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2014 IEEE 28-th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel

Implementation of a High Voltage Power Supply With The Matlab/Simulink Embedded Coder

Liran Katzir, Yakir Loewenstern, Bishara Bishara and Doron Shmilovitz

School of Electrical Engineering Tel-Aviv University Israel

Abstract—An implementation of a high voltage power supply with a voltage multiplier using a DSP-based controller is pro- posed. The DSP controller is used to close the feedback loop from the output voltage to the PWM signals of the power stage. By using the MATLAB/Simulink embedded coder design time is greatly reduced and errors are far less likely to manifest. The design, consisting of a DSP controller, does not require addi- tional components and is simple compared to more conventional analog control techniques. Experimental results using the Texas Instruments (TI) DSP TMS320F28335 Microcontroller show a rapid convergence and good real-time behavior. For example, the output of a 12-link multiplier with a rise time lower than 5mS and a low ripple of under 0.1% is actively corrected by the digital feedback loop. Index Terms—High Voltage, HVDC, Half Wave Cockcroft- Walton.

I. INTRODUCTION

High voltage power supplies are widely used in many industry applications, such as scanning electron microscopy, medical X-ray imaging and particle filtering systems, to name just a few [1]-[5]. The use of a very high turn ratio transformer to achieve the high voltage is limited by its large leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance [6]. Therefore, voltage multiplier circuits are commonly used to attain high voltages. The Half-Wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (HWCW) is the most commonly used voltage multiplier because it provides the advantages of high voltage boosting (applicable to the 10’s kV range), is compact, causes low voltage stress on the diodes and capacitors, and is cost efficient [7]. Power supplies for medical devices such as an X-ray gen- erator need to supply high voltage and high power for very short time intervals. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent requirements of X-ray applications the dynamic response of the power supply must be very fast. The output voltage must reach its steady state within a very short time interval, usually around 10 msec, to avoid noise or defects in X-ray the image for various load conditions[3][4]. For this paper, we implemented a DSP-based-controller approach for reducing design time of the HWCW voltage multipliers and improving the output ripple. The TI TMS320F28335 Microcontroller with the MATLAB/Simulink embedded coder is used for real-time digital feedback and system control. Initial experimental results show a a fast settling time of under 5mS and a reduction of over 80% of the ripple

compared to an unregulated high voltage power supply.

II. HALF WAVE COCKROFT-WALTON VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER

In the Half Wave Cockroft Walton (HWCW) voltage multi- plier, shown in Fig. 1, the output DC voltage is distorted, and shows a voltage drop of V0 and a ripple of 2δV

δV =

I

2f s

(

1

C

1

+

2

C

2

+

3

C

3

+ ··· +

n

C

n

)

(1)

where I is the output current, C i is the capacitance of the i-th stage and f s is the switching frequency of the AC power supply. Assuming equal capacitors in all stages (C 1 = C 2 = C 3 = ··· = C n = C), the ripple is given by Eq. (2) and the voltage drop by Eq. (3).

δV =

I

n(n + 1)

Cf s

4

V 0 =

I

2n 3

3

+ n 2

2

n

6

f

s

C

(2)

(3)

Thus, the output voltage of a HWCW voltage multiplier circuit can be calculated as a function of the amplitude of the ac input voltage, V amp :

V out = 2nV amp V 0 =

= 2nV amp I

f

s

C ( 2n 3

3

+ n 2

2

n

6

)

(4)

Eq. (4) reveals that additional stages to the HWCW circuit that should increase the output voltage also increase the voltage drop, till the point where additional stages will no longer increase the output voltage but reduce it. Finding the maximum voltage output of a HWCW circuit is attained as in Eq. (5)

∂V out

∂n

= 2V amp

I C (2n 2 + n

f

s

1

6 ) = 0

(5)

From Eq. (5), the maximum number of stages to be used for a given system can be approximated (if n > 4) as

n max = V out f s C

I

+

1

12

(6)

To reduce the output ripple, it is necessary to increase either the switching frequency or the capacitance of the multiplier.

Fig. 1. Example of a HWCW voltage-multiplier Increasing the switching frequency is often problematic as

Fig. 1. Example of a HWCW voltage-multiplier

Increasing the switching frequency is often problematic as it increases the switching losses, while increasing the capaci- tance of the multiplier is expensive and makes the circuit bulkier. Another way to reduce the output ripple is to use a fast feedback loop, usually at at-least ten times the base switching frequency, thus correcting the output ripple in real time. This can be accomplished using a DSP-based controller to process feedback samples at high frequency.

