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Gaekwad's Oriental Series

Published under the Authority of

the Maharaja Sayajirao University
of Baroda.

General Editor :
B. J. Sandesara,
M, A.,Ph,D0

No. 134




Retired Professor of Sanskrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad.
Hon- Professor of Sanskrit, Bhandarkar Oriental Researah Institute, Poonq

'First Edition : 1000 Copies.

Printed (on behalf of the M . S, University of Baroda Press)

by M, N . Cbapekar, Aryasanskriti Mudranalaya, 1575/2
Sadasbiv, Tilak Road, Poona 2, and Published on beLalf of
the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda by Dr, Bhogilal,
]• Sandesara, Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda» March, 196L*

Price Rs. 2^=00

Copies can be had from—

The University Publications Sales Unit,
ML S«. University ol Baroda Press ( Sadhana Press ),
near Palace Gate, Palace Road, 3 ARO DA.
The Memory of
the late Mahamahopädhyäya

my father, whose esample has inspired

me to undertake this and similar
other works on Sanskrit Grammar.

We take this opportunity to place before the world of Sanskrit

scholars this Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, which, we are confident,
will be an indispensable reference book for all students working in
this field as well as allied branches of knowledge.
Prof.*; Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar has the good fortune to
inherit traditional Sanskrit learning from his father, Mahämahopä-
dhyaya Pandit Vasudevashastri Abhyankar, who is well known for his
translations of The Brahmasütra Sänkara Bhasya and The Patafijala
Mahäbhasya. Prof» Abhyankar had a brilliant academic^career and is
a reputed teacher and a very well known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar
and Prakrit language and literature. He has himself edited several books5
and is at present bringing out revised editions of The Patafijala Mahä-
bhäsya and Paribhasendusekhara and has compiled a Paribhäsäsangraha
alP of which are being published h^ the Bhandarkar Oriental Research
Institute, Poona. His exhaustive introduction to The Pätanjala Mahä-
bhäsya is enough to show that he is pre-eminently qualified for pre-
paring this Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, which is a valuable
product of a life-time of devoted scholarship,
We are thankful to the University Grants Commission and the
State Government for the liberal fimancial assistance they have given
towards publication of this work»

Oriental Institute* Baroda, \ B. J . SAHDESARA

17-3-I96L > Director

Object of this Dictionary

No apology is needed for undertaking the compilation of the present
Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', which, although concise, is expected
to meet the needs of Sanskrit scholars and research students of Vyäkarana
and other Shastras by serving as a useful reference book in their study of,
and research work in, any branch of Sanskrit learning. The many
independent treatises in the several Shastras and the learned commentaries
upon them, as also the commentaries on classical poems and dramas, are, in
fact, full of grammatical explanations of words and constructions, involving
a liberal use of grammatical expressions and technical terms at several
places^ The elementary knowledge of grammar which a general scholar of
Sanskrit possesses, is not found sufficient for his understanding fully the
grammatical references in these books, especially so at present, when the
practice of sending young boys to the Tolls and Sanskrit Päthashäläs to
study the standard classical works with commentaries along with some
standard elementary treatises on grammar, has already stopped. The
number of Sanskrit Pandits and Shastris,who had to obtain a sound footing in
grammar before they undertook the study of the higher texts of the several
Shastras, and who therefore could be consulted by young scholars and
research workers in the several Shastras, has also diminished considerably.
The usual Sanskrit Dictionaries such as those of Monier Williams, V.S.Apte
and others^ are found of no avail in supplying explanations of the gramma-
tical technique which confronts modern scholars at every step in their
critical reading of the several Sanskrit texts- In these circumstances it is
only the technical dictionaries of the type of the present tf Dictionary of
Sanskrit Grammar 5 that can render a valuable assistance to scholars and
research workers in their reading of the higher Sanskrit texts in the several

Beginnings of Sanskrit Grammar

Every science has necessarily its own terminology and a special
vocabulary^ The remark is true with respect to Sanskrit Grammar or
Vyäkaranasästra which has developed as a science during the last two
thousand years and has got several technical terms and numerous words
with a special grammatical significance. The origin of grammar can well-
nigh be traced to the Period of the Brähmanas i. e, about 2000 B.C., when
Vedic scholars began to discuss the meaning of the inspired Vedic hymns
by carefully showing disconnected, the words of the Vedic hymns
and noting down the differences in accents as also the changes caused by
their coalescence in the continuous recital or the Samhitlpatha, They also
tried to explain the sense of the Vedic words by tracing them back to the
roots of suitable senses and laid down rules for their proper and correct

pronunciation. These three pursuits viz. (a) the discussion of the features of
the Pada text* (b) the derivation of words, and (c) directions regarding the
proper pronunciation of the Vedic words, were carried on with vigour with
a view to preserving the Vedic texts intact, and the treatises dealing with
these three branches were respectively called by the names Prätisäkhya,
Nirukta and Siksa, all of which could rightly be called Vyäkarana or
Grammar, as they were devoted to determining the correct words as dis-
tinguished from the incorrect ones. Although a number of books were
written by Vedic scholars in these three branches, not more than five or six
Prätisäkhya works, a solitary Nirukta work, and a few Siksa works are the
only available works at present.

Development of Sanskrit Grammar

In course of time, on the analogy of the derivation of words, an
analysis of the word into its constituent elements such as the base, the affix,
the augments and the modifications, was undertaken by grammarians. This
separation of the different elements of a word constituted Vyakara?}a or
grammar, which was developed as an art by ancient grammarians Tike
Äpisali, Säkatayana and others before Pänini. It was Pänini who carried
it to perfection, and his work, the Astädhyäyi, compact yet exhaustive, and
laconic yet clear,is simply a marvellous product of art by a man of amazing
intelligence. As a result, the works on grammar by all ancient scholars
who flourished before Pänini disappeared in course of time leaving only a
few quotations behind them. Pänini was followed by a number of grammar-
ians who wrote popular treatises on grammar, based, no doubt, on Panini's
grammar, some of which, in their turn came to have auxiliary w: rks,
flosses and explanatory commentaries. These different treatises, written by
Sarvavarman, Candragomin, Devanandin, Pälyakirti Sakatäyana, Hemacan-
dra, Kramadisvara, Jumaranandm3 Supadma and others with their auxi-
liary works and commentaries, came to be looked upon as different systems
of grammar. These treatises present two kinds of treatment ; some of
them are arranged in Sutras in the same manner as the AstadhySyT of
Panini which treats one after another the several grammatical elements such
as technical terms, padas of roots, case-relations, compound words, krt
affixes, taddhita affixes, substitutes, accents and euphonic changes; while
others give a topic-wise treatment following in t that respect the ancient
grammarians before Pänini such as ladra, Vedic Säkatayana and others who
treated one after another jthe different topics of grammar such as the eu-
phonic changes, declension, conjugation, compound formation, nouns derived
from roots, nouns derived from nouns and the like. The special feature of
all these gramtnars was that they entirely omitted the Vedic peculiarities
and accents.

Sanskrit Grammar as a Science

The subject of Sanskrit grammar was first treated as a science by the two
epoch-making grammarians, first by Kätyäyana a few centuries after Parting

and then by Patanjali, the exponent of Kätyäyana who lived in the second
century B. C. It was carried to perfection by the stalwart grammarian
Bhartrhari of the seventh century A. D. Later grammarians, prominent
among whom were Jayäditya, Vämana, Kaiyata, Haradatta, Bhattoji, Koru
dabhatta and Nägesa, developed by their substantial contributions, the work
of Pänini as a science to such an extent that the number of smaller and
greater works well nigh rose to eight hundred and that of the authors to
four hundred» The grammar of Pänini, which is looked upon as the
standard one at present gives about a hundred technical terms, more than
two hundred suffixes, about two thousand primary roots and more than
five thousand special words arranged in more than two hundred and fifty
classes according to the special grammatical peculiarities shown by each
class- The number of independent primary words, besides these five
thousand special words, if roughly estimated, may exceed even twenty-five
thousand. Besides these primary roots, primary nouns, affixes and tech-
nical terms in the different Shastras3 there is a vast number of secondary
roots and secondary nouns, which is rather impossible even to be appro-
ximately determined»

Nature and Scope of this Dictionary

The preparation of a comprehensive dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar,
a subject which has been developed fully by Sanskrit Grammarians for the
last two thousand years, is certainly a stupendous work which can only be
done by a band of grammarians who have got a sound footing in the sub-
ject. In the light of what has been said above, the present dictionary is only
an honest and humble attempt in that direction, made by the compiler who
was Inspired to undertake this rather arduous venture by his close study of
the subject for more than sixty years according to the traditional method of
the East, combined with the critical and comparative method of the West«
As the work was done single-handed, and finished within a limited
time with a view to making it available to students and scholars of Sans«
krit at as early a date as possible, the number of books consulted was a
limited one. The number of entries is more than four thousand out of
which the important ones are in the form of short articles supplying very
briefly the necessary information from the different sources with quota-
tions from or references to the original works. All the standard works in
grammar have been carefully consulted including the available Pratisä-
khya works, the Mahäbhäsya, the Kasika, ther Vakyapadlya, the Siddhänta-
Kaumudi and others. The Kätantra, the Säkatäyana, the Jainendra, the
Haima and other grammars, as also the different Paribhäsä works have
been consulted at important places. Minor works and commentaries are
not consulted as the important words and topics occurring therein have
been mostly included here on account of their occurrence in the major
works, Attention is, of course, paid to grammatical importance and
significance, and only such such words and such senses of them as have a
grammatical significance, have been included in the present dictionary
k vyith affixes, augments, substitutes and technical terms mostly given

In Pänini's grammar. Names of authors and books, printed as well as

found in a manuscript form, have been included as far as practicable in
the present work. A scrupulous attention has been paid to the Prätisäkhya
works, the Mahäbhäsya and the Käsikä which are looked upon as supreme-
ly authoritative in the field of Sanskrit grammar. It must be admitted
that the scholarly index works of Dr. Bothlingk and Dr. Renou were found
very useful in providing references to standard grammar works,
The abbreviations for the titles of books consulted and those of gra-
mmatical terms are given separately at the beginning of the present
* Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar/ Names of books and authors have
been sometimes given in the Roman script and sometimes in the Deva-
nagarl script.

Acknowledgements are due to Mr. M. Nm Chapekar, Aryasanskriti
Mudranalaya^ Poona5 who has given ample co-operation in getting this
Dictionary printed in the shortest possible time. For facility of printing,
accents of Vedic passages and words are not shown, nor italics have been
used for Sanskrit terms written in the Roman script nor the breaking of
a word at the end of a line is done scrupulously at the end of a syllable or
a constituent part. In spite of all possible care, some slips have crept in
for which the indulgence of the reader is craved« It is expected that
Sanskrit scholars will make full use of this work and offer their valuable
suggestions for future undertakings of this type«

A sincere sense of gratitude must be conveyed to Drw Bhogilal J.

Sandesara, the Director of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, at whose initia-
tive the project of this 6 Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar/ undertaken
some years ago, but postponed from time to time, was not only pursued
with vigour, but completed and turned into a volume in the Gaekwad
Oriental Series.

601-2 Sadashiv Peth,

Laxmi Road, Poona 2 [ K y
Varshapratipada, Shake 1883*

1, Words in this dictionary are arranged in the serial order of the

Sanskrit alphabet which is current everywhere, viz. the fourteen vowels
beginning with 3T and ending with 3ft, and then the thirtythree consonants
consisting of the five guttural, the five palatal, the five cerebral, the five den-
tal and the five labial consonants and then the four semivowels and the
four sibilants. ^ is taken as a combination of \ and s, and ?[ as one of
ST and ^ .

2. Words are given in their noun-base ( snßqi^j) such as

etc., without the addition of any case affix.
3. At places of option where any one of the anusvara and the
parasavarna could be used, the anusvara is consistently used, and a place
after the vowels and before the consonants is assigned to it in the alpha-
betical order. For example, the words containing anusvara such as üwA, w r ,
&M> *3T, mm, %fä, äsrerw, ^far, «HRJII, %m> ^m etc, are all placed after fl
and before ^ , flfipfo etc.
4. Each word entered, has got only one paragraph assigned to it*
although the explanation of the word may cover sometimes a full page
or more.
5. The meaning or meanings of a word are given immediately
after it, and therefore no capital letter is used at the beginning of the word
with which each meaning begins,
6. The various senses of a word are given one after another with
serial numbers placed before them. The several senses of a word are
arranged as far as possible in their chronological order of origin,
7. The various senses are usually illustrated with quotations from
standard authors with full references as far as possible. From among the
Prätisäkhya works, the Rkprätisäkhya is generally quoted, while from among
the numerous grammar works, the Mahäbhäsya and the Käsikä are
quoted profusely.
8. The first figure in references, which is generally the Roman
one, refers to the main section such as the adhyaya or the Kinda or the
Patala, while the next one refers to the subordinate sections, such as the
stanza or the Sutra or the like. When there are three figures they refer to
the adhyaya, the pad a and the Sutra in the case of Panini, and to the
Mandala. the Sükta and the stanza in the case of the Rksamhita.
9. When a particular form is illustrated, the illustration begins
with the abbreviation 'e.g.'; while usually, when the sense given; is illustra-
ted, the explanation or the quotation in Sanskrit begins with the b b i
tio» *cf.\

10. Each of the different senses of a word or of the uses of a word

in different ways, begins with a separate number (I), (2), (3), etc,; when
however, the same sense is given with different shades of it, by words which
are practically synonymous, no separate numbers arc given, the shades of
senses being separated by a colon, or by a comma.
11. As the senses given in such dictionaries are more or less
technical or conventional, the literal or the usual sense of the words is given
only when it is allied to the conventional sense.
12. Sanskrit words are generally given in the Devanagarl script;
when, however, the Roman script is used, the diacritical marks which are
in current use at present, are employed.


(In order of abbreviations used )

A. Pr. = Atharvaveda Pratisakhya, Käs. viv„ - Kasikavivaranapanjika,

Astädhyäyi = Pänini5s Astädhyäyf. known by the name Nyäsa.
Bb. Vr.-Bh^savrtti of Purusottama- Kät. = Kätantra Vyäkarana Sutra.
deva. Kat. Pari. Durg, = Kätantra Paribhä-
Bhär, Slks=sBhäradväja Sfksä* sävrtti by Durgasimha.
G. Vy., Can, Vy. = Gandra Vyäka- Kdv. Prak.==Kavyaprakasa of Mam-
ra^a* mata.
Dhätuvrtti « Mädhavlyä Dhatuvrtti. Laghumawjüsa - Laghuma?ijüsä of
Durgäcärya^Durgäcärya's commen- Nägesa.
tary on the Nirukta. M. Bh. = Mahäbhäsya of Patafijali
Durgasiraha^Durgaskhha's Kätantra« on the Satras "of Pärtini (Dr.
SütravfttL Kielhorn^s edition ).
Durgh. Vr = Durghatavrtti of Sara- Mahäbhäsya Vol. VII=The Volume
nadeva. of the introduction in Marathi to
Hem.=Hemacandra's Sabdanusasana. the Pätafijala Mahäbhäsya, written
Hem. ParL = Hemacandra'$ Paribha« by K, V. Abhyankar and publi-
säpätha as given by Hemaharhsa- shed by the i>. E„ Society^ Poona.
gani. ^ Mahabhasyadlpika « commentary on
Jjain^Jain. Vy.=Jainendra Vyäka- the Mahäbhäsya by Bhartrhari.
rana by Pujyapada Devanandin. Muktavall = Nyäyamuktavali of
Jain. Pari. «• Jainendra Paribha^vrtti VisvanathapaficSnana,
by K. V. Abhyankar. NandikesvaraÄNandikesvarakarikä,
Kaiy., Kaiyata«Kaiyata's Maha« Nir. = Nirukta of Yäska.
bhasyapradlpa,. Nyäsa=Käsikävivaranapanjika, a com-
Kälapa - Käläpa-Vyäkaranasütra. mentary on the Käsikävrtti by
Kaä»=Kasikä of Jayäditya and Vam- Jinendrabuddhi, called Nyasa.
P,, Pän^Pänini's Astadhyäyi,

Padamanjari — Padamaiijari, a com- Sring-Prak. = Sringäraprakäsa of

mentary on the Käsikävrtti by Bhoja.
Haradatta. T. Pr.= Taittiriya Prätisäkhya.
Pan. Sik. = Siksa of PäninL Tait. Samh. = Taittiriya Samhitä.
Par. Bhäs,. = Paribhäsäbhäskara of Tattvabodh. = Tattvabodhini by
Haribhäskara AgnihotrL JnänendrasarasvatL
Par. Sek. = Paribhäsendusekhara of Tattvacintämani = Tattvacintämani
Nägesa. of Gangesopädhyäya.
Paramalaghumaäjusä = Paramala- Tribhasyaratna = commentary on
ghuma^jüsä of Nägesabhatti. the Taittiriya Prätisäkhya.
Pari. Sang. = Paribhäsäsamgraha by Uddyota = Mahabhäsya-Pradipod-
K. V. Abhyankan dyota by Nagesa.
Phit. Sütra=Sä"ntanava's Phitsütra. Un. Sütra = UnädisütrapaficapädT.
Pradipa =» Kaiyata's Mahäbhasyapra- Un. Sütravr. = Unädisütravrtti by
dipa. Ujjvaladatta.
Purusotta cn=:Purusottamadeva's P3r i- Upamanyu = Nandikesvarakärikä-
bhasävrtti. bhäsya by Uparaanyu.
R. Pr. =Rgvedaprätisäkhya by Sau- Uvvata = Uvvata's Bhäsya on the
naka ( Sanskrit Sähityaparisad Pratisakhya works.
Edition, Calcutta.) V. Pr. = Väjasaneyi Pratisakhya*
R. T. = Rktantra Prätisäkhya. Vaidikäbharana =» commentary on
R. V., Rgveda, Rkfc Samh==Rgveda- the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.
sariihitä. Vaiyäkaranabhüsana=Kondabhatta*s
Sabdakaustubha = Sabdakaustubha Vaiyäkaranabhüsänasära*
of Bhattoji Diksita. Väk. Pad. =Väkyapadiya of Bhartr-
Säk. = Säkatäyana's Sabdänusäsana, hari.
Säk. Pari = Säkatäyana Paribhäsä- Väk. Pad. tika = Commentary on
pätha, BhartrharFs Väkyapadiya.
S. K. Sid,Kau. = SiddhäntakaumudL V., Vart. « Värttikas on the Sütras
Slradeva = Sirradeva's Paribhäsä« of Panini as given in the Maha«
vrtti« bhäsya (Dr. Kielhorn's edition.)
Siva Sütra « Mähesvarasütras« Vyädi=Vyädiparibhäsäsücana.

abL ablative case, ind. indeclinable»

above a reference to some preced- inf. infinitive.
ing word, not necessarily on the ins,, inst. instrumental case.
same page. krt. krt (affix).
ace. accusative case* lit. literally.
adj. adjective. loc. locative case.
adv* adverb. masc. masculine gender.
Ahn. Ähnika of the Patanjala ms. manuscript.
Mahäbhasya. neut. neuter gender.
aor. aorist. nom, nominative case.
Atrn. or Ätmanep. Ätmanepada. Pän. Pänini.
caus. causal. p.p.p. past passive participle.
cf. confer, compare. Parasmai. Parasmaipada»
com. commentary, pari, paribhäsä,
comp» compound. part, participle.
cond. conditional. pass, passive voice
conj. conjugation. perf. perfect.
dat, dative case. pers. person.
desid« desi$erative. pi. pluraL
dual, dual number. pres. present tense.
ed. edition. pron. pronoun*
e.g. exempli gratia, for example. sec. second.
etc. et cetera, and others, sing, singular.
f„, fern, feminine. subj« subjunctive.
freq. frequentative. suf. suffix,
fut. future. tad- taddhita affix.
gen. genitive case. Värt, Värttika (on the Sutra of
gend* gender. Pänini).
gr. grammar, Vcd." Vedic.
i.e. id est, that is* vide see
imperil imperfect v* 1. varia lectio, another reading»
inapera» imperative. voc. vocative case#
A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar.

