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0 (de) vizualizări8 paginiThis work focuses on the comparison of the
strain energy density functions for rubber-like materials
based on exponential form. The Treloar experimental
data had been used in the present paper. The optimal
method for nonlinear parameter identification is
developed. Indeed, a comparison between the Treloar
data and the analytical solution is approached in order
to identify a good hyperelastic parameters of the models.

Aug 30, 2019

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This work focuses on the comparison of the
strain energy density functions for rubber-like materials
based on exponential form. The Treloar experimental
data had been used in the present paper. The optimal
method for nonlinear parameter identification is
developed. Indeed, a comparison between the Treloar
data and the analytical solution is approached in order
to identify a good hyperelastic parameters of the models.

© All Rights Reserved

0 (de) vizualizări

This work focuses on the comparison of the
strain energy density functions for rubber-like materials
based on exponential form. The Treloar experimental
data had been used in the present paper. The optimal
method for nonlinear parameter identification is
developed. Indeed, a comparison between the Treloar
data and the analytical solution is approached in order
to identify a good hyperelastic parameters of the models.

© All Rights Reserved

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ISSN No:-2456-2165

Models based on Exponential Forms

LIMAN KAOYE M. Bien-aimé BALE B. Blaise

PhD Student PhD Student

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,

University of NGAOUNDERE – CAMEROON University of MAROUA – CAMEROON

Dr. T. BEDA

Research Supervisor

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science,

University of NGAOUNDERE – CAMEROON

Abstract:- This work focuses on the comparison of the [27] compared twenty hyperelastic using genetic algorithm,

strain energy density functions for rubber-like materials Chagnon [28] compared the Hart-Smith with Arruda-Boyce.

based on exponential form. The Treloar experimental The good phenomenological hyperelastic model must be

data had been used in the present paper. The optimal able to fit the Treloar experimental data [4].

method for nonlinear parameter identification is

developed. Indeed, a comparison between the Treloar The outline of this work compares the strain energy

data and the analytical solution is approached in order density functions based on the Hart-Smith first part and the

to identify a good hyperelastic parameters of the models. general model combining the models has been proposed. In

By processing simple tension, pure shear and equibiaxial addition to that, this article presents a strategy of

tension curves showed the good agreement between the hyperelastic identification parameters that provide the

model and experimental data. optimal parameters based on Treloar experimental data.

Approach-In-Stages, Identification Process, Material MATERIAL FORM

parameters.

According to the continuum mechanics theories, there

I. INTRODUCTION exists the strain energy density function W , which is the

property of rubber-like materials. The first Piola-Kirchhoff

Nowadays, the mechanical of rubber-like materials has stress tensor P which is used in the study of the large

a very active field of research due to their use in the many deformation analysis can be expressed as the derivative of

areas of applications. Since the fortieth century, some

the variable W and the right Cauchy-Green tensor C [22,

experimental and theoretical models have already been

29]. The general constitutive equation is given by the

proposed by Mooney [1], Kuhn and Grün [2], Treloar [3, 4,

following:

5] and James [6]. Long before, the multitude of

phenomenological constitutive hyperelastic models has been

proposed in attempts to describe the deformation modes of

elastomeric polymers. Ones of them based on strain- W

P 2. (1)

invariants, Rivlin [7], Pucci and Saccomandi [8], Isihara C

[9], James [6], Yeoh [10], Lion [11], Haupt and Sedlan [12],

Boyce-Arruda [13], Beda [14], Nunes [15], and Carroll [16] Then, considering that the right Cauchy-Green tensor

and the others on principal stretches Valanis [17], Peng [18] C is symmetric, the first relationship can be expressed as:

and recently Ogden [19], [20]. Even so, few of the following

models have the accuracy, the efficiency, the ability and the

capacity to reproduce all the deformation modes like simple,

W W I1 W I 2 W I 3

equal-biaxial tension and pure shear tests. Among these (2)

hyperelastic models, many have been proposed with an C I1 C I 2 C I 3 C

exponential dependence on the strain invariants form. In this

context, it is worth mentioning above Hart-Smith that

associated the exponential and the logarithmic form [21], That equivalent to:

Fung [22], Alexender [23], Gornet-Marckmann [24] and

Beda [25] generalized the Hart-Smith model. In the

litterature, many authors compared some hyperelastic

W W W W W 1

models, M. García [26] presented a review of the I1 I C I 3C (3)

application of the hyperelastic models to the analysis of C I1 I 2 I 2 I 3

fabrics using finite element method in 2006, Marckmann

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Then, we can write: 2 2

I1

W (9)

0 I 1C 2 C 1 (4) 1

C I 2

2 2

W W W W

Where 0 I1 , 0 , 2 I3

I1 I 2 I 2 I 3 Considering equations (5), and (6), the stress tensor

relation in the terms of invariants tensor can be expressed

and C F F , F is the deformation gradient matrix.

T

by:

2 I

2 1

materials law, the strain energy function admits the three

I 2

(10)

principal invariants of C denoted I1 , I 2 and I 3 these are 1

written as :

Considering equibiaxial tension test: 1 2 and

3

3 . Thus, the two strain invariants tension are:

2

i 1

1

I 2 (trC ) trC i j , i j

3

1 I 2 2

2 2 2

4

1

(5)

2 i , j 1 (11)

3 I 4 2

I 3 det C i 2 2

2

i 1

Generally, a constitutive relation of Cauchy-Green for relations (5) and (7) becomes:

hyperelastic properties is defined by:

W W

f C (6) 2 5 2 (12)

I1 I 2

Therefore, in the large deformation domain, the

Pure shear

constitutive relationship between the Cauchy stress tensor

This deformation test, 1 , 2 1 and 3

2

and the strain energy density function is giving by the

following relation: . Thus, the two invariants deformation are the same.

W 1

2 J 1 F FT (7) I1 I 2 2 1 (13)

C 2

Taking into account the condition of the The stress tensor could be also expressed as:

incompressibility and the isotropic of rubber-like materials,

the relation (7) can be rewritten as:

W W

2 3 (14)

W W I1 I 2

pI 2

1

C 2 C (8)

I1 I 2

IV. THE DIFFERENCE HYPERELASTIC MODELS

Where p is the hydrostatic pressure.

a) RIVLIN R. S. hyperelastic model

III. NONLINEAR DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR The strain energy density W I1 , I 2 which

characterizes the mechanical response of an isotropic,

The relationship that describes the behavior of the incompressible and hyperelastic like-rubber materials

elastomeric polymer is given by the relation (8). expressed in the terms of the invariants tensor or

immediately in the terms of principal stretches like

For Simple tension: W 1 , 2 , 3 . At the first, Rivlin expressed the strain

According to uniaxial tension and based on

energy function like an infinite convergent power series

incompressible and isotropic conditions, 1 and

based on invariants of Green deformation tensor. That

2 3 1 . The two invariants for this test are: material must be homogenous, isotropic and incompressible.

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Many hyperelastic models had been built from the first term g) T. BEDA model

of the classical work of Rivlin [7] given by the following The model of Beda [33] generalizes the Hart-Smith

relation : strain energy [21] who takes a unique value of the

hyperelastic parameter 2 . Beda considers that is a

variable. The form of the hyperelastic model is given by the

WRiv C I 3 I 2 3

m n

mn 1 (15) following relationship:

m,n 0

b) HART-SMITH model

Hart-Smith modified the Gent-Thomas model by

WBe C1 exp I1 3

dI C ln I3

1 2

2

(21)

of the first invariant I1 . Thus, based on the two first V. METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE

OPTIMAL AND ACCURATE HYPERELASTIC

invariants I1 and I 2 , He proposed the following PARAMETERS

hyperelastic relationship for the strain energy:

The approach-in-stage method will be used for

identifying all model parameters in the present paper. The

WH S C1 exp I1 3 dI1 C2 ln

2

I2

3

(16) technique consists to identify step by step the generating

function [34, 35, 36, 37, 25, 38, 33]. The method supposes

to approximate the function y x that corresponds to the

c) VERONDA-WESTMANN model

In 1970, Veronda-Westmann [30] proposed a function A x , that corresponds to y x A x . This

biological model to study in uniaxial tests the skin of cats. strategy consists to plot y x versus x and ought to

This derives from the Fung model. Veronda prolonged just

the Fung strain energy density by adding the second term. be linear, with slope equal to A. In other cases, Beda showed

that, the curve of y x versus x should be convex

The whole hyperelastic model expressed by the following

expression:

and rising if 1 , concave if 0 1 convex and

WV W C1 exp I1 3 1 C2 I 2 3 (17) falling if 0 [35]. In this paper, all the hyperelastic

parameters of the material in this work will be determined

d) YEOH-modified model by the approach-in-stage method.