III. THE TMS320F28335 DSP MICROCONTROLLER

The TMS320F28335 is a Digital Signal Controller with integrated Analog to Digital converters (ADC), Digital Sig- nal Processing capabilities and High-Resolution Pulse Width Modulators (HRPWM). The DSP operates with core frequency of 150 MHz. The ADC samples the output signal at a 12.5Msps rate, calculates an average of 8 samples to get a better SNR than that obtained by direct sampling and uses the HRPWM to drive the full-bridge power stage of the high voltage multiplier. Thus it is possible to use a high- voltage power supply with a 100KHz switching frequency and the feedback loop will still be at least ten times faster. The controller samples the output voltage through a feedback resistor and an isolation amplifier, compares it to the required voltage output and generates the PWM signals for the full- bridge power stage. The full-bridge power stage operates by a phase-shift concept, where the V rms output of the full-bridge is controlled by a phase-shift between two half-bridges. Fig. 2 and 3 show the PWM signals generated by the TMS320F28355 controller for the phase-shift operation. Fig. 2 displays the signals for a 100% shift which is common during power-up and full-load operation, while 3 shows the PWM signals during normal operation, in this case with a 5M load. It should be noted that during normal operation the phase-shift is constantly moving around the steady-state level to compensate for the ripple.

IV. MATHLAB/SIMULINK EMBEDDED CODER

The TMS320F28355 controller is generally programed us- ing dedicated software from TI, the ”Code Composer Studio” (CCS)[12]. However, it is quite difficult to design complex systems such as closed-loop feedback or a multiple-PWM control scheme directly in the code composer studio. The required reduction of the output ripple using a full-bridge

required reduction of the output ripple using a full-bridge Fig. 2. PWM signals for a full-bridge

Fig. 2. PWM signals for a full-bridge %100 phase-shift during power-up

signals for a full-bridge %100 phase-shift during power-up Fig. 3. Operation PWM signals for a full

Fig. 3.

Operation

PWM signals for a full bridge %53.6 phase shift during stady-state

power HWCW voltage multiplier requires both a fast dynamic response and the control of 4 individual , with both dead-time and phase shift real-time control. The Full-Bridge Phase-shifted PWM converter has found many applications in design of high power-density power supplies due to its zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and simple control characteristics[11]. This converter topology permits all switching devices to operate under ZVS by using circuit parasitics to achieve resonant switching. To guarantee ZVS operation, a proper determination of the dead time between the upper and lower switching devices is important. The phase- shift between the switching components of the full-bridge can be used to control the output voltage. To simplify the design we implemented the control al- gorithm in MATLAB and designed the ADC and PWM in Simulink. The MATLAB/Simulink embedded coder is able to generate ANSI/ISO C/C++ code that can be com- piled and executed on microcontrollers, and specifically the TMS320F28335, using Code Composer Studio software be- hind the scenes. The embedded coder allows users to easily configure code generated by the MATLAB and Simulink algorithms and makes it easier to design and implement the

feedback loop and the PWM signals driving the power-stage. Fig. 4 shows the top level of the MATLAB/Simulink used in designing the suggested system, including the ADC sampling and scaling, processing of the samples to obtain a higher SNR, the controller implementation including the output over- voltage and over-power protection, and finally, the control algorithm for the dynamic PWM siganls.

finally, the control algorithm for the dynamic PWM siganls. Fig. 4. The control and feedback loop

Fig. 4. The control and feedback loop for the Full-Bridge power stage implemented in Mathlab/Simulink

TABLE I

DETAILS OF THE EXPERIMENT

Full-Bridge power stage

Frequency

100kHz

Duty

50-100%

Dead time

200ns

Power Transformer

Core

3F3

Ratio

1:30

Voltage Multiplier

Diode

Vishay GP02-30

Cap

1nF , 3kV

High Voltage Probe

Tektronix

P6015A

DSP Controller

Teaxes Instruments

TMS320F28335

V. E XPERIMENTAL

R ESULTS

An experimental setup consisting of a 12-link voltage mul- tiplier was constructed and tested. The input stage consisted of a full-bridge phase-shift converter with ZVS characteristics feeding a high-frequency isolation transformer and the voltage multiplier. The details of the experiment are given in Table I, and a photograph of the setup is shown in Fig. 5. The DSP-based controller monitors and corrects the output voltage. As the control loop is much faster than the base switching frequency, the output ripple can be actively reduced. The setup was tested under two loads, 5M and 100M

setup was tested under two loads, 5 M Ω and 100 M Ω Fig. 5. The

Fig. 5. The system under test, n=12, RLoad=100 M,

and compared to the convectional HWCW. The resultds show that the voltage ripple was considerably lower than the regular open looped HWCW multiplier, especially under a high output current. For example, with a 5M load, the ripple of a 12- link multiplier fed by an AC input of 500V was 312V . By using the DSP and closed-loop feedback the output ripple was reduced to lower than 15V.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

A high-voltage power supply, using a voltage multiplier con- trolled by a DSP-based controller was presented. The closed feedback loop was implemented by sampling the output, processing in the controller and correcting by manipulating the PWM phase-shift signal. The design was done using using the MATLAB/Simulink embedded coder, greatly reducing the design time. The design is relatively simple and can be im- plemented using a low cost controller. Experimental results of the high voltage power supply using the DSP TMS320F28335 Microcontroller from TI show a a good convergence and real- time behavior with a large reduction of output ripple.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank Texas Instruments for their generous donation of DSP controllers and educational kits for the Energy Conversion Lab, School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University.

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