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Manuscript Draft

Properties of Soft Materials

Elasticity; Hilbert Transform.

materials is time consuming and costly. This work demonstrates that

transient excitation of a tester-sample system, and subsequent nonlinear

dynamics-based inverse identification could provide quick and accurate

estimation of nonlinear constitutive properties of soft materials. In

particular, free vibration response of a system where a rigid plate

shears a hyperporoviscoelastic sample is simulated to deliver time

series. Then, Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification

(HT-based ID) is applied to the simulated time series to retrieve

constitutive properties of the sample such as linear and nonlinear shear

moduli, and viscosity. In addition, bulk modulus of the sample can be

uniquely identified once shear and viscosity terms are found. The

technique is robust even under large viscoelastic damping. To illustrate

broad applicability, the technique is successfully applied to various

soft materials from cheese to gels, liver to human skin. Extension of the

model to more sophisticated nonlinearities (both elastic and

dissipative); desired tester configurations for reliable identification,

and practical challenges before its implementation are also discussed in

the paper.

*Manuscript

Click here to download Manuscript: Boz and Eriten revision_v2.docx Click here to view linked References

1

2

3

4 Nonlinear System Identification of Soft Materials Based On Hilbert Transform

5

6

7 Utku BOZa, Melih ERITENa,1

8

9 a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University

10

11 Ave, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA

12

13 1

14 Corresponding Author: eriten@wisc.edu

15

16 Abstract

17

18

19 Characterization of broadband nonlinear properties of soft materials is time consuming and

20

21 costly. This work demonstrates that transient excitation of a tester-sample system, and

22

23

subsequent nonlinear dynamics-based inverse identification could provide quick and accurate

24 estimation of nonlinear constitutive properties of soft materials. In particular, free vibration

25

26 response of a system where a rigid plate shears a hyperporoviscoelastic sample is simulated to

27

28 deliver time series. Then, Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based

29

30 ID) is applied to the simulated time series to retrieve constitutive properties of the sample such as

31

32 linear and nonlinear shear moduli, and viscosity. In addition, bulk modulus of the sample can be

33

34

uniquely identified once shear and viscosity terms are found. The technique is robust even under

35 large viscoelastic damping. To illustrate broad applicability, the technique is successfully applied

36

37 to various soft materials from cheese to gels, liver to human skin. Extension of the model to

38

39 more sophisticated nonlinearities (both elastic and dissipative); desired tester configurations for

40

41 reliable identification, and practical challenges before its implementation are also discussed in

42

43 the paper.

44

45

Keywords: Nonlinear System Identification, Soft Materials, Nonlinear Elasticity, Hilbert

46 Transform

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7 1. INTRODUCTION

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9

Broadband dynamic response of materials and structures finds extensive use in structural health

10

11 monitoring, dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), in-vivo imaging and elastography of tissues

12

13 [1–4]. Commonly used system identification (ID) and material characterization methods gage

14

15 only linear or linearized properties, for which testing standards are readily available [5–7]. For

16

17 instance, commercially-available DMA tools yield frequency dependent stiffness and damping

18

19 characteristics of a sample using small strain increments over a pre-stressed configuration, and

20 thus assume linearization inherently [8,9]. Atomic force microscopy-based characterization of

21

22 poroviscoelastic properties of bio-materials relies on similar linearization [10,11]. Other inverse

23

24 identification techniques combine experiments and linearized models of the experimental

25

26 configurations, and deliver material properties[12–15]. Soft and biomaterials, however,

27

28 experience large deformations in practice. Besides, their constitution involves fibrous solid

29

30 matrices that exhibit nonlinear elastic (hyperelastic) response, and multiple phases (ions, fluids,

31 and solids) that interact nonlinearly [16,17]. Therefore, proper characterization of those materials

32

33 requires measurement and inverse identification methods beyond linearized response. Elastic

34

35 nonlinearities can be trivially characterized by quasi-static mechanical testing at a single loading

36

37 rate (tension, compression, indentation, unidirectional rheometry, etc.). In contrast, frequency-

38

39 dependent nonlinearities require numerous tests for comprehensive identification, mainly

40

41

because frequency and deformation-based nonlinearities are coupled. For instance, the

42 magnitude of deformation in soft materials such as polymers and biological tissues influence the

43

44 ultrastructure (monomer, fibers, cross-links, etc.), and thus alters temporal response such as

45

46 relaxation and diffusion dynamics. Time-consuming large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

47

48 tests have found widespread use for full characterization of those coupled effects [18]. In LAOS

49

50 tests, large shear strains are applied to a sample at numerous rates and strain amplitudes, and

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52

sample’s response in the form of hysteretic shear stress-strain curves is monitored. Despite the

53 cost and time in sample preparation and testing, this technique has been applied to broad range of

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55 materials from non-Newtonian fluids to potato mesh [17,19–24].

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58 Characterization of nonlinear broadband response offers an alternative to time-consuming testing

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methods. Sufficiently large initial excitations and following transient response of sample-tester

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4 system could reveal frequency and amplitude-dependent material properties. For example, a

5

6 stiffening material has high frequency dominating its dynamic response as the amplitude of

7

8 oscillations get higher. Frequency characteristics of a system may evolve in time (amplitude)

9

10 gradually and measured time series may include multiple frequency components in nonlinear

11

12 systems. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) [25] and Hilbert transform (HT)-based vibration

13

14

decomposition (HVD) [26] are two alternatives to separate slowly-varying frequency

15 components in a measured time series. Once decomposed, those times series can be projected on

16

17 frequency-amplitude domain as the nonlinear normal modes of the tester-sample response. Using

18

19 those modes, one can retrieve system or sample’s properties. This technique has recently been

20

21 used to identify frictional effects on the dynamics of bolted joints [27], and force-deformation

22

23 response of nonlinear coupling membrane between two linear cantilever beams [28].

24

25

Alternatively, Feldman and Braun employ HVD and the properties of the analytical signals

26 obtained through HT to extract the nonparametric restoring and damping forces from transient

27

28 oscillations of nonlinear systems (specifically on Duffing and Helmholtz oscillators) [29]. Those

29

30 forces are functions of amplitude and velocity of oscillations, and thus recover rate and

31

32 amplitude dependent elastic and dissipative response of the system automatically.

