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Journal of Sound and Vibration

Manuscript Draft

Manuscript Number: JSV-D-18-01013R2

Title: Hilbert Transform Based Identification of Nonlinear Constitutive


Properties of Soft Materials

Article Type: Full Length Article

Section/Category: D Inverse problems in acoustics and vibration

Keywords: Nonlinear System Identification; Soft Materials; Nonlinear


Elasticity; Hilbert Transform.

Abstract: Characterization of broadband nonlinear properties of soft


materials is time consuming and costly. This work demonstrates that
transient excitation of a tester-sample system, and subsequent nonlinear
dynamics-based inverse identification could provide quick and accurate
estimation of nonlinear constitutive properties of soft materials. In
particular, free vibration response of a system where a rigid plate
shears a hyperporoviscoelastic sample is simulated to deliver time
series. Then, Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification
(HT-based ID) is applied to the simulated time series to retrieve
constitutive properties of the sample such as linear and nonlinear shear
moduli, and viscosity. In addition, bulk modulus of the sample can be
uniquely identified once shear and viscosity terms are found. The
technique is robust even under large viscoelastic damping. To illustrate
broad applicability, the technique is successfully applied to various
soft materials from cheese to gels, liver to human skin. Extension of the
model to more sophisticated nonlinearities (both elastic and
dissipative); desired tester configurations for reliable identification,
and practical challenges before its implementation are also discussed in
the paper.
*Manuscript
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4 Nonlinear System Identification of Soft Materials Based On Hilbert Transform
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7 Utku BOZa, Melih ERITENa,1
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9 a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1513 University
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11 Ave, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
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13 1
14 Corresponding Author: eriten@wisc.edu
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16 Abstract
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19 Characterization of broadband nonlinear properties of soft materials is time consuming and
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21 costly. This work demonstrates that transient excitation of a tester-sample system, and
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23
subsequent nonlinear dynamics-based inverse identification could provide quick and accurate
24 estimation of nonlinear constitutive properties of soft materials. In particular, free vibration
25
26 response of a system where a rigid plate shears a hyperporoviscoelastic sample is simulated to
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28 deliver time series. Then, Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based
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30 ID) is applied to the simulated time series to retrieve constitutive properties of the sample such as
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32 linear and nonlinear shear moduli, and viscosity. In addition, bulk modulus of the sample can be
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34
uniquely identified once shear and viscosity terms are found. The technique is robust even under
35 large viscoelastic damping. To illustrate broad applicability, the technique is successfully applied
36
37 to various soft materials from cheese to gels, liver to human skin. Extension of the model to
38
39 more sophisticated nonlinearities (both elastic and dissipative); desired tester configurations for
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41 reliable identification, and practical challenges before its implementation are also discussed in
42
43 the paper.
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Keywords: Nonlinear System Identification, Soft Materials, Nonlinear Elasticity, Hilbert
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7 1. INTRODUCTION
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Broadband dynamic response of materials and structures finds extensive use in structural health
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11 monitoring, dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), in-vivo imaging and elastography of tissues
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13 [1–4]. Commonly used system identification (ID) and material characterization methods gage
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15 only linear or linearized properties, for which testing standards are readily available [5–7]. For
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17 instance, commercially-available DMA tools yield frequency dependent stiffness and damping
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19 characteristics of a sample using small strain increments over a pre-stressed configuration, and
20 thus assume linearization inherently [8,9]. Atomic force microscopy-based characterization of
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22 poroviscoelastic properties of bio-materials relies on similar linearization [10,11]. Other inverse
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24 identification techniques combine experiments and linearized models of the experimental
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26 configurations, and deliver material properties[12–15]. Soft and biomaterials, however,
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28 experience large deformations in practice. Besides, their constitution involves fibrous solid
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30 matrices that exhibit nonlinear elastic (hyperelastic) response, and multiple phases (ions, fluids,
31 and solids) that interact nonlinearly [16,17]. Therefore, proper characterization of those materials
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33 requires measurement and inverse identification methods beyond linearized response. Elastic
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35 nonlinearities can be trivially characterized by quasi-static mechanical testing at a single loading
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37 rate (tension, compression, indentation, unidirectional rheometry, etc.). In contrast, frequency-
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39 dependent nonlinearities require numerous tests for comprehensive identification, mainly
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because frequency and deformation-based nonlinearities are coupled. For instance, the
42 magnitude of deformation in soft materials such as polymers and biological tissues influence the
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44 ultrastructure (monomer, fibers, cross-links, etc.), and thus alters temporal response such as
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46 relaxation and diffusion dynamics. Time-consuming large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)
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48 tests have found widespread use for full characterization of those coupled effects [18]. In LAOS
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50 tests, large shear strains are applied to a sample at numerous rates and strain amplitudes, and
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sample’s response in the form of hysteretic shear stress-strain curves is monitored. Despite the
53 cost and time in sample preparation and testing, this technique has been applied to broad range of
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55 materials from non-Newtonian fluids to potato mesh [17,19–24].
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58 Characterization of nonlinear broadband response offers an alternative to time-consuming testing
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methods. Sufficiently large initial excitations and following transient response of sample-tester
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4 system could reveal frequency and amplitude-dependent material properties. For example, a
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6 stiffening material has high frequency dominating its dynamic response as the amplitude of
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8 oscillations get higher. Frequency characteristics of a system may evolve in time (amplitude)
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10 gradually and measured time series may include multiple frequency components in nonlinear
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12 systems. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) [25] and Hilbert transform (HT)-based vibration
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decomposition (HVD) [26] are two alternatives to separate slowly-varying frequency
15 components in a measured time series. Once decomposed, those times series can be projected on
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17 frequency-amplitude domain as the nonlinear normal modes of the tester-sample response. Using
