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WASTE TREATMENT

Prof.
Prof Dr.
Dr Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso
WASTE TREATMENTS 

URBAN INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURAL


URBAN , INDUSTRIAL, AGRICULTURAL

Treatments

C
h
e
m
i
c
a
Industrial l
Waste deposit
Landfarming
So apo
Soil vapor  So c e ca
Soil chemical 
treatment treatment Composting
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
™ COMPOSTING

- Aerobic and thermophylic biodegrad-


ation
ti off organici materials,
t i l under
d
controlled environmental conditions.
- Consists -of two phases: stabilization
Produção
andd maturation.
t ti
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES = COMPOSTING
™ PHASE 1: STABILIZATION OF THE ORGANIC
SUBSTANCES (LOSS OF ENERGY).

- High aerobic microbial activity.


- The temperature goes up to 50-70oC.
- Produção
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES = COMPOSTING
™ PHASE 2: MATURATION

- Characterized by a decrease of the temperature to


the environmental level.

- Produção
- A very slow degradation of the remaining organic
matter still goes on.
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES = COMPOSTING
™ ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSTING:

- No bad smells or noxious gases;

- Shrinkage of total volume, weight and moisture


content;
- Produção
- Inactivation of pathogens and weed seeds;
- Compost to be used in agriculture.
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES = COMPOSTING
™ FACTORS THAT AFFECT COMPOSTING:

- Temperature (60-70 oC);


- Moisture (50-60%);
- Aeration (50%);
- C/N Ratio (optimal=30/1);
(- Produção
p )
- pH;
- Particle
P ti l size.
i
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES = COMPOSTING

LEACHATE

- Produção
THERMOMETER
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES: COMPOSTING
Urban wastes
Experimental data obtained during the composting process of
urban waste (Melloni et al., 1996)

300 65

250 60
g -1)
C-CO 2 (m g CO 2 24h -1 10g

55

eratura ((ºC)
C)
200 y = 0,1737x 2 - 13,348x + 269,67

0
perature
R2 = 0,9946* 50
150
45 0,027x 2 + 1,0624x + 50,328
y = -0,027x

Temp
Temp
100 R2 = 0,9802*
40
50
35

0 30
3 13 23 33 43 53 3 13 23 33 43 53
Dias Dias
Days Days

Figure 1. CO2 evolution. Figure 2. Temperature.


Experimental data obtained during the composting process of
urban waste (Melloni et al., 1996)

750 23
730
21 y = 0,1853x
0 1853 + 11
11,569
569
710
2
R = 0,9967*
690
19

N to tal ((g kg -1 )
g kg -1 )

670
650 17
M O (g

630
y = -3,6424x + 749,87 15
610
R2 = 0,9944*
590
13
570
550 11
3 13 23 33 43 53 3 13 23 33 43 53
Dias Dias
Days Days

Figure 3. Organic matter. Figure 4. Total nitrogen.


Experimental data obtained during the composting process of
urban waste (Melloni et al., 1996)
10 37

9 32
y = 0,1212x + 2,9634
8
R2 = 0,9901*
0 9901* 27
P total (g kg -1 )

7
22

C/N
6
17
5 y = -0,4596x + 36,197
4
12 R2 = 0,9795
0 9795*

3 7

2 2
3 13 23 33 43 53 3 13 23 33 43 53
Dias Dias
Days Days

Figure 5. Total P concentration. Figure 6. C/N ratio.