(1) the first letter of the alphabet before case-affixes beginning with
In Sanskrit and its derived langua- the ins. case; (12) remnant (3?)
ges, representing the sound a (ST) ; of the negative particle ^ after
(2) the vowel a (3j) representing in the elision of the consonant
grammatical treatises, except when n (5j) by ^ N T qsT: P. vi. 3.73.
prescribed as an affix or an aug-
ment or a substltute,all its eighteen I ( --) nasal utterance called
varieties caused by accentuation and written as a dot above the
or nasalisation or lengthening; (3) vowel preceding it. cf, ^ q § ^y^j
personal ending a (ST) of the perf. ^lö^cf IM; it is pronounced after a first and third pers.sing.; vowel as immersed in it. The
(4) kit affix a (s[) prescribed espe- anusvära is considered (1) as only
cially after the denominative and a nasalization of the preceding
secondary roots in the sense of the vowel being in a way completely
verbal activity e. g. g^5I, i^Fcfr, amalgamated with it. cf. T. Pr. V.
iWtl, =^Rf etcxf. a* JWITcj; etc. (P.III. 11,31; XV. 1; XXII. 14 ; (2) as
3.102-106); (5) sign of the aorist a nasal addition to the preceding
mentioned as an (srs?) or can ( ^ ) vowel, many times prescribed in
by Pänini in P. I l l 1.48 to 59 e.g. grammar as nut (gsj or nuni (<m)
STWt^ 3T^l«R^; (6) conjugational which is changed into anusvara in
sign mentioned as sap (^jq) or sa (^[) which case it is looked upon as a
by Pänini in P. III. 1.68, 77. e. g. sort of a vowelj while, it is looked
Wtffi, ScrfcT etc.; (7) augment am upon as a consonant when it is
(3&0 as prescribed by P„ VI.1.58; changed into a cognate of the
e.g. 5ST, 59ri%; (8) augment at following consonant (TOR<*i) or re-
(3^) prefixed to a root in the im- tained as n (q). cf. P. VIII.4.58;
perf« and aorist tenses and in the (3) as a kind cf consonant of the
conditional mood e. g. 3T*Rfl[, type of nasalized half g (T[) as des-
3fflit*qg; cf. P. VI.4.71; (8) cribed in some treatises of the
affix a (3T) prescribed as 3^, ^ ^ Yajurveda Prätisäkhya; cf also R.
Sflfl , q, ^% % ^, % % E, kk9 % etc.etc. Pr.1.22 V. Pr.l4.148-9P The vowel
in the third Adhyäya of P5nmi*s element of the anusvära became
Astadhyayi; (9) tad« affix a (e?) more prevalent later on in Pali,
mentioned by Pänini as 3Tf, a^, Prakrit, Apabhramsa and in the
^qr, sr etc. in the fourth and the spoken modern languages while
fifth chapters of the Astadhyayi of the consonantal element became
Pänini; (10) the samasänta affix a more predominant in classical
(asr), as also stated in the form of Sanskrit.
the samasänta affixes ( § ^ , &R,
&?9 ^% % *&% a n d w%) by Pänini the same as or
in V A 73 to 121; (11) substitute a or W prescrib-
(v&) accented grave for ed by the rule
f r ^ i . II.2.1 and the following is looked upon as a letter (cjofr),
P. IL2.2 and 3; c. g. <$m:9 but dependent upon the following
W, 3Mqcqö?I etc. consonant and hence looked upon
p ? also sfelK^T a class of words as a consonant.
headed by afg which have their ^ R name given to the noni* case
last vowel accented acute when in the TaittiriyaPmtikakhya.c^fW.
they stand at the end of a tat- %fa mmf^^w^mx Ta Pr. I. 23.
purusa compound with the word ( 1 ) condensed expression
£i]cF as the first member» cf. P. (^qi-^K j representing the letters
VI. 2. 193. 31, %, 3 3 3R and ^ in Panini's
i: ( : ) visarga called visarjanlya in Grammar cf. P. VI. 1. 12, 101;
ancient works and shown in writing VII. 4.-2. ( 2 ) sign (fiwi) of the
by two dots., one below the other, benedictive in Vedic Literature in
exactly of the same size* like the the case of the root £31 c. g. Hcf'< ^f
pair of breasts of a maiden as jocu- &\M P. III. 1.86 V 2? ( 3 ) remn-
larly expressed by Durgasimha. ant of the termination w^ P. V.
cf. sr: ^% fa 3. 71;( 4 ) substitute (m^J) «*?-f»f
for the last vowel of the word
( g % on TO^ 1.1.16). ( P . IV. 1.97) e.g.#TRT&:.
is always a dependent letter (1) ailix wt: substituted for the
included among the Ayogavaha affix % given in Pänini's Grammar
letters and it is looked upon as a a s - ^ as in ^lftHT3 mfim (PJII.
vowel when it forms a part of the 3. I l l / ; %^ as in Wf-J;, Mf^i %%%
preceding vowel; while it is looked f«T%T (P. III. 1. 133, III. 3.
upon as a consonant when it is 10, 108); %% as in WW<: (P.V.3.80);
changed into the Jihvämüliya or ^ as in ft?5$;, lim^7 HW^:: (P.
the Upadhmäniya letter* IIL 2. 146, IV. 2. 39, 53 etc, );
x % (X) Pi%\W$\% represented by a g q as in imw>:9mw>:; %hwv:9 *&&:.
sign like the eil in writing, as stated III.l. 149,1V. 2,61 etc.
by Durgasimha who remarks cfli-
K substitute ( 3 ^ ) for the last
fffi#»ft f^I§#q*lfr mm. The Jihvä- letter of the word g ^ prescribed
müliya is only a voiceless breath along with the tad. affix fsf by P*
following the utterance of a vowel IV. 1. 97. e.g. #
and preceding the utterance of
the gutteral letter ^ or ^ It is affix prescribed before the last
looked upon as a letter («Ff), but syllable of pronouns and indcclin-
dependent upon the following ables without any specific sense
consonant and hence looked upon for it (P. V.3.71) c. g. fe %
as a consonant e. g. fäsg % 3Riff, etc.
fX^(X) Upadhmanlya represented not mentioned by any other
by a sign like the temple of an ele- case-relation such as ^qKR? W<R
phant as stated by Durgasimha who and 5#c|^a|; stated with respect
remarks " *rafi^n^tldf 3^#$P!fr to the indirect object, governed
Wlfä" KätX It is a voiceless breath by roots possessing *two objects
following the utterance of a vowel such as ^ j qfisjf and others^ which
and preceding the utterance of the in the passive voice is put in
labial letter p ( \) or ph (% ). It the nominative case. The In*
direct object Is called akathita
because in some cases there e« g.
exists no other case-relation as, R. V. I. 180.1.
for example, in qRcf T\J m=zfct or the letter a ( sq ) inclusive of
tear3 or *m&$ cRIH JS^i; while, all its eighteen kin'ds caused by
in the other cases, the other shortness, length, protraction,
case-relations (with the activity accentuation and nasalization In
expressed by the verb) are wil- Panini's grammar, in cases where
fully suppressed or ignored al- ,a (3?) is not actually prescribed as a
though they exist, as for Instance termination or an augment or a
in 3Tf ^ii^r qqt, 3T^wi1§[ if 3^r; see substitute, cf. srgf^awofei ^raqqi P-
srasfijcf =3 P. 1. 4.51 and the Mahä- I. 1.73. The letter is generally
bhäsya thereon. given as the first letter of the
rf& not shaken; tremulous; said alphabet (qrfRpfl¥R) in all Prä-
with respect to vowels in Vedic tisäkhya and grammar works
utterance, kampa being looked except in the alphabet termed
upon as a fault of utterance, cf Varnopadesa, as mentioned In the
Rk Tantra cf. q; ait ^ $\ srr -II ^
f ^ W c5 % 3 STT: I wm: 1 ^TQT^??T: I
3?: x m * q\t i | $ 1 y g 3?
R. Pr.III. 31. t etc. R. T. I. 4f
a case-relation excepting that not causing any verbal
of the subject to the verbal acti- activity; different from the kära-
vity, cf. ift & kas or Instruments of action such
III. 3.19. as the agent, the object5 the
Intransitive, without any ob- instrument, the recipient ( m^m ),
ject, (said with regard to roots the separated ( 3RKH) and the
which cannot possess an object or location, ( arfäwi) cf, M. Bh. on
whose object Is suppressed or 1.4.23, 29 and 51 and on II.3.1.
ignored). The reasons for suppres-
sion are briefly given In the well- q[ not a grammatical positive
known stanza ; 'Nft %fe^ operation: e. g. elision (wm.) cf.