33

34 In this work, we apply that HT-based ID method to characterize nonlinear material properties of

35

36 various soft materials. In the first step, we adopt a recently proposed hyperporoelastic model [30]

37

38 and expand it to capture the quasistatic response of a sample sheared by a rigid plate. Then, we

39

40 couple that material response as a hysteretic restoring force acting on an inertial tester in the

41

42 form of a rigid plate-sample assembly. Simulating the dynamic response of the rigid plate

43

44

delivers the transient response. Applying the HT-based ID on that transient response enables us

45 to retrieve hyperporoviscoelastic (HPVE) properties of the sample. After establishing the system

46

47 dynamics and ID methodology, we apply those steps to various soft materials to demonstrate the

48

49 broad applicability and practical challenges of the technique.

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51

52

The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces a hyperporoviscoleastic material model

53 and derives the equation of motion of a dynamic shear tester; i.e., plate-sample system. Section 3

54

55 briefly describes the HT-based ID method. Results are listed in section 4 as generalized ID

56

57 framework and as applied to various soft materials. Section 5 discusses the assumptions used in

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4 the modeling, broader applicability of the HT-based ID, and practical challenges before its full

5

6 utilization. Finally, section 6 concludes the paper.

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8

9 2. MODEL OF THE PLATE-SAMPLE SYSTEM

10

11 A section of a plate-sample system resides in plane as shown in Figure 1 (the gravity

12

13 acts in direction). Both the plate and the sample are assumed to possess significantly longer

14

15 lengths and widths than their thicknesses, and hence, plane strain assumption holds. The plate

16

17 with mass is assumed to be rigid, permeable, and perfectly bonded to the sample. Dynamic

18

19 response of the plate is described by the generalized coordinates . The sample is modeled

20

21 as an isotropic nonlinear elastic biphasic (hyper-poroviscoelastic-HPVE) layer with a thickness

22 of l initially and after deformation. Bottom of the sample is fixed to an inertial impermeable

23

24 rigid substrate. Loading rates are assumed to be sufficiently lower than shear wave speed of the

25

26 sample. Thus, the inertial forces within the HPVE sample can be neglected.

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42 Figure 1 Identification Configuration

43

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45 Although the formulation presented here can be applied to various loading conditions, we will

46

47

focus on the dynamic response of the system under simple shearing. Simple shearing is imposed

48 to the plate as an initial displacement in direction, and free vibration response of the system is

49

50 traced and analyzed for identification of material properties. Under those assumptions, the

51

52 tractions at the plate-sample interface can be treated as hysteretic restoring force; providing

53

54 stiffness and dissipation to the inertial mass of the plate. Therefore, we first study the quasistatic

55

56 response of the HPVE sample to simple cyclic shearing.

57

58 2.1. Force at the Plate-Sample Interface

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4

Let the position of a particle inside the sample is prescribed by a vector where

5

6 are coordinates in reference (undeformed) frame associated with and basis

7

8 shown in Fig. 1. When the sample undergoes simple shearing, the particle’s position in the

9

10 current (deformed) configuration becomes , where, and

11

12 are the displacements of the particle in and directions. Note that simple shearing in

13

14 generic terms does not involve the displacement in direction. However, biphasic nature of the

15

16 sample results in coupled shearing and swelling response, and thus, normal displacements occur

17 as shown in the results and elsewhere[30]. The deformation and velocity

18

19 gradients follow from the current configuration and velocity of the particle. Using the

20

21

normalized versions of those tensors; i.e., and where , one can

22

23 obtain the left Cauchy-Green deformation and rate of stretching tensors as (see the

24

25 Appendix A for the components of those tensors for the displacement field assumed);

26

27

28

29

30 (1)

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34 The Cauchy stress tensor of the HPVE sample can be decomposed into the porous solid

35

36 skeleton stress and the pressure on the fluid as

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39 (2)

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41 Further decomposition is possible by separating the deviatoric and volumetric components

42

43 of the solid stress as

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46

(3)

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48 The solid stress components are linked to the deformation through the strain energy density

49

50 function , and viscoelastic response is modeled after linear viscous flow where the stresses

51

52 scale linearly with the viscosity as

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1

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4 (4a-b)

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13 A polynomial-type hyperelastic strain energy density function is chosen as the phenomenological

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15

material model;

16

17 (5)

18

19

20

21 where and are material constants to be determined empirically, and and are

22

23 the principal invariants of the left Cauchy-Green tensor (see Appendix A for analytical

24

25 expressions of those invariants). Physically, the first two terms in the strain energy density

26

27 function chosen represent the nonlinear stiffening in isochoric loading of soft materials. With this

28

definition, is the linear shear modulus, and controls the stiffening at larger

29

30 deformations. A similar three-term strain energy density function was shown to simulate

31

32 experimental observations on incompressible carbon-black filled rubber vulcanizates as well[31].

33

34 The last term in the strain energy density function accounts for energy stored due to volumetric

35

36 changes, and can be considered as the bulk modulus. Thus, our material model is an

37

38 extension of the Yeoh model to compressible materials with decoupled isochoric and volumetric

39

40 energy densities. The solid stress part of Cauchy stress given in Eq.(2) is fully linked to

41

42 deformations when this function is substituted in Eqs.(4a-b).

43

44

The fluid pressure in Eq.(2) can be linked to the velocity field by imposing balance of mass and

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46 Darcy’s law for the fluid diffusion within the porous solid as [30]

47

48

49

50

51 (6a-b)

52

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56 Here is the permeability of the porous medium, is the viscosity of the fluid saturating the

57

58 medium and is the porosity. and stand for the velocity of the fluid and solid medium

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1

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4 respectively. is the displacement vector defined as . Combining Eqs. (6a-b) gives the

5

6 governing equation for the fluid pressure

7

8

9 (7)

10

11

12

13 Combining Eq.(7) with the stress equilibrium,

14

15 (8)

16

17

18 and appropriate boundary conditions leads to the solution of the fluid pressure and components

19

20 of the Cauchy stress tensor. In explicit form, those equations reduce to the following set of

21

22

equations in the reference configuration

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28 (9a-c)

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36

Note that the stress equilibrium in direction is not included here as it is automatically satisfied

37 by the plane strain assumptions; i.e., no variation in stresses through the depth of the sample.

