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©Adriano Gambarini / WWF Brazil

The reflection of our choices

AMA Hydropower and


a Living Amazon
Tarsicio Granizo, Head of
Strategy on Protected Areas;

ZON
Indigenous Territories and Policy
March 2014

WWF
LAI SET LAI,
Meeting
Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Cláudio C. Maretti
2015 Apr. 13
The Amazon 100,000+ Km rivers

Macedo & Castello 2015


The Amazon 250+ planned dams

Macedo & Castello 2015


The Amazon deforestation 2001-2012

WWF LAI
(processing); data
from Maryland Un.,
2012 for all countries

trends, fronts, accesses and attractions (incl. by hydrop.)


Different Amazons basin, biome, political

6.7 million km2


(1.5 times EU-27)

9 countries (including
1 overseas territory)
Venezuela
Guyana
Colombia Suriname
French
Ecuador Guiana

Brazil
Peru

Biome, grossly around


• 60% in Brazil
Bolivia • more 30% in Andean-
Amazon countries
• less 10% in Guianas
Hydropower?

• might be needed, for the development


• not clean, but better than others (fossil
fuels and nuclear)
• hydropower potential in the Amazon
But…
Amazon: No. 1 in biodiversity!

• It is estimate that Amazon Biome holds around 10% of total


biodiversity on Earth
Importance for climate processes

Amazon: largest
carbon stock!

New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000; Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

• It is estimated that the Amazon jungle holds around 10% of


total carbon stocked in terrestrial ecosystems
Valuable services
• Drives the atmospheric
circulations in the tropics
by absorbing energy and
recycling half of the rain
which falls on it.

• It also provides
biodiversity resources
(food, building houses,
making tools and
utensils). Marengo
et alii, 2004

Among services essential for humanity are:

• hydrological cycles • oxygen production


• climate regulation • soil conservation
• carbon sequestration • erosion control
We simply cannot forget the provision
of ecosystem services by the Amazon

• Socially
• Economically
• Ecologically
Therefore…

How can we have a


greener,
socially more responsible,
more sustainable hydropower
in the Amazon?
Reduce the need
for new dams
• energy efficiency
(generation, transportation,
consumption)

• diversification (solar, wind,


biomass...)

• decentralisation (small
villages; urban
production...)
Consultations and
If really needed rights of local
communities and
indigenous peoples

Accommodate the
different social and
economic interests

Infrastructure and
energy should
contribute to the local
economy and social life
If really needed Plan hydropower
exploration it in
integration with
biodiversity and
ecosystem
services

Inventories and
project
proposals
should not
only look for
the energy
needs
If really needed Assess cumulative
social and
10.000
ecological impacts
Vulnerable areas to deforestation

9.000
8.000
7.000
6.000
considering other
(km2)

5.000
4.000
infrastructure and
3.000
2.000
projects associated
1.000
-
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
and the indirect
Distance from hydropower plants (km)
impacts
50.000 46.331
43.842
Potential deforestation (km2)

45.000
40.000
35.000
27.567
32.068
35.233
Apply truly the
30.000
25.000
20.000
22.580
mitigation
15.000
10.000
5.000
hierarchy – not too
-
MPA, no
hydropower
MPA, with
hydropower
MPA, with
hydropower
EPA, no
hydropower
EPA, with
hydropower
EPA, with
hydropower
late
plants plants plants and plants plants plants and
roads roads
Mantainance of Protected Areas Exclusion of Protected Areas
Bad case of Tocantins

More recently
Santo Antônio and
Jirau (Madeira river),
and
Belo Monte (Xingu river)
Mcclain & Naiman (BioScience)
If really needed
Work at the basin level
- for assessing cumulative
impacts and
- allowing flexibility in
negotiations
Meso-scale river basins
- 1000 – 100,000 sq Km
- such as Tapajós (Brazil),
Marañon (Peru), Madeira
(Bolivia), Trombetas, Negro
(Brazil)
If really needed Follow national
and regional, an
Amazon-wide
vision

Macedo & Castello 2015


All together, difficult but possible
Tapajós basin case
44 dams assessed through DDS
integrating biodiversity in the
hydropower planning
All together, difficult but possible
Tapajós basin case

Vulnerability for
Deforestation

Scenarios of
deforestation
(in the basin;
including
indirect impacts)
All together, difficult but possible
Tapajós basin case
Scenarios of deforestation
All together, difficult but possible
Tapajós basin case

2014-2023 Brazilian
National Energy plan
have cancelled or
put on hold
most damaging dams
to protected areas and
indigenous territories

Missing public
transparent debates,
particularly with
local communities
We present our contributions
But we know we
do not hold the truth alone
and
we are not the most
important decision makers

we propose to
work together, for
jointly define proposals
to improve (governmental)
policies and
voluntary standards
In the recent decades…
Progressive importance
of the Amazon and
climate change

Even for the economy,


as the drought in Brazil

Water, food and


energy security,
for all,
foverver
The most vulnerable…
Not you or me

the indigenous peoples and


local communities in the Amazon

Poor communities
in the favelas in
the slopes of Rio
in the dry outskirts
of Lima
Amazon
1 new spp
every 3 days in the
last 14 years
(no insect or microorganism)

Potamotrygon tatianae

Apistogramma cinilabra

Tometes camunani
Amazon
1 new spp
every 3 days in the
last 14 years
(no insect or microorganism)

Callicebus miltoni Callicebus caquetensis


What do you want to leave
to your grandchildren?

My granddaughter
We make our choices!

Thanks!

