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Group Project

Strategic Consulting
July 05, 2019

Group 8
PGP09125 Abhimanyu Sharma
PGP09224 Risha Agarwal
PGP09225 Ritu Singh
PGP09226 Sagar Rastogi
PGP09228 Sameet Ahzam Khan
PGP09237 Shreyans Jain

Submitted to Mr. Sujit Kumar

1 Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 3

2 Which communication technology is on the radar? Its key technical and business
implications? .............................................................................................................................. 3

2.1 5G vs LTE Advanced Pro................................................................................................... 4

2.2 Applications of 5G services in India: .................................................................................. 5

2.3 Business implications ...................................................................................................... 5

2.4 Technical Implications ..................................................................................................... 5

3 In what ways are the Telecom operators expected to approach it? Reimagine themselves?6

4 Likely initiatives of other stakeholders in the evolving business ecosystem? ....................... 7

5 How could the Govt approach Spectrum pricing given the financial condition of the telecom
industry and uncertainties associated with use cases/business models/ROI? ............................ 9

6 How could Infra Sharing happen among operators so as to reduce Capex in their books? . 9

7 How could the Sector specific new services be developed and for which value add
applications? .............................................................................................................................10

8 Are Telcos likely to face “organizational” and “cultural” challenges in monetizing 5G? .......11

9 What could the business models be for Telcos for the 5G era?..........................................11

10 References .......................................................................................................................13
Executive Summary
Fifth generation technology (5G) is the next communication technology on the radar and is going to
replace the prevalent 4G LTE network. Apart from faster data speeds, 5G will change our ecosystem to a
“Hyper-Connected Society”. It will connect newer industries, from retail to education, transport to
entertainment, and more. It is also expected to play a very transformative role in major industries.

Though operators recognize the potential for 5G to transform aspects of the consumer and enterprise
experience, they also have concerns around identifying specific business models and how much scope
there is to monetize the new services that 5G will enable. Several countries are already leading the way
with early launch plans for 5G, some of which have already taken place, while others appear more willing
to be followers and allow the technology to mature.

5G technology has the potential for ushering a major societal transformation in India by enabling a rapid
expansion of the role of information technology across manufacturing, educational, healthcare,
agricultural, financial and social sectors. 5G will create new opportunities for operators with new revenue
streams and potential cost advantages. 5G, which is all set to succeed the 4G standard over the next few
years, offers an exponential improvement in functionality over 4G — it is 100 times faster and has 1,000
times more capacity.

The next generation is here, the smart wireless 5G technology is here. It is evident that the full
technological potential of 5G will be realized over a five- to 10- year horizon due to the timing of the
relevant standards and the required scale of investment. Telecom companies around the world are poised
to invest tens of billions of dollars in 5G. This huge transition of the wireless technology requires a
significant departure from the way telecom companies have operated in the past. To capitalize this
transition successfully, the operators need to specify three elements: first, the services and use cases that
consumers, businesses, and public agencies will value; second, the optimal way to play to monetize and
create value; and third, the capabilities needed to succeed.
Which communication technology is on the radar? Its key
technical and business implications?
5G networks are digital cellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is categorized
into small geographical areas called cells. Analog signals of sounds and images are digitized in the phone,
transformed by an analog to digital converter and sent as a stream of bits. All the 5G wireless devices in a
cell interact by radio waves with a local antenna array and low power automated transmitter and receiver
in the cell, over frequency carriers assigned by the transceiver from a shared pool of frequencies, which
are used again in geographically separated cells. The local antennas are connected with the phone
network and the Internet by a high bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul connection.

5G networks will operate on three broad-spectrum bands, namely – low, mid and high band spectrums.
The low band spectrum is the sub-1 GHz spectrum, which provides great penetrative power, and speeds
generally max out at 100 Mbps. Sub-1GHz bands are suitable to support IoT services and extend mobile
broadband coverage from urban to suburban and rural areas. This is because the propagation properties
of the signal at these frequencies enable 5G to create vast coverage areas and deep in-building

The mid-band spectrum is known for lower latency and faster coverage, but has lower penetrative power;
speeds top out at about 1 Gbps. There is a moderate amount of existing mobile broadband spectrum
identified with this range, which could be used for initial 5G deployments.
The high band spectrum also called the millimeter wave, is the cherry on top, with speeds going up to 10
Gbps and low latencies. This range can be allocated to mobile communications and thus enable enhanced
mobile broadband applications. The only drawback is the low coverage area that it can cater to.