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19 those modes, one can retrieve system or sample’s properties. This technique has recently been
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21 used to identify frictional effects on the dynamics of bolted joints [27], and force-deformation
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23 response of nonlinear coupling membrane between two linear cantilever beams [28].
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Alternatively, Feldman and Braun employ HVD and the properties of the analytical signals
26 obtained through HT to extract the nonparametric restoring and damping forces from transient
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28 oscillations of nonlinear systems (specifically on Duffing and Helmholtz oscillators) [29]. Those
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30 forces are functions of amplitude and velocity of oscillations, and thus recover rate and
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32 amplitude dependent elastic and dissipative response of the system automatically.
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34 In this work, we apply that HT-based ID method to characterize nonlinear material properties of
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36 various soft materials. In the first step, we adopt a recently proposed hyperporoelastic model [30]
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38 and expand it to capture the quasistatic response of a sample sheared by a rigid plate. Then, we
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40 couple that material response as a hysteretic restoring force acting on an inertial tester in the
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42 form of a rigid plate-sample assembly. Simulating the dynamic response of the rigid plate
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delivers the transient response. Applying the HT-based ID on that transient response enables us
45 to retrieve hyperporoviscoelastic (HPVE) properties of the sample. After establishing the system
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47 dynamics and ID methodology, we apply those steps to various soft materials to demonstrate the
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49 broad applicability and practical challenges of the technique.
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The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces a hyperporoviscoleastic material model
53 and derives the equation of motion of a dynamic shear tester; i.e., plate-sample system. Section 3
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55 briefly describes the HT-based ID method. Results are listed in section 4 as generalized ID
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57 framework and as applied to various soft materials. Section 5 discusses the assumptions used in
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4 the modeling, broader applicability of the HT-based ID, and practical challenges before its full
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6 utilization. Finally, section 6 concludes the paper.
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9 2. MODEL OF THE PLATE-SAMPLE SYSTEM
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11 A section of a plate-sample system resides in plane as shown in Figure 1 (the gravity
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13 acts in direction). Both the plate and the sample are assumed to possess significantly longer
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15 lengths and widths than their thicknesses, and hence, plane strain assumption holds. The plate
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17 with mass is assumed to be rigid, permeable, and perfectly bonded to the sample. Dynamic
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19 response of the plate is described by the generalized coordinates . The sample is modeled
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21 as an isotropic nonlinear elastic biphasic (hyper-poroviscoelastic-HPVE) layer with a thickness
22 of l initially and after deformation. Bottom of the sample is fixed to an inertial impermeable
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24 rigid substrate. Loading rates are assumed to be sufficiently lower than shear wave speed of the
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26 sample. Thus, the inertial forces within the HPVE sample can be neglected.
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42 Figure 1 Identification Configuration
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45 Although the formulation presented here can be applied to various loading conditions, we will
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focus on the dynamic response of the system under simple shearing. Simple shearing is imposed
48 to the plate as an initial displacement in direction, and free vibration response of the system is
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50 traced and analyzed for identification of material properties. Under those assumptions, the
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52 tractions at the plate-sample interface can be treated as hysteretic restoring force; providing
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54 stiffness and dissipation to the inertial mass of the plate. Therefore, we first study the quasistatic
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56 response of the HPVE sample to simple cyclic shearing.
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58 2.1. Force at the Plate-Sample Interface
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Let the position of a particle inside the sample is prescribed by a vector where
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6 are coordinates in reference (undeformed) frame associated with and basis
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8 shown in Fig. 1. When the sample undergoes simple shearing, the particle’s position in the
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10 current (deformed) configuration becomes , where, and
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12 are the displacements of the particle in and directions. Note that simple shearing in
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14 generic terms does not involve the displacement in direction. However, biphasic nature of the
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16 sample results in coupled shearing and swelling response, and thus, normal displacements occur
17 as shown in the results and elsewhere[30]. The deformation and velocity
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19 gradients follow from the current configuration and velocity of the particle. Using the
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normalized versions of those tensors; i.e., and where , one can
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23 obtain the left Cauchy-Green deformation and rate of stretching tensors as (see the
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25 Appendix A for the components of those tensors for the displacement field assumed);
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30 (1)
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34 The Cauchy stress tensor of the HPVE sample can be decomposed into the porous solid
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36 skeleton stress and the pressure on the fluid as
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39 (2)
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41 Further decomposition is possible by separating the deviatoric and volumetric components
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43 of the solid stress as
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(3)
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48 The solid stress components are linked to the deformation through the strain energy density
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50 function , and viscoelastic response is modeled after linear viscous flow where the stresses
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52 scale linearly with the viscosity as
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4 (4a-b)
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13 A polynomial-type hyperelastic strain energy density function is chosen as the phenomenological
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material model;
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17 (5)
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21 where and are material constants to be determined empirically, and and are
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23 the principal invariants of the left Cauchy-Green tensor (see Appendix A for analytical
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25 expressions of those invariants). Physically, the first two terms in the strain energy density
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27 function chosen represent the nonlinear stiffening in isochoric loading of soft materials. With this
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definition, is the linear shear modulus, and controls the stiffening at larger