I In the case of intransitive M. Bh. on

roots, the verbal activity and its (1) not limited by any time-
fruit are centred In one and the factors for its study such as cer-
same individual viz. the agent or tain periods of the day or the
SRTT cf. ^^TCK%^%m^I^^: Väk. year. (2) not characterized by any;
Pad. technical terms expressive of
^ name of the commen- time such as adyatani, parofoß
tary by Harlnätha on the Pari- occurring in the ancient Präti-
bhasendusekhara ( qft^i^g^I^R ) of säkhya and grammar works. The
Nägesabhatta. term akäl ika is used by the
( ST^ITOI% ) an Invariable (feq) writers of the Räsikävrtti In con-
euphonic change ($f§T) such as nection with the grammar of;
the dropping of the consonant r PamnL cf. <cqifot^q^¥l^ o^wtqf
( \ ) when followed by r. cf, R. Pr. Käs. on P- II.4.21 explained by
the writer of the Padamafijan as
words ending with a
breathing or visarga which are
different from the Kaläpa not lo<jkcd upon as placed imme-
or the revised Kätantra Gram- diately before the next word and
mar cf. qim^qiWl^PW ^l^^IJiq. Käs. hence which have no combination
on P. II.4.21. with the following vowel c. g. trq
I not marked by the mute M <s\m: R. V. IX.3.1.
letter k ( ^ ) and hence not dis- non-technical; not formed
allowing guna or vrddhi sub- or not arrived at by grammatical
stitutes for the preceding vowel, cf. operations such as the applica-
^ M P. VI. 1.58; ^\i\z- tion of affiixes to crude bases
: P. VII. 4.83. I and so on; natural; assigned only
lit. non-krt; an affix applied I by accident, cf. the gram, maxim
to a root, but different from the j fww^mmi: frf-w ^imvsm: which
conjugational affixes, cf, ^f#3T4- I means in cases of doulit whether
^ ^ : P. VII. 4.25. j an operation refers to that ex-
not established; said of a I pressed by the technical sense or
grammatical operation which has to that which is expressed by the
not taken place e. q* ^OTfcra^ ordinary sense of a term, the
M. Bh. on V. 2.100, V. 3.84. also operation refers to what is expre-
fcniKlOTTt fö*R - * M Bh on
VI. ssed by the technical sense." Par»
4.62. I Sek. Far. 9 also M. Bh. on L 1.23.
doing or accomplishing ^i, an epithet; applied to
what is not done or accompli- the pronunciation of Veda words
shed; the expression is used in improperly which docs not
connection with grammatical serve any useful purpose» cf.
operations like p^pjn or ^M?^I Wimi WJAt?\nl rwA: Uvata on R0
only in cases where it is necessary Pr. XIV. 68.
i e, where already there is no | | t | not possessing the mule letter
hrasva or dlrgha cf, 3?ftf^TR W4ft k {%) ox s C1?) or n ( ^ ) and hence
not preventing the guna and
M. Bh, on VI. 1.127. The rules vrddhi substitutes for the preceding
of Grammar, like fire, are applied vowel, if they occur, c- g. S
to places where they produce a
£3fögj5 short expression for the M.Bh. 011 P. I L L VärUO.
grammatical maxim srffäs^ff: cflfäT- dcfinitCj known or specified
#qi: which means "the followers of definitely, cf.
Panini do not insist on the taking
effect of a rule when its cause M. Bh* L1.72,
or causes disappear/' See Par» not a result of a verbal acti-
sek. Par. 56« vity; the expression is used la con*
% word or expression with- ncctioa with qualities ( on a sub-
out the necessary euphonic chan- stance) as opposed to the activities
ges cf. ^oil^RT ^ q$TOcJ ^ ^ found in It* cf» m^mk^M *fts
? . V, 3.84 vart. I. m M, Bh. on IV, L44,
a class of words headed simple vowels or monothongs
by ^l^cf which take the tad. affix m?t"i) as they are called in ancient
?hak ( %w>) in the sense of Resulting treatises, and (he four diphthongs,
from' e. gB 3TT^1%* W*, (*P<qsrc). The four semi-vowels
c- cf. PIV.4.19. y> v> r*h ( ^ 1 ^ ) o r antasthä-
a letter of the alphabet, such varna, the twenty five class-conso-
as, a (a?) or % (%) or h (5) or y (g) or nants or mutes called sparsa3 and
the like. The word was originally the four üsman letters s? s, s and h
applied in the Prätisäkhya works ( 51 ßj E I ) are the same in all the
to vowels (long, short as also pro- Prätisäkhya and grammar works
tracted), to consonants and the although in the Prätisäkhya works
ayogaväha letters which were tied the semi-vowels are mentioned after
down to them as their appendages. the class consonants.The difference
Hence %Wil came later on to mean in numbers, as noticed, for exam-
a syllable i. e. a vowel with a con- ple in the maximum number which
sonant or consonants preceding or reaches 65 in the Väjasaneyi-
following it, or without any con- Pratisäkhya, is due to the separate
sonant at all. cf. aifaT ^ T : STfiSTRTT: mention of the long and protract-
% sfcfi s^R S^PRTFI R PrB I 17-19 ed vowels as also to the inclusion
, SRRT etc. The term aksa- of the Ayogaväha letters, and their
ra was also applied to any letter number. The Ayogaväha letters
(qq), be it a vowel or a conso- are anusvära, visarjaniya, jihvämü-
nant, cf. the terms i^TSK» H^JSgrc, liya, upadhmäniya, näsikya, four
3OTRT&R used by Patanjali as also by yamas and svarabhakti. The Ek
the earlier writers. For the etymo- Prätisäkhya does not mention I
logy of the term see Mahäbhäsya but adding long a (wi) I (t) ü
and r (m) to the short vowels,
i M. Bh. Ahnika 2 end- mentions 12 vowels, and mention-
^ name given to the ing 3 Ayogavahas (X^5 x Qxand 3t)
dvipadä viräj verses divided into lays down 48 letters. The Rk
pädas of five syllables, cf Tantra Prätisäkhya adds the
k % f vowel I (?£) (short as also long)
g^ R. Pr. and mentions 14 vowels, 4 semi-
X V I I . 50. vowels, 25 mutes, 4 sibilants and
^HTiraTO alphabet; traditional by adding 10 ayogavahas viz«
enumeration of phonetically inde- 4 yamas, näsikya, visarjaniya
penent letters generally begin- jihvämüliya, upadhmanJya and two
ning with the vowel ^(&f). Al- kinds of anusvara, and thus brings
though the number of letters and the total number to 57* The Rk
the order in which they are stat- Tantra makes a separate enume-
ed differ in. different treatises, ration by putting diphthongs first,
stilly qualitatively they are much long vowles afterwards and short
the same. The Sivasutras? on which vowels still afterwards, and puts
Panini's grammar is based, enu- semi-vowels first before mutes, for
merate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels^ purposes of framing brief terms or
twenty five class-consonants and 4 pratyähäras. This enumeration is
sibilants* The. nine vowels are five called varnopadesa in contrast
with the other one which is called uncomprchcndcd, uninclud«
varnoddesa. The TaittirTya Prä- ed C
tisakhya adds protracted vowels cf. also -iKi-i^f %&&
and lays down 60 letters; The Wir*m PadamafijarT on Käs VIII.
Siksä of Pänini lays down 63 or 3.57"
64 letteis, while the Väjasa-
neyi-Prätisäkhya gives 65 letters. a term in the Katantra grammar
cf. V. Pr. VIII. 1-25. The for a word ending in i ( \ ) or u
alphabet of the modern Indian ( 3 ) cf. f^fJr: KS.U II, 1-8, ^
^R: Käi. H. 1.50.
Languages is bassed on the
Varnasamämnaya given in the a class of words headed
Väjasaneyi-Prätisäkhya. The Prä- by the word vftm^ to which the
tisäkhyas call this enumeration by tad. affix 3^qr is added in the
the name Varna-sarnaixmaya. senses ofc given there ' or * done
The Rk.tantra uses the terras Aksa- | there ? e. g. aifeq^T. cf. siqpvSR&f
rasamämnäya and Brahma rasi 3Tj%qc(ff^q 5q^-^RH P* V. 1.9 7
which are picked tip later on by Vart. 1., t %
^ an ancient writer of Vcdic
grammar mentioned in the
Taittinya Prütisäkhya. c£
M. Bh. Ahnika2-end.
! ) T.Pr. IX. 4.
§TOff forming a part of a sy- !
llyble just as the anusvära ( nasal an ancient writer of
utterance ) or svarabhakti (vowel- Vedic grammar, mentioned in the
part) which forms a part of the Taittirlya Prätisakhya» cf. rn
preceding syllable, cf. 3**pSRT
R. Pr. 1.22, "also ziwm 11% ?l) Tait. Pr. XIV.32.
. R. Pr. 1.32. St«^!^! analogy conveyed by
unitary import; the the expression <%m WMh implying
p permission to the agent to do
meaning of a sentence collectively certain other-things in a sacrificial
understood, session when, as a matter of fact,
% (1) absence of any other re-
course or alternative» cf. WRqj f| he is only permitted to work as an
^g ^WPiNtr. Purusottamadcva* agent at the sacrificial action
Pari, vrtti Pari.l 19; (2) which is not ( srafffiVT), by virtue of the reply
a word termed gatL cf- < ^ * to his request made in the
sentence snift mvur&h ct wm%W^
ftfeöfti!&: P.
non-communicativeness^ REfi^l ^H^% U. Bh.on. 1L 2*24.
inability to communicate ade- ^Bl the original SarhMia text as oppo-
quately the intended meaning, cf. sed to ptatrnna ( n«jjw|) or pada«
patha, (q^li3) which is the recital of
M. Bh on II. LI; cf. also separate words.
(Väsudcva-Sarana Agravala),
non-secondary? principal; cf. a modern scholar of Sanskrit
grammar, the author of "India as
known to P5nim*%
non-inclusion$ non-compre- (1) the crude base of a noun or
hension. cf. fiffl^T föffäföSTflffRT a verb to which affixes are added;
Par. Sekh. Par. 72? M. Bh. V I I . a technical term in Pänini's
M Värt. 13. grammar for the crude base after
elision of the vowel as which an affix is prescribed e. g.
t9 u$ r or I ( &f? ^? 3, sp or ^r) which sqj] in sflWc^or f; in ^f^fcf etc. cf,
prevents Sanvadbhäva cf. ^ ^ g f t sTCTcT a^qr^^Rri^ ^^Si^P.1.4-13;
^ P. V I I . 4^93, as also (2) subordinate part, constituent
VII. 4.2 where the part cf. q^Iiq^ in % ft
elision prevents the shortening of P. II. 1.2, also f ^
the penultimate vowel if it is long, Par. Sek. Par. 93*10; (3) auxiliary
unvoiced, merely breathed; for an operation, e. g.
a term applied to the surd conso- etc. cf. e r a r ^ ^ l W^A
nants, s, s s, and visarga which are Par. Sek. Par. 50; (4) element of a
uttered by mere breathing and word or of an expression cf.
which do not produce any sonant ^ ^q{: R. T. 190, s?i ^
effect, cf. T. Pr. I. 12; R.'Pr.I. 11. $ R.T. 127.
The term jit ( f^ ) is used for Pr. 2 M .
these letters as also for the first considered as auxiliary or part;
two consonants of a class in the of another e. g. gcfifj^K^;, q^n^pr:;
Vajasaneyi-Pratisäkhya cf. "ij "i$ cf. gsrwf^ qRTl^^P. II- 1#2 and
mm 1%^; 3Wm«r ^ \ V. Pr. the Värtika thereon "
I. 50.51.
p The vikarana before lun affixes, an operation prescribed in
substituted for the affix cvi ( f^r ) the section named angädhikara^
In the case of the roots mentioned comprising the fourth quarter of
by Pänini in Sütras III.1.52-59;(2) the sixth book and the whole of the
the Vikaranapratyaya in Vedic seventh book of Pänini.
Literature before the benedictive
J a large section of Panini's
affixes prescribed by Pänini in Sütra
III. 1-86; (3) krt affix in the Astädhyäyl covering five quarters
feminine gender showing verbal (VI. 4-T to the end of VII) in
activity applied to roots marked which the various operations
with the mute letter % and the undergone by crude bases before
roots f^9 f ^ a n d others. P. III. 3 various affixes etc. are prescribed.
104-106. e.g. 5W, m, fiRT, %?T etc. rf^0T class of words headed
^ not marked with the mute by 3Tfjjf§5 to which the tad* aflfix 3^
letter % ( ^ ) signifying the absence ( f3i ) is added in the sense of
of the prohibition of the guna or comparison ( ^fn ); e. g. ^®gj3?N
the vrddhi substitute, cf. ^i%fcT ^TfQT^: cf. Käs. on P. V. 3. 108.
groftfar: ( ^Rl^: ) M. Bh. I I I . 3-83 ^ e short term or pratyähära in
Värt. 2. In the case of the preposi- Panini's Grammar representing a
tion a (<s\\) unmarked with n (^ ), vowel, e.g. 3T5RJ (ending with a
it signifies a sentence or remembr- vowel), c£Rri% (vowel coalescence or
ance of something cf. ^T^R<^^%T%^ combination).
e. g. an xr$ g wm^ sn ^ ws m, cf, impossible
p to amend» not
M. Bh. on I. 1-14. to be discussed, cf.f #
w^; Pada- ( OT ) for n ( q ) c.R. Rlf^lT, W ,
mailjari on P. I I . 2'12. ^OT etc. Sec P. V I I I . 4-2; (2) aug-
3ih%nn class of words headed by STSI ment a (si?:) with an acute accent»
to which the fern,affix 3TT is added, which is prefixed to verbal forms in
somettimes inspite of the affix the imperfect and the aorist tenses
^ being applicable by other rules and the conditional mood« e.g.
^-m^ srijk ^ q f q r ^ Sec P.IV.4.71;
such as ^ K ^ f ä W J o P- IV,
(3) augment a (<%z ) prescribed in
1,63 and other rules in the
the case of the roots ^», ^ etc»
section, e. g. 3}3T, ^^T; T^nföi,
before a SarvadhStuka affix begin-
^T, 3gT. cf P. IV. L 4.
ning with any consonant except y
PT author of the Cintamani- ( ^ ) , e.g. 3 ^ 1 ^ vym^ vFsn&t, 3frraa[
prakasika a gloss on Ctntctmciw, the etc.; sec P. VIL3, 99, 100;(4) aug-
well known commentary by Yaksa- ment a ( ws ) prefixed sometimes
yarcnan on the Sabdänüsäsana of in Vedic Literature to affixes of
Säkatäyana. Ajitasena was the the Vcdic subjunctive ( * ^ ) e.g.
grand pupil of Abhayadeva; he etc. see P. I I I . 4-94.
lived in the 12th century A.D.
^ tad. affix %V5 prescribed after
n^rtcfTTOT class of words headed by the word w j b y the rule wM^mi\S
the word sqf^ which do not allow 3^ cf tftifii ^ 5pfe: W*: Käs* on
lengthening of the final vowel by p. v V. 2. 35.
P. VI. 3 119. although they form
technical terms e. g. sit^^T, $1*53- ^ tad. affix sre applied in the
sRft etc. cf. Käs on P. VI, 3. 119, sense of pitiable or poor to a
word preceded by the word OT
See under sq^irff. when the whole word after OT is
tad. affix a (m) with the dropped, c. g 3 ^ ( 3^T<xf *f"^T? )
mute letter n ( ^ ), prescribed (i) see. p. V. 3- 80.
after the words 3?8 and others in ^ token term ( iffl\%[i ) fur all
various senses like progeny,, dyed vowels and semivowels which,
in, produced in, come from etc.P. when prescribed for an operation,
IV 1'86, (ii) after the words ft? and include all such of their sub-divi-
others in the sense of grandson sions as are caused by length, pro-
and other descendents.P. IV.L1Ö4. traction, accent or nasalization,
For other cases see P. IV* L 141, cf SFjfe^TO WAmt P. L L 69;{2)
161; IV. 2.12, 14 etc. IV, 3.7 etc. token term for the vowels 3*, sj
IV. 4.49. The feminine is formed and 3 in all Pumni's rules except
by adding I ( % ) to words ending in the rule I. L 69 given above c\g.
with this affix snjT, which have the see ?£& ! | 5 ^ '{ink: 1\ VI* 3.
vrddhi vowel substituted for their lll,%5ii: P. VIL 4. 13. and wfts
initial vowel which gets the acute mm^ P. V U L 4. 57; (3) tad,
a c c e n t a l s o e.g. aftcs:, ^ f o affix a ( r^ ) prescribed generally
ia the various senses such as
^ token term standing for vowels "the offspring,* *dycci in/ * belong-
and semi-vowels excepting 1(3) ing to ? etc. except in cases where
specially mentioned as not inter- other specific affixes are prescribcdt
fering with the substitution of n cf sn^pqäTsjj P. IV. I. 83; (4) kr.
affix a ( $r )? applied, In the ^ non-Atraanepadin verbal affixes
sense of an agent, to a root with % %:...m. P. III.4.78, Can. 1.4.11,
an antecedent word ( 3 ^ ) stand- Säk. 1.4.101.
ing as its object, e. g. §w?ETC:, see
P.III. 2.1; P § ^ ; , see P.III.3.12. not taking that much time
only which is shown by the letter
%—a term applied to all taddhita (vowel) uttered, but twice or
suffixes collectively as they begin thrice, as required by Its long or
with 3TOTcf. P. IV. 1. 83. protracted utterance ; the expres-
sion Is used in connection with
the minimum standard of the vowels in Pänini's alphabet, which,
quantity of sound, which is not when used In Pänini's rules, ex-
perceived by the senses, being cept when prescribed or followed
equal to one-fourth of a Maträ; cf. by the letter ^includes their long,
^fasJcRJWFJ ^T^*?M g ^I^ÖRRTII see protracted and nasalized utter-
T. Pr. 21. 3, V. Pr. 1. 60, A. Pr.
ances; cf. ^ f ^ ^ f e l S3T5E*PI: I.I. 69.
I I I . 65. Rko tantra, however, defi-
nes 3?g as half-a-mäträ. cf. not having the same
( R.T. 1. 41 ). mute slgnificatory letter^ but
having one or two additional ones,
T— the rule prescribing cf. ft
cognateness (mw>\) of letters- The (Par. §ek. Pari. 84.)
term refers to Pänini's sütra
s^gfeSR^ ^TSRW: P. I. 1. 69. The an affix which Is not a tad-
terms 3T|tfFfi3rp§f &n(i <Sfäpferrc?[ are used dhita affix, cf. SSUfKrf^r P. 1.3.8;
In the same sense. M. Bh. 1.3.4, V.3.1 etc.
author of ^ q j ) Implying no specific purpose;
who was a Tamil Brähmana by not intended to teach anything,
caste. e.g. Käs. and
3fl3[ (1) tech. term in Pänini's grammar Si. KauB on
for short 3?, cfeTTOcR^RW P. I. 1. P.I.2.32; cf. also fö
70; 3f^;Qq: P. 1. 1. 2; (2) (the use of ci^ does not neces-
personal ending 3? for % ( 52 ) of sarily convey the sense of the
the 1st pers. sing. Ätm. in the comparative degree in Pänixii's
Potential, P III. 4. 106; (3) case- rules) M. Bh. on P. 1.2.33. This
affix in the case of g*^ and statement has been given as a
&m% for abl. sing, and pi P. VII. distinct Paribhasa by Vyädi and
1.31, 32; (4) tad-affix ^5 (3T) Sakatäyana. The author of the
prescribed after f%^ in the sense Mahäbhäsya appears to have quo-
of the loc. case before which f^ß^r ted it from the writings of Vyädi
Is changed to f, U7 being the and the earlier grammarians. See
tad. formation; cf. P. V. 3.12 and also M. Bh. on sisqRrcq P. II.2.34.
VII.2.105;(5) substitute mf&l) f o r cT^;^ ( ^ ^ ) tad, aff. <m^ applied
^ forming the present and future to the words ^PT, 3xK, m and
participles In the Parasmaipada.
active voice cf. o3£: ssrg^R^o P.III.
2.124 and fs; ^T P. III. 3.14. . cf. P. V. 2. 28* 29.

conveyance of only the important one, by virtue of which

properties of one to another without sometimes there is a full repre-
conveying the actual form, des- sentation i. e, substitution of
crlbed as the significance of an« the original form called sthänin
tadivadbhäva. cL rf sn srarjjpsflfä- in the place of the secondary
\m M. Bh.' on P. VI.1.85 Vart. form called adcsa. This full
26. ""See cn|^TI^3l below. representation is called *$?nicRKl as
personal affix of the third pcrs. different from the usual one which
pi. Atm. In the Imperative (^rs). cf. is called ^FntcRSi, cf. M- Bh.
P. III. 4B 90. VIII.1.90Värt. 1 and VIII.1.95."
passing over a word in the Vart.3P Regarding the use of aTßfSSsi
without repeating it; passing there is laid down a general
beyond, cf. arfcRW V$8& R- Pr. dictum ^OT^TO^ti "Rl^Rprig^: -
X.7, which means catching a when an operation depending
word for repetition by coming on the general properties of a
back after passing over it, e. g. thing could be taken by extended
application^ an operation depend-
or ing on special properties should
not be taken by virtue of the
i one of the varieties of-in same ; e. g. ^ R ! in P. Ill* 3.132
fact» the first variety of—the Atio means as in the case of the gene-
chandas metre, which see above; ral past tense and not in the case
this AtijagatI consists of 52 sylla- of any special past tense like the
bles, e. g. <ri*p£ t l ^ imperfect { SRSRH ) t or the perfect
Rk. Sariih. 8.97.13 cf. (cf%^). See Par. Sek. Pari. 101,
6TfipWKRSRTR. Pr- XVL80. M. Bh. on P. III. 3, 132. There
extended application; trans- is also a general dictum srffer-
fer or conveyance or application \fe^n^c^— whatever is transfer-
of the character or qualities or red by an extended application»
attributes of one thing to another. need not ^be necessarily taken.
Atidesa in Sanskrit grammar is a See Par. Sck. 93.6 as also M. Bh.
very common feature prescribed on P.U.123 Vart.4, I.2.I Värt. \
by Panini generally by affixing IL3.69 Vart. 2 etc., Kaiyala on I'L
the tad. affix SRT or CRT to the word 1,2 and VI. 4,22 and Nyasa on P,
whose attributes are conveyed to LI.56 and P. L2.58 Värt* 3- The
another, e. g* ^i£r ssg^cr P* III* dictum ^iiflf^'feiwi1^^^ is given as
4.85. In some cases the atidesa a ParibhS^ by Nägcsa cf* Pari*
is noticed even without the affix Sek, 93. 6.
^ or3q< e. g.^lffEff^^sr^Rfe^P. one of the varieties of Atic«
1*2.1. Atidesa is generally seen in chanclas consisting of 76 syllables*
all grammatical terms which end c. g. n % wft
with * vadbhäva * e. g. 3%nfö33^$
(P. I.L56-59), «^KPT(P.VII.4.93), feimk 1.127.6,
ft ((P. VI. 1.85),
), njjRFjRR f<jr a variety of the Gayatrl
(P.IV.60) and others. Out of these metre consisting of 20 syllables,
atidesas, the ^ f ö * i ^ is the most cf, R. Pr. XVL22,
absence of any possibility; excellence^, surpassing; the
Sec f3ßqfRTOI%- c£ P. IH.3,139 same as <^w\ In V. Pr, V. 2 cf.
Can." 1.3.107. f P. V, 3*55, also cf.
Intense effort; characteri-
stic effort as required for uttering m M. Bh. on
ä vowel with fä V . 2.94, where ^fcf^m means
•STFtfäFf. Patanjali, commenting on
over-application of a de- P. V, 3.55 clearly remarks that for
finition which Is looked upon as 3Tßfäq, o r ^ or stfcRPR, ^ e old
a serious fault; e. g. grammarians, out of fancy only,
ftgP. VI.1.66 Vart. 3, used the term STTcfäiFH as it was a
too mucb5 rather unnecessary; current term In popular usage; cf.
e. g. f3 ^ F J ^ 3?%«r§ 1%^, M. Bh.
on 1.1.38, f^ufcRf fw*% M. Bh. on M. Bh. on,
1.4.63, VLL145f P. V, 3. 55.
M. Bh. on VIII.1.4.
excess of contact, which to
^I%RT^ surplus^ redundant; cf. Nir. a certain extent spoils tKe pro-
' IV.20; see Kaiyata on M. Bh. V. nunciation and leads to.a fault.
1.131. 3?I^q^ is the same as |:wä, the
??fcRlTf> quite distinct; used with letter 55 being called f:^[g on
respect to pronunciation qrfcpq^ account of excess of contact. This
^ Ö I cf. T. Pr. exeess of contact (?R]%m$ ) In the
XVII.8. case of the utterance of the letter ^
SdfS^oq^cf quite apart, used with results Into a fault as it practically
! respect to lips which are widely borders on stammering; cf. ^
I apart ({cTf%lt) In the utterance
„ of long 3TI and # ; cf. T. Pr. also ) name of the
II. 12, 13. (
seventh musical note in the sing-
fötä the same as 3T%rerjf, which ing of Säman, cf. $OT^wfenqft
•• see above. Extensive application * : T. Pr. XXIII.
* with respect to a rule which
applies to places where it should transfer of a consonant In a
'. not apply. See Par. Sekh on Pari Stobha. See
I 28, Pari. 85; also Padamanj. short term used by Pänini to sig-
.- I L L 32. nify together the five affixes
^ f ^ t a varietyy of Aticchandas
metre consisting of 60 syllables. r P. VI.4.14. v
c- g. IS^T! 5?RWfeT5|: Rk. Samh, I. not having the same force;
137. L cf, R. Pr. XVI.82. not belonging to the same type
excess or excellence as shown out of the four types of rules viz.
by the affixes cR and 3R cf. K?f and %mK* cf. srg^q[-
^ V. Pr. V* 2; ^ Wfä Jalnendra Pari. 66.
% M. Bh. on VI.
2.139; VIILL71 ; (2) desire as personal ending of .perf. 1st
shown by the affix £R^ in Panim's pers. dual. cf. ^
grammar; cf. ^^ sjftKR R» T* 126. : P. IIL4.82.