38

39 Integrating both equations Eqs. (9b-c) along the thickness of the sample (dY) with boundary

40

41 conditions and at converts those partial differential equations to

42

43 ordinary differential equations as

44

45 (10a-b)

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53 Where term is the stretch in direction; is the shear

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56 strain; and . Since the hysteretic restoring force response of

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59 the sample initially free of stress is of interest, a cyclic shear traction is

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1

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4 assumed at the interface ( ) with zero initial shear and normal strains

5

6 . With permeable plate assumption, , it is possible to solve Eqs. (10a-b) for the

7

8 strains at the plate-sample interface; i.e., and for given values of and .

9

10

11 Fig. 2 illustrates the significance of each material constant on the response of the plate-sample

12

13

interface to simple shearing. In particular, Fig. 2a shows the shear traction-strain response of the

14 interface (Eq.(10a-b) evaluated at ) for different combinations of and

15

16 values at fixed . The amplitude of the shear strain is bounded by 0.2, and the is

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18 evaluated accordingly at shearing frequency .

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52 Fig. 2 Shear stress vs. strain (a), and normal vs. shear strain (b) response at the interface of the plate and

53 sample for various material constants. For better visibility please refer to the online version

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5 The shear response stiffens with strain as increases. This is expected by the chosen

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8 strain energy density function since term in that function accounts for nonlinearities due to

9

10 deformation. As a result, the normalized shear stress, becomes larger as the increases for

11

12 shear strain of . Normalized bulk modulus, 1/ does not affect the shear stress-

13

14

15 strain response. However, smaller bulk moduli lead to larger normal strains at the interface (Fig.

16

17 2b). Normal strains would necessitate volumetric change, and fluid flow within the porous

18

19

sample, and thus, activate poroelastic response. Nevertheless, the normal strains can only attain

20 negligibly smaller portion of the shear strains (less than 1%) in the current material formulation.

21

22 Therefore, simple shear response of the sample can indeed be approximated as an isochoric

23

24 deformation as customarily done.

25

26

27

Fig. 3 shows the response of the system when for two different values of , .1

28 and 10. The parameter affects the hysteretic behavior of the hyperviscoelastic skeleton and the

29

30 hysteresis is more prominent as the value of the increases. Such behavior is the indicator of

31

32 larger viscoelasticity contribution related to larger dissipation of energy.

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51 Fig. 3 Shear Strain vs Normalized Shear Stress, S

52

53 2.2. Plate Dynamics

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56 Dynamic response of the rigid plate fully bonded to the HPVE sample is described by the

57

58 generalized coordinates and as shown in Figure 1. Those coordinates coincide with the

59

60

displacement field at the plate-sample interface; i.e., and . The

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10

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1

2

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4 displacements can be found through integration of shear and normal strains across the thickness

5

6 of the sample. Note that Eqs. (9a-c) govern the time-evolution of strains and fluid pressure across

7

8 the thickness given the following initial and boundary conditions

9

10

11 (11)

12

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14

15

16

17 The equation of motion of the plate in Figure 1 in shear direction can then be expressed as

18

19 (12 )

20

21

22 Where is the contact area, and is the hysteretic restoring force experienced at the plate-

23

24 sample interface. That hysteretic force is linked to and through the displacement and

25

26 velocity fields, and the governing equations of quasistatic balance given in Eq.(9a) and Eq. (9c).

27

28 3. HT-Based ID Method

29

30

31 The restoring force in Eq. (12) can be decomposed into a backbone curve due to hyperelasticity,

32

33 and damping term due to poro-viscoelastic losses as and , respectively,

34

35

through averaging in and out-of-phase components of the restoring force. Thus, Eq.(12)

36 simplifies to

37

38

39 (13)

40

41 Dividing both sides of the Eq (13) leads to mass normalized equation of motion as

42

43

44 (14)

45

46

47

Where and . Now, it is possible to recover

48 instantaneous mass normalized stiffness and damping coefficients, and by the HT-

49

50 based ID method, given that initially measured signal is composed of quasi-harmonic signals,

51

52 vibration signal is available and sufficiently long to avoid Gibbs effect [29].

53

54

55 To apply the HT-based ID method, each underlying quasi-harmonic component of the free

56

vibration should be extracted for the analysis of the response in time domain. Let and

57

58 be the Hilbert transform of the and . Then analytical signals and become,

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60

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1

2

3

4

5

and . After this point, it is possible to extract the instant

6 undamped natural frequency and measure of damping by Eqs.(15).

7

8

9

10 (15)

11

12

13 Where is the instantenous amplitude and is the instantaneous frequency defined as

14

15

16

17

18

19

20 (16 a-b)

21

22

23

24

25

26

27 For a nonlinear system, and include both slow varying and fast varying components.

28 As a result, to obtain and of the system, one should calculate the congruent

29

30 envelope for the and amplitude maxima curve After extraction of the and

31

32 it is possible to calculate precise magnitude of the instantaneous stiffness as

33

34

35 (17)

36

37

38 Similarly, the product of velocity amplitude maxima curve and the congruent envelope

39

40 of the instantaneous damping yields the damping force

41

42

43 (18)

44

45

46

Where is the congruent envelope of the instantaneous damping and is the maxima

47

48 curve of the

49

50 In order to apply HT-based ID to a practical application, the free response , should be

51

52 measured after an initial perturbation as shown in Figure 1. Then, the analytical signals, and

53

54 are formed via Hilbert transforms of the displacement and velocity . Using Eqs. (15-18),

55

56 instantaneous stiffness forces, damping forces and vibration frequencies are estimated which

57

58 help to understand the material constants since relates to the and

59

60 relates to the . Furthermore, measurement of the also assists in the identification of the

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12

65

1

2

3

4 since normal traction on the contact interface is governed by volumetric changes influenced by

5

6 .

7

8

9 4. RESULTS

10

11 4.1 HyperPoroViscoelastic Response

12

13

14 In this section, we study the influence of parameters, and , namely the bulk modulus and

15

16 viscoelastic time constant on the response of the sample, and thus plate dynamics. Recall Eqs.