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30 deformations. A similar three-term strain energy density function was shown to simulate
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32 experimental observations on incompressible carbon-black filled rubber vulcanizates as well[31].
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34 The last term in the strain energy density function accounts for energy stored due to volumetric
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36 changes, and can be considered as the bulk modulus. Thus, our material model is an
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38 extension of the Yeoh model to compressible materials with decoupled isochoric and volumetric
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40 energy densities. The solid stress part of Cauchy stress given in Eq.(2) is fully linked to
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42 deformations when this function is substituted in Eqs.(4a-b).
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The fluid pressure in Eq.(2) can be linked to the velocity field by imposing balance of mass and
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46 Darcy’s law for the fluid diffusion within the porous solid as [30]
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51 (6a-b)
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56 Here is the permeability of the porous medium, is the viscosity of the fluid saturating the
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58 medium and is the porosity. and stand for the velocity of the fluid and solid medium
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4 respectively. is the displacement vector defined as . Combining Eqs. (6a-b) gives the
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6 governing equation for the fluid pressure
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9 (7)
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13 Combining Eq.(7) with the stress equilibrium,
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15 (8)
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18 and appropriate boundary conditions leads to the solution of the fluid pressure and components
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20 of the Cauchy stress tensor. In explicit form, those equations reduce to the following set of
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equations in the reference configuration
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28 (9a-c)
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Note that the stress equilibrium in direction is not included here as it is automatically satisfied
37 by the plane strain assumptions; i.e., no variation in stresses through the depth of the sample.
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39 Integrating both equations Eqs. (9b-c) along the thickness of the sample (dY) with boundary
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41 conditions and at converts those partial differential equations to
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43 ordinary differential equations as
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45 (10a-b)
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53 Where term is the stretch in direction; is the shear
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56 strain; and . Since the hysteretic restoring force response of
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59 the sample initially free of stress is of interest, a cyclic shear traction is
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4 assumed at the interface ( ) with zero initial shear and normal strains
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6 . With permeable plate assumption, , it is possible to solve Eqs. (10a-b) for the
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8 strains at the plate-sample interface; i.e., and for given values of and .
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11 Fig. 2 illustrates the significance of each material constant on the response of the plate-sample
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interface to simple shearing. In particular, Fig. 2a shows the shear traction-strain response of the
14 interface (Eq.(10a-b) evaluated at ) for different combinations of and
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16 values at fixed . The amplitude of the shear strain is bounded by 0.2, and the is
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18 evaluated accordingly at shearing frequency .
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52 Fig. 2 Shear stress vs. strain (a), and normal vs. shear strain (b) response at the interface of the plate and
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5 The shear response stiffens with strain as increases. This is expected by the chosen
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8 strain energy density function since term in that function accounts for nonlinearities due to
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10 deformation. As a result, the normalized shear stress, becomes larger as the increases for
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12 shear strain of . Normalized bulk modulus, 1/ does not affect the shear stress-
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15 strain response. However, smaller bulk moduli lead to larger normal strains at the interface (Fig.
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17 2b). Normal strains would necessitate volumetric change, and fluid flow within the porous
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sample, and thus, activate poroelastic response. Nevertheless, the normal strains can only attain
20 negligibly smaller portion of the shear strains (less than 1%) in the current material formulation.
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22 Therefore, simple shear response of the sample can indeed be approximated as an isochoric
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24 deformation as customarily done.
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Fig. 3 shows the response of the system when for two different values of , .1
28 and 10. The parameter affects the hysteretic behavior of the hyperviscoelastic skeleton and the
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30 hysteresis is more prominent as the value of the increases. Such behavior is the indicator of
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32 larger viscoelasticity contribution related to larger dissipation of energy.
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51 Fig. 3 Shear Strain vs Normalized Shear Stress, S
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53 2.2. Plate Dynamics
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56 Dynamic response of the rigid plate fully bonded to the HPVE sample is described by the
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58 generalized coordinates and as shown in Figure 1. Those coordinates coincide with the
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displacement field at the plate-sample interface; i.e., and . The
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4 displacements can be found through integration of shear and normal strains across the thickness
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6 of the sample. Note that Eqs. (9a-c) govern the time-evolution of strains and fluid pressure across
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8 the thickness given the following initial and boundary conditions
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11 (11)
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17 The equation of motion of the plate in Figure 1 in shear direction can then be expressed as
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19 (12 )
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22 Where is the contact area, and is the hysteretic restoring force experienced at the plate-
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24 sample interface. That hysteretic force is linked to and through the displacement and
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26 velocity fields, and the governing equations of quasistatic balance given in Eq.(9a) and Eq. (9c).
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28 3. HT-Based ID Method
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31 The restoring force in Eq. (12) can be decomposed into a backbone curve due to hyperelasticity,
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33 and damping term due to poro-viscoelastic losses as and , respectively,
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through averaging in and out-of-phase components of the restoring force. Thus, Eq.(12)
36 simplifies to
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39 (13)
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41 Dividing both sides of the Eq (13) leads to mass normalized equation of motion as
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44 (14)
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Where and . Now, it is possible to recover
48 instantaneous mass normalized stiffness and damping coefficients, and by the HT-