PJ krt affix ^ applied to the root (said in connection with the

*! in the sense of past time« cf utterance of the vowel 3? ); cf. T»
P. PrIL 12. SeeartfoJfes.
personal ending of pres. 3rd also sixcf change of a vowel into
per. p i substituted for f? ( spg )3 short 3T*
the 3T of fr ( 3F3) being changed possessing or having a short 3f
into tx and q being omitted; see vowel in it; archaic form used by
# a : (P.VII.1,3) s^wpsns; (P. VII. Panini in gq^ls^cT: (P. VII. 2.62)
1.4) and fei ^ ^ f f i t ^ (P. III. instead of 3?sg the correct one; cf*
4.79). SRJSRqjrrfä v&fa M. Bh. on 1.1. 1
and I. 4. 3.
complete contact of the Unädi affix 3^4 prescribed in
verbal activity (FRT); cf.P. V.4.4. Unadi Sutras 393-396 e.g. see m%
^ constant contact; com- etc.
plete contact, uninterrupted con- the Prätisäkhya work
tact, cf. 3E*Rrt3ft =* P. IL 1-29; of the Atharva veda believed to
II. 3.5. have been written by Saunaka.
complete or absolute It consists of four Adhyäyas and
denial or concealment of facts; cf. is also called SSI^HT ^g^^lfti^T*
q^% $sz i^w*mw% ^ i 3.2.115, ^ krt. affix 3?^ with 3 accented,
Vart. h applied to roots marked by Pänini
past happening, cf» $ with the mute syllable 5 in the
fä f|*rrft sense of verbal activity; c. g* «S
i Käs. on P. II. 1.6, :; cf | % ^ P. III. 3.89,
rather too little, an expres- conjugational affix of perf. 2nd
sion used by Patafijali idiometi- persM dual Parasmai, substituted
cally cf. s r ^ q i ^ g ^ M. Bh, on for the personal ending « P.
1.1.69 etc. Ill, 4.82.
I^tpfijig having a very slight con- ending with the short vowel
tact (with the organ producing ar;cf. P. VIII. 4.7; atcrm appli-
sound),as in the case of the utter- ed to nouns of that kind* and
ance of a vowel. roots of the tenth conjugation
a variety of Aticchandas metre which are given with the letter
consisting of 68 syllables, e. g. ®{ at their end which is not looked
3WT ^T I^13^ 3^H: Rk. Sam. upon as mute ( ^ ) e. g. ^%m» etc*
8.111.1. Mark also the root fto described
f^ the group of prepositions by qcftTö as a*^ cf. ftfiR^xf: M#
headed by ^tct t which are com- Bh. on 1.1.56., M, Bh. on IL 4.43.
pounded with a noun in the accw
case; cf. SR^^: ^ r i a term m ancient grammars
M. Bh. on P. II. 2.18. and Prätisäkhyas meaning Boa*
appearance of a phonetic member
rgs^s^ characterized by a sharp ^ ^ # t $IT* (V. Pr 1.141 J^explam-
utterance; a name of the grave ed as 3?gcpf5V| by 3«JE» Later oi*y
accent; the idea of non-appearance came
^ very closely uttered, to be associated with the Idea of
uttered with close Kps and jaws, expectation &n<i the + deimitloa of

given by Pänini in the words ff| tech. te rm of ancient gram-

$A ö?lq: (as based evidently on marians signifying in general
the Prätisäkhya definition) was the present time of the day in
explained as non-appearance of question, the occurrence of the
a letter or a group of letters where immediate past or future events in
it was expected to have been which is generally expressed
present. See M. Bh. on I. 1.60 by the aorist (§f) or the simple
VSrt» 4 and Kaiyata thereon. future ( 352 ); the other two corres-
name given to the class of ponding tenses imperfect and
roots belonging to the second first future (viz, cSf- and gs) being
conjugation, as the roots therein used in connection with past and
begin with the root ^ . The word future events respectively, provid-
srfäjI^rRl is also used in the same ed the events do not pertain to
sense; cf. p. II. that day which is in question; cf.
4.72; cf.also given « m ^T^cf^T^5 M.Bh. P.III. 2.102
by Hemacandra as a Paribhäsa VeV.S, scn^RlT^P. VI. 4.114. Värt.
corresponding to the maxim 3; (2) term for the tense showing
Hem. immediate past time called g^
Pari. 61. in Panini's grammar e. g. %uw\
3T5RRT i TT ^1M(^ Kät. I I I . L22,
f| Unädi affix wfe e. g, Hem. I I I . 3.11.
cf. 5!5*Rhsft[; Un, 127;
ig^ran^r^ not expressive of any
See above, substance which forms a place of
aug. added to the word residence (of qualities and actions);
before the negative particle £f; cf. 3 2*1 ösfl^St fä$n%fä<t
e.gB ^mf^Rlfä".» ^ k m c T cf, P / VI ( P , I I . 4. 13 ); ^
3,76. i M.Bh. o n I L 1.1.
g not seen properly; doubtful; in* ^ ,„ . lit, not made up of two
distinct;said with respect to a letter
elements, and hence, produced
which is not distinctly deciphered with a single effort, an expression
in the Samhitäpätha; e. g. cR: used for simple vowels ( wnRrrerc)
( R. Sam. I. 1071 3 ); the last such as 3T, 5, ^ sp, ^ and simple
letter ^ of cR is deciphered in the consonants f, ^ 3j etc. as
Pada-patha which is given as distinguished from diphthongs
m cf. zxzmN sptft =3)33*: i<m. ( ?F<2^ ) such as tr, *qr, ^f, 3ft and
5:. Pr* X. 15. conjunct consonants ^ ^ , etc*
absence of fault; absence which appear to have been
of inconvenience« The expression termed f|??tfö cf. ^'jTf7^![;=F[^^it;^tf*l
et^tt^T ^cffcl often occurs in the Wt R. Pr. XL3,
Mahabhäsya; cf. MBh. on IB 3.62 not preceded by ( two or
I . 4.108, etc. more) prepositions; i. e. preceded
substitute for case affixes § by only one preposition, cf.
and Wi added to words ending ^T^-S5f TOTO P. VI. 4.96 prescrib-
with the affixes S^R and ^cR and to ing short 3T for the long sn of the
the words W*{> spRTC and ^ . cf. root ^R before the krt. affix %
?,.VII. 1,25.

(1) additional or surplus acti- i: P. V. 4.68, while on some

vity which a rule in grammar occasions a part only of it
sometimes shows; srflpp: ^R: or is seen repeated» The repeti-
3l1M> *£"?%;, cf. M. Bh. on I. 3.11, tion goes on upto a particular
Käs- on III. 2.124, Bh. Vr. on limit which is stated as in
III. 4.72; { 2 ) surplus subject s n S s ? ! ^ ^ P. VI. 4.22, sraftqqfö-
matter e. go a^Ps^T: qicfi: P* I- 4.56. Many times the
V. Pr. 1.33.) limit is not stated by the author of
the Sitras but it is understood by
(1) support; a grammati- virtue of a counteracting word
cal relation of the nature of a occurring later on* On still other
location; place of verbal acti- occasions., the limit is defined by
vity, cf. sn^sfäwiq. P. I. 4,45; the ancient traditional interpreters
(2) one of the six or seven Kärakas by means of a sort of convention
or functionaries of verbal activity which is called rW^r-iS-flc^n. This
shown by the locative case, cf s^N^TC or governance has its in-
^OTfSpRSj =3 P.II.4.36;(3)substance, fluence of three kinds : ( 1 ) by
dravya* cf. ^qr^aign% being valid or present in all the
fo MJBh.onll. 1.1. rules which come under its sphere
governing rule consisting of of influence^ c, g. "fepUfJ or w&^m;
a word (e.g. SR^R:, «nat:, (2) by showing additional pro-
etc.) or words (e.g. © perties e* g. the word wif<?R being
&$&[ |;etc.)which follows or is taken applied to cases where there is
as understood in every following no actual separation as in €?¥!¥!-
rule upto a particular limit. The $r«i: qiEfef^i sif^TOT!;; (3) by
meaning of the word srfförc is showing additional force such as
discussed at length by Patafijali in setting aside even subsequent rules
his MaMbhasya on II. 1. 1> where if opposing. These three types of
he has given the difference bet- the influence which a word marked
ween $n%$R and qf^M; cf. with ^\fm and hence termed ^foro*
possesses are called respectively
afl^RTißf, sfifersp sjjpq and suftspE 3WU
5 For details see M«Bh. on 1*3.11*
i See also Mahäbhasya on This afiVpBR or governing rule
1X11,1.4.49 and IV, 1.83. The exerts its influence in three ways;
word or wording which is to (1) generally by proceeding ahead
repeat in „the subsequent rules is in subsequent rules like the stream
believed to be shown by Pänini by
of a river3 (2)somctimcs by jumps
characterizing it with a peculiarity
, of utterance known as ^ M H R or like a frog omitting a rule • or
^fer^tä 3 *3TWIr The word which more 3 and (3)rarely by proceeding

is repeated in the following Sütras backward with a lion's glance? cf.

is stated to be äjfäfa. The Sabda
(i Kaustubha defines adhikära as
tr^Mxl^T^^ %mmx: vfäffli: 8ab. srajgsc a superintending aphori-
Kaus, on P. 1.2*65. Sometimes the sm, which gives no meaning of itself
whole rule is repeated e* g. v^ where it is mentioned* but gives
P, III. LI, ^m p t VI, 4.1, its meaning In the number1 of
1 **

aphorisms that follow; e. g. the tad. affix 3T ( 3T3 ) (1) added to

rules sisra:, yi$R and 3H|RCTTPR P. the word ^M\ in ^he sense of
III. 1. 1,2, 3 or S i g n . P. I L I A dyed in*? to form the word sf^cf.
q^iq[ incompletely pronounced, P. IV.2. 2. Värt 2.; (2) added to
referring to a letter so pronoun- the word %m\%\ in the sense of
ced. 'produced in3 cf wm$- OT^nfä M.
Bh. on IV. 3- 34 Värt. 2; (3) add-
VJSTf tad. affix applied to the pro- ed after the affix elk in the same
noun ^H. which is changed into sense as afa e, g. H^W ^Ti:, 5^1%
% before the affix and then elided cf. sjpn^ m^ cira^ P. V. 3.48,
by P. VL4.148, or changed into substitute for the affix 5 (
sr in which case §pi or 3?§pT could °3^ ^& ^> ^ 2 S^ a n d others
be looked upon as a tad. affix» which only g remains), cf.
qsrapi determination to begin ^l€l P. VII« 1. L e. g. *6\m
an activity with a view to get m, etc.
the fruit, cf. q x& ß ^ substitute 3?^; as Samäsänta
at the end of a Bahuvnfai comp.
in the feminine for the last lettex of
| cf. M* the word 3vOT and for that of *3«H |A
Bh. on I. 3 14 and I. 4. 32. in all genders e.g. f^ifat (by apply-
name of a class of words ing t to §uitaq), ^n^or, ^ri^^^T;
headed by the word ar^iRfl^ to cf. P V. 4. 131, 132; (2) substitute
which the tad. affix 33? is added 3?^ for the last letter of the words
in the sense of ' <ra *W: ' i.e. found srf^i, ^ etc. before the affixes of
therein, or existing therein. e„ g. the instrumental and the follow-
3fl«rr$W, snfäÜ^Wk etccf. M.Bh. ing cases beginning with a vowel
on IV. 3. 60. e. g. 3R3TF, ^STT, ^W etc, cf« P. VII.«
1.75; [(3) substitute 3?q for the
superimposition; a relation last letter of the word *n%, of
between a word and its sense ac- words ending in % as also of gstffi«
cording to the grammarians; cf. a nd others before the nominative
Väk. Pad. 11.240. (2) appendage; singB affix f. e. g. ^T^Tj ^ftj ^^^J
cf. srifs^r % f& cf. P. VII. 1. 93?94,
Pr, XVII. 43. possessing no 3R[ or vowel in
supplying the necessary ele- it, cf 1^ st #
ment, cf. TPRCTRpfol 3TRRPW ^^qojiqi« sqfl 3 i ^ t ^ clef:
cle FR ^ ^ F ^ :
i s. on P. v i .. L cf. Par, Sek»on Pan 52.;
139., cf also Nir. I. 1. 13 and M. on I. 4,2 Vart. 22.
Bh. on Siva Sutra 1 Vart 14m F a word without the negative
^, spaift; krt affixes substituted in particle ( 3*r ) before it, e. g* ^rg-
the place of g^ of the infinitive in ^fj^r cugOT^^ a sutra in ApUalPs
Vedic Literature (P. III. 4. 9.), grammar quoted in M. Bh. on
e. g. i%^; when sp%| is substi- IV. 2-45 see also P. II. 1. 60, VII.
tuted^ the initial vowel of the 1. 37,
word becomes ^ r a . e. g uncerebralized; not changed
\ into a cerebral (Jjifc?) letter* cf,
Uvata on R. cerna final letter then it concerns
Pr. IV.34. - that which immediately precedes
the final, Par. Sek. Pari 95. cf.
^S not resulting from any ex- also M.Bh. VI. 1.13 Värt 5.
tended application or sricfef, cf.
sjf^TSR SRTcffeä sprßt M.Bh. on IV. not different, the same; cf.
1.151. TT^^jf^f^TO^^ that which has
absence of the verbal got a change regarding one of its
activity in all ways or respects; in- parts is by no means something
complete activity; e. g» ^ ^ \ not else; Par. Sek. Pari. 37,
completely cut, cf. ^ F^cf^fcf being the same, being
P. V. 4.4. looked upon as not different. See
cR period of time not pertain-
ing to the day in question; used in inability to express the
connection with past time, to meaning desired. The expression
express which the imperfect is 3 cfT 3??n%4j^ frequently occurs in
generally used; also in connection the Mahäbhasya referring to such
with the future time, to express words or phrases as could be form-
which the first future is ed by rules of grammar or could
generally used e g. u: arcrag, m ^ be used accordirig to rules but,are
etc. cf. P. III. 2.111, 113; III. not found in current use recogniz-
3.15, 135; V. 3.21. ed by learned persons or scholars;
cf. a^T^iSreffi wjf^wwi €m* <%zm g
g ffi without anyy mute signi- WAl^ätf WR^ \ Padarnafij. on IIL
ficatory lletter attached
hd j g ft
2.1; also cf. 3
^TO is the short name given to the
m a i xmi ^mq — ^ ' ^ ^ j^q^q
npn^ See M.Bh. on I. 3.1; V. 2.9. W 4 i ^ R w^m 5m*$:} wSXvs %!m
There is a reading in the Par. Sek. Nyasa on 1L 2.24; for examples of
ft*p?W^ for ar^aq^BJify in % ^ , sec also MMM
which case the rf&m is called
. See Par, Sek. Pari, M.Bh. on IIL 3.19. also on IIL
81. 2.1. V. 5, IV, 2.1. SccKaä. oa
(1) Immediate, contiguous III, 1.22, IIL 3.158,
t L cf. ^^FRKT; ^%ri: P.L 1.7» f^ that which is not applied;
also *förc?Rrc: P. VI. 2,49; cf. i
lit. (an operation or vxdhi) which
8PR« *%i: V. Pr. I. 48-; ( 2 ) has not taken place or which
nearest, as compared with others has not been effective; cf*
of the same type; cf. ®mm
SFRrcr ^ 3cnffr= BT afäfaajct M.Bh. on M. Bh. on I» 1.5;
I. 1.43; cf. Pari. Sek. 3R?<5rc$ai 1.37. Cf. also
f^sft Wtct m^w? % which means
that a prescriptive or prohibitive M.Bh. on VI. 4.22; VIII. 3*15,
rule applies to the nearest and not Rf*Tf5?f not conveyed or expressed
to the distant one.Par.äek,61,Cän. by another Lc. by any one of the
Par. 30, four factors viz. verbal affix, fcrt
non-final cf« affix^taddhlta affix and compound*
wheu a change does not con- The rule mM^ (P. I I . 3.1) and

the following rules lay down on R, Pr« XII« 9;

the different case affixes in the 5ITl%qT^qq: P- I. 2.45 Värt. 12 cf-
sense of the different Kärakas or also ^ T ^1% ftqicRFf^Pl P« IV.
auxiliaries of the verbal activity, 4.82e Värt. ljtajFFn^lSnTcRW^ P.
provided they are not shown or V. U 1 3 Värt. 1, also 114 VartX
Indicated In any one of the above-
mentioned four ways; e. g. see the synonym, synonymous,
ace. case ia ^i ^ffcT, the inst. case conveying no different sense, e. g,
In 3;TVf SSRTfcfa the dat. case i % on P . V . 1.59; sift =3 git;
i t W[%, the abl. case in M.Bh. on P. I. L56,
, or the in
not conveying any
a wording which does not different sense, S R 5 $i
contain any reduplicative syllable; M.Bh. on I. 4.93.
an epithet applied to such roots
as are not to be reduplicated a opp. of 3TT^I%; an opera-
second time before affixes of the tion not concerning a single
perfect, as they are already re- letter, e.g. ^nfäsRT^^rf^^ P. I.
duplicated; cf, #fä sn^^TWRgq P. 1,56 and M. Bh„ thereon; cf.
VI. 1.8. W M ' Kät. Pari. 39. -
R T ^ having no occasion or scope
WRRi (1) without any signification;lit. of application; used in connection
having no meaning of themselves, with a rule the whole of whose
i.e.possessing a meaning only when province of application is covered
used In company with other words by a general rule, and hence which
or parts of words which bear an becomes technically useless, unless
independent sense; (the word is used it is allowed to set aside the general
generally in connection with pre- rule; cf.3Ffä^T2[r[ f| fäsRf «Tf^FT ^fäT^ch
positions) ;e.g. STfä^nö 3R$# P.I.4.93> rules which have no opportunity
of taking effect ( without setting
:u aside other rules ) supersede those
M, BhB on P. I. 4.93; cf. rules; M.Bh. on V. 4.154, also Par-
3TOTft ^TR*lfRTcr J l ^ F R : Nir. L Sek. on Pari. 64.
L3; cf. also 3R$^
Kas. on I. 4.93, explained as SHsrsRWcSf absence of any opportunity
^ ^ ^ of taking effect, scopelessness; con-
sidered in the case of a particular
by ?qp[^R; (2) meaningless, rule, as a criterion for setting aside
purposeless; cf. ? ^
that general rule which deprives it
ofthat opportunity; cf. ^^ST$M
on 1.1.1, as also ^T^qM^T f| ffl ^n^#t ^ r ^ . This SR-
ft^rq m w 30T#( ^2R5T* sqrac; M,Bh. on is slightly different from 3?q-
P- VI. 1 77. See for details M.Bh. qi^f particular mention which is
on I. 2.45 Värtw 12; III.L77 Värt. defined usually by the words 1
2 and Kaiyata and Uddyota
thereon; (3) possessed of no sense ^ R F a ^ r c : ( a word) whose forma-
absolutely as some nipatas %^?[ tion and accents have not been ex-
ft % % #; Uv. plained; cf. Nir. IV. 1; V. 2.