9,5
9,0

8,5
8,0

7,5
pH

7,0
y = -0,0037x 2 + 0,2621x + 4,5732
6,5
R2 = 0,9873*
6,0

55
5,5
5,0 Figure 7. pH.
3 13 23 33 43 53
Dias
Days
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
™ “LANDFARMING”

- Applying the liquid residue or effluent onto the soil surface


surface,
with incorporation into the arable soil layer, to induce
biodegradation by the soil microbiota.
- Produção
- Especially adequate for oil distillation residues and sewege
sludge.
WASTE TREATMENT
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
™ “LANDFARMING”

P i t tto observe:
Points b
-Topography of the area.
- Water courses.
- Produção
- Depth of the
groundwater.
SOIL POLLUTION AND REMEDIATION
™ PHYTOREMEDIATION

- Organic or inorganic residues may contain toxic elements, for


example, heavy metals.
- One of the methods to recuperate soils that are contaminated
with heavy metals is through phytoremediation, in which
certain
t i plant
l t species
i th
thatt are metal
t l bioaccumulators
bi l t are
planted in the polluted or contaminated soils.
™ PHYTOREMEDIATION Volatiles

- Afterwards,
Afterwards what to do with
the contaminated tree? Care
must be taken!
Metal Pollutant degradation
immobilization by plant and
in shoot tissues microbial
i bi l enzymes

Oxidation of
Metal
pollutants
immobilization in
root tissues
O2 - enzymes
SOIL POLLUTION HAS BEEN A
FILM ARGUMENT

HEAVY METALS ARE TOXIC


FOR LIVING BEINGS
- Produção
NSB1

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATTER ON


CHROMIUM (C
(Cr)) TOXICITY (Bolan et al., 2003)
OM reduces toxic Cr(VI)
to non-toxic Cr(III)

OM

Cr(VI) toxicity

C
Cr
22/09/2010
Slide 19

NSB1 This photo shows the effect of carbon on the reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium to non-toxic trivalent chromium; this technology is used
to reduce chromim toxcity in timber treatment sites
Nanthi Bolan; 26/07/2004
WASTE TREATMENT
9INORGANIC INERT RESIDUES

Pile of steel pprocessingg residues


with negative appearence.

Rearranged piles

- Produção
Covering with an anti-
corrosive metal screen to
hold pplants to be seeded
TRATAMENTO DE RESÍDUOS
9INORGANIC RESIDUES

Coveringg with soil for pplant establishment

Sowingg and wateringg

- Produção Recuperated area


REMEDIATION OF SOIL POLLUTION
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
™ MICROBIAL BIOREMEDIATION
™ Removing the residue by means of biodegradation of
the organic matter by soil microorganisms, where the
residue is a source of carbon and energy for microbial
populations.
l ti
- NATURAL ATTENUATION
- Produção

- BIOSTIMULATION
- BIOAUGMENTATION
REMEDIATION OF SOIL POLLUTION
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
- NATURAL ATTENUATION
Biodegradation of soil pollutants by soil
microorganisms without human intervention.

- BIOSTIMULATION
Adding fertilizers or adjusting soil moisture to
- Produção

maximize microbial activity.


REMEDIATION OF SOIL POLLUTION
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
- BIOAUGMENTATION
Inoculation of selected microorganisms
g for the
degradation of «rare» substances.

- Produção

Before bioaugmentation After bioaugmentation


REMEDIATION OF SOIL POLLUTION
9ORGANIC RESIDUES
™ PHYTOREMEDIATION
COMBINED ACTION OF PLANTS AND RHIZOSPHERE
MICROORGANISMS IN BIODEGRADATION .
PHYTOEXTRACTION
PHYTOVOLATILIZATION
PHYTODEGRADATION

PHYTOEXTRACTION

BIODEGRADATION ORGANIC
O G C BIODEGRADATION
POLLUTANTS AND
METALS

RHIZODEGRADATION
9USE OF AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES AS
FERTILIZERS

™ RESIDUES OF BAUXITE EXTRACTION

TO BE USED AS:
-pH CORRECTIVE
- SOIL CONDITIONER

Local off deposition off bauxite residue – Alcoa S.A.


S
9USE OF AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES
AS FERTILIZERS
™ RESIDUE OF BAUXITE EXTRACTION:
SYMPTOMS OF INDUCED DEFFICIENCY

Zinc Phosphorus