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50 based ID method, given that initially measured signal is composed of quasi-harmonic signals,
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52 vibration signal is available and sufficiently long to avoid Gibbs effect [29].
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55 To apply the HT-based ID method, each underlying quasi-harmonic component of the free
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vibration should be extracted for the analysis of the response in time domain. Let and
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58 be the Hilbert transform of the and . Then analytical signals and become,
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and . After this point, it is possible to extract the instant
6 undamped natural frequency and measure of damping by Eqs.(15).
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10 (15)
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13 Where is the instantenous amplitude and is the instantaneous frequency defined as
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20 (16 a-b)
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27 For a nonlinear system, and include both slow varying and fast varying components.
28 As a result, to obtain and of the system, one should calculate the congruent
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30 envelope for the and amplitude maxima curve After extraction of the and
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32 it is possible to calculate precise magnitude of the instantaneous stiffness as
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35 (17)
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38 Similarly, the product of velocity amplitude maxima curve and the congruent envelope
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40 of the instantaneous damping yields the damping force
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43 (18)
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Where is the congruent envelope of the instantaneous damping and is the maxima
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48 curve of the
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50 In order to apply HT-based ID to a practical application, the free response , should be
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52 measured after an initial perturbation as shown in Figure 1. Then, the analytical signals, and
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54 are formed via Hilbert transforms of the displacement and velocity . Using Eqs. (15-18),
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56 instantaneous stiffness forces, damping forces and vibration frequencies are estimated which
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58 help to understand the material constants since relates to the and
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60 relates to the . Furthermore, measurement of the also assists in the identification of the
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4 since normal traction on the contact interface is governed by volumetric changes influenced by
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6 .
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9 4. RESULTS
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11 4.1 HyperPoroViscoelastic Response
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14 In this section, we study the influence of parameters, and , namely the bulk modulus and
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16 viscoelastic time constant on the response of the sample, and thus plate dynamics. Recall Eqs.
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18
(10 a-b). When parameter is small Eq. (10b) can be approximated as
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20 (19)
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24 And is independent of the shear strain At the contact interface, the fluid pressure is 0 from
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26 the boundary conditions defined in Eq. (11). Since the Eq.(19) is time independent, should
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28 satisfy 1 at the contact interface which suggests no strain in the normal direction. Furthermore,
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30
at the bottom of the sample should be 1 similarly due to fixed boundary. Hence, when is
31 infinitesimally small, the normal strain in the direction becomes zero. Therefore, following
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33 Eq. (10a) the tangential component of the Cauchy stress, which governs the traction between the
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35 rigid plate and sample at the interface becomes
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38 (20)
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41 Thus, if the parameter is infinitesimally small, the bulk modulus term becomes very large and
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43 the volumetric change that governs the fluid flow in the poroelastic material become negligible.
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45 Therefore, the tangential traction at the interface is governed by the hyperviscoelastic response of
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47 the HPVE material, and swelling is suppressed since there is no change in the direction of the .
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49 When the is not small, approximation given in Eq. (19) is no longer valid. Hence, Eqs. (10a-b)
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51 are coupled through term and should be solved simultaneously for shear strain at the contact
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53 interface. To be consistent with previous discussion, we assume that the strain level is
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55 bounded by 0.2 at the rigid plate-sample interface.
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57 Let the non-dimensional time substitute the time dependent terms Eqs (10a-b) yielding
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7 (21a-b)
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11 Where the term appears as the ratio of loading frequency to viscoelastic relaxation frequency.
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14 Later, we use Eqs. (21a-b) to evaluate the strain behavior on contact interface. First we substitute
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and its derivative in Eqs. (21a-b). Then, we find using Eq. (21b) at the contact
17 interface using initial condition . Finally, substituting in Eq (21a) yields the shear
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19 traction at the interface. To obtain the strain response on the contact interface, we use
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21 ode45 function of the MATLAB with solver tolerances set to and maximum allowed time
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23 step of 0.01. To illustrate the degree of poroelastic swelling in response to simple shearing of
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25 HPVE sample, we define a parameter ; i.e., the ratio of the magnitude of normal
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28 and shear strains at the contact interface, . We varied the parameters within ranges that
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30 cover most of biological and soft materials (see section 4.3 for examples). Three different
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32 values adopted as 0.1, 1 and 10 are used to investigate how the material response changes on the
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34 contact interface related to viscoelastic relaxations. Figure 4 shows that viscoelastic time
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36 constant and nonlinearity measure have negligible influence on ratio. Bulk modulus,
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, has a prominent effect on ratio, as expected with smaller bulk moduli leading to larger
38
39 volumetric change and ratios. Note that, however, ratio remains lower than 0.05 for all
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41 values studied; i.e., the normal strains are significantly smaller than the shear strains for
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43 all material properties and loading frequencies. Therefore, in practice, poroelastic effects can be
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45 neglected from the simple shearing response of the sample. Consequently, the shear traction at
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47 the plate-sample interface can be approximated as Eq. 20 with little error. Even though the
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49
strains and thus displacement of the plate in the direction are small, they consist of important
50 information when accurately measured. While the shear traction and strain are linked through
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52 linear shear modulus , nonlinearity measure and viscoelastic time constant , resulting
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54 normal strains depend uniquely on the bulk modulus, . Therefore, monitoring plate’s motion