lit, having no parts; impar- form or figure; the word is used in

tite; without any concern with the connection with a technical term
individual component parts; appli- (5^05^) which presents its sense by
cation in totality; cf. %g § ^#F^Ft a definition actually laid down or
SRcfqiqf^I^T^qi ^ i 1 ^ l f ^ 5 P. VI. given in the treatise; cf« srarfsfä:
1,84 Värt 5 and the Bhäsy a thereon; mi I sTllT^cf: ürkRi M. Bh. on
X l.i.
a rule in -grammar applies to all absence of consideration; dis-
cases where its application is possi- regard; cf. <srät ^m\ii P. II, 3*38.
ble; it cannot be said to have its
puorpose served by applying to a f non-initial; e. g. BM^&F ?T§?-R^
few cases only. P. III. 4.102, Vart. 4; also M. Bh.
on VII. I. 3.
^ s q i fault of having no end; end-
lessness ; cf, replaced as a substitute;
Käv. Pr.; e. g. m 3^f^R^: ^fel??? UvA i-rtcT
P-Tlft^lW^; M.Bh. on f. L57VSrt. 1,
III.-2.3 Värt. 23 and VI. L12
f l M. Vart. 10.
Bh.onIL 1.1. (1) original, not such as Is sub-
indefiniteness; c£ 3^fN- stituted; e.g. 3^^SR^R3T^ P.VII.
^T^TOffe;: M. Bbu on 2.86; (2) absence of statement, -fl
I. 2.30 Värt 1. % e. g. ^ 4
P. III. ^ 6 7 , Värt. 1; cf. the Pari.
undetermined5 indefinite; ^ftr%«il: 5RW. iwA^f^ I Par. Sek.
see M.Bh. quoted above on Pari. 113.
cf. also s n ^ T p ^ i : ^ T ^
^R^tNctg JCT^g \ M. Bh. on I. 1.56; § not a close relation; dis-
III, 1.4, VII. 2JO, VII. 4.9. The tance; cf. wf^'
substitutes caused by an ärdhadhä- f
tuka affix are, in fact, effected by Bh* on VIII. 3.13.
virtue of the prospective applica-
tion of the ärdhadhätuka affix be- ^ that sariihitn text
fore its actual application. which has an order of words in it,
which is different from what
tech. term used by the writers obtains in the Pada-püthu, and
of the Prätisäkhya works for fre- which appears appropriate accor-
quentative formations such as ding to the sense intended in the
etc.; cf. A. Pr- 4*86. passage* There are three places of
such combinations of words which
| | not depending on another are not according to the succession
for the completion of its sense; cf. of words in the Pada-patha, quot-
=T 33RRnf& P. I l l , 4-23, and Nyäsa ed in the R.Pr. l^W%^f fhfäg* ^
thereon which explains SRWfll1 as Rk* Sam. V.2.7, mi m iw$
^k. Sam. X. 64.3; J
X, 86. 42«
not capable of presenting : i ?! i M mni ^
(on its mere utterance) any tangible Uvvata on R, Pr* 11.78*

absence of proximity, ab- anudätta vowel, e. g. fi, *?, l%; ^ j

sence of cognateness; cf. ^ | clff ^ etc. as against g, ^ | , % 1, ^
%«l9 ^fg, etc. which have their
^ II M. Bh. on
on Siva vowel characterized by an acute
Sütras 3-4. { 33[FTT ) accent. For a complete list
having or possessing no äpya of such roots see the well-known
or object; * intransitive (root); cf. stanzas given in the Siddhänta-
^fl^jssjqf^ si^Tcqof^ g^ Cändra L2 97 kaumudi incidentally on ^
standing for ^R^Rjsife 3?^%T2r 3R ^i P. VII. 1.5. ^ | f
P. I I I . 2.148.
(1) non-vedic; not proceeding
from any Rsi, or Vedic Seer, cf. as also some lists by ancient gram-
£ p j 2[Fra*3R^ 3RN P. I. 1.16; also marians given in the Mahäbhasya
Käs. on the same; cf. föft^gqßfciä1 on qeßra g q - ^ ^ n g ; . P. VII. 2.10
^ VI. 1.129; or in the Käsika on the same rule
(2) pertaining to the Padapätha P. VII. 2.10.
which is looked upon as 3 M 4 i. eB ^ (1)
( name given to Stanzas
not proceeding from any Vedic giving a-complete list of such
Seer; cf. SRW ?.fcRJ^f: I 3 =g SFSK roots as do not allow the aug-
sflf^rasr, Uvvata o n R . Pr. I I I . 23; ment % ( ?s ) to be prefixed to
cf. also A. Pr. I I I . 1.3. an ardhadhatuka affix placed
krt affix in the sense of curse, after them« For such Kärikäs
e. g. 3?«Nf^ra 5T5 *Rffi[; cf.^TT^tt see Sida Kaum, on VII. 1.5 as
3rf5fe P. I I I . 3,112/ This affix also Käsika on VII. 2.10; ( 2 ) a
gets its ^ changed into ^ after qR short treatise enumerating in 11
or \<fi of the preceding preposition verses the roots which do not
as in 3jsRnf9t:;cf. Käs. on VIII.4.29. admit the augment ^ b e f o r e the
samasanta affix after the word ardhadhatuka affixes. The work
spf and some other |^words pre- is anonymous, and not printed so
scribed by P. V. 4. 124-6, e. g. far, possibly composed by a Jain
writer .The work possibly belongs
to the Kätantra system and has got
^ l ) not admitting the augment
short glosses called o^Ro^H, STHF^R;,
^ to be prefixed to it; the term is
fciwr, ä^JT, ßcqofr and the like
strictly to be applied to ärdhadhä-
which are all anonymous.
tuka affixes placed after such roots
as havd^ their vowel characterized a short commen-
by a grave accent ( arg^jTR^ ); the tary by Ksamämanikya on the
term s^f^ being explained as work Anitkärikä, which see above,
srfäsrßj qualifying the an^ig^f affix; not separable into two padas
(2) in a secondary way3 it has be- or words by means of avagraha;
come customary to call such roots cf. *N gwi^^f^f; R. Pr. V. 4 1 ; cf.
3Tfäs>as"do not allow the augment also R. Pr. I X . 253 X I I I . 30. See
^ to be prefixed to an ärdhadhä- below.
tuka affix placed after them. Such (1) not nitya or obligatory;
roots are termed srg^lxf verily be- optional; (said of a rule or pari™
cause they are possessed of an bhasä whose application is volun-

tary). Regarding the case and con- not subject to any limitation;
jugational affixes it can be said cf.
that those affixes can, in a way, I: M. Bh, on I I .
be looked upon as nitya or obliga- 3.50. In the case of frrcwfäfä (a res-
tory, as they have to be affixed to trictive rule or statement) a limi-
a crude nominal base or a root, tation is put on one or more of the
there being a dictum that no crude constituent elements or factors of
base without an affix can be used, that rule» the limited clement being
as also, no affix alone without a called f^RcF, the other one being
base can be used. On the other termed STI^PT; also see Kns. on
hand, the taddhita and krt affixes I I . 2. 30.
as also compounds are voluntary
as, instead of them an independent whose sex—especially
word or a phrase can be used to whether it is a male or a female—is
convey the sense. For a list of not definitely known from its mere
such nitya affixes see M, Bh. on V, sight; small insects which are so.
4.7; (2) the word aif^q is also The term >:p} in l\ I V . l . 131 is
used in the sense of not-nitya, the explained in the Mahäbhäsya as
word fä?q being taken to mean
gcffpfsr^'occurring before as well as on P. IV. h l s L
after another rule has been appli- whose sense has not been
ed,, the latter being looked upon as specifically stated; the word is
stfk&l which does not do so. This used with reference to such affixes
'nityatva' has got a number of ex- as are not prescribed in any speci-
ceptions and limitations which are fic sense or senses and hence as are
mentioned in Paribhäsas 43-49 In looked upon as possessing the sense
the Paribhasendusekhara. which the base after which they
are prescribed has got; cf. ^fHik^Mi:
an underived word; an ScW: W\*i WVfift-—affixes, to which
ancient term used by writers of no meaning lias been assigned,
the Prätisäkhyas to signify 'original' convey the meaning of the bases to
words which cannot be subjected which they are added; e£l Far.
to Hh Sek. Pari.'ll3;cf. also M. Bh. on
I I I . 2.4, 111,2.67, III. :U9> I I I .
E? not necessary to be specifi-
4,9, VI. U 6 2 .
cally or implicitly stated, as it can
be brought about or accomplished l an undesireel consccyicncc or
in the usual way; e. g. result; cf. sfifä-j ^ SBi?]% %:i -I ^ $W&t
M, Bh. on Im$A \ also cf.
^ . Bh. on VIII. 1.15. See tTxr: M, Bh. on VL K2.
also M, Bh. on VII. 2.27 and VI.
ignorant or inattentive to
what the Grammarian Intends or
not serving as a cause, not desires to say. cf. ? l
possessing a causal relation; e.g. fW f
afaqigssBpnt fäfätöfSrä ^rfi^FcfF? Par. §cr: M. Bh. on VIIL 2.106.
Sek. Pari 85, See also M, Bh# on ^ krt affix, termed f»^| also
1.1.39. forming the pot* pass* part, of a

root; cf, ^ R o q T ^ : P.I II. 1.96. e.g. frequently; e.g. qfef

see the forms W>W\'% i w q , the mute so also the p. p. p. ^PFTRT occurs
^showing the acute accent on the frequently in the same sense.
penultimate vowel lit. that which follows Tantra
(1) imitation; a word utter- i.e. Sästra which means the original
ed in imitation of another; an imi- rules of a Sästra; technical term for
tative name; cf. 3qg*Roi ^ l i f ^ R ^ Värtika used by Bhartrhari; cf. £plFlt
P. I. 4.62; ^ m l| fäsifosrcfäfäi^ ^TgcRrioii srrssFii ^ a^ftriVak. Pad.
W $[f%^%f%^ Siva sutra 2 Värt 1; 1.23, where the word 3?gcf^ is ex-
cf. also $tfn%^ 3T3^?t 3?3fa an imi- plained as Värtika by the com-
tative name is like its original Par, mentator.
Sek. Pari. 36; also MJBh. on VIII. other than <RW or the first
2.46; (2) imitative word, onoma- person; cf. fcWrf^ct ^TTO^gxW^ P.
topoetic word; cf. VIII 1.53 and Käsikä thereon.
non-production of an ele-
ML Bh. on 1.3.48. cf. also §«=T ment of a word such as an affix or
ir. IX. 12. an augment or the like; cf. <
dragging (from the preced- ^Tg?q^%P. III. 1.2 Värt. 7,
ing rule) to the following rule tak- *qfriq? TO'Cl qw cf® P. I I I . 1. 94
ing the previous rule or a part of Värt. 2 3 also f^nf^l ^^11%: (f&R:)
it as understood in the following P. I I I . 1.26, Värt. 3.
rule or rules in order; the same as non-udatta, absence of the
3Rll%; cf. srg^^fepftR: Käs« on II. acute accent; one of the Bäbyapra-
4." 18, I I I . 2.26, V I I . 1.48; cf. also yatnas or external efforts to pro-
the Paribhäsa ^!T«pHÖ ^TxR^—that duce sound. This sense possibly
which is attracted from a preced- refers to a stage or a time when
ing rule by the particle =3 is not only one accent, the acute or <rajxl
valid in the rule that follows; Par, was recognized just as in English
Sek. Pari. 78. and other languages at present,
attracted from a previous This udatta was given to only one
rule as is frequently done in Päni- vowel in a single word (simple or
ni s rules. See the word aqg^foj compound) and all the other
vowels were uttered accentless.Le.
s}jg3jxL Possibly with this idea i n
not actually stated or expressed view, the standard rule ^ g ^ l ^ q^r«
in a rule; cf. 5fy^^' was laid down by Panini
Käs. on II. 4.18, III. 2. 26, VII. P. VI. 1.158. As, however,'the
L 48; also gf. Nyasa on P. II. 2.9 syllable, just preceding the accent-
J right or regular order in a ed ( 3?ra ) syllable, was uttered
Vedic recital, called ?w. e. g with a very low tone, it was call-
ed srtpara^rc, while if the syllables
enumeration (in the right succeeding the accented syllable
order as opposed to spOT ); e. g9 showed a gradual fall in case they
happened to be consecutive and
M. Bh. on IL 1. 58; also on IV. more than two, the syllable suc-
2.70; verbal forms of the root ^ ceeding the ^^Jxf was given a
with =3?| occur in this sense very mid-way tone, called

^ Thus, In the lit. one whose mute signifi-

utterance of Vedlc hymns the catory letter is uttered with a grave
practice of three tones 3'^FcT, CJT^ITI accent; a term applied to a root
and ^ftcT came in vogue and characterized by an indicatory
accordingly they are found defined mute vowel accented grave, the
in all the Prätisäkhya and grammar chief feature of such a root being
works ;cf. 3!5%W^a •fi%*3?Trf: OTTIK« that it takes only the Atmanepada
^fer: P. L 2. 29-31, T.Pr. I. 38-40, affixes; e. g. sqT%, q%, etc.; cf.
V. Pr. I. 108410. Amidätta Is s^xltecf ^TcWqcinP. I. 3.12; such
defined by the author of the Käsi- a root3 in forming a derivative
kavrtti as ^ word in the sense of habit, takes
the affix 55 e g . srfcfc, 3«ffi: etc«
=3 *r: : cf. provided the root begins with a
consonant; cf. ^3^I%W ^ß\\: P.
M. Bh. on I. 2, 29,30, Gf. also 11L 2.149.
g^TrfW^T (a root) pronounced ori*
II R. Pr. ginally i. c, pronounced in the
III. 1. The term anudatta is trans- Dhätupatha with a grave accent;
lated by the word 'grave3 as oppo- see the word ^l^jxl above; cf.
sed to 'acute5 (udätta,) and "circu-
mflex5 (svarita); (2) a term appli- %fcf P. VI. 4.37. See also the
ed to such roots as have their
vowel 3?§3[TTJ or grave? the chief word 3rf^ above.
characteristic of such roots being ? ^ (1) reference, mention, state-
the non-admission of the augment ment referring to a preceding cle-
% before an ärdhadhätuka affix ment, cf. wwi^mT^j: imm^ P. L
placed after them. ( See ^fäs, ). 3.10; c£ mfi^:^^JmM^^m$J**
®mm*f$S?S: M. B!i. LL57, Vart. 3.
J quite a low tone, comple- (2) declaration, prescription; the
tely grave; generally applied to same as aitcfeof. cf. mPWmW^W*k
the tone of that grave or anudatta m^WZJ^^M ^4\ Tj^p^fl qnj P,
vowel which is immediately follow- LI.56 Vart. 1; (3) a "grammatical
ed by an acute ( ^ T T ) vowel. operation cf. «PTO^'Wglpa:
When the three Vedic accents g^^«cfT f4?%mw?4 mk Sid.
•were sub-divided into seven tones on 1\L 3JO, See the word 3*
viz. in this sense cf- if^CT^IW^ W
and O3J3|fcr corres- mm, V, Pr. LI43.
ponding to the seven musical notes,
the 9qg<racR was the name given gsfFSE a fore-sound; a preceding
to the lowest of them a l l additional sound which is looked
was termed wsm also; cf, ^ W R upon as a fault; c- g. W^
<m ^m: P.L 2.40; cf. also M, Bh. when pronounced as aifq?f^ This
on I. 2.33. sound is uttered before an initial
sonant consonant. It is also utter-
a term meaning * having a ed before initial aspirates or vlnarga*
grave accent/ used by ancient cf. immm^HK: ^im% wi&gmi ^^
grammarians, Gf. mm qr 1 ^mwcr^Mr^Rt^; R. Pr»
M. Bh^on I. 2.33" XIV.18,19.

(a letter) uttered through sent except in the form of refer-

the nose and mouth both, as differ- ences to it which are numerous
ent from anusvara which is uttered especially in Srradeva's Paribha-
only through the nose, cf* g<$Rrfäft>T- -savrtti.
^ f t F : P.I.1.8, and M. Bh. discord, absence of validity,
thereon« The anunäsika or nasal incorrect interpretation; f
letters are the fifth letters of the five M.Bh on I. 4.9.
classes ( i.e. §,5, 5, ^ , q^) as also
vowels 3?, \9 3 and semivowels impossibility of being
when so pronounced, as ordinarily explained; cf. cf^r %5Tq
they are uttered through the ^ Nir 11,2.
mouth only; ( e . g. $f, aft, etc« impossible to be explained,
or 3% 5|3 ^g etc. in ^ not consistent ; cf. ^ M g q q ^ r f
sfesR: etc. ) The p or I $F&t ^m^Wl S Nir, I. 15.
nasalized vowels are named (^(felT) the Pada text of
and they are said to be con- the Vedic Sarhhitä.
sisting of three mätras. cf. $ not
subordinated in word-
relation5 principal member; cf. sr^T-
TO^Ici; P. IV. 1. 14 and M. Bh.
R. Pr. 1.63.64; cf. also
thereon; cf. also Par» Sek Pari. 26.
g ^ T. Pr
XV.6, Trivikrama, a commentator si^R an effort outside the mouth
ontheKat, Sutras, explains in the production of sound at
as eg färä the different vocal organs such
as qpoa:» 3T§ etc, which is looked
upon as an external effort or
bähyaprayatna.sigsr^R is one of the
and remarks further three main factors in the produc-
q^öfqf I Com. by Tr. on Kat. I tion of sound which are ( 1 ) ^4H5
LI3. Vowels which are uttered ( 2 ) 3FPI or aRP2Rfl?RR and ( 3 )
nasalized by Pänini in his works or ^rsprq^; cf. W
viz- ^fqT3 ? WTgqfTS', ?\WflZ e t c . are Can. The commentator
silent ones i. e. they are not actu- on T. Pr- describes sigsf^H as the
ally found in use. They are put by §3^R?I or ^saflfiERPT, the main
him only for the sake of a com- cause in the production of articu-
plete utterance, their nasalized late sound; cf. s^cftqcf 3?^[ qof: ffä
nature being made out only by ;; cf. also
means of traditional convention. :; Uvvata on R. Pr. X I I I .
$9 qs? etc, cf. I, Generally two main varieties
1.3.2; cf also of «n§OTc?f are termed srgsrsFr which
Käs' on 1.3.2. are mentioned as (i)
(emission of breath) and
(resonance), the h other
h varieties of
a commentary on Kircr (
it such as fäHTC, #-IR? ^f, ^?%^r5
by f^f^glt). The work , ^R^ffq, S^TTIJ ^ ? T T T and
is believed to have been written by being called merely as
» It is not available at pre-

subsequent utterance; lit. and afl^eiaf^T. The gram-

post-position, 'as in the case of the mar is a short one and is studied
roots fj, ^and^inin the periphra- in some parts of India.
stic perfect forms; cf. p not allowing the addition of the
, P. I« 3. 63; augment ^ (i.e. letter \) after
the last vowel; The term is used.,
in connection with the present part*
a letter or letters added to a
affix, by Pänini in his rule STä^tfr
word before or after it, only to
signify some specific purpose such \ VI. 1.173.
as (a) the addition of an affix inference, suggestion, cf.
(e. g. f H 3*33, ^ f etc -) o r (b) t h e j
substitution of gq, ffe; or ^mm ^ M. Bh. on L 3. 1.
vowel or (c) sometimes their preven- in the natural order (opp.
tion. These anubandha letters arc- to xfä&m ), cf. 55
termed is; (lit. going or disappear- R. Pr. 1L 8. w$$\M4Jfy is a term
ing) by Pänini (cf. sq^t^^lfe^ applied to Saindhis with a vowel
^ etc. 1.3.2 to 9), and they do first and a consonant afterwards.
not form an essential part of the
word to which they are attachcd3 combination according
the word in usage being always to the alphabetical order; a kind of
found without the ^j; letter. For euphonic alteration ( *ffa ) where
technical purposes in grammar, the vowel come» first, e.g. \&7WV^+
however.» such as sfrf^qf or 3?^^ of mtit where ^ is changed to 5 ; ^ :
affixes which are characterized \4:zziTiJi ?&: cf. 1L Pr. !L B*"(See
by 13t letters, they are looked
upon as essential factors, cf. continuation or recurrence
^%$FcFT 3Tg*RlTS3 "Q?PRIT:, etc, Par* of a word from the preceding to
Sek. Pari. 4 to 8. Although qrfitfä the succeeding rule; the same as
has invariably used the term ^% anuvrtti; cf. 3Tg<d«% -W faw. f *i
for 3rg*FW letters in his Sutras,
Patanjali and other reputed writers M. Bh. on I. 1*3.
on PäninPs grammar right on upto
Nagesa of the 18th century have to be observed, to be obeyed;
used the term aqgspsi of ancient cf. 5=1 <S5$5R q^KT W}flpij: t q^iftak
grammarians in their writings in ^ f i W g ^ M . Bh. on l i t 1.109.
the place of ^ The term sqgspsr repetition of a rule already
was chosen for mute significatory laid down or of a statement already
letters by ancient grammarians made; cf*TOPn^ü-TOHft^T%I
probably on account of the ana- ^ : Kas. on II. 4.3,
logy of the sigspaq q% tied down
at sacrifices to the post and >-l operation m conformity with
subsequently slaughtered. what is found. The expression
vF^fir zziffiffyx is often found in the
a ^viv-i^\-M-ni' a writer of the Mahäbhksya; cf, M. Bh, on U J.5,
twelfth century who wrote a work I, 1.6, 1/1.21, III. L9, III, 1.13,
on grammar called ^q^V^ ? -IT VI. L6, VL 1.77, V I . U799 VL
or ^rr^RPrf^J^. He has also written 4J28,VL 4 J 4 1 , VIIL 2.108.

