reset/stop while the green
button on the right turns on the conveyor.

Figure 3.17: Relay

8
Figure 3.22: Solenoid Valve (Actual)

3.4.2.5 DC Motor

Figure 3.20: Push Button Four (4) 12V DC motors represent the drill of
the system. The rotating shaft of the DC motors act
3.4.2.3 Octocoupler as the drill bit that will move through the hole of
the workpiece. It will automatically operate after
The 4 channel 5V relay was used for the the proximity sensor detects the workpiece.
proximity sensors of the prototype which allows
the 24 V input even though the sensor can only
accumulate 5 V.

Figure 3.23: DC Motor with 3D Printed Case

3.4.2.6 Terminal Blocks


12 pairs, 15 Amperes terminal blocks are used
in the prototype. The wirings from the
components are connected to the terminal blocks
going to the terminal blocks on the panel board
then going to the PLC.
Figure 3.21: Optocoupler (Actual)

3.4.2.4 Solenoid Valve

Four (4) 24V 5/2 way solenoid valves are


attached in the system. Each pneumatic cylinder is
connected to the solenoid valve. It also controls
the motion of the cylinder manually. Once the
switch button is pressed, the cylinder will extract
and/or retract.

Figure 3.23: Terminal block on the prototype


9
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Sensors – Three sensors are attached in the
4.1 Geometric Modelling of the Automated prototype. The workpiece will pass by each
Drilling System sensor which will initiate the downward
motion of the cylinders and run the dc
The Automated Drilling System was designed motors.
and visualized using SolidWorks 2016. The  DC Motor – DC motors represent the drill of
geometric model of the drilling system consists of the prototype. It will automatically operate
parts such as angle bars for the base frame once the workpiece passed by the sensor.
conveyor, piston cylinders, linear guides, drill, dc  Conveyor – Conveyor holds the workpiece
motors and sensors. going to the three drill and will automatically
stop once the workpiece has finished passing
through the three drills.
 Feed – 3D printed feed holds all the
workpiece at its initial position.
 Push button – Push buttons are used to
start/stop the whole system and also to start
the conveyor.
 Terminal blocks – The electrical wiring
system from the prototype is connected to
the terminal blocks.

4.2 Fabrication of the Automated Drilling System

The construction of the Automated Drilling


System is mostly made up of commercially
available materials. However, some components
such as mount, specimen, feed and motor holder
are not commercially available. Hence, these
Figure 4.1: SolidWorks Model of the Prototype. components are produced using 3D Printer with all
the exact and necessary dimensions needed. Angle
bars are used for the frame of the prototype.

Figure 4.2: Front View of SolidWorks Model of


Prototype.

4.1.1 Parts and its Functions Figure 4.3: Fabricated Prototype


 Pneumatic Cylinders – Four pneumatic
4.3 Evaluating and Testing of the Fabricated
cylinders are used in the prototype. Cylinder
Prototype
1 (Y0) pushes the workpiece from the feed
4.3.1 Electrical Connection
going to the conveyor, while Cylinders 2 (Y2),
3(Y2 Table 1: Legend for the Components of the
Electrical Circuits

10
4.3.1.1 Panel Board Circuit Diagram

The PLC Panel Board is shown below, the


panel board consists of the power supplies needed
to power the electrical components of the
prototype such as, DC motors, conveyor, solenoid
valves and the PLC. The panel board also has relay,
circuit breaker and terminal blocks which are
connected to the PLC, relay and power supplies.

Figure 4.6: PLC Panel Board Left Side


Shown in the table above are the legends for
the components of the electrical circuit diagrams.
The figure shown below is the circuit diagram in
the PLC for its input and output. The push buttons
and sensors are inputs while the solenoids and
motors are outputs. In the diagram the outputs go
through a relay. It is further shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.7: PLC Panel Board Right Side

Figure 4.4: PLC Circuit Diagram Input – Output

Figure 4.5: Relay Circuit Diagram


Figure 4.8: PLC Panel Board Actual
11
output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also
used to power up a solenoid valve.