5G has 3 core objectives -

● eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband)
● URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications)
● mMTC (massive Machine Type Communications)
5G technologies are designed to make use of cloud-based or virtual Radio Access Networks (called RANs).
The RAN technologies will empower enterprises and service providers to set up their centralized
networks. The providers can even take the support of localized Data Centers to provide a consistently
faster and more reliable internet connection to users. Currently, base stations and equipment for
supporting 5G networks are manufactured by Samsung, Nokia, Ericsson and Huawei.

3.1 5G vs LTE Advanced Pro

Specifications 5G LTE Advanced Pro
Frequency 30 GHz to 300 GHz range Below 3 GHz
Peak download 20 Gb/s 100 Mb/s
Latency 1 millisecond 10 milliseconds
Data Traffic 50 Exabytes/month 7.2 Exabytes/month
Connection Density 1 million connections/km2 100 thousand connections/km2
Total carrier 100 MHz carrier BW for gigabit 640 MHz, aggregates up to 32
bandwidth backhaul and 500 Hz for multi carriers each of 20 MHz bandwidth
gigabit backhaul
Range Range of 4G is limited to cell Superior range due to multiple
towers and few access points access points and towers
3GPP standard Release 15 Release 13

3.2 Applications of 5G services in India:

Enhanced mobile broadband 5G based Fixed wireless
 Gigabytes in a second  Last mile technology for fixed
 Immersive reality broadband access
 eSports
 Live in venue digital entertainment
 Work and play in cloud
Massive Internet of Things Ultra-reliable, low latency communications
 Smart homes  Autonomous driving
 Smart cities  Industrial and vehicular automation
 Smart buildings  Robotics
 Multiple vertical industries  Remote surgery
 Wearables  Mission critical applications

3.3 Business implications

 For telecom companies in a bad state, 5G would help improve their average revenue per user
(ARPU), a gauge of financial strength of a service provider.
 In India, mobile broadband would be an important application for 5G, which would also bring
down the cost of data per GB. 5G network offers promise of lower operational costs reducing
cost per gigabyte for operators.
 The cost of handsets will be an important factor in a price-sensitive market such as India. The first
5G handsets are likely to be at a premium to existing 4G devices, but prices will fall as the
technology scales and matures.
 Operators are looking to simplify operations and reduce time to market for new functionalities.
Logistically building a network of small cells in mini base stations is a big challenge which will be
both expensive and time-consuming.

3.4 Technical Implications

 5G may use higher frequencies hence 5G signals cannot travel long distances, unlike lower
frequency 5G signals or 4G. This requires constructing 5G base stations every few hundred meters
to utilize higher frequency bands completely. Also, these higher frequency 5G signals cannot
easily penetrate solid objects, like cars, trees and walls, because of the nature of these higher
frequency electromagnetic waves.
 Massive Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) antennas increases sector through-put and
capacity density. This is done by utilizing large numbers of antennas and Multi-User MIMO (MU-
MIMO). MIMO uses multiple targeted beams to spotlight and follow users around a cell site,
improving coverage, speed and capacity. Massive MIMO 5G base stations might support 100
antennas compared to 4G base stations requiring 12 antennas to transmit and receive data.
 Low-powered cellular radio access nodes, which operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrum
with a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers are known as Small Cells. 5G radio waves are unable
to travel long distances, thus making Small Cells critical for 5G Networks. Hence, to implement
5G a dense network small cells have to be established, unlike 4G LTE relies upon relatively few
large masts, which are built miles apart. Hence, leveraging existing civil infrastructure such as
placing mini 5G base stations such as street lights or buildings every few hundred in urban areas.
 Beamforming is achieved by combining elements in an antenna array in such a way that signals
at particular angles experience constructive interference while others experience destructive
interference. This is utilized to direct radio waves to the intended target. This improves signal
quality and data transfer speeds. Beamforming not only helps reduce interference but aslo boost
the probability of ensuring the blocked signals reach the intended recipient. It is also employed
to identify the optimum route to each connected user. Dynamic time-division duplex (TDD) will
be used for changing the direction of download or upload transmission to achieve faster data

In what ways are the Telecom operators expected to

approach it? Reimagine themselves?
As per the report of GSMA Intelligence, 5G services are expected to launch in India by 2020. With market
size of 0.8 billion unique subscribers and 0.7 billion smartphone connections in India, it is forecasted that
India will have 88 million 5G connections by 2025 equivalent to around 7% of the total connections base
in the country.