repetition or recurrence of a word is explained as ^1tnTW*T by

word from the previous to the suB- Uvata.
sequcnt rule or rules,, which is see above under sr.
necesiary for the sake of the intend- said afterwards^ generally in
ed Interpretation« The word is of imitation; cf« 3Tgrfi^^3^H: 1 s^-
common use in books on Pänini's M.Bh. on III. 2.109.
grammar. This recurrence is gene-
rally continuous like the stream of statement with reference to
a river ( ^iJ^Mt^ ); sometimes what has been already said; the
however, when it is not required in same as anvadesa.
an intermediate rule, although it statement or mention imme-
proceeds further, it is named diately afterwards; the same as
In r are cases it is the word sig^I used by Pänini in
taken backwards in a sutra work 1.3JO, cf. l^MT^FT^T W # ^ I
from a subsequent rule to a pre- Q{%& ; ^Tlf^^: Uvata on V. Pr,
vious rule when it is called siw*?. I. 143.
traditional instruction; treat- having no ekasesa topic in it;
ment of a topic; e.g. g ^ a term applied to the Daiva Gram-
M. BSi. I. 1.1 where the word is mar which does not discuss the
explained as s ekasesa topic to which Panini has
devoted ten rules from I. 2.64
(I) lit.attaching, affixing; aug- to 73.
ment, sjeyspsqcT <mi 3Tgq-f:; (2) a term $R!3rc having many vowejs or
for the nasal letter attached to the syllables in it; the same as ^TiWF^
following consonant which is the of Panini; cf. Hem, III. 4.46
lastj used by ancient grammarians;
cf. spiqrejq? ^ ^ i ^ m i f ^ R i q ^ cf. ^RT^FPC having many syllables in it;
P X 1.47 Värt. 2 and M.Bh. there- cf. ^ ^ I ^ R ^ ^ I i ^ I ^ T Kät. II.2.59.
on; cf. sTCFcfRT ^f^pftfQiTH Kät. IV« a having many vowels (two or
1.13* The term srgsrg is defined in more) in it; opp. to ^ T g ; a term
the Kätantra grammar as s^nffiRS frequently used in Pänini's gram-
3?jpff«. The terni is applied to the mar meaning the same as ^ % ^ R ;
nasal consonant ^ preceding the or si^FJfärc, which see above; cf. P.
last Hotter of a noun base or a root VI. 3.42,VI. 4.82
base; penultimate nasal of a root (1) not forming an integral
or no an base; Kät. II. LI 2. part, the same as isffispqef; cf. sfö-
*p#üP; independent mention, a ^rlT: SW^^TT 1 ^ 4 Par. Sek. Pari 4.
secoßd time, of a thing already (2) absence of any definite view
mentioned5for another purpose; cfl cf. Q^f^RFcR^r I % ^ ^

P.I.1,53 VSrt. 1. ^ \ M. Bh. on VI. 1. 7

according to the Samhita (1) possessed of* a plural
text of the Vedas; cf^crift %| TF3.#cT sense; referring to many things,
srfMt 3?getlcT^ BharLrihari's Mahä- cf. s^fsßpS apr^rgfr M. Bbu on P.II.
bhäsyadipika p . 9; cf. also R, Pr. 2* 98 also 3CT5Fn«fi^Äf |%MM: P. I.
XL* 31, also XV. 33, where the 2.64 V ä r t 15; (2) possessed of

many senses, cf. between and a sibilant, or

^T% M. Bh. on PJII. 2.48; also the letter between ^T and a
cf. 3JF=q5föT«rff?J T33S[RJ^r W g - sibilant;
: Nira IV. 1. ^fkfi; cf. Pan. VIII. 3.28, 293 3(T?
^ possessed of many letters; 31; cf. cf^cf^Tldl: 3^f^T^nJP3- R,
lit. possessed of not one letter, cf. Pr. IV. 20
# i % i ; ^Vr P. I. L55. [€[q[ inside the foot of a verse
not ending in a diphthong; explained as %]"$?& Wr^ by Uvvata;
cf ^ B ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Par. Sek. cf. J^f^rs^r:qfT3?T3^;. P. VI,I. 113.
Par, 7" /. 3 also writeu as
undetermined, indefinite' /., semivowel; cf.
: i fälfcT f5t(?t f&faftfrT;V, Pr.
: M. Bh.on I. 2.30, also VIII. 14-15; cf, -4clf4Pci:PTF: ex-
M. Bh. on VI. 1.37; not invari- plained by -30-Td as {W^lW-ri;
able, cf. SR^lföp^ WF&l. M. Bh» 5R-^f (ctö^cfricT cH'-cT:^]: R. Pr, I- 9,
on VII. 2.102, VIII. 3,34 also qirac!#-"cf^m: T. Pr. I. 8. The
f not possessed of any defi- ancient term appears to be 3 ^ ; ^ i
nite cause; 3$fJjii%RT tJ^ppsi^PT: M. /. used in the Prntisäkhya works«
Bh. on I. 1.20 also on I. 1.59 The word 3??cF:F4FlPTs occurs twice
and I. 2,64« in the MahabhSsya from which it
final, phonetically last element cannot be said whether the word
remaining, of course, after the there is 3^.T4 »/. or ai^rT:?^ /*
mute significatory letters have The term -%«$& or wwm is ex-
been dropped, cf. «igp^s^oft^T: M. plained by the commentators on
Bh.on I. 1.21 Värt 6. Kätantra as agsppq tä
cra^UT lit. bringing about as the
final; an affix (which is generally ftK interval between two phonetic
put at the end); ancient term for elements when they arc uttered
an affix; cf j$r: ^if^f ^ WRIR 'SfFcT- one after another; hiatus, pause;
WI*U srer: ^t =3 mitJK, ^ i Nir. L i^ R. T. 3!-; also few
13. f^V^Wfl Vyäsasik^i; (2)
PI lit. interior operation; an space between two phonetic ele-
operation inside a word in its ments, e. g. ^iv€'{ explained as
formation-stage which naturally ^ % $ T R (between two vowels) by
becomes antamnga as contrasted Uvvata cf.
with an operation depending on gq: Nir X,17.
two complete words after their a highly technical term ia
formation which is looked upon as Panini's grammar applied i« a
bahirauga. variety of ways to rules which
inside a word; explained thereby can supersede other
as q^q w^ by ^ s ; cf. g«n*3:q^s\% rules. The term is not used
V. Pr. IV. 2 cf. also SRT:CR; by Patjini himself. The Värti-
R. PrJI. 13. kakara has used the terrn thrice
( See L 4, 2 VSrt. 8, VI. L IU6
insertion of a letter or pho- Vart 10 and VIII. 2. 6 Värt. 1)
netic element such as the letter qs evidently in the sense of £imme-

diate', 'urgent9, 'of earlier occur- of several operations which take

rence5 or the like. The word is place in arriving at the complete
usually explained as a Bahuvrihi form of a word, (5) not having t^\
compound meaning c B^TT: grifft (technical term) as a cause of its
f^Tflfä q^T ' (a rule or operation application, ( 6 ) not depending
which has got the causes of its upon two words or padas, (7) de-
application within those of another pending upon a cause or causes of a
rule or operation which consequ- general nature (eRFWJ) as oppos-
ently is termed ^d^n"). 3M<&4|9 in ed to one which depends on causes
short, is a rule whose causes of of a specific nature ( fä\lW3").
operation occur earlier in the the phrase is u?ed
wording of the form, or in the pro- generally for the f
cess of formation. As an a^^ ^r?cR% 3 described above. See the
rule occurs to the mind earlier, word ST^cRff. The v(\W%\ has got a
seen above, it is looked upon as very wide field of application and
stronger than any other rule, barr- as is used several times in setting
ing of course ^qsff^ rules or excep- aside difficulties which present
tions, if the other rule presents themselves in the formation of a
itself simultaneously. The Värtika- word. Like many other paribhäsäs
kära, hence, in giving preference to this paribhäsä is not a paribhäsä
SRTCfjrr rules, uses generally the of universal application.
wording SRF^T^^FI^n^C which is the strength which
paraphrased by SRRS «rfl^T^sRspq: an aniaranga rule or operation
which is looked upon as a pari- possesses by virtue of which it
bhäsä. Grammarians, succeeding supersedes all other rules or ope-
the Vartikakära, not only looked rations,excepting an apavada rule,
upon the «rf|*lf operation as weaker when or if they occur simultane-
than SRTCff, but they looked upon ously in the formation of a word,
it as invalid or invisible before the rcfWS^i characterized by the
sFcTCH operation had taken place. nature of an antarangj operation
They laid down the Paribhäsä which gives that rule a special
arßlS ^?^W*Fcf<|f which has been strength to set aside other rules
thoroughly discussed by Nägesa in occurring together with it.
his Paribhasendusekhara, The
SRFgRq1 is taken in a variety of very close or very cognate?
ways by Grammarians : (1) having being characterized (1) by the
causes of application within or same place of utterance, or (2) by
before those of another c. g. ^ R : possessing the same sense, or (3) by
from the root ft^ ("fär + 3+?0 where possessing the same qualities, or (4)
the qor substitute for % is aRRTCf? be- by possessing the same dimension;
ing caused by <r as compared to cf wi^RSR:r P. I ; 1-50 and Käs.
guna for 3" which is caused by ^5 thereon mj* %
(2) having causes of application
occurring before those of another
in the wording of the form, (3)
having a smaller number of causes, a group of words mentioned
(4) occurring earlier in the order Inside another group of words (m);

cf* j ^ ^ affix of the prcs. 3rd, pL

on III. 1.55; also Atni. substiiutrxl for the u;iiginal
s on IV.2.IÜ. affix ff, c g. ^;-^%, '^rKK
inclusion of an element (of cfj^fxi1 a word with its last 7owe]
sense) In what has been actually accented acute. Roots, crud ; noun
assigned, e. g. V % bases and compound words gene-
rally have their last vowel accent-
on P. 1.3.^4, ed acute; cf. ft.q: (Uiff^)
Sffi&frf *R1% ! ^ g ^ K7is on P.111. 3[<d 3<:}xi: Fllrl Piiif; S'it r
2. 95. 'qT^i: ( I \ VJ. IJ62} ^!-cT^[ ;
TS?! separated by ^ a dissimilar tiW^^K?.VI. 1.223) sini ":r^]-\;: ^K{ \
element; cf. ajft -iRlf$f snrrTV: P.IV. rST (1) final lcticr; r^ *]'&*?$, 1 (2)
i.93 Värt. 5. ^iRF^ferifä "^R.TW final consonant of each of tiic. five
3g?Rf; ^ K c f w i l T. Pr. XIV. 20; groups of* consonants whic'ä is a
cf. also 11. Pr. III.9. nasal ^i^Ti^il^r^: -li- r^* 17.
3<?3jr?: optionally; lit. in : notlior
cfcj^pg supposed condition of be-
way; cf. m'fl^ vtr?wj\: V.P.V.I5.
ing at the end obtained by the
T^£cn3{ optionally: lit. in another
single substitule(n;^F^[) for the final
way. rJ'hc term is very common in
of the preceding and the initial
of the succeeding word. cf. spclif^- rules of Pänini, where the (rrins
m and Rwii arc also n^cd in the
I Sid. Kau. on si^n^f^ P> VI. same sense.
1.84. jtiqj^q' another sense, sense differ-
ent from what has been expressed
/• also spcTW semi-vowel; by the wording ^iven; cf. "z(«\'W*-<%~
see under s^cl:^. q^r:4 1\ 11.2.24; also M+yrwmwvi
condition, attributed to . M. Uh. on II. Ul
a single substitute for the final of ^ l connected with the word fc^q,-
the preceding and initial of the connected with another; t\g ~i\**i\
succeeding word9 of being looked
upon either as the final of the i
preceding word or as the initial an object which is
of the succeeding word but never |
different from what is mentioned,
as both (the final as well as the
yet similar to it; cf.
initial) at one and the same time;
cf. g*ra?i 3W4 qFcnfäqq; Sir. Pari
39 also M. Bh. on 1.2.48.
! M. Bh. on P. 11L1.12
affix of the impera* 3rd pers.
irregular; cf. mik'^WJ
plur. &tm., substituted for the
original affix % e. g. rrv^^j^. i mmM'^m^ ^q«%; K$$\ on
P. M L 3 . 3 1
affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pL
(l)hnving another purpose or
Paras, substituted for the original
signification; cf. w^n r4f^i yt*m§
affix f|r, e. g* ^ fä
vpifä M / B k o n L1.23; (2) another
_ affix of the impera. 3rd pers, pi. 1 sense which Is diflerenl from what
Paras, substituted for the original j is expressed; cf* ^Mff**! ^ij4lf|: Can.
affix \%* e. g II.2.46.

reciprocally dependent ^^ ^ R etc. All these terms

and hence serving no purpose; are picked up from ancient gram-
same as 35RcKr^ which is looked marians by Pänini; cf. €
upon as a fault, cf. ST^F^d*'^ ^cf^ 1
WATf^: ^3^«' s&Qgft ^ Wv&l M.Bh. on I cf. M. Bh. on
IV.1.3. L1.23; also cf. M.Bh.on 1.1.27,1.
1.38,1.2.43, 1.183,11.1,5, III. 1.1,
a combination of letters
III.1.92 etc.
according to the order of the
letters in the Alphabet; a sarndhi W5W relaxation or wäde opening
or euphonic combination of a of the sound-producing organs as
vowel and a consonant, called done for uttering a vowel of grave
sf^TC-äl^TOfä where a vowel accent, cf. SF^ROT; ^Tf^M fä^cTcH
precedes a consonant; and s ^ - Tait. Pr. XXII.10.
^ l % ^ w f ä where a consonant pre- qTT^K^T^ a word attracting a previ-
cedes a vowel, the consonant in ous word such as the word ^ in
that case being changed into the the Sutra texts.
third of its class; TT^ I& g x[ 3JTO&F 55 Fcff^f aggregation of a secondary
element along with the primary
^ ^ II ?. Fr. II.8.9 one; mw>m Rf^?#RR?5raR cTCJJTO-
e. g. ^ ^ : 3 *r 33": and others are ^T^M^:R^T 3T^R^: Nyäsa on P.II
instances of 3T^OT355Rl#fa" where 2.29. One of the four senses of %
f^f^ after the vowel is dropped; i t ^FR; cf.
while l^crn? srfä: is an instance of
where the conso-
(1) lit. reference to the ante-
nant ^ precedes the vowel rior word or expression;
(}) construing;, construction; *&m iPuw^m in T B Pr.VII a 3 3
arrangement of words according in V-8) T. Pr. 1.58; (2) reference
to their mutual relationship based again to what has been stated pre-
upon the sense conveyed by them, viously; cf. f ^ ^
(2) continu- P- II. 4.32
ance, continuation; f ^ and Värt. 2 thereon;

M. Bh. on P J I . : Käs on the above-

1.1. 5 a word capable of attract-
given in accordance with the ing a word or words from previous
sense; generally applied to a tech- statements; c£ ^qt^Pff^J^ T Pr#
nical term which is found in ac- XXII.5; same as
cordance with the sense conveyed ^ (1) krtafBxST, in the sense of
by the constituent parts of it; e. g. verbal activity (m$) or any verbal
^ cf. £T|^T: mmJ: 3$T 13SRJ; relation (sq5T^P) excepting that of an
f^ M# Bh. on agent, ( ^ ) applied to roots ending
P. 1.1.23. in 5g or 3" and the roots J^f, z etc.
F3p£t3RffT A technical term used in mentioned in P. III.3.58^and the
accordance with the sense of its following rules in preference to the
constituent parts; e. g. usual affix SJST. e. g. ^ : , ^K:, sp;:}
mi, ^ : , w:, JT|:, W\: etc, cf. P.III.

3,57-87; (2) compound-ending ^

applied to BaliuvrThi compounds ijA W]\ Wfcf; Pari. Sckh. Pari 57;
in the feminine gender ending with for details see Pari. Sckh. Pari.
a Parana affix as also to Bahuvrihi 57-65; of. - q i ^ ^
compounds ending with ^RT^
preceded by sFcF^ or ^%X e - §•

cf. P. V. 4.116, 117. ^% ^ C 4 : I K. Pr. L 23 and

o com. thereon; (2) fault; cf. mwi-
(l)deterioration of the place or
q~4P3jci; sifc[qiTÜRR[... R. Pr« XIV.
instrument of the production of
30 on which H&RL remarks g i ^
sound resulting in the fault called
i^r Aw. ifpci
£rasr; cf. ^ I W W W I ft-<gf ^
$R OT^T, R. Pr. XIV.2; (2) draw-
ing back a word or words from a ^ c convention that a
succeeding rule of grammar to rule laying down an exception
the preceding one; cf. °wfä cPOT supersedes the general rule; cf.f&5
j p ^ T O , M. Bh. on II.2.8. (3) f P. 1.3.9 Värt. 7
inferiority (in the case of qualities) the convention that
4iff a special rule is always stronger
a descendent, male or female, than the general rule,
from the son or daughter onwards % a conilici with a spe-
upto any generation; cf ^T cial rulcj when the special rule
P. IV. 1.92. supersedes the general rule; cf.
degraded utterance of
standard correct forms or words;
corrupt form; e. g. ^ r , tfKT and » Bh. on LL54
the like, of the word TJT, cf» ffl: Värt. 1.
: 3RSRIT: M. Bh. on I. 1.1; that wliich has already
cf. happened or taken place; cf. ^
Pad 1.149; wm f|
srfJft: com. on Vak. Pad L 149, f m M.Bh, on fll.2.102
^ achievement; c£ corrupt form of a correct
: sec Kai on - w word, called %-H^ also; cf* 'k^>S\ 5
srr txq ^q a Jp^: ML Bh. on L LL
a letter which is phonetically
badly or wrongly pronounced, cf. M*
fiÄä ^ Bh. on V, 3. 55.
Pan. Srk, 50. not in coaibrmity with
a special rule which sets the rules of PänkiPs grammar; cf.
aside the general rule; a rule !
forming an exception to the gene- I- 1. L
ral rule, e. g. ^ i % q # q;: IIL 2. 2 j detachment^ separation, abla-
which is an exception of the general tion,; technical term for w
rule wfam I I I . 2, l;cf.% which is defined as

in P. I. 4.24 and subsequent rules relation of dependance; cf.

