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MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

the act or process of using words,


sounds, signs, or behaviors to express
or exchange information or to
express your ideas, thoughts,
feelings, etc., to someone else
Communication )
the exchange of information and the
expression of feeling that can result in

understanding )
RECEPTION MODEL
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication (1960)

TWOBASIC MODE OF COMMUNICATION


1. BROADCASTING – it use in a single powerful transmitter and numerous receivers.

Example: radio station, tv station

2. POINT TO POINT – involve in communicating between single transmitter and a receiver.

Example: conversation in a telephone.


MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

COUR SUBJECT DESCRIPTION


- The course introduces the learners to basic understanding of media
and information as channels of communication and tools for the
development and socities.
- It aims also to develop student to be creative and critical thinkers as
well as responsible users and competent producers of media and
information.

Media and Information Literacy (MIL)


• refers to the essential competencies (knowledge, skills and attitude) that allow
citizens to engage with media and other information providers effectively and
develop critical thinking and life-long learning skills for socializing and becoming
active citizens

INTRODUCTION TO MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERACY

• The ability to read, analyze, evaluate and


Media Literacy produce communication in a variety of media
forms.

• The ability to recognize when information is


needed and to locate, evaluate, effectively use
Information Literacy
and communicate information in its various
formats.

• The ability to use digital technology,


Technology (Digital) communication tools or networks to locate,
Literacy evaluate, use, and create information.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

• Media Literacy
• The ability to read, analyze, evaluate and produce communication in a
variety of media forms.

IMPORTANCE OF MEDIA
1. Media stories outline the present cultural practices and conventions while developing
new customs for audiences.
2. Media stories provide views and information to people that will guide them to good
decision making on their career paths
3. Media stories bring people into places, providing better perspective and the way others
think
4. Media stories attract, immerse people into fantastic world, and show their preferences in
real life
5. Media stories motivate people to act on their vision and goals
6. Media stories shape ideas that people bring in along in life

CONCEPTS LINKEDTO MEDIA LITERACY


1. MEDIA PRODUCTION- involves media products that are designed from conciousand
unconscious preferences by by individual, who decide on whatto include,what to
discard,and how to present products

2.MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS – make viewers compare their life and thereby make personal
judgements. Media also have hidden agenda embedded in their presentations.
A.COMMERCIAL IMPLICATIONS –can be noticed through its advertisements and
commercial presentations.
B. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS- are part of media strategy to achieve
values, power, and authority that consciously will sway decisions among viewers.

3.AUDIENCE – will be the targeted market for the productions that media is undertaking.

MEDIA EDUCATION
-also makes individuals media literate by being able to comprehend the type, styles,
and outcomes of media messages and productions.
-also constructs and acknowledges the positive, creative aspects of popular culture
as well as integrate media production texts and critical thinking to aid in navigating the
complexity of media.

WHY MEDIA IS IMPORTANT TO STUDY?

DEVELOPING YOUR MEDIA LITERACY SKILLS

 IDENTIFY THE SOURCE AS FAST AS POSSIBLE


 IDENTIFY THE STORY KINE
 HAVE GATHERED AND LEARNEED ALL ANGLES OF THE STORY
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

• Information Literacy
The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate,
evaluate, effectively use and communicate information in its various
formats.

 TAKES PLACETHE INDIVIDUALS WHO UNDERSTAND THETIMELINESS OF THE


INFORMATION AND URING SITUATIONS THAT REQUIRE THEM TO LACATE ,
EVALUATE, AND USE INFORMATION APPROPRIATELY
 IT IS ALSO A LIFELONG LEARNING TO ALL EDUATIONAL DISCIPLINES IT CAN
BEACCESS THROUGH MULTIMEDIA (GRAPHICAL, AURAL TEXTUAL)
 IS THE FOUNDATION FOR THE INDEPENDENT LEARNING AND LIFE LONG LEARNING
 INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE THROUGH LIBRARIES, COMMUNITY RESOURCES,
SPECIAL INTERESTORGANIZATIONS, MEDIA, AND INTERNET.
 INFORMATION LITERACY IS A LIFELONG LEARNING,IT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH
MULTIMEDIA(GRAPHICAL, AURAL AND TEXTUAL) AND OTHER FUTURE SOURCES
THAT WILL REQUIRE STUDYING AND UNDERSTANDING.

DATA SMOG- ISs information traffic and overload that will become a barrier in our
ability to store information.

SEVEN DIMENSIONS OF INFORMATION LITERACY

TOOL LITERACY – Is the competency to knoe and employ the functional and
conceptual tools in information technology which includes software,hardware,
algorithms.

RESOURCE LITERACY- Is the competency comprehend form, format ,location,ways to


access information

SOCIAL-STRUCTURAL LITERACTY – Is tracing how information is socially located and


created. It is recognizing how information fits and becomes appropriate into various
sectors such as group lifestyles, institutions and social network.