Indian operators are currently investing heavily in their LTE networks; Jio has built a greenfield LTE
network over the last four years, while Bharti Airtel and Vodafone Idea are investing in adding coverage
and capacity to their LTE networks. All the operators are therefore deploying the most advanced versions
of LTE which should enable an easier and more cost-effective migration to 5G. Bharti Airtel and Jio are
deploying LTE Advanced, which uses carrier aggregation to increase data speeds. Vodafone Idea is
deploying massive MIMO in several cities while looking to increase ‘cloudification’ of the network core
and trialing software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) as it looks to
ready its network for 5G.

The Indian government is hoping to raise close to Rs 6 trillion from the 5G spectrum auction which will be
the biggest till date, but the telcos are of the opinion that the planned base price for the auction is set
too high. Different telecom operators are expected to approach strategically keeping in mind their existing
technological capabilities and finances available to them. Failing revenues and lack of killer use cases for
5G in India market most Indian Telecom operators are not fully prepared for 5G right now.

In the current scenario with the prices recommended by the telecom regulators, Jio is the only operator
in the market ready to buy the 5G spectrum. The company is also looking to make a 5G upgrade to make
the 4G redundant to other telcos like Airtel and Vodafone Idea and benefit any 4G-led data monetization.
This move can be seen a step to maintain the leadership of fast broadband technology and revenues. Jio’s
interest to early 5G upgrade compared to the competitors will lead to even greater and sustained market
share gains. They are also looking forward to launch NextGen wireless broadband technology by 2020,
3rd quarter. Currently, JioPhone and JioPhone 2 are available with 4G VoLTE. Once the network is fully
functional in India the company is also looking towards bringing a 5G support Jio phone once prices of 5G
devices come down, which might take years.

Bharti Airtel in contrast is looking to slash the price of some sub-GHz bands. Airtel is not very keen
towards the upcoming 5G spectrum sale. On the same boat with Airtel is Vodafone Idea (VIL), country’s
largest telecom operator by subscribers, who wants the sale to be pushed a little. Airtel and VIL are more
in favor of an upgrade from existing 4G LTE towards 4G LTE A Pro.

Bharti Airtel and VIL are raising around Rs 50,000 crore to bridge the gap with Jio in terms of 4G services
in the urban areas. This fund raise will not prove to be a good move for Jio, especially if they put all this
cash in 4G as this would lead to increase in subscribers by around 425 million for these two together.
According to Vodafone Idea, there is no need for 5G for IoT in 95% of use cases and that they use 2G, 3G
and 4g for their IoT solutions. Though 5G will be used in some select cases such as Virtual Reality (VR),
high definition gaming or remote surgery because these cases require lower latency and high throughput.
For these select cases some spectrum will be required but the general 5G services can be used by 2021-

VIL has agreed with Ericsson to deploy its Cloud Packet Core which will enhance its network. Under the
deal, VIL will be benefited from the network applications of Ericsson and functions such as the virtual
Evolved Packet Gateway (vEPG), Service Aware Policy Controller (vSAPC) and Virtualization Infrastructure
(NFVi) solution which will enable fast introduction of the new services and also provide continuity of the
full service.

Airtel is planning to revise the mobile tariffs higher in the medium term to sustain the $8 billion initial
investments that it will make over the next 3-5 years in 5G rollouts and in expanding existing 4G networks.

Vodafone Idea as well as Bharti Airtel have begun talks with Samsung to supply equipment for their 4G
and 5G networks. These two telcos do not want to get stuck in the midst of two vendors namely Ericsson
and Nokia in case Huawei is banned from India from the 5G trials.