Figure 4.12: Relay 3 Connection

Shown in the figure above is the relay 2


Figure 4.9: PLC Connection connection. The relay is used to step down the plc
output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also
Shown in the figure above is the PLC used to power up a solenoid valve.
connection of the prototype. PB1, PB2, PB3 and
the 3 sensors are connected in the input while the
outputs are connected in a relay except for Y0.

Figure 4.13: Relay 4 Connection

Figure 4.10: Relay 1 Connection Shown in the figure above is the relay 2
connection. The relay is used to step down the plc
Shown in the figure above is the Relay 1 output of 24V to 12V to the motor, and it is also
connection. The relay is used to step down the PLC used to power up a solenoid valve.
output of 24V to 12V to the conveyor motor.
4.3.1.2. Prototype Circuit Diagram

Shown in the figure below is the connection


for terminal block 1 of the prototype. The 4
solenoid valves, conveyor motor and 1 motor are
connected to this terminal block. The output are
connected to terminal blocks 4 and 5 which will be
shown later on.

Figure 4.11: Relay 2 Connection

Shown in the figure above is the relay 2


connection. The relay is used to step down the plc

12
Figure 4.14: Terminal Block 1 Connection

Shown in the figure below is the connection


for terminal block 2 of the prototype The 3 sensors
of the prototype and 2 motors are connected into
this terminal block. The signals of the 3 sensors are
Figure 4.16: Terminal Block 3 Connection
connected directly to the octocoupler while the
others are connected to either terminal blocks 4 Shown in the figure below are the
and 5. connections for terminal blocks 4 and 5. The
outputs of terminal blocks 1 to 3 are connected
into these two terminal blocks. The outputs of
terminal blocks 4 and 5 are connected to the PLC
panel board terminal blocks.

Figure 4.15: Terminal Block 2 Connection Figure 4.17: Terminal Block 4 Connection
Shown in the figure below is the connection
for terminal block 3. The octocoupler is connected
into this terminal block. The push buttons
common are also connected into this terminal
block. Its outputs are connected into either
terminal block 4 and 5.

Figure 4.18: Terminal Block 5 Connection

13
Shown in the figure below are the actual 4.3.2 Program Analysis
pictures of the terminal blocks in the prototype.
Terminal blocks 1 to 3 are located at the bottom
area of the prototype while terminal blocks 4 and
5 are located near the push buttons for easy
access in connecting to the panel board.

Figure 4.19: Terminal Block 1 (Actual)


Figure 4.17: Process Flowchart

In the figure shown above, when push button


1 (PB1) 1 is pressed, the cylinder feed (Y0) turns on
and pushes the work piece, and turns off after 2
secs. When the cylinder feed (Y0) turns off, the
conveyor (Y1) turns on. When the workpiece
reaches the front of Sensor 1 (X1), after 11
milliseconds the first cylinder and motor (Y2) of
the drill assembly turns on, while the conveyor
stops and turns off after 2 seconds while the
conveyor turns on. Then, when the workpiece
reaches the front of Sensor 2 (X2), after 8
milliseconds the second cylinder and motor (Y2) of
Figure 4.20: Terminal Blocks 2 and 3 (Actual)
the drill assembly turns on, while the conveyor
stops and turns off after 2 seconds while the
conveyor turns on. Lastly, when the workpiece
reaches the front of Sensor 3 (X3), after 9
milliseconds the third cylinder and motor (Y3) of
the drill assembly turns on, while the conveyor
stops and turns off after 2 seconds while the
conveyor turns on. And finally, after 2 seconds the
whole system resets.

Figure 4.21: Terminal Blocks 4 and 5 (Actual)

14
Table 2: Results of Testing of the Program The fabricated prototype is tested and
evaluated to determine its performance and
integrity of the prototype. The program created
for the system of prototype is inserted in the PLC.
The prototype will follow the process shown
above and described.