17

18

(10 a-b). When parameter is small Eq. (10b) can be approximated as

19

20 (19)

21

22

23

24 And is independent of the shear strain At the contact interface, the fluid pressure is 0 from

25

26 the boundary conditions defined in Eq. (11). Since the Eq.(19) is time independent, should

27

28 satisfy 1 at the contact interface which suggests no strain in the normal direction. Furthermore,

29

30

at the bottom of the sample should be 1 similarly due to fixed boundary. Hence, when is

31 infinitesimally small, the normal strain in the direction becomes zero. Therefore, following

32

33 Eq. (10a) the tangential component of the Cauchy stress, which governs the traction between the

34

35 rigid plate and sample at the interface becomes

36

37

38 (20)

39

40

41 Thus, if the parameter is infinitesimally small, the bulk modulus term becomes very large and

42

43 the volumetric change that governs the fluid flow in the poroelastic material become negligible.

44

45 Therefore, the tangential traction at the interface is governed by the hyperviscoelastic response of

46

47 the HPVE material, and swelling is suppressed since there is no change in the direction of the .

48

49 When the is not small, approximation given in Eq. (19) is no longer valid. Hence, Eqs. (10a-b)

50

51 are coupled through term and should be solved simultaneously for shear strain at the contact

52

53 interface. To be consistent with previous discussion, we assume that the strain level is

54

55 bounded by 0.2 at the rigid plate-sample interface.

56

57 Let the non-dimensional time substitute the time dependent terms Eqs (10a-b) yielding

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59

60

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62

63

64

13

65

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 (21a-b)

8

9

10

11 Where the term appears as the ratio of loading frequency to viscoelastic relaxation frequency.

12

13

14 Later, we use Eqs. (21a-b) to evaluate the strain behavior on contact interface. First we substitute

15

16

and its derivative in Eqs. (21a-b). Then, we find using Eq. (21b) at the contact

17 interface using initial condition . Finally, substituting in Eq (21a) yields the shear

18

19 traction at the interface. To obtain the strain response on the contact interface, we use

20

21 ode45 function of the MATLAB with solver tolerances set to and maximum allowed time

22

23 step of 0.01. To illustrate the degree of poroelastic swelling in response to simple shearing of

24

25 HPVE sample, we define a parameter ; i.e., the ratio of the magnitude of normal

26

27

28 and shear strains at the contact interface, . We varied the parameters within ranges that

29

30 cover most of biological and soft materials (see section 4.3 for examples). Three different

31

32 values adopted as 0.1, 1 and 10 are used to investigate how the material response changes on the

33

34 contact interface related to viscoelastic relaxations. Figure 4 shows that viscoelastic time

35

36 constant and nonlinearity measure have negligible influence on ratio. Bulk modulus,

37

, has a prominent effect on ratio, as expected with smaller bulk moduli leading to larger

38

39 volumetric change and ratios. Note that, however, ratio remains lower than 0.05 for all

40

41 values studied; i.e., the normal strains are significantly smaller than the shear strains for

42

43 all material properties and loading frequencies. Therefore, in practice, poroelastic effects can be

44

45 neglected from the simple shearing response of the sample. Consequently, the shear traction at

46

47 the plate-sample interface can be approximated as Eq. 20 with little error. Even though the

48

49

strains and thus displacement of the plate in the direction are small, they consist of important

50 information when accurately measured. While the shear traction and strain are linked through

51

52 linear shear modulus , nonlinearity measure and viscoelastic time constant , resulting

53

54 normal strains depend uniquely on the bulk modulus, . Therefore, monitoring plate’s motion

55

56 in direction ( ) would help to identify bulk modulus of the sample once the shear response

57

58 reveals the other material properties.

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14

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1

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18 (a) (b)

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32

33

34 (c)

35

36 Fig. 4 Value of the for different material parameter combinations at a) b) c) .

37

38

39

40

41 4.2 Hyperviscoelastic Response

42

43 In section 4.1, we study the role of the poroelasticity on simple shear response of the HPVE

44

45 sample, and show that the normal strains are very small compared to the shear strains, and thus,

46

47 Eq.(20) provided a reasonable approximation linking shear tractions and strains. This leads to a

48

49 similar formulation as in [32], where the dynamic loading of simple viscoelastic shear springs

50 results in isochoric deformations. The strain energy density function we adopted consists of

51

52 fewer material constants to be identified, and thus facilitates uniqueness. Nevertheless, the HT-

53

54 based ID presented here can be applied to any strain energy density formulation, and amplitude-

55

56 dependent material properties can be obtained within the range of dynamic excitation.

57

58 Moreover, Eq. (9b) suggests that the shear stress does not vary along the thickness of the sample.

59

60 Therefore, shear strain should not vary either. As a result, standard simple shear deformation,

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15

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1

2

3

4 holds along the thickness of the sample. For small shear strains

5

6 at the plate-sample interface, we can write the generalized coordinate in direction as

7

8 . and substituting this and Eq.(20) in Eq. (12) gives the equation of

9

10 motion as

11

12

13

(21)

14

15

16 Normalization and rescaling of time as converts the equation of motion into a

17

18

19

20

damped Duffing oscillator:

21

22 (22)

23

24

25 where , and denotes the differentiation with respect to . We will

26

27

28

29

utilize the LAOS tests reported in the literature for various soft materials to obtain material

30 properties and . We will obtain via Eq.(22) after substituting those material

31

32

33 properties and various values for , and apply the HT-based ID technique on to

34

35 retrieve material properties.

36

37

38 4.3 HT-Based ID for Soft Materials

39

40

41

We will demonstrate the HT-based ID in detail on the human skin, and then apply it to various

42 soft materials. The material model used in this section is based on the LAOS tests on human skin

43

44 [33].

45

46

47 Three of those LAOS responses with largest shear strain amplitude obtained at different rates are

48

49

reproduced after [35] in Figs5a-c. To find the material constants , and we use those

50 responses. First, we fit LAOS response at each rate separately and average the hyperelastic

51

52 backbone. The average material constants obtained from the hyperelastic backbone are

53

54 Pa and Pa for human skin ( ). Then, we calculate value using

55

56 the energy dissipation per volume per cycle of LAOS tests at different rates. Differently from the

57

58 material properties governing the hyperelastic backbone ( , ), viscosity values in those

59

60 tests depend on the shear rate. Hence we use average of the values obtained for the LAOS

61

62

63

64

16

65

1

2

3

4 curves for frequencies larger than 0.2Hz ( ). LAOS responses and response of the

5

6 model fit are given in Figs 5a-c.