 Bharti Airtel and Huawei have successfully conducted India’s first 5G network trial under a test
setup at Airtel’s network experience center in Manesar, Gurgaon, achieving a user throughput of
more than 3 Gbps. Bharti Airtel has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Nokia
and Ericsson to support the company in its preparations for 5G rollout.
 Vodafone Idea in partnership with various OEMs such as Huawei and Ericsson have also
proposed 5G trials.
 Samsung has already conducted 5G field trials in New Delhi in 2019. They are also working closely
with the Department of Telecommunication, Government of India. For the upcoming 5G trials,
Samsung is also likely to be one of Jio's partners .
 BSNL has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Ciena to conduct field trials with
the goal of a commercial launch by 2020.
 Ciena and BSNL intend to jointly evaluate fronthaul, midhaul and backhaul transport-based use
cases and scenarios to address resiliency requirements and latency concerns.

Likely initiatives of other stakeholders in the evolving

business ecosystem?
 Intel is investing in research into 5G technology to create 5G connected PCs connected by Intel
5G modems. Also, Intel’s 5G mobile Trial platform is being used to test and increase compatibility
of their products with 5G technology by various companies in the ecosystem.
 The Government:
o According to Telecom Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad, the department of telecommunications
(DoT) will auction airwaves in fifth generation or 5G and other bands in the current calendar
o Technology trials of the 5G technology trials are expected to take place in September of 2019
to facilitate its rollout
o BSNL has signed a pact on 5G availability with Japan’s Softbank and NTT Communications for
the rollout of the technology
o To play an active role in the emerging use cases and ensure their relevance, the government
has created a 5G High Level Forum. The goals of the forum include ensuring that India can
play an active role in the development of 5G, and ensuring it can assist in government
initiatives such as the Digital India, Smart Cities and Smart Village missions.
 Electronic Manufacturers (Mobiles):
o Various Mobile phone manufacturers have been launching 5G versions of select phones (such
as S10 of Samsung, albeit at much steeper prices than their regular counterparts)
o Huawei has taken a leadership role in the roll out of 5G services across the globe, by investing
into the development of said technology, dating back to even 2009
 Consumers:
o The cost needed to buy a 5g device at this point of time is inordinately high, with prices going
up to $1300 for an S10 5G
o The network coverage of 5G is bound to be sporadic in the near future, and most countries
haven’t commercially launched 5G as of yet
o Even by 2025, the coverage of 5G is not likely to be as comprehensive as that of 3G/4G
o The launch of 5G networks in most countries, including India is likely to begin in 2020
o Though, according to a study by Ericsson, within 6 months of the launch, a third of the smart
phone users in India will switch to a Telecom Operator that provides 5G Service.
Therefore, the customers are not very likely to buy 5G devices at this time
 Industries most likely to be impacted by the launch of 5G:
o Streaming: Higher resolution Video buffering without buffering would be made possible by
the introduction of 5G
o Gaming:
 The increased download speeds would be impactful since newer games are very large
 The lower latency made possible by 5G would lead to a better experience in online
multiplayer gaming
o Virtual Reality Industry:
 Most VR displays as of now require high end PCs to run them, this would no longer
be the case with 5g, as the cloud network would be expanded, meaning that users
will be able to portably tap in to AR and VR experiences, with the need of only a
 Interruptions in network have significant negative impact on user experience,
especially when using AR or VR applications. This would be alleviated by 5G as services
are bound to become more reliable and effective under said technology.
o Autonomous vehicles, other devices on the IOT:
 Massive Machine Type Communications (MMTC) such as solar-powered streetlights
or other innovations to help citywide infrastructure
 Device-to-device public safety communications that don’t need active cellular
 Real-time operations employing robotics to link surgeons with remote sites
 According to Mr. Hans Vestberg (CEO of Verizon Communications) 5G will allow
devices traveling at up to 500 km/hr to stay connected to a network though it won’t
help the travelers on a flight but will surely improve connectivity during bullet train
 Energy Efficiency whereby the devices will consume almost 90% less energy while
consuming data via 5G network as compared to existing 4G
 By making connections more reliable and secure, the 5G technology is expected to
boost the application of the IOT, and make it more efficient

