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Objectives Overview
Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet
Define system development
Identify the guidelines for
and list the system
system development
development phases

Chapter 12 Discuss the importance of


project management,
Information Systems feasibility assessment,
Discuss the purpose of and
tasks conducted in each
and Program documentation, and data
system development phase
Development and information gathering
techniques
See Page 510 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 2
for Detailed Objectives

Objectives Overview System Development

Identify the benefits of System development is a set of activities


Differentiate between object-oriented
low-level languages and programming languages used to build an information system
procedural languages and application
development tools System development activities are
grouped into phases, and is called
List other programming
languages and Describe various ways the system development life cycle
application
development tools
to develop webpages (SDLC)
See Page 510 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 3 Page 510 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 4
for Detailed Objectives

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System Development System Development

• System development should follow three general


guidelines:

Group activities or tasks into phases

Involve users

Define standards

5 Pages 510 - 512 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 6

They also must be familiar with business


operations, be able to solve problems,
have the ability to introduce and support
change, and possess excellent
communications and interpersonal skills.

The systems analysts are the They convert user requests


liaison between the users into technical specifications.
and the IT professionals. Thus, systems analysts must
have superior technical skills. Systems analysts prepare many reports,
Thus, systems analysts must drawings, and diagrams.
have superior technical skills.

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 7 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 8

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System
They discuss various aspects of the Development
development project with users, • System
developmen
management, other analysts, database t should
involve
analysts, database administrators, representati
ves from
network administrators, Web each
department
developers, programmers, vendors, and in which the
the steering committee. proposed
system will
be used

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 9 10

System Development System Development

• Project management is the process of planning,


scheduling, and then controlling the activities during Popular tools
used to plan
system development
and schedule
• To plan and schedule a project efficiently, the project the time
leader identifies the following elements: relationships
among project
Required Time estimates activities are
Project scope
activities for each activity
Gantt and PERT
charts
Activities that
Cost estimates Order of
can take place at
for each activity activities
the same time
Pages 513 - 514 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 11 Page 514 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 12
Figure 12-3

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PERT
chart
A Gantt chart, developed by Henry L.
Gantt, is a bar chart that uses horizontal
bars to show project phases or activities.
The left side, or vertical
Developed by the U.S. Department of Defense
axis, displays the list of
required activities.
A PERT chart, short for Program Evaluation and Review Technique chart, analyzes
the time required to complete a task and identifies the minimum time required for
A horizontal axis across an entire project.
the top or bottom of the
PERT charts, sometimes called network diagrams, can be more complicated to
chart represents time. create than Gantt charts, but are better suited than Gantt charts for planning and
scheduling large, complex projects.
Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 13 14

System Development System Development

• Feasibility is a measure of how suitable the Documentation is the


development of a system will be to the collection and summarization
organization of data, information, and
deliverables.

Maintaining up-to-date
documentation should be an
ongoing part of system
development.
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System Development System Development

• During system development, members of the project • The planning phase for a project begins when the
team gather data and information using several steering committee receives a project request
techniques
• Four major activities are performed:
Review
Observe Survey
documentation
Review and Form a project
Prioritize the Allocate
approve the development
project requests resources
project requests team
Interview JAD Sessions Research

Page 516 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 17 Page 520 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 18
Figure 12-4

System Development

• The analysis phase consists of two major


activities:
Conduct a preliminary Perform detailed
investigation analysis
• Determines and • Study how the current
defines the exact system works
nature of the problem • Determine the users’
or improvement wants, needs, and
• Interview the user who requirements
submitted the request • Recommend a solution

Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 19 Pages 520 - 522 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 20

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System Development System Development

• The system proposal assesses the feasibility of


each alternative solution
• The steering committee discusses the system
proposal and decides which alternative to pursue
Modify
Buy retail
existing Use web apps
software
system

Build custom
Outsource
software

Page 521 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 21 Pages 522 - 523 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 22
Figure 12-6

System Development System Development

• The design phase consists of two major activities • To acquire the necessary hardware and software:

Solicit vendor
Make a decision
proposals

Develop all of the


Acquire hardware details of the new
and software or modified Identify technical Test and evaluate
information system specifications vendor proposals

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System Development System Development

• The next step is to develop detailed design • Systems analysts typically develop two types of
specifications designs for each input and output
Mock-up Layout chart

Input and
Database Program
output
design design
design

Pages 525 - 526 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 25 Pages 525 - 526 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 26
Figures 12-8 – 12-9

System Development System Development

• A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model • A prototype (proof of concept) is a working model of the
of the proposed system’s essential functionality proposed system’s essential functionality
– Prototypes have inadequate or missing documentation • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools are
designed to support one or more activities of system
– Users tend to embrace the prototype as a final system
development
– Should not eliminate or replace activities

Page 526 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 27 Pages 526 – 527 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 28
Figure 12-10

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System Development System Development

• The purpose of the implementation phase is to • Various tests should be performed on the new
construct the new or modified system and then system
deliver it to users
Integration Acceptance
Unit test Systems test
test test
• Verifies that • Verifies that • Verifies that • Checks the
Develop Install and Convert to each all programs an new system
programs and test the new Train users the new individual in an application to ensure
apps system system program or application works with that it works
object works work other with actual
by itself together applications data
properly

Pages 528 - 529 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 29 Page 528 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 30

System Development System Development


• One or more of four conversion strategies can be used to change from
• Training involves showing users exactly how they the old system to the new system

will use the new hardware and software in the -The user stops using the old
system system and begins using the
new system on a certain date.
– One-on-one sessions - Advantage: this strategy
requires no transition costs
– Classroom-style lectures and is a quick implementation
technique. Some systems
– Web-based training analysts call this technique an
abrupt cutover.
- Disadvantage: it is extremely
risky and can disrupt
operations seriously if the new
system does not work
Direct conversion correctly the first time.

Pages 528 - 529 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 31 Page 529 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 32
Figure 12-11

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System Development System Development

• One or more of four conversion strategies can be • The purpose of the support and security phase is
used to change from the old system to the new to provide ongoing assistance for an information
system system and its users after the system is
Direct conversion implemented
Perform Monitor
Assess system
Parallel conversion maintenance system
security
activities performance
Phased conversion
Pilot conversion

Page 529 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 33 Page 530 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 34

Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• A programming language is a set of words, • Machine language is
abbreviations, and symbols that enable a the first generation of
software developer to communicate instructions programming languages
to a computer or mobile device • Only language the
computer directly
– Low-level language
recognizes
– High-level language

Pages 531 - 532 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 35 Page 532 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 36
Figure 12-12

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Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• Assembly language is the • In a procedural language, the programmer writes
second generation of
programming languages instructions that tell the computer what to
• Programmer writes accomplish and how to do it
instructions using
symbolic instruction
codes
• A source program
contains the language
instructions, or code, to
be converted into
machine language

Pages 532 - 533 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 37 Pages 533 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 38
Figure 12-13

Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• The C programming language is used to write
many of today’s programs
A compiler
translates an entire
program before An interpreter converts
executing it and executes one code
statement at a time

Page 534 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 39 Pages 534 - 535 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 40
Figure 12-14

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Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
Compiler Interpreter • An object-oriented programming (OOP) language allows
programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing
objects
• Other advantages include:

Objects can be Programmers create


reused applications faster

Most object-
oriented application
development tools
are IDEs
Pages 534 – 535 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 41 Page 535 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 42
Figures 12-15 – 12-16

Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• Java is an object-oriented programming language • C++ is an extension of the C programming
developed by Sun Microsystems language
• The Just-in-time (JIT) compiler to convert the machine- – Additional features for working with objects
independent code into machine-dependent code
• Visual Studio is Microsoft’s suite of object-
oriented application development tools that
assists software developers in building programs
and apps for Windows or any operating system
that supports the Microsoft .NET Framework

Page 536 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 43 Page 536 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 44
Figure 12-17