The Yeoh modified model [31] derives from the Yeoh

1990 [10] hyperelastic model that extended by adding the Base on deformation modes, the Hart-Simth model,

exponential form. the Gornet-Marckmann model and the Beda model, the

stress tensor can be respectively rewritten for:

3

WY Ci I1 3 1 exp I1 3

i

Simple tension mode:

(18)

i 1

e) LAMBERT-DIANI model C

2 2 C1e I 3 2

2

(22)

multistage procedure, get a generic hyperelastic model I2

given by the following strain energy:

The Gornet-Marckmann model

n m

2 2 C1e I 3 2

WL D exp

i j

2 C

j

2 2

1

(23)

I2

i 0 j 0

f) L. GORNET-MARCKMANN model

Gornet and Marckmann [24] developed a new The Beda model

constitutive hyperelastic model on static stiffness modeling C

2 2 C1e I 3 2

2

(24)

based also on Hart-Smith model by replacing the second I2

term in I 2 :

Equibiaxial tension mode:

WG M C1 exp I1 3 dI1 C2

1 The Hart-Smith model

dI 2 (20)

I2 C

2 5 C1e I 3 2 2

2

1

(25)

I2

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

The Gornet-Marckmann model This equation equivalent to:

C

2 5 C1e I 3 2 2 W W

2

C1e 1

1

(26) I 3

I 2 (34)

I1 2 I 2

The Beda model

The previous equation allows us to evaluate C1 ,

C

2 C1e I 3 2 2 and according to the Beda model by taking the logarithm

2

5 1

(27)

I2 form [33], the results are displayed in figures 2 and 5. The

figure 1 shows the identification of the parameter C 2 at the

Pure shear mode

first partial solution. Both other hyperelastic parameters C1

The Hart-Smith model and of the Gornet-Marckmann model are deeply

C

2 3 C1e I 3 2 evaluated by the method [38].

2

1

(28)

I2

0,24

Treloar uniaxial data

The Gornet-Marckmann model 1st partial solution

2 3 C1e I 3

2 C2

1

(29)

I2

0,16

/2 [MPa]

The Beda model

C2

2 3 C1e I 3

2

1

(30)

0,08

I2

PARAMETERS THE MODELS

0,00

According to the relations (23) and (24), the reduced

stress can be respectively written like: 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8

1/I1/2

2

C

C1e 2

I 3

2

Fig. 1 :- Identification of the parameter C 2

1

(31)

2 2

I2 -1,0

And 2end partial solution

C -1,2

C1e 2

I 3

1

(32)

2 2

I2

ln(W/I1 [MPa]

-1,4

Through both relationships, the hyperelastic

parameters estimated by using the approach-in-stage method

[37]. In the first stage, the evaluation of C 2 consists to plot

-1,6

1

2 versus I 2 and the linear segment permits to

evaluation of

estimate the slope C2 , displayed in figure 1. The relation

-1,8

(32) can be rewritten like:

W W

(33) -2,0

2 I1 I 2 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

(I1-3)2

Fig. 2 :- Evaluation of the parameter for the Gornet-

Marckmann model

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

the large deformation domain [4 21, 32, 33]. Some else 6 U.E

considered as a power function or as an infinite series [29, U.E Gornet-Marckmann

E.E

25]. Let’s us consider W I1 as an exponential form, E.E Gornet-Marckmann

5 C.P

plots, ln W I1 versus I1 3 and varies

then one C.P Gornet-Marckmann

, the hyperelastic parameter until to get the linear

segment, see in the figures 2 and 5. Taking account the 4

previous explanation, the relation (34) can be expressed

n [MPa]

like:

3

W

I1 3 l

ln (35)

I1 2

the equation (35), one assumes that: 1

W I1 3

C1e (36)

I1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The equation (36) is evaluated at the third stage to

Fig. 4 :- Comparison of the Gornet-Marckmann model with

deduce the constant of the parameter C1 , see in the figures Treloar data according to uniaxial extension versus equation

3 and 6. (23), equibiaxial extension versus equation (26) and pure

shear test versus equation (29).