25 to 31 and which is put in the ^ Mft Bh. on IV. 2,92.
ablative case; cf- srcT^ft qgtft P. disintegration of the consti-
I I . 3.28. tuent elements of a word; analysis;
(1) point of departure, separa- 3NT5R; S^^K0!^ com. on Väk. Pad*
tion; cf. g^qr%iT^R. P. 1.4.24; (2) II. 449; cf. ^^Rqc^TI q % 4
disappearance; cf. ^ f: Väk. Pad. 1.24.
^ A famous ver-
satile writer of the sixteenth cen-
M.Bh. on IV. 1.36. tury A. D. ( 1530-1600), son of
without any purpose or a Dravid Brahmana.
object, useless; cf. ^tßlST^^RT^^- He wrote more than 60 smaller
Nyäsa on P. I. 4.80. or greater treatises mainly on
>? in addition to; stfqf is used Vedänta, Mlmämsä, Dharma and
sometimes to mean absolute of or Alamkära sästras; many of his
unqualified by any condition; cfa works are yet in manuscript form.
s The Kaumudi-prakasa and Tinan-
tasesasarhgraha are the two pro-
Käs. on P. i n , 2.75, III. 2,101, minent grammatical works written
VII. 1.38; cf. by him. Pandit Jagannatha spoke
Durgasimha on Kat, II. 3. 64. very despisingly of him.
not marked with the mute non-retention of the ori-
letter j . A Sarvadhatuka affix not ginal word accents; cf«
marked with mute ^ is looked M. Bh.
upon as marked with ^ and hence on VI.2.49. See the
it prevents the gutia or vrddhl (1) impossibility to obtain
substitution for the preceding the correct form; (2) absence or
vowel or for the penultimate vowel want of apprehension-, cf 3F3[Ri
if it be 3?. e. g. ^ : cFgcl:, ^°]% 5n3rföcd%: srratßt M. Bh, on I, 1.1,
where nu guna takes place for the I. 1. 44 Vart. 8.
vow e l g cf €r4WlpT%. P. I. 2.4. r ß ^ l useless prohibition; unneces-
(1) not existing before; cf. sary prohibition; cf. ^f?J%; srfcf^R:
vm^ mn m*$: *K&$mm M» Bh. on sprier: M. Bh. on L 1.6; I. L 20.
1.1.20,1.1.46; (2) not preceded by I. 1, 22 etc.
any letter or so, cf. ^Jcfe^q 3}T1%: (1) lit. absence of any affix; an
M. Bh. on I. 1.21; (3) a rule pres- affix such as fift^ or fif^ which
cribing something not prescribed wholly vanishes; cf. ft
before; cf. m 3T«jjff f^f^^S ftw^f : M.Bh. on I. 1.6.
^ W$ 123 f^fMftTH f5R*r: M.Bh. ^ M. Bh. on I. 1.58; (2) that
on I. 4.3., III. 1. 46, I I I . 2. 127. which is not an affix, cf. J
I I I . 3. 19. ^ M.Bh, on I. 1. 61,
lit. unmixed with any (letter); 1.1.69; (3) that which is not pre-
a technical term for an affix consist- scribed, ^Pl^T^WT^^sRqFq^HjMoBh*
ing of one phonetic element, i.e. of on I. 1.69.
a single letter* cf. (1) non-principal? subordi-
P. 1.2.41. nate, secondary, cf, ^

fr, M. Bh. on L 2.43; (2) non- I. 3. 43. ^

€ssential3 non-predominent, cf,
g§^OTTTC P. I I . 2.19 and the on I J . 5 3 .
instance 3%QT ^RRT: fäcff I Käs. on
II. 2.19. prescription of a new
SFJriR not found in popular or cur- tiling, cf. ^^l^FfTT^^FI ^TH^RTM'^: M.
rent use.» e.g. the words &fi3 cK5 : q^ Bh. on VI. 4.171 Vart. 2.
etc, w^fcn wm ^nw^wm^- prescribing an operation
M. Bho on I. 1. 1, also which otherwise cannot be had.
M. Bh. on I. 1. 24 3iqTf§tqsr[Mf^; qmwifiuq: P. III.
(1) non-employment of a word 4. 24 Vart I.
In spite of the meaning being
available; cf. iffiiq^Mff Vfei^T^OT I sec above 3iU'fH?V^T.
P. III.3. 154; (2) non-employment (1) non-occurrence or non-
cf.^RTRi^srqin: a standard dictum realization of a grammatical
of grammar not allowing superflu- operation or rule-- sii'irf-iNvj: M.
ous words which is given in M.Bh. Bh. on I, 1 5G Vurt. 8; (2) pro-
on P.I.1.4-J Vart 16 and stated in hibition of the occurrence of a
Cändra and other grammars as a rule or operation, cf. *ürifr|c}1 i
CT$tfäR( not-found in actual use Bh. on I L 43, f. 1. 63.
among the people although men- non-protracted vowel cf, 3M
tioned in the sästra-texts; a mute HK^l\ VI. L 113.
indicatory letter or letters, cf« not coming in the way of
siSRFft ^ Säk. I. 1.5 Hem I. 1.37 rules otherwise applicable; .the
Jain. 1.2,3 and M.Bh. Pradlpa on word is used in connection with
III-8. 31. ftqTcR i\ e. constituted or announc-
non-application of a rule of ed forms or specially formed
grammar or of a technical term; words which arc said to be m$V4W$
cf. 3FT5f sr^ra^i; srssFj £ ^ S L e. not coniing in the way of
Bh. on P. Im I. 1 Värt. 11. forms which could be arrived at
Not well-known; secondary by application of the regular rules,
(used in connection with sense) Siradcva has laid down the Pari-
cf. T23 ^ bhäsa ^TW*a#t f^RTcFllfa VWfccf
•. Sek Pari. 15 defending the form t^Rpf in spite
absence of clear sense or ! of Panlnfs specific mention of the
interpretation; word Qim in the rule k
M. Bh. on I. L L Värt. 8, I . 1. 38 IV. 3, 105.
Värt. 4B not-forming an integral part
'SKHf^q^I same as ^rdt<Wiw one of of another; quite independent
the three kinds of optional appli- | ( used in connection with aug-
cation of a rule; cf. ftwn^ w^l rncnts ). cf. f% J|^?j «JJJVST ^n^rß5^^
srftr mift ^Wffi %fä I M , Bh» on P. ^ i f ^ j i f f ^ B W ^ ; M. Bh. on L L
I . 1.44 Vart., 20; optional appli- 47, 1.1.51. m W*ffä: %%f>m M.
cation of a rule prescribing an Bh. on V L L71, V I . 1 J 3 5 , and
operation; e,g. VIL 2*82»

[ a Jain grammarian-who designation, denotation, ex-

wrote srf^TRiiT?, based on the Sabdä- pression of sense by a word which
nusäsana Vyäkarana of the Jain is looked upon as the very nature
Sakatayana. His possible date is the of a word. The expression srfiFTO
twelfth century A. D. J3: ^II^Trfä5^ ( denotation of sense
is only a natural characteristic of
a Jain writer of the a word ) frequently occurs in the
thirteenth century who wrote a Mahäbhasya; cf. M. Bh. on 1.2.64
commentary on the Sabdänusä- Värt 93, I I . 1.1, cf.
sana Grammar of Hemacandra. sRq «mf^vrffisr: (R- Pr.
a reputed jain Gramma- where the word ^ififWH means
rian of the eighth century who
wrote an extensive gloss on the
% 7 c r f . The gloss is known as object or thing denoted by
of which ^5 a word; sense of a word; cf. srft-
appears to be another ^lt^^p5RTfö sfqfer M. Bh. on
II. 2. 29.
absence; absence of any lit. that which is placed
following letter which is technically near or before; the first of
called avasäna. cf. fä^WTS^^s the doubled class consonants;
sjofRW^STOFftfo: ^TIcj; S. K. on P. a mute or sparsa conso-
I . 4.110. nant arising from doubling and
inserted before a mute; cf. %
| that which does not
convey a masculine sense; a word : ( T . Pr. XIV. 9. ) explain-
which is not declined in the ed by i%rqT^^ as ^ ^
masculine gender; a word possess*
ing only the feminine gender e.g.
^£T> ^cfT 3?;qf^cT^T^ P. VII.
3. 48. ^ i The Rk.
a variety of long metres Prätisäkhya explains the term
called srffrs^sr; it consists of 100 somewhat differently; cf.
syllables, cf. ^ ^iftfrfcT:— \* f f
R. Pr. XVI. 60. i mm mm g
TH R. Pr. VI. 5, explained by
the first of the two utter- as ^ ? K ^
ances of a ward which chara-
cterise the krama method of
recital; e. g. in the krama recital mm
of m i?% etc. sr °T: I ^ 1«% I the first
reciial sr of: is called srf^OT, or possifDly according to
sp^ffi while ^ I?^l is called here means the first of the
cf. doubled letter which, although the
Pr. XI.21. second letter is attached to it? is
depression or sinking of separately uttered with a slight
the voice as required for the pause after it. srfiqf^rR means, in
utterance of a circumflex vowel* short, something like 'suppression.9

The Rk. Tantra takes a still wider sion cf.

view and explains sqfilfaqH as the ö^im: 1 WKWM ^ Käs. on P. H I .
first of a doubled consonant, cf.
]R absorption of a vowel when
R. T. 21. two long vowels of the same kind
p% development of an acti- come together c. g. cTT SIN: == cliq:,
vity; manifestation; cf. &&Q WiH- vmw STF^-t^f, the icsultant vowel
being pronounced specially long
on VI. 1.84. consisting of one more rnatra5 which
$n%%g that which has already is evidently, a fault of pronuncia-
entered on functioning or begun to tion, cf. ^iKfh 'äUW.; VVlß faw-i m
function; cf. ^{W^ t^qf
on R. Pr. XIV.
i M . B h . o n l l . 1.1-cf. .N 27.
fcOTT:, M. B!i. on expression; cf. ^ ^ i l V - l K
II. 3.46; Pari/Sek. Pari. 62. j
W H I R Resonance (of a visarga j ^l^K Nir X.16.
utterance),, j name of a metre In which
f^flrffgcf used In connection with j two feet have ten syllables and
a ^P'^ or euphonic combination j the other two have twelve sy-
in which the vowel <%5 as a first or llables; cf. ^ T ^ T # : q$$i "!F%^HF~
a second member.» is absorbed ^ R. Pr. XVI. 43.
into the other member, e. g. W^\
+ sjii = ^*4%s^ a j s o ^Tg^s^f, where provided with a svarila or
8T of ^1% is absorbed or merged in circumflex accent.
SIT of ^Fq: or IT of ^I?^; cf. spjr- expressed (used in connection
with the sense of a word) niM^iPll^i
^rsiT:; R. Pr. II. 13 gw M. Bh. on 1.2.01-, 1.3.1; ex-
to 25; cf.^: qsff^fct Pe VI. 1. 109. \ prcsseil actually by a word or part
'fifl^ficf^tlK name given to the ; of a word, same as ^'!%T M* lih.
circumflex vowel which i> the on 1.4*51.
resultant of the ^fil^lcf-iiiSf. jjgf being what it w<u not
I'^TSTPT ( l ) ^f^TSTPTSf^ a kind of before, cf. f^Mr W'tf^AVWWl }>*
euphooic combination where the V.4.50 Vfirt, 1.
nasal letter ^ i s dropped and the ^ not bringing about a differ-
preceding vowel ( m ) is nasa- ence; not making different; «on«
lised e. g. ^jven*"' 2j! i i^-i^T*1' m'r[ i ; discrirninant/cf, 10 " ^ ^ l : Par.3ck.
(2) view, purpose, intention; cf. | Pari. 109 cf. H3 ^ *4l ^ ^ F Mf'l ^
M. Bh* on L 1 J .
%\ M. Bh. on J.1.27; cf, also ^ a connection of unity, as
% p. u.72. noticed between the nominative
inclusive extension to a par- case affix of the subject and the
ticular limit; inclusive limit; cf* ending fit of a verb, which pro-
^ % P, I L i . 13, -a\\% duces the sense.
M. Bh, on lffpepi relation of xiou~diifcrcncc
1.4.89; (2) full or complete exten- as stated by the Vaiyakaraiias

between an adjective and the ^ inclination towards an

substantive qualified Ly I I eo g. action; tendency to do an act; cf.
^ f e i s explained as
4.17 3tf*rgjcjt srif^^qTli%: (M. Bh.
interior; contained in, held on V.4.19J is the explanation in
in; cf. 3^q?cr^ ^rg^q srqqqr: | erapn the Mahäbhäsya,while qR: g^^qT-
%m SH&*8%m*$: m&fä M. Bh. on ffrf: (Ka&. on' V.4.17) is the one
1.1,56. given in Kasikä.
( BHASKARASHASTRI lit, doubling or reduplica-
Abhyankar 1785-1870 A. D. ) tion; technically the word refers
an eminent scholar of Sanskrit to the first portion of the redupli-
Grammar who prepared a num- cation, which is called the redu-
ber of Sanskrit scholars in Gram- plicative syllable as opposed to the
mar at Sätärä. He has also second part which is called the
written a gloss on the Paribhä- reduplicated syllable; cf, q ^ F ^ :
sendusekhara and another one on P. VI. 1.4. (2) Repetition, the
the Laghu-Sabdendusekhara. second part which is repeated; cf.
(VASUDEVA SHASTRI Abhyan- £rs«rör(R:T.165) explained as ^ R :
kar 18634942 A. D,) a stalwart ^^qilf srcfe 1 q&q^fa | S^^fcT |; (3)
Sanskrit Pandit, who, besides repeated action; cf. spsfls: ^ : 3^:
writing several learned commen- T%: Käs. on P. 1-3. 1.
taries on books in several Sans-
krit Shastras, has written a com- lcl' omission of any sound; a
mentary named ' Tattvadarsa ' fault of utterance.
on the ParibhäsenduiSekhara and technical brief term in Panini's
another named 'Güdhärthaprakasa* grammar including vowels, semi-
on the Laghusabdendusekhara. vowels, the letter 5 and nasals; (2) a
( KASHINATH VASUDEVA significant term for the accusative
Abhyankar, 1890-) a student of case showing change or substitution
Sanskrit Grammar who has or modification; cf. $ P4W*W^ T. Pr.
written ^OT^^cfi^f-^n^ a r u j
1.23 explained as si %
% and compiled the
^ and the present Dic- (3) augment s? applied to the
tionary of Sanskrit Grammar. penultimate vowel of |ra & K[ (P.
substitute for dat. and abl pi. VI.1.58, 59 and VII.1.99) (4) sub-
affix WRJ after the words 3 ^ a n c | stitute tor 1st pers. sing, affix fij^,
; cf SRJTSR^P. VILLSa by P. IIL4 101 (5) Ace, sing, case
repeated, redoubled word or affix
wording or part of a word. The
term sr+^cf is applied to the whole called ^frr^?. an ancient
doubled expression in Pänlnis grammarian mentioned in the
grammar, cL 3H 3 T R ^ P. VI. 1.6; 35i%R3qgsr by ^q^«r. He is
(2) the six roots with ^ placed believd to have written some
at the head viz. ^ , srfi}, ^Rg, works on grammar, such as H^Jl-
=£FfT[H, m% ^4\ and wf\ which in fact W$rjT his famous existing work,
are reduplicated forms of 3 ^ 3j, gi5 however j being the Amarakosa or
Nämaliagänusäsana *

a Jain grammarian who tad. affix. 3qq substituted op-

is believed to be the writer of tionally for cF? after 1% and fa by 1\
tad. affix %¥{ applied in Vedic TOTST substitutes for insf. sing
Literature to f%\5 words ending affix z\ in Vcdic Literature, e. g.
in tr, indeciinables and the affixes
cR and cTC; e. g. mi mW: mi 3 ^ ; i^ non-mixture of words where
cf. 3 ^ ^ - ^ i % P , V. 4.12- the previous word is in i,o way
^ I a grammarian who is the cause of (any change in) the
belie\ed to have written §^if^^T3 next word, wm^l sVfwu^ UvP on
a gloss on the ^T^cI^TWJ. R . P r - X I . 12 cmg,'mmWj where
Jcf*3J!% called also 3T^cf^l%, a com- the WMWZ is
mentary on the Sif^T^gCT of a term applied to the odti feet
of a stanza; d i
T^R^ A Jain grammarian of
the n ninth
t h century
c e u y who wrote XVI. 39.
th gloss
the l k ^^T^TfT' on
known as ^^T^TfTxt' the letters or phonetic ele-
the Sabdänusäsana of S'ikatä ments 3?5^K5 fw'li fB^I^i^F-l, ^q^sfiq
yana; the 11% is quoted by and ^ called so,as tl;cy arc always
in his «nESfsi uttered only in combination with
also 3TflNHi%, a gloss on the another phonetic clement or letter
grammar of Süatäyana. See # such as 31 or the like, and never
m above. independently; cf- w
a commentary on Nagcsa's
Paribhäsendusekhara named so, as vaf;a on VOj.Pr. V I I I J S»
it commences with the words s These BPJFHI? letters possess the
etc. characteristics of both, the vowels as
well as consonantsicf.
I f utterance (of words) accom-
panied by water drops coming
out of the mouth; a fault of
\ M. Bh. on fe
utterance or pronunciation; g^riq K a technical term for Ardhadha»
"ftsfat fM*RJI. It is explained diffe- tuka affixes in the Mugdhabodha
rently in the Rk* Prätisäkhya; cf. grammar.
9&rei*qt *t ^ 1 f ^ (R. Pr, XIV.2-) ^cTH^j a word, the coalescence
held tight between the lips which of of which k not nasalized, as the
course, is a fault of pronunciation; word s?T in *Fi*n W?m as contrast-
f ^ ? # ed with w& SIT mi; cf. R. Pr.
n MBh. 1 1 . XI'13,
(1) substitute for the causal sign ^ a Visarga which is not rhotaciz-
Pi before ^ , ^ ? ^ ^ig etc. by ed ; the term äflftföfl is used in the
P. VI. 4.55 (2) substitute fojr tjr same sense.
before a vowel by P. VL L 78.
ftP$Kf not rhotacized; not turned
the substitute ^ for the final into the letter l; cf* ^
of the root stff by P» VII. 4,22.