WWF Living Amazon Initiative

work of WWF - regional team, offices,


global programmes and collaborators

cláudio@wwf.org.br - @ClaudioMaretti - http://wwf.panda.org/amazon/


https://www.facebook.com/WWFLivingAmazonInitiative - https://www.youtube.com/user/LivingAmazon
Extras

Not presented
Amazon countries basin, biome
Country % of Basin % of Biome
Bolivia 10.60 6.60
Brazil 67.00 60.10 % of Basin
Colombia 5.10 7.30 Suriname; 0,0 Venezuela; 0,8
Ecuador 1.90 1.80 Guyana; 0,2 Bolivia
French
French Guiana 0.00 1.20 Guiana; 0
Bolivia; Brazil
Peru; 14,3 10,6 Colombia
Guyana 0.20 3.20
Ecuador
Peru 14.30 11.80 Ecuador; 1,9
French Guiana
Suriname 0.00 2.10
Guyana
Venezuela 0.80 5.90 Colombia; 5,1 Brazil; 67,0
Peru
Suriname
Venezuela

Venezuela; 5,9
% of Biome
Suriname; 2,1 Bolivia; 6,6
Bolivia
Brazil
Peru; Colombia
Guyana; 3,2 11,8
Ecuador
French
Guiana; 0 French Guiana

Brazil; 60,1 Guyana


Ecuador; 1,8 Peru
Suriname
Colombia; 7,3 Venezuela
Dialogues
Governments authorities
Finance and private sectors
Civil society
Indigenous peoples and local communities
Academia

Energy
(hydropower, oil and gas)
Transportation
Agriculture
Mining
Forestry

Security agenda
(water, ‘natural hazards’,
food, energy,
health, land,
natural resources…)
Threats: Fragmentation of rivers and basins

©Mark Edwards / WWF Canon ©Adriano Gambarini / WWF Brazil

• Increasing conversion of free flowing rivers into artificial lakes (or


fragmentation of freshwater ecosystems due to dams)
• Accelerated lost of biodiversity (some ecoregions under strong conversion
Threats: Fragmentation of rivers and basins

Belo Monte

Madeira
©Mark Edwards / WWF Canon ©Adriano Gambarini / WWF Brazil

• Increasing conversion of free flowing rivers into artificial lakes (or


• fragmentation of freshwater
Some dams already existing (older ones) orecosystems
in construction indue to dams)
the new cycle (Madeira, Belo Monte…)
• Accelerated lost of biodiversity (some ecoregions under strong conversion
Threats: Fragmentation of rivers and basins

Belo Monte

Tapajós

Madeira
©Mark Edwards / WWF Canon ©Adriano Gambarini / WWF Brazil

Marañon
• Increasing conversion of free flowing rivers into artificial lakes (or
• fragmentation of freshwater
Some dams already existing (older ones) orecosystems
in construction indue to dams)
the new cycle (Madeira, Belo Monte…)
•• Accelerated lostinofriver
Upcoming concessions biodiversity
basins (Tapajós,(some ecoregions under strong conversion
Marañon...)
Threats: Fragmentation of rivers and basins

Colombia? Guianas?

Trombetas?
Ecuador?
Negro?

Belo Monte

Peru?
Tapajós

Madeira
©Mark Edwards / WWF Canon ©Adriano Gambarini / WWF Brazil

Marañon
• Increasing conversion of free flowing rivers into artificial lakes (or
• fragmentation of freshwater
Some dams already existing (older ones) orecosystems
in construction indue to dams)
the new cycle (Madeira, Belo Monte…)
•• Accelerated lostinofriver
Upcoming concessions biodiversity
basins (Tapajós,(some ecoregions under strong conversion
Marañon...)
• Future hydropower frontier (Trombetas, Negro, Ecuador, Guianas, Madeira, Colombia, Peru...)
– to face! (hydropower planning, avoid priority conservation areas, reducing social impacts...),
The Amazon deforestation 2001-2012

Yet concentrated, but no longer only one (Brazilian)


deforestation arc (front coming from south and east)
Deforestation 2001-2012

TOTAL DEFORESATION in the AMAZON BIOME


2.500.000

2.000.000
Annual deforestation (Hectares)

1.500.000

1.000.000

500.000

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Deforestation 2001-2012

25.000

Brazil Other countries


20.000
Deforestatiom (km2)

15.000

10.000

5.000

0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Deforestation 2001-2012 – rate by country
Deforestation rate by country
1,00%

0,90%

0,80%

Brasil
0,70%
Bolivia
Colombia
0,60%
Ecuador
Guyana
0,50%
Guyane Francesa
Perú
0,40% Suriname
Venezuela
0,30% Exponencial (Brasil )
Exponencial (Bolivia)
0,20%

0,10%

0,00%
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Deforestation 2001-2012 – rate by country
(without Brazil and Bolivia)
Deforestation rate by country
0,35%

0,30%

0,25%

Colombia

0,20% Ecuador
Guyana
Guyane Francesa

0,15% Perú
Suriname
Venezuela
0,10%

0,05%

0,00%
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Protected areas and
indigenous territories
Ecological representation
of terrestrial ecoregions
in PAs and ITs
Ecological representation
of terrestrial ecoregions
in PAs (only)
Ecological representation
of aquascapes
in PAs and ITs
Ecological representation
of aquascapes
in PAs (only)
Partnering National Protected Areas Systems

• Implementation of
• (pan)-Amazon
Amazon Vision on
protected areas – 9
governments, including
Amazon PAs vulnerability
to climate changes and
their roles in adaptation
strategies.
World Parks
Strategy for Holistic Management of Congress
Amazon Indigenous Territories Nov. 2014

Amazon
Indigenous
REDD+
at UNFCCC CoP-20

By
COICA (Amazon Indigenous
Coordination), with WWF
Living Amazon Initiative and
partners