4.3.3 Stages of Automation

The automated drilling system has () stages


for the completion of its whole process. The
following stages are as follows:

4.3.3.1 Initial Position

All workpiece are placed in the feed that is


aligned with the cylinder 1 and conveyor.

Figure 4.20: Side View of the alignment

4.3.3.2 Stage 1

When the operator pressed the push button


1, the workpiece is being pushed by the cylinder
1(Y1) going to the conveyor.
Figure 4.18: Program for Automated Drilling
System created with WPL Soft

Figure 4.21: Side view of stage 1 showing the


workpiece after pushing to the conveyor

4.3.3.3 Stage 2

The conveyor will finally move passing by the


Figure 4.19: Fabricated Prototype with Label sensor 1 (X1). Once the workpiece is detected, the
sensor 1 will be activated.

15
(X2). Once the workpiece is detected, the sensor 2
is activated

Figure 4.22: Front view of the workpiece reaching


the sensor 1

4.3.3.4 Stage 3
Figure 4.25: Front view of workpiece passing by
After 11 milliseconds, the conveyor will sensor 2
automatically stop such that the workpiece will be
4.3.3.7 Stage 5
aligned to the cylinder 2 (Y2).
After 8 milliseconds, the conveyor will
automatically stop such that the workpiece will be
aligned to the cylinder 3 (Y4).

Figure 4.23: Front view of workpiece aligned to


cylinder 2

4.3.3.5 First Drilling Process Figure 4.26: Front view of workpiece aligned to
cylinder 3
The cylinder 2 (Y3) will extract to drill the
workpiece while the motor 1 will also run. 4.3.3.8 Second Drilling Process

The cylinder 3 (Y4) will extract to drill the


workpiece while the motor will also run.

Figure 4.24: Front View of workpiece being drilled

4.3.3.6 Stage 4

After 2 seconds, the cylinder 2 (Y2) will retract


while the motor 1 will be turned off. The conveyor Figure 4.27: Front view of workpiece being drilled
will begin to run again passing by the sensor 2
4.3.3.9 Stage 6

16
After 2 seconds, the cylinder 3 (Y4) will retract
while the motor will be turned off. The conveyor
will begin to run again passing by the sensor 3.
Once the workpiece is detected, the sensor 3 is
activated.

Figure 4.309: Front view of workpieece being


drilled

4.3.3.12 Stage 8

After 2 seconds, the cylinder 4 (Y5) will retract


Figure 4.28: Front view of workpiece passing by while the motor 3 will be turned off. The conveyor
sensor 3 will begin to run again. After 20 milliseconds, the
whole system will stop.
4.3.3.10 Stage 7

After 9 milliseconds, the conveyor will


automatically stop such that the workpiece will be
aligned to the cylinder 4 (Y5).

Figure 4.31: Front view of workpiece at the end of


the process.

V. CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION
Figure 4.29: Front view of workpiece aligned at
5.1 Summary and Conclusion
cylinder 4
In this paper, the prototype and programming
4.3.3.11 Third Drilling Process
of the automated drilling station was done.
The cylinder 4 (Y5) will extract to drill the Geometric modelling was developed first using
workpiece while the motor will also run. Solidworks 2016 to establish a prototype made
with materials that are locally available however,
some components are 3D printed due to
unavailability and requires a specific dimension
and function. The prototype is programmed using
WPL Soft and is executed by moving the specimen
on the conveyor to the drills, which are made by
assembling three pneumatic piston cylinders and
three dc motors that will initiate a “drilling”
17
process, and are attached vertically on the station who tagged along with us through ups and downs
therefore creating a hole on the specimen. in conducting this study.