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56 in direction ( ) would help to identify bulk modulus of the sample once the shear response
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58 reveals the other material properties.
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18 (a) (b)
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34 (c)
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36 Fig. 4 Value of the for different material parameter combinations at a) b) c) .
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41 4.2 Hyperviscoelastic Response
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43 In section 4.1, we study the role of the poroelasticity on simple shear response of the HPVE
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45 sample, and show that the normal strains are very small compared to the shear strains, and thus,
46
47 Eq.(20) provided a reasonable approximation linking shear tractions and strains. This leads to a
48
49 similar formulation as in [32], where the dynamic loading of simple viscoelastic shear springs
50 results in isochoric deformations. The strain energy density function we adopted consists of
51
52 fewer material constants to be identified, and thus facilitates uniqueness. Nevertheless, the HT-
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54 based ID presented here can be applied to any strain energy density formulation, and amplitude-
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56 dependent material properties can be obtained within the range of dynamic excitation.
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58 Moreover, Eq. (9b) suggests that the shear stress does not vary along the thickness of the sample.
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60 Therefore, shear strain should not vary either. As a result, standard simple shear deformation,
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1
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4 holds along the thickness of the sample. For small shear strains
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6 at the plate-sample interface, we can write the generalized coordinate in direction as
7
8 . and substituting this and Eq.(20) in Eq. (12) gives the equation of
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10 motion as
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(21)
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16 Normalization and rescaling of time as converts the equation of motion into a
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damped Duffing oscillator:
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22 (22)
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25 where , and denotes the differentiation with respect to . We will
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utilize the LAOS tests reported in the literature for various soft materials to obtain material
30 properties and . We will obtain via Eq.(22) after substituting those material
31
32
33 properties and various values for , and apply the HT-based ID technique on to
34
35 retrieve material properties.
36
37
38 4.3 HT-Based ID for Soft Materials
39
40
41
We will demonstrate the HT-based ID in detail on the human skin, and then apply it to various
42 soft materials. The material model used in this section is based on the LAOS tests on human skin
43
44 [33].
45
46
47 Three of those LAOS responses with largest shear strain amplitude obtained at different rates are
48
49
reproduced after [35] in Figs5a-c. To find the material constants , and we use those
50 responses. First, we fit LAOS response at each rate separately and average the hyperelastic
51
52 backbone. The average material constants obtained from the hyperelastic backbone are
53
54 Pa and Pa for human skin ( ). Then, we calculate value using
55
56 the energy dissipation per volume per cycle of LAOS tests at different rates. Differently from the
57
58 material properties governing the hyperelastic backbone ( , ), viscosity values in those
59
60 tests depend on the shear rate. Hence we use average of the values obtained for the LAOS
61
62
63
64
16
65
1
2
3
4 curves for frequencies larger than 0.2Hz ( ). LAOS responses and response of the
5
6 model fit are given in Figs 5a-c.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
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15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24 (a) (b)
25
26
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28
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31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41 (c)
42
43 Fig. 5 LAOS responses of skin and corresponding curve-fits (Eq.20) at a) 0.2Hz ( ) b) 1Hz
44
45 ( ) c) 5Hz ( ) shear rates [33]
46
47
48 Since the normalized damping ratio in Eq. (22) is not only function of the material properties
49
50 but also geometric configuration of the shear experiments, we have the freedom to change the
51
52
value of by selection of appropriate sample dimension and rigid plate. Fig. 6a, c, e show the
53 time domain response for 3 different non-dimensional damping ratios ( and 1.5) for
54
55 the human skin. In the simulations we used initial strain as and initial strain rate of
56
57 . The linearity assumption on the shear strain is valid until . Therefore
58
59 throughout the simulations we use the as our limit. For identification of the material
60
61
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64
17
65
1
2
3
4 properties from dynamic response, we chose the initial shear strain as 0.25 to limit deformations
5
6 to this linearized range for nearly whole duration of the time series. If the initial
7
8 condition was set to 0.2, then times series offer very limited data around 0.2 thanks to highly-
9
10 dissipative nature of the soft materials investigated, and thus identification loses accuracy around
11
12 .
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19 (a) (b)
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37
(c) (d)
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48
49
50
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53
54 (e) (f)
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56 Fig. 6 Time response of the free oscillations for the a) c) e) and corresponding
57 Identification performance b) d) f)
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59
60
61
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63
64
19
65
1
2
3
4 Hyperelastic backbones of shear stress-strain responses are identified by the HT-based ID for
5
6 corresponding normalized damping ratios, and are plotted in Figs. 6b, d and f as “Identification”
7
8 curves, and compared to the exact constitutive law given as Γ+ΚΓ3(Κ=106 in those plots). By
9
10 definition, the hyperelastic backbone should be symmetric with respect to origin, and hence, we
11
12 only show the positive stress-strain part. The steps for obtaining the hyperelastic backbone by
13
14
HT based NSI are as follows. Consider the Fig. 6c where the Κ = 106 and = 0.5. In the first
15 step, to reduce the inaccuracies observed at the boundaries due to Hilbert Transform we use the
16
17 mirroring technique as suggested by the [34]. Later, using the time series of shear strain, we
18
19 calculate the Hilbert transform using Hilbert function of the MATLAB. Then, we obtain the
20
21 displacement envelope and instantaneous frequency using Eqs. 16a-b. Later, using Eq.15 , we
22
23 calculate the instant undampednatural frequency . In the next step, we use the filtered
24
25 congruent envelope of the shear strain time series to approximate the amplitude maxima, .
26
27 For this purpose, first we use the ‘hvd’ function available in [35] with 4 components and the
28 cutoff frequencies given in Appendix B. Output of the hvd function gives the instant amplitudes
29
30 and component relative frequencies for each decomposed signal. Then, we calculate the
31
32 congruent envelope as explained in [36]. In the final step, the values of the and at the
33
34 same instant of time are used to calculate the Fig.6d by employing Eq.17.
35
36
37 Even under high damping case ( , Fig6f), HT-based ID can retrieve the hyperelastic
38
39
backbone with good accuracy ( ) when compared to the actual hyperelastic backbone
40 relation given in Eq. (20). The identification methodology loses its accuracy especially for small
41
42 shear strains at large damping values as a result of end effects and limited number of oscillations.
43
44
45 Then, we investigate the value of the where the identification method loses its accuracy. The
46
47 simulation studies we perform shows that the identification method loses its accuracy when
48 . The accuracy measure we use requires to satisfy . As a result, based on the
49
50 selection of the statistical accuracy, it is possible to shift the values of the threshold to higher
51
52 than 1.04. In addition, based on the selection of the filtering and signal processing techniques in
53
54 the calculation of the congruent envelopes for and , it may be possible to generate
55
56 accurate identification beyond the value of . In this paper we use FIR filtering based
57
58 Remez filter with cut-off frequency varying between normalized frequencies of 0.1 and 0.15.
59
60 The base functions used for the identification studies are available as open source in [35] as