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24 (a) (b)

25

26

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29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41 (c)

42

43 Fig. 5 LAOS responses of skin and corresponding curve-fits (Eq.20) at a) 0.2Hz ( ) b) 1Hz

44

45 ( ) c) 5Hz ( ) shear rates [33]

46

47

48 Since the normalized damping ratio in Eq. (22) is not only function of the material properties

49

50 but also geometric configuration of the shear experiments, we have the freedom to change the

51

52

value of by selection of appropriate sample dimension and rigid plate. Fig. 6a, c, e show the

53 time domain response for 3 different non-dimensional damping ratios ( and 1.5) for

54

55 the human skin. In the simulations we used initial strain as and initial strain rate of

56

57 . The linearity assumption on the shear strain is valid until . Therefore

58

59 throughout the simulations we use the as our limit. For identification of the material

60

61

62

63

64

17

65

1

2

3

4 properties from dynamic response, we chose the initial shear strain as 0.25 to limit deformations

5

6 to this linearized range for nearly whole duration of the time series. If the initial

7

8 condition was set to 0.2, then times series offer very limited data around 0.2 thanks to highly-

9

10 dissipative nature of the soft materials investigated, and thus identification loses accuracy around

11

12 .

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16

17

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17

18

19 (a) (b)

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33

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37

(c) (d)

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47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54 (e) (f)

55

56 Fig. 6 Time response of the free oscillations for the a) c) e) and corresponding

57 Identification performance b) d) f)

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59

60

61

62

63

64

19

65

1

2

3

4 Hyperelastic backbones of shear stress-strain responses are identified by the HT-based ID for

5

6 corresponding normalized damping ratios, and are plotted in Figs. 6b, d and f as “Identification”

7

8 curves, and compared to the exact constitutive law given as Γ+ΚΓ3(Κ=106 in those plots). By

9

10 definition, the hyperelastic backbone should be symmetric with respect to origin, and hence, we

11

12 only show the positive stress-strain part. The steps for obtaining the hyperelastic backbone by

13

14

HT based NSI are as follows. Consider the Fig. 6c where the Κ = 106 and = 0.5. In the first

15 step, to reduce the inaccuracies observed at the boundaries due to Hilbert Transform we use the

16

17 mirroring technique as suggested by the [34]. Later, using the time series of shear strain, we

18

19 calculate the Hilbert transform using Hilbert function of the MATLAB. Then, we obtain the

20

21 displacement envelope and instantaneous frequency using Eqs. 16a-b. Later, using Eq.15 , we

22

23 calculate the instant undampednatural frequency . In the next step, we use the filtered

24

25 congruent envelope of the shear strain time series to approximate the amplitude maxima, .

26

27 For this purpose, first we use the ‘hvd’ function available in [35] with 4 components and the

28 cutoff frequencies given in Appendix B. Output of the hvd function gives the instant amplitudes

29

30 and component relative frequencies for each decomposed signal. Then, we calculate the

31

32 congruent envelope as explained in [36]. In the final step, the values of the and at the

33

34 same instant of time are used to calculate the Fig.6d by employing Eq.17.

35

36

37 Even under high damping case ( , Fig6f), HT-based ID can retrieve the hyperelastic

38

39

backbone with good accuracy ( ) when compared to the actual hyperelastic backbone

40 relation given in Eq. (20). The identification methodology loses its accuracy especially for small

41

42 shear strains at large damping values as a result of end effects and limited number of oscillations.

43

44

45 Then, we investigate the value of the where the identification method loses its accuracy. The

46

47 simulation studies we perform shows that the identification method loses its accuracy when

48 . The accuracy measure we use requires to satisfy . As a result, based on the

49

50 selection of the statistical accuracy, it is possible to shift the values of the threshold to higher

51

52 than 1.04. In addition, based on the selection of the filtering and signal processing techniques in

53

54 the calculation of the congruent envelopes for and , it may be possible to generate

55

56 accurate identification beyond the value of . In this paper we use FIR filtering based

57

58 Remez filter with cut-off frequency varying between normalized frequencies of 0.1 and 0.15.

59

60 The base functions used for the identification studies are available as open source in [35] as

61

62

63

64

20

65

1

2

3

4 components of FREEVIB method of Feldman[36].The method loses its accuracy significantly

5

6 when . The filter cutoff frequencies for obtaining and are

7

8 available in Appendix B.

9

10

11 In this paper we use a recent model where the hyperelastic parameters are and . As a result,

12

13 we use the elastic backbones obtained from the identification to find the and for the

14

15

values listed. Table 1 shows the recovered values of the and for the values shown in

16 Table 1. Those material parameters are obtained by curve-fitting the elastic backbone to a

17

18 polynomial function as . Since output of the HT-based ID is based on the

19

20 normalized equation of motion given in Eq.(22), the identification should recover only two

21

22 nonzero terms; namely, , and . Throughout the paper, we use cubic

23

24 polynomials in the curve-fitting process; i.e., , and the following objective function and

25

26 constraints:

27

28

29

30

31

32

33 (23)

34

35

36

37

38 For optimization we use fmincon function of the MATLAB with all numerical tolerances

39

40

adjusted to machine precision . As the Table 1 suggests the curve fitting can

41 recover the and accurately up to the limit we find ( ) and estimates the as 0

42

43 which is indicator of cubic odd polynomial. Parameter is half of the polynomial coefficient .

44

45 Therefore it is possible to recover the directly from the curve fitting to the time series obtained

46

47 using Eq.(22). On the other hand, to extract we need the linear shear modulus. It is only

48

49 possible if the size of the sample and the mass of the rigid plate are known since

50

51 in the normalized equation of motion. As a result, using the natural frequency

52

53

54 of the plate-sample system, it is possible to extract the from the experimental

55

56

57 measurements as .