How could the Govt approach Spectrum pricing given the

financial condition of the telecom industry and
uncertainties associated with use cases/business
 India’s auction prices for bandwidth the 5G spectrum, stand at Rs. 492 Crore (or around $70 Million)
per MHz This is way higher than other countries like Australia and South Korea, where the spectrum
has been priced at $5 Million and $18 Million per MHz, respectively. While the higher price has been
justified quoting India’s higher population, telcos say the addressable population and profit margins
are much lower.
 A major reason for the high base price is that India’s Defense and Space (ISRO) departments have
sought a combined 125 MHz of the 300MHz spectrum available for auction. This is problematic since
the telecom industry is already debt-ridden and the revenue streams have diminished.
 India has been a laggard in the deployment of telecom technologies, right from 3G, and with 5G, there
are already 16 live 5G networks across 10 Countries, whereas India seems to be at least a couple of
years away from deployment in the country. According to Nunzio Mirtillo, Senior Vice President and
Head of Market Area South East Asia, Oceania and India, Ericsson there does exist a feature called
‘Ericsson Spectrum Sharing’, where from day one you can use an existing 4G spectrum bandwidth like
1800MHz or 900MHz band where you already have an Ericsson radio based on ERS, that radio is 5G
radio On it, you can load software that makes it possible to have 5G terminals and 4G terminals for
making calls and connecting data. And by doing that, in a dynamic way, the bandwidth of the spectrum
is used according to the needs. What Mirtillo states is that if there are more 5G users then you will
give spectrum to 5G. If there are more 4G users then you give it to 4G and simultaneously you can
assign in a dynamic way in between the two.
 Despite lagging in implementation, India has a huge scope for 5G technology, keeping in mind the
demand for faster downloads to provide a seamless user experience and, in future, possible 360-
degree video-streaming, immersive VR and AR applications. But for all this to be possible, the base
price has to be more reasonable, and that is the responsibility of the TRAI and the Department of
Telecommunications (DoT).

How could Infra Sharing happen among operators so as

to reduce Capex in their books?
 With the increasing space constraint and at the same time significant demand increase in terms of the
signal strengths, the telecommunication companies are facing this issue of how to improve the
customer satisfaction in terms of bandwidth and service area and limited sites available to erect the
base station has left the operators with no other option but to share the infrastructure with other
operators so that all the operators can take benefit of the base station, which earlier used to be
owned by one operator.
 Apart from the just the space constraint, the operators can also save a huge cost involved in civil
works of the antenna and transmission lines. The operators would thus find this option to be more
rational so that they can get good coverage along with the economic costs.
 Moreover, since the 5G technology is completely new technology so the operators can also reduce
their risks by sharing the costs. The costs of upgrading the edge network to store and process
contents in a timely and effective manner will be significant, but such fundamental change in network
architecture will incur costs that are not easily captured by accounting cost (e.g., different paradigm
of operation leading to more errors).
 Operators should consider both sharing of passive infrastructure (e.g., physical site and power
systems) and sharing of active infrastructure (e.g., antenna and transceivers) to cost-effectively
achieve the performance of sites and 5G capability.

How could the Sector specific new services be

developed and for which value add applications?
 Manufacturing: Tethered and untethered robots could be controlled, monitored, and
reconfigured remotely over the 5G mobile network. AT&T and Samsung have partnered to
create the United States' first manufacturing-focused 5G "Innovation Zone" in Austin, Texas.
This testing ground aims to demonstrate how 5G can impact manufacturing.
 Media/Entertainment: A new channel will be created, which will provide the content producers
to reach their audience and connect with them through virtual mediums and enhance customer
 Healthcare: 5G will improve the healthcare sector by providing detailed patient information to
clinical research to high-resolution MRI &CT images. Wearable tech devices like smartwatch
could become more relevant for features such as real-time health monitoring and notifying
 Education: Students will be able to go on virtual trips with the application of AR/VR
technologies. It will be of advantage to students studying in high-risk fields such as aviation,
medicine etc.
 Real Estate: Millions of new 5G small cells will need to be installed and leased on buildings all
over the world, providing an additional income stream for many property owners. Real estate
agents can offer virtual home tours.
 Supply chain: Installing 5G-enabled IoT sensors on products could easily make a large amount of
data could become available to stakeholders in the supply chain in real-time. The data may
include temperature, pressure, location, moisture, pressure, and other information that can be
crucial to managing products efficiently in a supply chain. Introducing 5G IoT sensors into supply
chains could mean fewer losses due to manual inefficiency or misplaced containers. As 5G
technologies enter more intelligent supply chain management, there could be potential for
increases in production, streamlined logistical processes, and reduced costs.
 Restaurant: 5G-enabled IoT devices could enhance food tracking and waste disposal. Ordering
platforms, from menus to drive-throughs, could evolve into more immersive and interactive
experiences for customers.
 Tourism: 5G will pave the way for "Smart Tourism" bringing in more tourists to destinations and
provide them with more immersive experiences. Russian telecommunications operator
Rostelecom has partnered with Ericsson to deploy a 5G trial network in St. Petersburg at the
State Hermitage Museum, one of the biggest art galleries in the world. Ericsson's 5G technology
is used to enhance museum tours and even restore art with remote-controlled robotics.