61
62
63
64
20
65
1
2
3
4 components of FREEVIB method of Feldman[36].The method loses its accuracy significantly
5
6 when . The filter cutoff frequencies for obtaining and are
7
8 available in Appendix B.
9
10
11 In this paper we use a recent model where the hyperelastic parameters are and . As a result,
12
13 we use the elastic backbones obtained from the identification to find the and for the
14
15
values listed. Table 1 shows the recovered values of the and for the values shown in
16 Table 1. Those material parameters are obtained by curve-fitting the elastic backbone to a
17
18 polynomial function as . Since output of the HT-based ID is based on the
19
20 normalized equation of motion given in Eq.(22), the identification should recover only two
21
22 nonzero terms; namely, , and . Throughout the paper, we use cubic
23
24 polynomials in the curve-fitting process; i.e., , and the following objective function and
25
26 constraints:
27
28
29
30
31
32
33 (23)
34
35
36
37
38 For optimization we use fmincon function of the MATLAB with all numerical tolerances
39
40
adjusted to machine precision . As the Table 1 suggests the curve fitting can
41 recover the and accurately up to the limit we find ( ) and estimates the as 0
42
43 which is indicator of cubic odd polynomial. Parameter is half of the polynomial coefficient .
44
45 Therefore it is possible to recover the directly from the curve fitting to the time series obtained
46
47 using Eq.(22). On the other hand, to extract we need the linear shear modulus. It is only
48
49 possible if the size of the sample and the mass of the rigid plate are known since
50
51 in the normalized equation of motion. As a result, using the natural frequency
52
53
54 of the plate-sample system, it is possible to extract the from the experimental
55
56
57 measurements as .
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
21
65
1
2
3
4 Table 1 Identification of the Linear Stiffness and Nonlinear Stiffness to Linear Stiffness using HT-based
5 ID
6
7
8
9
10 0.99 (%1) 0 106.61 (%0.1)
11
12
13 1 (%0) 0 105.86(%0.6)
14
15 1.03 (%3) 0 108.9(-%2.3)
16
17
18 1.18 (%18) 0 101.5(%4.8)
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26 Fig. 7 shows the shape of LAOS curves for which the HT-based ID fails to provide reliable
27 estimation of the material properties. If the LAOS response of the material resides in the white
28
29 region, the HT-based ID is almost perfect ( ). The light gray region represents set of
30
31 LAOS measurements where HT-based ID is effective with less accuracy ( ). The dark
32
33 gray zone is where the ID is not successful ( ).
34
35
36
The critical normalized damping ratio above which the LAOS response falls in the dark
37
38 gray zone is for the skin. In other words, for the HT-
39
40
41 based ID to succeed for the selected values we use. Note that, and are the material
42
43
44 properties found from the LAOS tests on skin. Therefore, the experimental parameters
45
46 should be less than to ensure accurate HT-based ID of material properties in a hypothetical
47
48 simple shear test. This factor can also be written as the ratio of the volume of the sample to the
49
50 moment of inertia of the plate. Therefore, for a given sample, this ratio should be decreased to
51
52 guarantee and thus accurate HT-based ID.
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
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22
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1
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7
8
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16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 Fig. 7 Normalized Shear Strain vs Normalized Restoring Stress
29
30
31 Next, we find numerically the map of critical normalized damping ratio for nonlinear spring
32
33 coefficient values from 1 to 200. Then, we fit material constants and to the LAOS
34
35
measurements reported for various soft biomaterials, and project those materials on that map
36 shown in Fig. 8. The fit results , average , shear moduli ( ) available in literature
37
38 and quality measures of the material constant fits to LAOS tests for the average hyperelastic
39
40 backbone of each material are tabulated in Table 2. In addition the material parameter fits
41
42 presented in Table 2 are obtained from the literature as well since we use LAOS measurements
43
44 presented elsewhere. The and are directly evaluated from the LAOS measurement data
45
46
using curve fitting with the same procedure explained for human skin. The shear modulus
47 column presents the values of the shear modulus available in the literature for each material. For
48
49 bovine liver we use stress normalized LAOS curve in [40] and by using the known shear
50
51 modulus 350 Pa we convert the LAOS measurement to a form which is useful for our analysis.
52
53 Our curve fitting procedure yields the shear moduli of the materials that are consistent with the
54
55 literature. The last column of the table presents the limiting value of the combined geometric
56
57 properties and inertial effects. As the maximum value of increases, the volume of the
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
23
65
1
2
3
4
5 sample should be larger compared to the inertial effects. On the other hand, decreasing
6
7
8 necessitates using a rigid plate (tester, probe, etc.) with sufficiently large inertia. For example,
9
10 considering low fat and high fat cheese in Table 2, the geometric factor is very small.
11
12
13 Therefore, it is necessary to design large intertial testers and use small volumes of cheese sample
14
to ensure oscillatory dynamics. Applicability and success of the HT-based ID method heavily
15
16 depend on that balance.
17
18
19 Table 2 Material Parameters obtained from fit and the values
20
21 ( ) ( ) Shear Modulus
22
23 ( )
24 in literature
25
26 Human Skin [33], [37] 0.85
27
28 Fibrin Clot [38],[39] 5.79
29
30
31 Bovine [40] 0.24
32 Liver
33
34
Low Fat 0.008
35
36 Cheese
37
38 High Fat 0.0009
39
40 Cheese
41
42 Collagen [41] 0.54
43
Network
44
45
46 Living [42] 0.33
47 Fibroblast
48
49
Agarose 0.84
50
51 Gelatin
52
53
54
55
56 As clear in Fig. 8, the critical damping ratio increases with increasing . This is because
57
58 initial potential (strain) energy stored in the sample is higher for larger K values, and thus larger
59
60 critical damping values are needed to suppress oscillations and fail the HT-based ID. Two green-
61
62
63
64
24
65
1
2
3
4 dashed lines projected on Fig. 8 denote the ratio of potential energies stored in the sample in the
5
6 second and first oscillation peaks; i.e.,
7
8
9 (24)
10
11
12
13 Note that our numerically determined curve is bounded by , which in
14
15
practice, correspond to 2 - 3 oscillations, respectively for the damped Duffing oscillator. That
16 indicates clearly that the numerical HT-based ID method presented here can be safely applied to
17
18 many soft biomaterials as long as several oscillations are captured in the tests.
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
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31
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33
34
35
36
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39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47 Fig. 8 System ID requirements for various soft materials obtained from literature based on the LAOS
48
49 measurements [33,39–42,44,45]
50
51 5. DISCUSSION
52
53
54 5.1 Advantages of HT-Based ID
55
56 Currently, the state-of-the-art in mechanical testing of soft materials is large amplitude
57
58 oscillatory shear (LAOS) tests conducted commonly by commercial rheometers. LAOS has been
59
60 successfully applied to a broad range of materials from non-Newtonian fluids to soft biological
61
62
63
64
25
65
1
2
3
4 tissues. In LAOS, steady-state shear response (stress) of a piece of material is monitored under
5
6 continuous cyclic shearing with a given magnitude. Then, amplitude and rate of cyclic shearing
7
8 is varied to obtain nonlinear rate-dependent properties. This process requires extended
9
10 measurement times resulting in limited data, and in some cases degradation of the sample. In
11
12 contrast, in the HT-based NSI technique, broadband transient excitation is imposed on the
13
14
samples in shear direction. Then, transient response of the material is analyzed for identification
15 of nonlinear properties. This enables quicker testing and assessment of amplitude and rate-
16
17 dependent properties, and thus increases measurement throughput. When time-saving from
18
19 sample preparation is added to already reduced testing durations, the proposed technique is more
20
21 suited for testing materials that undergo rapid microstructural changes and degradation.
22
23 Moreover, the transient response in materials showing hyperporoviscoelastic response (e.g., soft
24
25 biological tissues, gels, polymer melts, etc.) involves vibrations orthogonal to shear (normal). As
26
27 illustrated in Fig.4, the amplitude of those normal vibrations can be uniquely mapped to the bulk
28
29 moduli of the samples once the shear properties are found. Therefore, the proposed technique is
30
31 also capable of monitoring dilatational properties that LAOS cannot deliver.
32
33 5.2 Constitutive Modeling of Soft Materials
34
35