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

21

65

1

2

3

4 Table 1 Identification of the Linear Stiffness and Nonlinear Stiffness to Linear Stiffness using HT-based

5 ID

6

7

8

9

10 0.99 (%1) 0 106.61 (%0.1)

11

12

13 1 (%0) 0 105.86(%0.6)

14

15 1.03 (%3) 0 108.9(-%2.3)

16

17

18 1.18 (%18) 0 101.5(%4.8)

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26 Fig. 7 shows the shape of LAOS curves for which the HT-based ID fails to provide reliable

27 estimation of the material properties. If the LAOS response of the material resides in the white

28

29 region, the HT-based ID is almost perfect ( ). The light gray region represents set of

30

31 LAOS measurements where HT-based ID is effective with less accuracy ( ). The dark

32

33 gray zone is where the ID is not successful ( ).

34

35

36

The critical normalized damping ratio above which the LAOS response falls in the dark

37

38 gray zone is for the skin. In other words, for the HT-

39

40

41 based ID to succeed for the selected values we use. Note that, and are the material

42

43

44 properties found from the LAOS tests on skin. Therefore, the experimental parameters

45

46 should be less than to ensure accurate HT-based ID of material properties in a hypothetical

47

48 simple shear test. This factor can also be written as the ratio of the volume of the sample to the

49

50 moment of inertia of the plate. Therefore, for a given sample, this ratio should be decreased to

51

52 guarantee and thus accurate HT-based ID.

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

22

65

1

2

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5

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7

8

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16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28 Fig. 7 Normalized Shear Strain vs Normalized Restoring Stress

29

30

31 Next, we find numerically the map of critical normalized damping ratio for nonlinear spring

32

33 coefficient values from 1 to 200. Then, we fit material constants and to the LAOS

34

35

measurements reported for various soft biomaterials, and project those materials on that map

36 shown in Fig. 8. The fit results , average , shear moduli ( ) available in literature

37

38 and quality measures of the material constant fits to LAOS tests for the average hyperelastic

39

40 backbone of each material are tabulated in Table 2. In addition the material parameter fits

41

42 presented in Table 2 are obtained from the literature as well since we use LAOS measurements

43

44 presented elsewhere. The and are directly evaluated from the LAOS measurement data

45

46

using curve fitting with the same procedure explained for human skin. The shear modulus

47 column presents the values of the shear modulus available in the literature for each material. For

48

49 bovine liver we use stress normalized LAOS curve in [40] and by using the known shear

50

51 modulus 350 Pa we convert the LAOS measurement to a form which is useful for our analysis.

52

53 Our curve fitting procedure yields the shear moduli of the materials that are consistent with the

54

55 literature. The last column of the table presents the limiting value of the combined geometric

56

57 properties and inertial effects. As the maximum value of increases, the volume of the

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

23

65

1

2

3

4

5 sample should be larger compared to the inertial effects. On the other hand, decreasing

6

7

8 necessitates using a rigid plate (tester, probe, etc.) with sufficiently large inertia. For example,

9

10 considering low fat and high fat cheese in Table 2, the geometric factor is very small.

11

12

13 Therefore, it is necessary to design large intertial testers and use small volumes of cheese sample

14

to ensure oscillatory dynamics. Applicability and success of the HT-based ID method heavily

15

16 depend on that balance.

17

18

19 Table 2 Material Parameters obtained from fit and the values

20

21 ( ) ( ) Shear Modulus

22

23 ( )

24 in literature

25

26 Human Skin [33], [37] 0.85

27

28 Fibrin Clot [38],[39] 5.79

29

30

31 Bovine [40] 0.24

32 Liver

33

34

Low Fat 0.008

35

36 Cheese

37

38 High Fat 0.0009

39

40 Cheese

41

42 Collagen [41] 0.54

43

Network

44

45

46 Living [42] 0.33

47 Fibroblast

48

49

Agarose 0.84

50

51 Gelatin

52

53

54

55

56 As clear in Fig. 8, the critical damping ratio increases with increasing . This is because

57

58 initial potential (strain) energy stored in the sample is higher for larger K values, and thus larger

59

60 critical damping values are needed to suppress oscillations and fail the HT-based ID. Two green-

61

62

63

64

24

65

1

2

3

4 dashed lines projected on Fig. 8 denote the ratio of potential energies stored in the sample in the

5

6 second and first oscillation peaks; i.e.,

7

8

9 (24)

10

11

12

13 Note that our numerically determined curve is bounded by , which in

14

15

practice, correspond to 2 - 3 oscillations, respectively for the damped Duffing oscillator. That

16 indicates clearly that the numerical HT-based ID method presented here can be safely applied to

17

18 many soft biomaterials as long as several oscillations are captured in the tests.

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47 Fig. 8 System ID requirements for various soft materials obtained from literature based on the LAOS

48

49 measurements [33,39–42,44,45]

50

51 5. DISCUSSION

52

53

54 5.1 Advantages of HT-Based ID

55

56 Currently, the state-of-the-art in mechanical testing of soft materials is large amplitude

57

58 oscillatory shear (LAOS) tests conducted commonly by commercial rheometers. LAOS has been

59

60 successfully applied to a broad range of materials from non-Newtonian fluids to soft biological

61

62

63

64

25

65

1

2

3

4 tissues. In LAOS, steady-state shear response (stress) of a piece of material is monitored under

5

6 continuous cyclic shearing with a given magnitude. Then, amplitude and rate of cyclic shearing

7

8 is varied to obtain nonlinear rate-dependent properties. This process requires extended

9

10 measurement times resulting in limited data, and in some cases degradation of the sample. In

11

12 contrast, in the HT-based NSI technique, broadband transient excitation is imposed on the

13

14

samples in shear direction. Then, transient response of the material is analyzed for identification

15 of nonlinear properties. This enables quicker testing and assessment of amplitude and rate-

16

17 dependent properties, and thus increases measurement throughput. When time-saving from

18

19 sample preparation is added to already reduced testing durations, the proposed technique is more

20

21 suited for testing materials that undergo rapid microstructural changes and degradation.

22

23 Moreover, the transient response in materials showing hyperporoviscoelastic response (e.g., soft

24

25 biological tissues, gels, polymer melts, etc.) involves vibrations orthogonal to shear (normal). As

26

27 illustrated in Fig.4, the amplitude of those normal vibrations can be uniquely mapped to the bulk

28

29 moduli of the samples once the shear properties are found. Therefore, the proposed technique is

30

31 also capable of monitoring dilatational properties that LAOS cannot deliver.