0,40

Treloar U.E data

3rd stage

0,36 2nd partial solution

-1,2

0,32

W/I1 [MPa]

ln(W/I1 [MPa]

0,28 -1,4

0,24

-1,6

0,20

evaluation of C -1,8

0,16 evaluation of and for the model

-2,0

1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 0 350 700 1050 1400 1750

exp((I1-3)2) I13

Fig. 5 :- Evaluation of the parameter and for the Beda

model

model

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

0,40 VII. THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

PROPOSED

Treloar U.E data

3rd stage Based on the model of Hart-Smith, model of the

0,35 Gornet-Marcmann and Beda, there is a proposal for a

powerful isotropic and incompressible hyperelastic model

that generalizes these models. The model proposed is given

by the following expression:

0,30

W/I1 [MPa]

W C1 exp I1 3

dI C

1 2

1

I2

dI 2 (37)

0,25

This model has distinguished itself by its ability to

describe the three common modes of deformation in the

domain of the large strain. This strain energy has good

0,20

accuracy to reproduce the Treloar experimental data in

estimation of C for the model equibiaxial, uniaxial extension and pure shear test. The

proposed model responses are depicted in figure 8 for the

three modes of deformation.

0,15

The Treloar experimental has permitted to identify the

1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 hyperelastic parameters of the constitutive models. Those

expI13 are performed using the three experiences synchronously.

The computational results of this present word are shown in

Fig. 6 :- Evaluation of C1 for the Beda model figures 4, 7 and 8. The different values of these previous

phenomenological constitutive hyperelastic parameters for

rubber-like materials are given in the following table 1.

6

U.E

U.E Beda 2014

P.S 6 Treloar U.E data

5 P.S Beda 2014 Model proposed U.E

Treloar E.E data

Model proposed E.E

5 Treloar P.S data

4 Model proposed P.S

4

n [MPa]

n [MPa]

2

2

1

1

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Fig. 7 :- Comparison of the Beda model with the Treloar

data according to uniaxial extension, and pure shear Fig. 8 :- Comparison of model proposed with Treloar data

experience versus equations (24) and (28). according to uniaxial extension, equibiaxial extension and

pure shear.

Volume 4, Issue 7, July – 2019 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

Models C MPa K MPa

4

Gornet-Marckmann 0.145 3.2.10 / 1.36.10-3

Beda 2014 0.140 7.5.10 4 1.800 0.210

Model proposed 0.137 5.891.103 1.850 58.10 3

Table 1:- the estimated value of the large strain parameters

Carbon-Black-Filled Rubber Vulcanizates,” Rubber

In this present paper, many constitutive hyperelastic Chemistry and Technology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 792–

models: Gornet-Marckmann, Beda and proposal model were 805, Nov. 1990.

compared. These phenomenological models had a common [11]. A. Lion, “Pergamon ON THE LARGE

link due to the exponential form in the term of I1 identic to DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED

RUBBER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES In

the Hart-Smith model. The Hart-Smith hyperelastic model mechanical engineering filler-reinforced vulcanisates

offers an advantage that will facilitate the numerical

are utilised for many technical products , especially for

implementation in the finite element method. The practical

shock-absorbers , tubes or tyres . Under typical ,” vol.

method that called the approach-in-stages had been used for 45, no. 97, pp. 1805–1834, 1997.

identifying all the different optimal and accurate [12]. P. Haupt and K. Sedlan, “Viscoplasticity of

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materials models based has been proposed.

DIMENSIONAL CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR

THE LARGE STRETCH BEHAVIOR OF RUBBER

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