36 In this paper, we apply a Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based ID)
37
38 methodology to time series simulating the dynamic response of a plate-sample system in simple-
39 shear configuration. While simulating this system, we assume that hyperporoviscoelastic samples
40
41 are fully bonded to the plate in 2D arrangement. Hyperporoviscoelastic constitutive models
42
43 account for stiffness and damping nonlinearities, which are inherent in the mechanics of soft,
44
45 fibrous and multiphasic biomaterials. In our work, we choose a particular strain energy density
46
47 function (Eq.(5)) that accounts for stiffness nonlinearities while adopting linear formulations of
48
49
poroviscoelastic effects. To add nonlinearity in damping, one can add terms that scale
50 nonlinearly with stretch rate tensor ( in Eq.(4)). For instance, terms can be added to the
51
52 viscoelastic part of the strain-energy density function to represent Reiner-Rivlin fluid-like
53
54 behavior [46]. Moreover, more coupling between volumetric and distortional strain energies
55
56 could result in more swelling and thus non-isochoric deformations during simple shear response.
57
58 The nonlinear system ID method presented in this paper is indeed capable of identifying
59
60 nonlinear damping as long as the material damping is a function of the stretch (strain) rates only.
61
62
63
64
26
65
1
2
3
4 When the damping nonlinearity depends on both strains and strain rates, decomposing the
5
6 analytical signals into instantaneous damping and stiffness terms and hence identification
7
8 constitutes a bigger challenge. The authors are currently working on this challenge. In practice,
9
10 most simple shear tests are constraint in the normal directions, and hence no such effect is
11
12 documented. However, as we show in Fig.4, normal response of the free plate can resolve the
13
14
volumetric changes (Bulk moduli) while shear response delivers the distortional part of the strain
15 energy density function, and material properties.
16
17
18 5.3 Geometry and Boundary Conditions
19
20 As discussed above, the HT-based ID methodology can be applied to any type of material
21
22 response given that a particular plate-sample configuration undergoes a few cycles of damped
23
24 oscillations. As we demonstrate in the Section 4.3, this condition is guaranteed when the inertial
25
26 forces of the rigid plate is considerably higher than the volumetric dissipation in the sample. This
27
28 prerequisite in essence guides the experimental design of the plate-sample system for accurate
29
30 identification. In addition, our formulation follows a 2D configuration to eliminate boundary
31 effects and simplify the sample response. This assumption necessitates considerably smaller
32
33 sample thickness when compared to other dimensions. Moreover, the dynamic response of the
34
35 plate should also be monitored sufficiently away from the edges of the system to ensure that
36
37 plane strain assumption locally holds. Lastly, the permeable plate should stick to the sample so
38
39 that no relative slip and thus loss occurs at the plate-sample interface. Note that those modeling
40
41
assumptions could be relaxed to match the physical experimental conditions better. In that case,
42 however, the partial differential equations governing the stresses and fluid flow in the HPVE
43
44 sample would be more coupled. Therefore, solution of the plate dynamics would require a fully
45
46 coupled dynamic simulation by numerical methods such as Hankel transforms or finite element
47
48 analysis.
49
50 5.4 Signal Processing in HT-based ID
51
52
53 HT-based ID methodology used here relies heavily on accurate measurement of dynamic
54
55 response. This is actually correct for other system identification methodologies, especially the
56
57 ones applicable to nonlinear systems. This is because nonlinear systems exhibit amplitude and
58 rate-dependent responses, and thus low signal-to-noise ratio has immediate influence on the
59
60 accuracy of the identification. Even when rate-dependency of the system/sample properties are
61
62
63
64
27
65
1
2
3
4 negligible, as assumed in our work, numerical differentiation and Hilbert transformation are
5
6 taken. This post-processing would amplify noise in the measured time series. Even in the
7
8 simulated data presented in this paper, several postprocessing techniques are utilized as
9
10 suggested in [36]
11
12 To critical normalized damping ratios shown in section 4.3, we use filter cutoff frequency range
13
14 between 0.015 to 0.03 and tune the frequency until we obtain an identification result of
15
16 . If the objective is changed for the ID performance, then the we define is no longer
17
18 valid and would increase or decrease compared to what we select. The cut-off frequencies we
19
20 used are very close to 0.02 as used in [24]. Furthermore, to increase the identification accuracy,
21
22 as suggested by Lee et.al [34] we use mirroring of the signal to reduce the Gibbs effect
23
contaminating the accuracy of the HT around the data limits. Furthermore, throughout our
24
25 studies, the free vibration response consisted of single oscillator with changing fundamental
26
27 frequency with time due to material nonlinearity. If there are more than one oscillation
28
29 characteristics in the free vibration response, the HVD or EMD should be performed first to
30
31 extract each underlying oscillation characteristics separately. To increase the efficacy of the
32
33 decomposition, masking technique as demonstrated in [47,48] is an option where a masking
34 signal is applied to the oscillation response to increase the frequency contrast within
35
36 measurement set.
37
38
39 Lastly, the sampling frequency should be large enough to include sufficient number of data
40
41 points in the identification. For HT-based ID to be accurate, sample frequencies should be higher
42
than 60-80 times the highest frequency content in to be identified [24]. In a practical simple
43
44 shearing experiment, main frequency content would be due to shear deformation of the sample,
45
46 and hence, the frequency would depend on unknown material properties as exemplified in Eq.22.
47
48 Therefore, it is safer to begin with sufficiently high sampling frequency, and adjust it according
49
50 to the maximum instantaneous frequency identified.
51
52 6. CONCLUSIONS
53
54
55 In this paper, we simulate free vibration response of a plate-sample system in simple-shear
56
57 configuration, and apply a Hilbert-Transform-based nonlinear system identification (HT-based
58
59
ID) to retrieve material properties of the sample. Using this technique, we show that the
60 nonlinear material properties of the sample can be extracted even under large damping which
61
62
63
64
28
65
1
2
3
4 limit the number of oscillations to a few cycles. To illustrate efficacy of the identification
5
6 approach, a hyperporoviscoelastic shear deformation formulation is used where the sample
7
8 behaves as shear spring between a fixed ground and an oscillating rigid plate. Free vibration
9
10 response of the rigid plate attached to the sample is then simulated. Finally, HT-based ID is
11
12 applied to the free vibration response to obtain material properties. Main findings of the paper
13
14
can be summarized as follows;
15
16  Poroelastic effects in the adopted formulation are small compared to shear deformations,
17
18 and thus isochoric assumption, and single degree of freedom plate dynamics assumptions
19
20 hold;
21
22  HT-based ID approach is a promising and quick technique for measuring nonlinear
23
24
constitutive properties such as shear modulus, nonlinearity coefficient and viscosity of
25 soft materials;
26
27  Number of free vibration cycles can be controlled by proper design of the plate and
28
29 sample geometry;
30
31  HT-based ID is shown to achieve accurate identification even for a few cycles of
32
33 vibration data for a wide range of soft materials (from cheese to gels, and liver to skin);
34
35  This ID methodology can be extended to various forms of stiffness and damping
36
37
nonlinearities when the practical issues in signal quality and post processing are carefully
38 addressed in the experiments, and
39
40  Signal-to-noise ratio in the measured time series, and sampling and filtering frequencies
41
42 are critical in application and accuracy of the proposed technique.
43
44
45
46
47 Acknowledgment
48
49
50 This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation [Grant
51
52
Number NSF-CMMI-1554146].
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
29
65
1
2
3
4 APPENDIX A
5
6
7 Using the definition of the undeformed and deformed configurations, the becomes
8
9
10
(A.1)
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 (A.2)
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25 Where and Furthermore , and
26
27 are
28
29
30
(A.3)
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
30
65
1
2
3
4 APPENDIX B
5
6
7 Table B.3 Normalized Filter Cut-off Frequencies Used For ID on human skin with
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25 Table B.2 The filter cut-off frequencies used for ID with
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
31
65
1
2
3
4 REFERENCES
5
6
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*Detailed Response to Reviewers