Are Telcos likely to face “organizational” and “cultural”

challenges in monetizing 5G?
The unproven economics of 5G are daunting, and the Telcos will face some serious challenges inside and
outside their organizations. Unless they radically reinvent how they operate, they risk having little to show
for massive 5G capital investments, with more dynamic digital rivals continuing to capture the benefits.
 An operator’s 5G strategy needs to be not only guided but also owned by the CEO and his/her
top priority should be to decide company’s strategic stance.
 Embrace cooperation and have a high level of regard for vendors, competitors (Network
infrastructure partnership options), business customers (b2b), local authorities and be prepared
to run high level of advanced network.
 Incorporate more digital and analytics tools to keep up with customers’ increasing demands.
Constantly make data-driven decisions, using agile methods to shorten time to market from
months to weeks or even days.
 Attracting and retaining talent for the tools and technology required for even better innovation
and differentiation.
 5G will still require huge investments in all network domains such as Radio Access Network (RAN),
Core network, Transport network, OSS/BSS
 Identify cost-saving opportunities like pick geographic, client, and use-case focus with care.
 Challenge to adopt alternative database solutions is driven more by the inherent culture or
mindset of the company
 Local permitting and planning processes to approve planning applications for small cell
implementations can take 18 to 24 months, resulting in delays.
 BEREC, the European telecoms regulator, has published final guidelines on how to strengthen net
neutrality by requiring Internet service providers to treat all web traffic equally.
 Human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) because for 5G can be a source
of challenge at least in the transition phase where new antennae are added

What could the business models be for Telcos for the

5G era?
The shift to this advanced 5G technology is certainly going to be the most complex transition as compared
to the previous generations of wireless technology. The business model to be developed by various
telecom companies are to unlock new revenue streams, reduce costs, and improve the customer
 Value Proposition: To reposition as an “Innovative Digital Age” service provider. The telecom
operator might choose to offer digital services by building their own applications or by partnering
with an OTT provider
 Capabilities and Resources: 5G opens the door for mobile operators to compete in new markets
in terms of enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), ultra-reliable and low latency communications
(URLLC), and massive machine-type communications(mMTC).
 Customer Segment: The new business-to-business-to-consumer models are likely to offer new
and enhanced services to both consumers and verticals.
 Challenges: Apart from the huge capital investments and technical resources required, one of the
major challenges would be to sustain the operational change and involve the several new
collaborators within the ecosystem
 Cost Models: The high costs of investing in the spectrum to build the 5G technology has long-term
benefits and that will be offset by the fact that 5G will provide 1,000 times more capacity and
speed that are 100 times faster. With the 5G rollout comes the opportunity for the telecom
industry to implement the cost saving practices such as operational simplification (as discussed
above for capex reduction), automation, and SONs (self-organizing/operating networks)

 Value to end Customer: Combined with the manifold benefits of 5G, the technology opens the
way to a far superior experience for customers using 5G networks across all application types like
video calling, gaming, interactions with smart devices and more
 New Revenue Streams: Features like 5G’s ultra-reliable low latency communications and massive
machine type communications, which involve sensor network and IoT, will enable Operators to
develop cutting edge applications to address multiple market segments. This opens up new
avenues for Operators to develop digital applications to address Industries 4.0, Smart Cities, Smart
homes, Healthcare, Utilities, Retail, Entertainment etc.