RESEARCH LITERACY – is knowing and using IT-based equiptment that involves


computersoftware for quantitative assessment,qualitative interpretation, virtual
reality,concepts, and analytical limitation.

PUBLISHING LITERACY –is the skill of formatting and publishing research concepts in
digital texts and in multimedia structures.

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY LITERACY – is the ability to make intelligent decisions


whether to adapt, comprehend,asses, or use existing and emerginginventions.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

CRITICAL LITERACY – is the ability to asss various perspectives on information


development and technologies.

TECHNOLOGY LITERACY

IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY LITERACY

1. Make people better decision makers since they can identify what is reliable and
what is now.
2. Can access accurate information about their health,safety and attainment of life
goals.
3. It helps decrease digital divide and thereby becoming competitive in whatever
they pursue in life.

CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGY LITERACY

1. MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES are engaged with diagnosing , detecting and avoiding


deseases and other damage to the mind or body.

2.AGRICULTURE AND RELATED BIOTECHNOLOGIES pertain to growingcrops and


raising animals for food consumption, feedingpurposes, fiber sources, fuel use
among others.

3.ENERGY & POWER TECHNOLOGIES utilize energy serves and change energy to
power.

4.INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES –incorporate educational


technologies as well as gathering nformation,categorizing, manipulating, keeping
and rerieving sources.

5.TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGIES allow people to transfer goods from one venue


to another.

6. MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES convert resources into finished goods and


products.

7. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES are procedures dealing with construction of


roads, building and other structures.

WHY MEDIA IS IMPORTANT TO STUDY

1. Motivate young people


2. Knits the world closer
3. Exemplifies present teaching
4. Collective environment and agent for education
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

5.It cultivates creativity in using multimedia


6. It makes them potential debaters and lobbyist for what they believe in as controversial
and real life issues in the community.
7. It provides a fresh perspective on how media play in diversity, identity and difference in a
pluralistic society.
8.It allows young people to acquire personal and social development by investigating music,
fashion, tv, programming, advertising self-projection attitudes and lifestyles preferences as
part of pop culture.

CHAPTER 2
THE EVOLUTION OF TRADITIONAL TO NEW MEDIA

MEDIA’S HISTORICAL TIMELINE

PREHISTORIC AGE -
People discovered fire,
developed paper from
plants and forged
equipment or weapon
through stone, bronze,
Copper and iron.

INDUSTRIAL AGE

People used the


power of steam, developed
machine tools,
established iron production and manufacturing.

ELECTONIC AGE

People harnessed the power of


electricity that led to electrical
telegraphy, circuits and the early large scale computers

NEW (DIGITAL )AGE (INFORMATION)

People advanced the use of


microelectronics in the invention
of PCs, mobile devices and
wearable technology. In this age,
the internet paved the way for
faster communication and the
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

creation of the social network.


Moreover, voice, image, sound and data are digitalized.
PREHISTORIC (200,000 BC-4,000 BC)
1. Rock Carving
2. Song, Music & Dance
3. Language, & Oration
4. Body Art
5. Jewelry
6.Mythology
7.Cave painting & Visual Symbols
8. Sculpture
9. Pottery
10. Megalithic Architechture

ANCIENT(3000 BC- 100 1D)

1. Writing
2. metallurgical Art & Bronze Sculpture
3. Alphabet
4. Drama
5. Paper

REINAISSANCE (1450 AD- 1620)

1. Printing Press
2. Printed Books
3. News Paper & magazines

MODERN MEDIA(1839 –PRESENT)

1. Photograph
2. Telegraph
3. Telephone
4. Phonograph
5. Movie camera
6. Film
7. Radio
8. Television
9. Video tape
10. Cassette tape
11 Personal Computer
12. Compact Disc
13. Mobile Phone
14. Internet

KINDS OF NEW MEDIA


MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

1. Search Engine Optimization (SEO)


Is a sequence of processes that allows a website to accelerate and improve and
improve its search devices like google.

2.Pay-Per Click (PPC) Advertising


Allows companies to select which keywords and phrases they like are linked to their
advertisements

3. Content marketing
Is done through written content such as articles, blog posts, guides including videos.

4. Social Media
Uses social networks such as facebook, twitter,Instagram, Pinterest and many others
in promoting their businesses and bringing a multiplier effect towards the target audience.

THEORIES AND INFORMATION MEDIA

EFFECTS THEORY or known as the hypodermic syringe Inoculation or magic Bullet theory
brings he idea of what media can doto its audience.

USES AND GRATIFICATIONS THEORY


Believes that consumers use media to satisfy their specific needs and desire. Most
consumer brose the internet to find information, pursue entertainment, shop or
communicate with other individuals.

SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
Demonstrate that meaning can be achieved through human interaction. so when
people travel different places they use symbols with shared cultural meanings for
communication.

RECEPTION THEORY
Shows that audiences will do to media which is the oppositeof effects theory.