32

33 5.2 Constitutive Modeling of Soft Materials

34

35

36 In this paper, we apply a Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based ID)

37

38 methodology to time series simulating the dynamic response of a plate-sample system in simple-

39 shear configuration. While simulating this system, we assume that hyperporoviscoelastic samples

40

41 are fully bonded to the plate in 2D arrangement. Hyperporoviscoelastic constitutive models

42

43 account for stiffness and damping nonlinearities, which are inherent in the mechanics of soft,

44

45 fibrous and multiphasic biomaterials. In our work, we choose a particular strain energy density

46

47 function (Eq.(5)) that accounts for stiffness nonlinearities while adopting linear formulations of

48

49

poroviscoelastic effects. To add nonlinearity in damping, one can add terms that scale

50 nonlinearly with stretch rate tensor ( in Eq.(4)). For instance, terms can be added to the

51

52 viscoelastic part of the strain-energy density function to represent Reiner-Rivlin fluid-like

53

54 behavior [46]. Moreover, more coupling between volumetric and distortional strain energies

55

56 could result in more swelling and thus non-isochoric deformations during simple shear response.

57

58 The nonlinear system ID method presented in this paper is indeed capable of identifying

59

60 nonlinear damping as long as the material damping is a function of the stretch (strain) rates only.

61

62

63

64

26

65

1

2

3

4 When the damping nonlinearity depends on both strains and strain rates, decomposing the

5

6 analytical signals into instantaneous damping and stiffness terms and hence identification

7

8 constitutes a bigger challenge. The authors are currently working on this challenge. In practice,

9

10 most simple shear tests are constraint in the normal directions, and hence no such effect is

11

12 documented. However, as we show in Fig.4, normal response of the free plate can resolve the

13

14

volumetric changes (Bulk moduli) while shear response delivers the distortional part of the strain

15 energy density function, and material properties.

16

17

18 5.3 Geometry and Boundary Conditions

19

20 As discussed above, the HT-based ID methodology can be applied to any type of material

21

22 response given that a particular plate-sample configuration undergoes a few cycles of damped

23

24 oscillations. As we demonstrate in the Section 4.3, this condition is guaranteed when the inertial

25

26 forces of the rigid plate is considerably higher than the volumetric dissipation in the sample. This

27

28 prerequisite in essence guides the experimental design of the plate-sample system for accurate

29

30 identification. In addition, our formulation follows a 2D configuration to eliminate boundary

31 effects and simplify the sample response. This assumption necessitates considerably smaller

32

33 sample thickness when compared to other dimensions. Moreover, the dynamic response of the

34

35 plate should also be monitored sufficiently away from the edges of the system to ensure that

36

37 plane strain assumption locally holds. Lastly, the permeable plate should stick to the sample so

38

39 that no relative slip and thus loss occurs at the plate-sample interface. Note that those modeling

40

41

assumptions could be relaxed to match the physical experimental conditions better. In that case,

42 however, the partial differential equations governing the stresses and fluid flow in the HPVE

43

44 sample would be more coupled. Therefore, solution of the plate dynamics would require a fully

45

46 coupled dynamic simulation by numerical methods such as Hankel transforms or finite element

47

48 analysis.

49

50 5.4 Signal Processing in HT-based ID

51

52

53 HT-based ID methodology used here relies heavily on accurate measurement of dynamic

54

55 response. This is actually correct for other system identification methodologies, especially the

56

57 ones applicable to nonlinear systems. This is because nonlinear systems exhibit amplitude and

58 rate-dependent responses, and thus low signal-to-noise ratio has immediate influence on the

59

60 accuracy of the identification. Even when rate-dependency of the system/sample properties are

61

62

63

64

27

65

1

2

3

4 negligible, as assumed in our work, numerical differentiation and Hilbert transformation are

5

6 taken. This post-processing would amplify noise in the measured time series. Even in the

7

8 simulated data presented in this paper, several postprocessing techniques are utilized as

9

10 suggested in [36]

11

12 To critical normalized damping ratios shown in section 4.3, we use filter cutoff frequency range

13

14 between 0.015 to 0.03 and tune the frequency until we obtain an identification result of

15

16 . If the objective is changed for the ID performance, then the we define is no longer

17

18 valid and would increase or decrease compared to what we select. The cut-off frequencies we

19

20 used are very close to 0.02 as used in [24]. Furthermore, to increase the identification accuracy,

21

22 as suggested by Lee et.al [34] we use mirroring of the signal to reduce the Gibbs effect

23

contaminating the accuracy of the HT around the data limits. Furthermore, throughout our

24

25 studies, the free vibration response consisted of single oscillator with changing fundamental

26

27 frequency with time due to material nonlinearity. If there are more than one oscillation

28

29 characteristics in the free vibration response, the HVD or EMD should be performed first to

30

31 extract each underlying oscillation characteristics separately. To increase the efficacy of the

32

33 decomposition, masking technique as demonstrated in [47,48] is an option where a masking

34 signal is applied to the oscillation response to increase the frequency contrast within

35

36 measurement set.

37

38

39 Lastly, the sampling frequency should be large enough to include sufficient number of data

40

41 points in the identification. For HT-based ID to be accurate, sample frequencies should be higher

42

than 60-80 times the highest frequency content in to be identified [24]. In a practical simple

43

44 shearing experiment, main frequency content would be due to shear deformation of the sample,

45

46 and hence, the frequency would depend on unknown material properties as exemplified in Eq.22.

47

48 Therefore, it is safer to begin with sufficiently high sampling frequency, and adjust it according

49

50 to the maximum instantaneous frequency identified.

