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MANUFACTURING OF LIQUIDS

Presented by-
SUPRIYA SUMAN
PharmD 4th year
Roll no.-15
INTRODUCTION:-

 Liquid dosage forms are prepared any of the following:-


• by dissolving active ingredients in an aqueous or non-
aqueous solvent,
• by suspending the drug or
• by incorporating the drug into one of the two phases of
an oil and water systems.
ADVANTAGE:-
• Easy to sawllow.
• Faster therapeutic response.
• Palatable.
• Acceptable for pediatric and geriatric use.
• Solution are more acceptable for local action.
DISADVANTAGE:-
• Shorter life than other dosage form
I. Less stable
II. Easily affected by microorganisms
• Harder to measure accuracy measuring dose is
required
• Need special storage condition
• Not potable
• High risk of loss by the breakage of the container
CLASSIFICATION:-

LIQUID

BIPHASIC MONOPHASIC

EMULSION SUSPENSION EXTERNAL INTERNAL

INSTILLED
USED IN APPLICATION
INTO BODY LINCTUS ELIXIR SYRUP
MOUTH ON THE SKIN
CAVITIES

THROAT MOUTH
NASAL SPRAY NASAL DROP EAR DROP GARGLES LOTION LINIMENT
PAINT WASH
Formulation /Manufacturing procedure
COMPONENTS

• API
• Vehicle
Aqueous vehicles: Water, Aromatic Water,
Alcohol, glycerine, Propylene Glycol.
Oily vehicles: Vegetable oils, mineral oils,
organic oily bases or emulsified bases.
COMPONENTS
• Surfactant
 Solubilising agents – eg- Polysorbate 80.
 Flocculating agent – eg- gum acacia,wool fat,methylcellulose,
 Wetting agent – eg- Tweens 80, spans ,SLS.
 Emulsifying agents
 Antifoaming agents –eg- Castor oil, fatty acids.
CONTINUE.....
• Colouring agent – example- coal tar dyes such as amaranth
(red),caramel(brown),indigo(blue), napthol(black).
• Flavouring agents -
 Tinctures- tincture lemon, and tincture ginger .
 Fruit juices- raspberry juice , wild cherry.
 Essence- vanilla, orange.
• Preservative –example-methyl paraben , sodium benzoate,
benzoic acid.
• Antioxidant agent-example- BHA,BHT
PROCEDURE

1. General preparation for monophasic dosage form-


 For soluble compound :-

make up to
In ¾ th of add any liquid
Dissolve solid the volume by
vehicle ingredient
vehicle
CONTINUE....

 For diffusible solids

Make cream and


Add soluble drug
powder in mortar Add vehicle 3/4 add remaining
and mix
vehicle

Transfer content
Make it up to the Add any liquid
mortar to measuring
volume by vehicle ingredient
cylinder
CONTINUE...
• For indiffusible solid:-

mix all powder and


add¾ the vehicle
suspending agent Triturate it till form cream
slowly
(tragacanth)

Transfer the
Add vehicle for Add other liquid
mixture into
required volume ingredient
measuring cylinder
CONTINUE ...
• Biphasic dosage form
 Suspension

Add vehicle and stir


(1)Soluble
it

2type of component

Add small amount


Diffusible solid of vehicle , to form
paste
Taken in mortar Add 1st solution in Transfer it to another
(2)Insoluble
pistle &reduce size 2nd make slurry container and make up
Add wetting agent to the volume
Indiffusible solid +small amount of
vehicle to form paste
CONTINUE ...
 Emulsion
 Dry gum method
 Wet gum method
• Proportion of oil,water,gum in different type of oils:-
S.No. Type of oils example Oil ratio Water ratio Gum ratio
1 Fixed oil •Castor oil 4 2 1
•Almond oil
2 Volatile oil •Cinnamon oil 2 2 1
•Peppermint oil
3 Mineral oil •Liquid paraffin 3 2 1
Dry gum method
• Measure the required quantity of oil in a dry measuring
cylinder and transfer it into dry mortar
• Add calculated amount of gum into it and triturate rapidly to
form uniform mixture
• Add required amount of water and triturate it till clicking sound
is produced –(primary emulsion)
• Add more water to produce required volume .
Wet gum method
• Calculate the quantity of oil, water and gum required for
preparation of primary emulsion
• Powder gum in a mortar
• Add water and triturate it with gum so as to form a mucilage
• Add required quantity of oil in small proportion with rapid
trituration until clicking sound is produced and product becomes
white (primary emulsion).
• Add more of water in small portion to the primary emulsion with
trituration to produced the required volume, stir thoroughly so as
to form a uniform emulsion.
THANK YOU