1. Two –Step Flow of Communication tells about the indirect effect of media where
peoples choices are shaped by opinion leaders.
2.Klapper’s Selective exposure Theory believes that expectators are not passive
since they can select the content that is parallel to their beliefs and convictions
3. Agenda-Setting Theory discusses the frequency of viewers watching the topics in
media and how thses shows influence their decision making
4. Framing Theory shows the ability of media to manipulate the interpretation of the
message towards its audience.
5.Knowledge Gap Theory pertains to the long term effect of mass media to the socio
economic situation of the target audience. Resulting to a comparative study.
6. Cultivation Theory allows the audience to be participants in television programs
depictingthe real world.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

SPIRAL OF SILENCE states that individuals who belong to a minority opinion quite to avoid
social seclusion.

MEDIA LOGIC speaks that formats and styles in a vehicle of how to perceive the world.

CULTIVATION ANALYSIS THEORY explains that constant media exposure and the endless
repetition of messages will result to a created by the individual.

CHAPTER 3

INFORMATION LITERACY
The skills of being able to access, evaluate, and use information may serve as the
learner’s foundation of being well informed and being able to perform competently in the
various tasks in the academe, work, and community.

TYPES OF INFORMATION NEEDS


1. DORMANT NEEDS
This can be done by browsing through the internet for updates and querying through
the experts for verification of the information.

2 .UNEXPRESSED NEEDS

Users are aware of their information needs but do nothing to fill in the gap.

INFORMATION WANTS

INFORMATION DEMANDS

INFORMATION USE

THE EVOLUTION OF TRADITIONAL TO NEW MEDIA


MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

TEXT INFORMATION AND MEDIA

Text – a simple and flexible format of presenting information or conveying


ideas whether hand-written, printed or displayed on-screen.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

a. Text is very powerful as well in disseminating information, providing


direction and giving suggestions.

b. Text is available in different sources whether it is formal (news articles,


published books, newspapers, magazines, advertisements, research works,
etc.) or informal (blogs, personal e-mails, SMS or text messages, online
messengers, social media platforms, etc).

• Formal text-based materials are created and distributed by


established institutions (such as publishing companies, news agencies, etc.)
and go through a rigorous process of editing or evaluation and are usually
governed by censorship of the state.
• Informal text-based materials, on the other hand, come from
personal opinions or views on different issues, processes, etc.

c. Text can be as short such as a single sentence or phrase, or they can be as


lengthy as news articles or investigative reporting. No matter how brief or
lengthy, however, a text is always carefully written with the intent of sending
a very specific message to the target audience.

d. In our exposure to text media and information, we can either be a


consumer or a producer of content. As a consumer, these are the questions
that you need to ask with regards to the content of text media and
information:
• Who or what institution is sending this message? (Ans. Social
media platforms)
• What techniques are used to attract and hold attention?
(Ans. Fonts, Italicization and formatting)
• What is the language used by the writer? (Ans.
• What views are represented? Are they balanced?
• How might the message be interpreted in different ways?
• What is omitted, slurred or added in the message?
e. As a producer of text media and information, we need to review the media
and information design framework: target audience, author or sender, key
content, purpose, form/style and format.

Text as visual
a. Typeface (also called font, font type, or type) refers to the representation
or style of a text in the digital format.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

b. A typeface is usually comprised of alphabets, numbers, punctuation


marks, symbols and other special characters. When fonts are installed in
the computer, they usually come in file formats such as True Type Font
(.ttf), Open Type Font (.otf) etc.

c. In the absence of images or drawings, text is the easiest way of


communicating to your audience. The use of various font types can express
different emotions or meaning.

Design principles and elements which are


1 Emphasis refers to the importance
or value given to a part of the text-
based content. When trying to make a point or highlighting a message, you
can make the text bold, italicized,
have a heavier weight, darkened or
lightened or enlarged.
2 Appropriateness - refers to how
fitting or suitable the text is used for a
specific audience, purpose or event. In
the creation of text-based content,
make sure that the selection criteria
(tone, style, purpose, clarity) is followed. When it comes to large body text,
the
font should be clear enough to read.
3.Proximity - refers to how near or
how far are the text elements from
each other. Wh.en two things are
closely related, we bring them close
together. Otherwise, we put text
elements far from each other. For
example, the main title and subtitle are
usually placed close to each other.
4. Alignment - refers to how the text is positioned in the page. This can be
left, right, center or justified.
5. Organization - refers to a conscious effort to organize the different text
elements in a page. Organization
ensures that while some text elements
are separated from each other (based
on the principle of proximity), they are
still somehow connected with the rest
of the elements in the page.

7.Repetition- concerns consistency of elements and the unity of the entire


design. Repetition encourages the use
of repeating some typefaces within the
page.
MEDIA INFORMATION LITERACY

8. Contrast- creates visual interest to


text elements. It is achieved when two elements are different from each
other. When you place a white text on a very
light yellow background, contrast is not achieved and the text will be difficult
to read, but when you put a white text on a dark brown background, contrast
is
created.