In conclusion, the automated drilling system is Lastly, we would like to thank our loving
successfully designed and developed. It is also families, Barela Family, Delocado Family, Sison
executed well on the PLC and able to follow the Family, and Tizon Family. These are the people
objective. The developed prototype in this study is behind our achievements in life. They gave us their
cost-effective when compared to commercially full support and understanding; from going home
available mechatronics laboratory equipment. In late until being unable to go home at all. They
terms of function, it can compete to those were our inspiration from the beginning until the
available in the market. According to the price end.
listed in alibaba; an online shop for mechatronic
laboratory training equipment, most laboratory To God be all the glory!
equipment cost ranges from one thousand (1,000) REFERENCES
to ten thousand (10,000) dollars.
[1] S. R. Majumdar, Pneumatic Systems: Principles and
The design, fabrication, and process Maintenance, 1995
development of this station will serve as an
[2] Retrieved from:
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laboratory that can possibly be economical and l
beneficial for students in acquiring knowledge on
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5.2 Recommendation [4] Electro-Craft Corporation, DC Motors, Speed Controls, Servo


Systems: An Engineering Handbook, 1972
In line with the prototype developed in this
[5] Hazem I. Ali, Samsul Bahari B Mohd Noor, S.M. Bashi, M.H.
study, the researchers recommend the following:
Marhaban, A Review of Pnuematic Actuators (Modeling and
Control), 2009
 Create a design that will hold three
workpieces on the conveyor. [6] P.F.S. Amaral, H. El Gamah, J.G. Fontaine, and J.Rabit,
 Create a program that will drill the three Motion Control of an Electropneumatic Driven Legged Robot
workpieces simultaneously. [7] A.A. Bobtsov, S.A. Kolyubin, A.A. Pyrkin, A.S. Borgul,
 Create a program that will drill the three Mechatronic and Robotic Setups for Modern Control Theory
workpieces on a sequence procedure. Workshop, 2012

[8] D. Chen, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Wang, A mechatronics control


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT engineering class at Beihang University, China: Practicing and
First of all, we would like to express our exploring, 2012
heartfelt thanks and gratitude to our co- [9] F. Wilhelm Bruns, Heinz-H. Erbe, Remote Learning of
researcher and adviser, Engr. Basil P. Bautista for Mechatronics, 2004
his continuous guidance and support throughout
[10] D. Bradley, D. Russel, I. Ferguson, J. Isaacs, A. Macleod, R.
the study and research. This project would not White, The Internet of Things – The future or the end of
have been possible without his recommendations mechatronics, 2015
and assistance despite of his hectic schedule.
[11] M.S. Neto, A.N. De Albuquerque, M.M. Assad, Small Scale
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Tools, 2016
Research and Development (CRD) for their trust in
providing us financial assistance that helped us in [12] D. Chen, Z. Li, T. Wang, Exploration and practice: A
conducting the study. We are truly grateful for competition based project practice teaching mode, 2014
your generosity and support. [13] V. Vektris, M. Jurevichius, A. Trumpa, Mechatronical
system of drill testing, 2005
To our fellow classmates and friends,
especially Jabie Paz, John Mark Carasig, Elaine [14] V. Vektris, M. Jurevichius, A. Daktariunas, Mechatronical
Caoile, Thea Orobia, Jojo Sace, Nic Sevilleja, and system for testing small diameter drills, 2008
Ervel Marcelo. These are some of those people
18
[15] A. Frommknect, J. Kuehnle, I. Effenberger, S. Pidan, Multi-
sensor measurement system for robotic drilling

[16] A. Yousef M., A. Albagul, Mansour, Ibrahim A., et. al.


Automated Drilling Machine Based on PLC,2015

[17] Andrew Parr, Hydraulics and Pneumatics (Third Edition),


2011

[18] Geoff Barker, The Engineer’s Guide to Plant Layout and


Piping Design for the Oil and Gas Industries, 2018

19
Appendix C: Research Schedule

The proposed time table of the implementation of the project will be according to

the Gantt Chart shown.

Table 3: Gantt Chart

November December January February March April May


Activity
Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2 Week 3-4 Week 1-2
Design of prototype
using solidworks

Preparing materials
needed.

Forming the
assembly. 3d print
necessary parts.

Create the Program

Testing

Final Presentation

2
Appendix D: Budget Breakdown

In completing the project, the researchers have computed a budget amounting PhP

14,874.5. The breakdown of the expenses is shown in the table below.

Table 4: Budget Breakdown