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Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a
nonprocedural language that enables users and
programmers to access data in a database
– One popular 4GL is SQL

Page 537 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 45 Page 538 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 46
Figure 12-18

Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• Classic programming languages include: • An application generator is a program that creates source
code or machine code from a specification of the
Ada ALGOL APL BASIC COBOL required functionality
– Often bundled as part of a DBMS
Forth FORTRAN HyperTalk LISP Logo • A macro is a series of statements that instructs an
application how to complete a task
• You usually create the macro in one of two ways:
Modula-2 Pascal PILOT PL/1 Prolog
– Record the macro with a macro recorder
– Write the macro
RPG Smalltalk

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Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• HTML is a special formatting language that
programmers use to format documents for display
on the web

Page 539 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 49 Page 540 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 50
Figure 12-19 Figure 12-20

Application Development Languages Application Development Languages


and Tools and Tools
• XML allows web developers to create tags that • Software developers write scripts, applets,
describe how information is displayed servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of
– WML is a subset of XML and is used to design pages languages
specifically for microbrowsers

JavaScript Perl PHP

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Application Development Languages


Summary
and Tools

Activities that occur


Ruby on Rails provides System development
phases
Guidelines for system
development
during system
technologies for developing development

object-oriented, database-
Various programming
driven websites languages and Web development
program tools
development tools

Page 542 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 53 Page 545 Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 54

Discovering Computers
Technology in a World of Computers,
Mobile Devices, and the Internet
• Regardless, all SDLCs have similar activities. For
example, the previous figure shows the ‘Develop
programs’ and the ‘Install and test new system’
activities in the Implementation phase. Some
SDLCs separate these activities in an additional
Chapter 12 phase called Construction and Testing.
Information Systems
and Program
Development
Chapter 12 Complete Discovering Computers 2014: Chapter 12 56

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The system
development team
Involve users: Users members must
include anyone for remember they
whom the system is You, as a user, might ultimately deliver the
being built. Customers, interact with an system to the user. If the
employees, students, information system at system is to be
data entry clerks, your bank, library, successful, the user
accountants, sales grocery store, fitness must be included in
managers, and owners center, work, and school. system development.
all are examples of Users are more apt to
users. accept a new system if
they contribute to its
design.

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Schedule feasibility measures


whether the established
deadlines for the project are
reasonable.

Operational
feasibility • Will the users like the new
system?
measures If a deadline is not
reasonable, the project
• Will they use it? leader might make a new
how well the • Will it meet their requirements?
schedule.

proposed • Will it cause any changes in their


information work environment? If a deadline cannot be

system will • Is it secure?


extended, then the scope of
the project might be reduced
to meet a mandatory

work. deadline.

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Technical feasibility measures whether the organization has or can


obtain the hardware, software, and people needed to deliver and
then support the proposed information system.

For most information system projects, hardware, software, and


A systems analyst often
people typically are available to support an information system. consults the advice of a
Economic feasibility, also called cost/benefit business analyst, who uses
feasibility, measures whether the lifetime many financial techniques,
benefits of the proposed information system such as return on
will be greater than its lifetime costs. investment (ROI) and
payback analysis, to
The challenge is obtaining funds to pay for these resources. perform the cost/benefit
analysis

Economic feasibility addresses funding.

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Review Documentation — By reviewing documentation such


as an organization chart, memos, and meeting minutes, Observe —
systems analysts learn about the history of a project. Observing
Likewise,
people helps
observing a
systems analysts
machine allows
understand
you to see how
exactly how
Documentation also provides information about the it works.
they per form a
organization such as its operations, weaknesses, and task.
strengths.

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Research — Newspapers, computer magazines, reference


books, trade shows, the Web, vendors, and consultants are
excellent sources of information.

These sources can provide the systems analyst with


information such as the latest hardware and software
products and explanations of new processes and procedures.

In addition, systems analysts often collect Web site statistics


such as the number of visitors, most visited Web pages, etc.,
and evaluate these statistics as part of their research.

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