Rebuttal to Reviewer’s Comments


The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their valuable comments. The insight provided
by the reviewers enabled authors to produce an understandable, technically sound and complete
paper. The responses to the reviewer’s comments are written directly under the comments in
regular font. The changes in the text are highlighted in accordance with the reviewer’s response.

Reviewer #1: The authors have tried their best to modify the paper according to my
reviewer's comments.

Reviewer #2:
1) In Page 16, could authors give a reason or provide a reference about why they took
initial strain value for skin as 0.25.
In this manuscript, we used linearized shear strain where the , and thus focused
material nonlinearities rather than nonlinearities due to finite deformations. Linear strain
assumption holds approximately for . To span this strain range properly during the decay
of the free vibrations, it is necessary to have slightly higher initial strain level, which in our case
is chosen as 0.25. This is clarified by adding the following to the manuscript.
‘The linearity assumption on the shear strain is valid until . Therefore throughout the
simulations we use the as our limit. For identification of the material properties from
dynamic response, we chose the initial shear strain as 0.25 to limit deformations to this linearized
range for nearly whole duration of the time series. If the initial condition was set to
0.2, then times series offer very limited data around 0.2 thanks to highly-dissipative nature of the
soft materials investigated, and thus identification loses accuracy around .’

2) There are a few typos and problems with punctuation, please revise.
Based on the reviewer’s comment, we corrected the typos and the punctuation problems.

3) I would suggest revising some of the subtitles (for example" Constitutive modeling of soft
materials instead of Constitutive models used)
Based on the reviewer’s comment, some of the subtitles are revised as follows:
2.1. Force at the Plate-Sample Interface
4.3 HT-Based ID for Soft Materials
5.1 Advantages of HT-Based ID
5.2 Constitutive Modeling of Soft Materials

4) How would nonlinear damping effect the HT-based identification methodology? Please
elaborate and include as limitation in the manuscript.
Theoretically, there is no limitation on the identification of the nonlinear damping if the damping
is purely related to the velocity. The procedure applied in this paper to the soft tissues requires
calculation of the analytical strain rate for derivation of the damping properties. However, if the

Public
damping solely is not based on the strain-rate but also the strain dependent, then the HT based
identification procedure presented in this paper might be inadequate. This is explained in the
manuscript by adding the following to the discussion section:
‘The nonlinear system ID method presented in this paper is indeed capable of identifying
nonlinear damping as long as the material damping is a function of the stretch (strain) rates only.
When the damping nonlinearity depends on both strains and strain rates, decomposing the
analytical signals into instantaneous damping and stiffness terms and hence identification
constitutes a bigger challenge. The authors are currently working on this challenge.’

Public
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