51

52 6. CONCLUSIONS

53

54

55 In this paper, we simulate free vibration response of a plate-sample system in simple-shear

56

57 configuration, and apply a Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based

58

59

ID) to retrieve material properties of the sample. Using this technique, we show that the

60 nonlinear material properties of the sample can be extracted even under large damping which

61

62

63

64

28

65

1

2

3

4 limit the number of oscillations to a few cycles. To illustrate efficacy of the identification

5

6 approach, a hyperporoviscoelastic shear deformation formulation is used where the sample

7

8 behaves as shear spring between a fixed ground and an oscillating rigid plate. Free vibration

9

10 response of the rigid plate attached to the sample is then simulated. Finally, HT-based ID is

11

12 applied to the free vibration response to obtain material properties. Main findings of the paper

13

14

can be summarized as follows;

15

16 Poroelastic effects in the adopted formulation are small compared to shear deformations,

17

18 and thus isochoric assumption, and single degree of freedom plate dynamics assumptions

19

20 hold;

21

22 HT-based ID approach is a promising and quick technique for measuring nonlinear

23

24

constitutive properties such as shear modulus, nonlinearity coefficient and viscosity of

25 soft materials;

26

27 Number of free vibration cycles can be controlled by proper design of the plate and

28

29 sample geometry;

30

31 HT-based ID is shown to achieve accurate identification even for a few cycles of

32

33 vibration data for a wide range of soft materials (from cheese to gels, and liver to skin);

34

35 This ID methodology can be extended to various forms of stiffness and damping

36

37

nonlinearities when the practical issues in signal quality and post processing are carefully

38 addressed in the experiments, and

39

40 Signal-to-noise ratio in the measured time series, and sampling and filtering frequencies

41

42 are critical in application and accuracy of the proposed technique.

43

44

45

46

47 Acknowledgment

48

49

50 This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation [Grant

51

52

Number NSF-CMMI-1554146].

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

29

65

1

2

3

4 APPENDIX A

5

6

7 Using the definition of the undeformed and deformed configurations, the becomes

8

9

10

(A.1)

11

12

13

14

15

16

17 (A.2)

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 Where and Furthermore , and

26

27 are

28

29

30

(A.3)

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

30

65

1

2

3

4 APPENDIX B

5

6

7 Table B.3 Normalized Filter Cut-off Frequencies Used For ID on human skin with

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25 Table B.2 The filter cut-off frequencies used for ID with

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

31

65

1

2

3

4 REFERENCES

5

6

7 [1] M.M. Reda Taha, A. Noureldin, J.L. Lucero, T.J. Baca, Wavelet transform for structural

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9 health monitoring: A compendium of uses and features, Struct. Heal. Monit. 5 (2006)

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11 267–295. doi:10.1177/1475921706067741.

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13 [2] D.K. Temple, A.A. Cederlund, B.M. Lawless, R.M. Aspden, D.M. Espino, Viscoelastic

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15 properties of human and bovine articular cartilage: a comparison of frequency-dependent

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17 trends, BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 17 (2016) 1–8. doi:10.1186/s12891-016-1279-1.

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19 [3] G.R. Fulcher, D.W.L. Hukins, D.E.T. Shepherd, Viscoelastic properties of bovine

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21 articular cartilage attached to subchondral bone at high frequencies, BMC Musculoskelet.

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23 Disord. 10 (2009) 1–7. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-61.

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27 E.M. Brunt, J.E. Lavine, S.H. Abrams, P. Masand, R. Krishnamurthy, K. Wong, R.L.

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29 Ehman, M. Yin, K.J. Glaser, B. Dzyubak, T. Wolfson, A.C. Gamst, J. Hooker, W. Haufe,

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31 A. Schlein, G. Hamilton, M.S. Middleton, C.B. Sirlin, Magnetic resonance elastography

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33 measured shear stiffness as a biomarker of fibrosis in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver

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*Detailed Response to Reviewers

The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments. The insight provided

by the reviewers enabled authors to produce an understandable, technically sound and complete

paper. The responses to the reviewer’s comments are written directly under the comments in

regular font. The changes in the text are highlighted in accordance with the reviewer’s response.

Reviewer #1: The authors have tried their best to modify the paper according to my

reviewer's comments.

Reviewer #2:

1) In Page 16, could authors give a reason or provide a reference about why they took

initial strain value for skin as 0.25.

In this manuscript, we used linearized shear strain where the , and thus focused

material nonlinearities rather than nonlinearities due to finite deformations. Linear strain

assumption holds approximately for . To span this strain range properly during the decay

of the free vibrations, it is necessary to have slightly higher initial strain level, which in our case

is chosen as 0.25. This is clarified by adding the following to the manuscript.

‘The linearity assumption on the shear strain is valid until . Therefore throughout the

simulations we use the as our limit. For identification of the material properties from

dynamic response, we chose the initial shear strain as 0.25 to limit deformations to this linearized

range for nearly whole duration of the time series. If the initial condition was set to

0.2, then times series offer very limited data around 0.2 thanks to highly-dissipative nature of the

soft materials investigated, and thus identification loses accuracy around .’

2) There are a few typos and problems with punctuation, please revise.

Based on the reviewer’s comment, we corrected the typos and the punctuation problems.

3) I would suggest revising some of the subtitles (for example" Constitutive modeling of soft

materials instead of Constitutive models used)

Based on the reviewer’s comment, some of the subtitles are revised as follows:

2.1. Force at the Plate-Sample Interface

4.3 HT-Based ID for Soft Materials

5.1 Advantages of HT-Based ID

5.2 Constitutive Modeling of Soft Materials

4) How would nonlinear damping effect the HT-based identification methodology? Please

elaborate and include as limitation in the manuscript.

Theoretically, there is no limitation on the identification of the nonlinear damping if the damping

is purely related to the velocity. The procedure applied in this paper to the soft tissues requires

calculation of the analytical strain rate for derivation of the damping properties. However, if the

Public

damping solely is not based on the strain-rate but also the strain dependent, then the HT based

identification procedure presented in this paper might be inadequate. This is explained in the

manuscript by adding the following to the discussion section:

‘The nonlinear system ID method presented in this paper is indeed capable of identifying

nonlinear damping as long as the material damping is a function of the stretch (strain) rates only.

When the damping nonlinearity depends on both strains and strain rates, decomposing the

analytical signals into instantaneous damping and stiffness terms and hence identification

constitutes a bigger challenge. The authors are currently working on this challenge.’

Public

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exp or e (base of natural logarithms); Re or Im (real or imaginary part); log, ln, sin, cos, etc.; abbreviations such as

c.c. (complex conjugate); multiletter symbols (e.g. TL for transmission loss); subscripts of two or more letters

identifiable as words or word-abbreviations (e.g., Apipe, fmax) x

For more unusual functions, JSV follows Abramowitz and Stegun’s book. More detail given in the GFA (see link

above).

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and are in correct order. x

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