a group of words given in prove that Nipatas and Upasargas

P. IV. 2.80 which get the taddhita do not possess an independent sense.
affix §3T ( 3 ^ ) added to them as Re: Nipatas, the rule ^T^tsg^,
a cäturarthika affix e. g. s n f i ^ ^ , which means that =3 and other
ctc.seeKäsikä on P.IV.2.80. indeclinables are called Nipätas
when they do not mean wm, pre-
the strong blowing of air from sents a riddle as to the meaning
the mouth at the time of the utte- which =3 and the like should
rance of the surd consonants; cf convey if they do not mean
Vaj, Siksa. 280, wm or $sjsz{ i. e, a substance. The
(1) Iit.signification,conveyed sense Nipätas cannot mean VRQ or verbal
or object. The sense is sometimes activity and if they do not mean ^
looked upon as a determinant of or &5q, too, they will have to be call-
the foot of a verse; cf. m # f ed S R ^ (absolutely meaningless)
m ^ H ^ |cR: R. Pr. XVII 16. and in that case they would not be
It is generally looked upon as termed Prätipadlka, and no case-
the determinant of a word ( < ). affix would be applied to them.
A unit or element of a word To avoid this difficulty, the Värti-
which is possessed of an indepen- kakara had to make an effort and
dent sense is looked upon, as a he wrote a VäitikafäTORs?sffisfci^q
Pada in the old Grammar treatises; fflfeqft^^ I p - 1-2.45 Vär. 12. As
cf. 3#: q^fäficT tn£; cf. also zh a matter of fact the Nipatas % qT
V. Pr. III.2, explained by and others do possess a sense as
ß f ä q ^ i q^n v\&$t shown by their presence and ab-
, \ There is no difference sence (3T?5R and sqßrfo). The sense,
of opinion regarding the fact that, however, is conveyed rather in a
out of the four standard kinds of different manner as the word ^jg,
words «TO, zw&m, STOfft and or ^g^FT, which is the meaning
the first two kinds mw and conveyed by =3 in \iT\t fW&T, cannot
do possess an independent sense be substituted for =3f as its synonym
of their own. Regarding possession in the sentence lim fWT. Looking
of sense and the manner in which to the different ways in which
the sense is conveyed, by the other their sense is conveyed by nouns
two viz. the Upasargas (preposi- and verbs on the one hand, and
tions) and Nipatas (particles) there by affixes, prepositions and inde-
is a striking difference of opinion clinables on the other hand, Bhar-
among scholars of grammar. Al- trhari, possibly following Yäska
though Pänini has given the actual and Vyädi, has developed the
designation q^; to words ending theory of stlcfäJ^ as contrasted with
with either the case or the conju- «IW^b^T and laid down the dictum
gational affixes, he has looked that indeclinables, affixes and
upon the different units or ele- prepositions (^TO^s) do not direct-
ments of a Pada such as the base, ly convey any specific sense as
the affix, the augment and the their own, but they are mere signs
like as possessed of individually to show some specific property or
separate senses. There is practi- excellence of the sense conveyed
cally nothing in Pänini's sütras to by the word to which they are

attached; cf. also the statement a fault in the utterance of a

vowel of the kind of abridgment
of a long utterance. Qr%S3J£ ex-
Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just plained as g ^ q r c ^ - h a l f the utter-
like the rhetoricians have stated ance of the short vowel; cf.cRStfjcgr
that the connection between words % P. L2.32. cf. also
and their senses is a permanent
one ($m), the only difference in Tai. Pn 1.44.
their views being that the rhetori- a queer combination of
cians state that words are related, half the character of one and half
no doubt permanently, to their of another, which is looked upon
sense by means of m^l or conven- as a fault; cf» ^ ^ T ^ ^ r a ^ V i ^ q
tion which solely depends on the ^ 5JRT I mm I m
will of God, while the Grammarians j ; 3M.Bln on IV.
say that the expression of sense 1.78; cf. also 3 ^ ^ w : m%m ^ ^
is only a natural function of words;
cf. c ^ m 3*: ^TOfäv?V Vgrttika mm I
No.33. on P. 1.2.64. For $m& see ^rann half of a matra or * mora *.,
Väkyapadiya of Bharlrhari II. cf. w%w%\w4kz\ p i H ^ ww^i W-f^T:
165-206. Par. Sekh. Pari. 122, signifying
that not a single element of utter-
comprehension of sense ; cf. ance in Paolni's grammar is
superfluous. In other words, the
305?: ?$&$[ I M. Bh. on PB I. wording of the Sutras of PanJni is
1.44,111.1.7 etc. the briefest possible, not being
use of the word ' s p i 3 ; cf. capable of reduction by even half
f ^RTT% cf^TW^FT. M. Bh* a mora.
on L i . i l . taking for its utterance the
mention or specification of time measured by the utterance of
sense, cf. ^^g^lröwßräSF: sfiflsq: halfamatru or mora; a conso-
M. Bh. IV.1.92. nant, as it requires for Its utte-
a well known rance that time which h measured
maxim or Paribhasa of gramma- by half a nvlträ (rnäera being the
rians fully stated as ap:k^#T qwt- time required for the utterance
.» deduced from the phrase of short a*); et R. Vt. I J 6 , T.
^ ; frequently used by the Pr.I,37, V, l>r. 1.59.
Värttikakara. The Paribhasa lays f^^TIi^ a group of words given In
down that *when a combination P. II. 4.31 which are declined in
of letters employed in Grammar, both-thc masculine and the «cu-
is possessed of a sense, it has to be ter genders; e.g. apfc*:» mw4$l i ?l«r:»
taken as possessed of sense and not HUWLi W- lift, etc.; cf 3 # « ; "Mi ^
such an one as is devoid of sense.' P. IL 4.31.
conveyance or expression räförerö a term used for the Jihvä-
of sense» cf, a ^ f ^ H jjp: ^T^IT^Pj; mOliya and Upadhmäniya into
Pn 1.2.64 VStt. 33. It is only a which a visarga is changed when
nature of words that they convey followed by the letters % % and
their sense. the letters ^ % respectively.

the acute (33JTT) accent an operation, which, on

which becomes specially ^TTF or the strength of its being enjoined
^^TTTCT^ when the vowel3 which by means of the genitive casej,
possesses it, forms the first half applies to the last letter of the
of a ^cffcl vowel. wording put in the genitive; c£
^T^T%^qi%%^^Rff^^r< M. Bh. on
a class of words which 1.1.65; cf. 3To5fa3R3 I ^älftf^Mq^l-
take the taddhita affix <%% (37) in % : ^ S . K . on P. 1.1.52.
the sense of the affix Tg^i. e. in
the sense of possession; cf. ^ absence of elision of an affix
e t c . cf„ § q : 3Tc5]q; ?&fä sflt^ j ?j%x
m iTcf I M. Bh. on I I . l . L
Käs. on P. V. 2.127. ii< the dissolution of a
compound not in the usual popu-
a ST^TT^T^ or a short term signifying lar manner, e. g. ^rsrgw dissolved
any letter in the alphabet of Pänini as ^ T ^ ^ e 2 ^ g, as contrasted with
which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semi- the Q5]'I%^I%^ viz.*ra:g^r: I see also
vowels, 25 class-consonants^ and dissolved as '%ft ft. in the
4 sibilants.
that which is not a proper (1) the word ST^ actually
i. e. Sutra; a Sutra which does used in Päninfs rule e. g. s^rfj
not teach definitely; a Sutra which ^ 1 5 n^m: P.I.2.41. (2) the wording
cannot be properly applied being as 3[Ö53 or wording by mention of a
ambiguous in sense, cf, ^ single letter; e.g. snfä wngpj^Nt: JP«
t ^ R ^ ^ Par. . VI.4.77.
Pari. 1. feebler effort required in th e
SRjTüftsK (1) not used in a secondary production of sound or in t h e
sense; (2) not accomplished by the utterance of a letter cf, cHj^WITC-
regular application of a grammar 3WFU) Tait. Pr.XX.12.
rule; cf.fäqicR: ^ H%lT3?rrfä T%T%[ö5T- not of frequent occurence in
Käs. on 111.2*59. the spoken language or literature
(1) not possessed of a definite the term is used in connection
gender; cf srfölWäWJäWfä WM M. with such words as are not fre-
Bh. on 1.1.38; IL4.82;(2)3Tr§f? gpq- quently used;
(Sid. Kau. on P.VXL 2.90) ; I ^T
Nlr I.14.
not possessed of a definite
(1) non-aspirate letters; let-
gender and number; a term gene-
ters requiring little breath from the
rally -used in connection with
mouth for their utterance as oppo-
or indeclinable®.
sed to mahapräna; (2) non-aspira-
absence of elision or omi- tion; one of the external articulate
ssion. efforts characterizing the utterance
^ a compound
p in which of non-aspirate letters.
the case-affixes are not drop- having a smaller number of
ped« The Aluk compounds are vowels in it; such a word is gene-
treated by Pänini in' VI.3.1 to rally placed first in a Dvandva
VI.3.24. compound; cf. ^qixTC^, P.IL2.34.

is ed separately, there is a momen-

the same as used in the tary pause measuring one mäträ
9$Rr$T5^ or in Kiitantra or the time required for the utter-
(Kät. II. 5.12). ance of a short vowel. (Sec for de-
qra$T an operation requiring a tails Vaj\ Prat. Adh-lya 5). (2) The
smaller number of causes, which word 3jr#r§;isalso used in the sense
merely on that account cannot be of the first out of the two words or
looked upon as SFcRff. The anta- members that are compounded to-
ranga operation has its causes gether. See Kaslki on P.VIII.4.26;
cf. also ereq ( XW& ) l?i!-Te3Ri5r?r: ^m
occurring earlier than those of t r a i l e r ^ w \ . Tai. Pi\ L 49. The
another operation which is termed term ST^A? is explained in the
f cf. ^ ri fä Mahäbhasya as * separation, or
splitting up of a compound word
II Parsek. into its constituent parts; cf.
Pari. 50„ w^mnhmij s^% ft^fWii ^fti \ (M.
elision or omission of a single Bh. on IV. 2.36); also cf.
phonetic element or letter; cf.
Ä 4
N an operation prescribed with ^?fo^q; (M. Bh. on III. 1. 109)
reference to one single letter; cf. where the Bhasyakiira has definite-
Mte sffecpft P. 1.1.56. ly stated that the writers of the
occasion; possibility of appli- Padapatha have to split up a word
cation; cf, ? ft according to the rules of Grammar.
(3) In recent times, however, the
sirälfcF I M. Bh. on 1.1.3. j word 3^?Tq[ is used in the sense of
Värt. 6. the sign (C) showing the coale-
(1) separation of a compound scence of 3"? (short or long) with
word into its component elements the preceding ?/{(short or long) or
as shown in the Pada-Patha of the with the preceding v\ or iAt,c»g .f^WTS
Vedic Samhitas. In the Pada- ss%:9 wfflssTF-tf* (4) T h e word Is also
patha, individual words are shown used in the sense of a pause, or an
separately if they are combined by interval of time when the consti-
Samdhi rules or by the formation tuent elements of a compound word
of a compound \n the Sariihita- are shown separately; cf. W W ^ t
patha; e.g. 5^f|OT;in the Samhitä- 5^OTPp5: (V. Pr-V.I). (5) The
pätha is read as ^zSf^cP^ In writ- word is also used In the sense of
ing, there is observed the practice the absence of Sanrlhl when the
of placing the sign ( s) between Sandhi is admissible.
the two parts,about which nothing the interval or pause
can be said as to when and after the utterance of the ilnt
how it originated. The Atharva- member of a compound word
Prätisakhya defines 3R5fj| as the when the members arc uttered
separation of two padas joined in separately* This Interval is equal
Samhita- (A, Pr. IL 3.25; II. 4,5). to two moras according to Tail«
In the recital of the pada-patha, Pr. while, it in equal to one mora
when the word-elements are utter- according to the other PrStiäkhyas«

f substitute 3?^ for the final $3 of name of a Samdhi when a

the word T?T; cf. 3^3? ^fitePH^i, class consonant, followed by any
P. VI. 1.123, 124. consonant is not changedj but
something which need not be retained as it isjcf.wnf: g«f sq^?fT?|Ti:-
specifically prescribed or stated, ^ 3n?«nf^TRt vmnti ^ R.Pr J V .
being already available or valid; 1; eg. 3?f^ *WL R.V. I. 113.16,
cf g^farcrafo 3*%^nsR«f£ ^ l mz ^ (R.V. VIL99.7
P. n . 1.30 V. l. (R. V. X.85.14).
a short gloss or commentary (v.l. ^f^jsi^f) a term
on a standard work. occurring in the Lingänusäsana
meaningcpossessed of such genders
exact limitation; cf. as have not been mentioned already
^Tf^rqqf^, Par.Sek. 120.3. either singly or by combination'
restriction; limitation; cf. i.e. possessed of all genders.Under
^rfest^si are mentioned indeclin-
Käs. on P. II. 1.8. ables, numerals ending in ^ o r ^ ,
limitjWhich is either exclusive adjectives, words ending with
or inclusive of the particular rule krtya affixes i. e. potential passive
or word which characterizes it; participles, pronouns, words
cf. 3$8[ 1^ Ö cF^fäSTM ^Fc% TRtä M. ending with the affix 3ffi in the
Bh. on L 3.3. sense of an instrument or a location
object of limit; cf. ^ ^ q - and the words 3 # and g ^ . (See
^fefcT Käs. on P/V\3.37. -f^|,T5^5R Sütras ^182-188).
member or portion, as oppo- necessarily; the expression
sed to the total or collection ^ f%^ is very frequently
which is called ST^RT^; cf. used in the Mahäbhäsya when the
^ Par.SeL same statement is to be empha-
Pari. 98. The conventional sense
is more powerful than the deriva- pause, cessation, termination;
tive sense. cf. fä^'SWRq, I ^rfal^ra: srTOH-
*B: ^ l ^ S . K. on P. 1. 4. 110.
the genitive case signify-
ing or showing a part; cf. stage, condition; stage in the
133 M.Bh. on I. formation of a word; e.g. 3 ^
1.21. STSRSTT, etc.

the letter 3?; the first letter of of a uniform nature; cf.

the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising f, 3 |
all its varieties caused by grades, , M. Bh. I. 1.70 V. 5.
( | ^ , ^Nj, W ) or accents or nasa- fl^p deficient in one or more
lization. The word cfaf is used in syllables. The word is mostly used
the neuter gender in the Mahä- in connection with a Vedic Mantra,
bhasya; cf. ^S^^R^ofq, M. Bh. one who is not conver-
1.1.9, m ^ n ^ 3 a ? ygl M.Bh. 1.1.48 sant with the proper use of lang-
Värt. 1; cf, also M. Bh.on 1.1.50 uage; cf. m %s^F%#^ förarä w&
V5rt. 18 and 1.1.51 Vart. 2; cf. ^l^^;M,Bh. 1.1.1.
also f^5Rcfai WRT\ ^ | ^ Siradeva f^f^ricTf^ meant for not preventing
Pari. 17. the application (of a particular

term) to others where it should shows the actual application of an

apply. The word is frequently- affix to something allied to3 or
used in the Kasikä; cf 3RT3ET9T* I similar to the base, and not to the
Z^K: ^WFm$W$%M$: l Käs, on P. actual base as is sometimes found
IV. 1.4, also see KäL on III. 1. in popular
133; III. 2,67, 73; IV. 1.78.
immutable. The term is | i M. Bh.
used frequently in the Mahabha- on ° IV. 1.88; cf. also M.
sya, in connection with letters Bh. on IV. 1. 89 ; IV. 2.60;
of the alphabet which are consi- IV. 3.131, V. 1.7,28; VI. 2.11.
dered 'nitya5 by Grammarians;
cf. f^Jg =3 sO^Eg ^ ^ ^ ^ T l o ^ ^ ^ - name of a fault in pro-
feö^^qHtq^HI^lftPT: M. Bh. I. nouncing a word where there is the
1. Ähn2; cf. also fä^^W^l fä$r absence of a proper connection of
the breath with the place of utter-
Bh. on d . i . ance; c 3Tfä$T?43: q^WjWW ' Pra*
dlpa on M.Bh 1,1.1. There is the
non-application, non-pres- word sicRSlcr which is also used
cription ( 3#FWffi); cf. 3^rj|% g ^ | # in the same sense; cf ^xl
srfeff^fg^ M. Bh. on VII. I. 30 ; M. Bh on I. I L
Par. Sek. Pari. 92.
non-intention; connivance;
5 without the application cf.
of a case termination.The term is i also cf.
used frequently in connection with
such words as are found used by
Pänini without any case-affix (I) not taken technically
in his Sütras; sometimes, such into consideration, not meant; cf.
usage is explained by commenta- sfi^^ct wMn m\ wm M.Bh on n.3.
tors as an archaic usage; cf, stf}- 52; (2) unnecessary; superfluous;
*li%p#f fcfei: I ftt 3: i: 3: I M. ßh, I the word is especially used in
L Ahn. 2; also M. Bh. on I. 1.3; connection with a word in a Sutra
III. 1.36, VII. 1.3 eta which could as well be read with-
ifäWPIW a view of grammarians out that word. The word 3firö is
according to which there are sometimes used similarly,
words which are looked upon as absence of specification; cf*
not susceptible to derivation» The op«NÄIw:M.BhJ.1.20 Värt Is
terms 3WS?CRJ and ^jpq^qaj are Pan Sck, Pari. 106,
also used in the same sense» not specified, mentioned
iflrcfö^ftnqf a maxim mentioned without any specific attribute; cf.
by Patanjali in connection with tzjwfö m^: Breite: n^ MJJfe* on
the word snfifl» where the taddhita L L9; cf, also Kätan. VLL63*
affix z% (ft>), although prescribed absence of, or prohibition of, a
after the word Brfcf in. the sense of vrtti or composite expression; nonm
flesh of sheep5 (vfä: *ffäsQt is actu- formation of a composite express-
ally put always after the base arfä-t» ion; cC€«TO!I^WRt % % ^ ^
aind never after srf^. The maxim on HI, I. a

beginning with the vowel ming the compound, being similar

3TT, ^ or aft; a word which has got to indeclinables; e. g. J f
no an or ^ or aft as its first vowel,
as for example *&ffi> ^fl^^T^ etc, M. Bh. on
ft fi q&n etc; cf. SHTOf^iq; II. L 5. The peculiaiity of the
1*. IV. 1. 160. also avyayibhava compound is that the
f ^ T O 3 % ^ ^ T f r R P. IV. first member of the compound
1.113. plays the role of the principal
( 1 ) indistinct; inarticulate; word; cf. ^q^T^wssqqt^rm: M.
Bh. on II. 1.6.
cf. 3 ^ P. Vie 1.98
also P. V. 4. 57; f r ö rcft^räq; absence of intervention
Käs. on P. VI. 1.98; (2) a fault of between two things by something
pronunciation; cf. ^TTRIÖ^ ^ dissimilar; close sequence; cf.

Bh. on 1.1.7. Värt. 8; cf also

unseparated, undivided,
inseparable, mixed; cf. ^Mqix^^
M. Bh. on VII. 3. 44, VII 3.54,
VF&k flitfa: W 5^i§ M. Bh. on
VII. 4. 1, VII. 4. 93. The term
Siva-sutra 4. V. 9 whereon Kai-
is used in the same sense.
yata remarks aqqf* ^ : 1 fo
absence of proper disposal;
absence of a proper method regard-
ing the application of a rule; cf.
indeclinable, lit. invariant, not
undergoing a change. Pänini has M. Bh. on I. 3. 60 V. 5.
used the word as a technical term f& insufficient extension, as
and includes in it all such words opposed to 3#r5qTf?ror over- applica-
as ^ , s^rT^, IRRT^ etc, or composite tion; cf.^sffqTf^öqfiRI^I^ \ W^&fä-
expressions like 3T»qqfrrraOTT?1> or ö^F^^Tlfd^i^qf^Risl^l Padamanjari
such taddhitänta words as do on II. 1.32.
not take all case affixes as also an intransitive root; a techni-
krdanta words ending in ^ or n, cal term in the Cändra Vyäkarana
^, ^T, oft. He gives such words in a ( G. Vy. I. 4. 70 ) as also in
long list of Sutras P. I. 1. 37 to Hemacandra's S'abdänusäsana; cf.
41; cf. SCT frg ^ rI
5 5 %
Kas.on P. L 1. 37. 5 i
it: I m^i gsgfct %?r: I
name of a treatise on ind-
Hem. IV. 1.19.
, eclinable words attributed to Saka-
p the view held generally
by grammarians that all words are
f a work on the mean- not necessarily susceptible to ana-
ings of indeclinable words written lysis or derivation, an alternative
in the sixteenth century A. D. by view opposed to the view of the
Vitthala Sesa, grandson ofRäma- etymologists or Nairuktas that every
candra Sesa the author of the Pra- word is derivable; cf. qrßi»Rc3Rgsftg-
kriyä KaumudL qsgr t^rtcl ^ J ^ ^ t f ^ ft^ftcl^ Pari.
name of a compound
p so Sekh. Pari. 2 2 ; WT^ OTRR: ^ l ^ -
called on account of the words for- % Samgraha.
underived, unanalysable; cf. technically called the Pragdlvya-
KSö^q^TiJf 5Tn%q1^frrf5r M. Bh. I. tiya senses, c g. ^(^qcWs? ^ioiq^.
I„61 V§rt. 4; Par. Sek. Pari. 22. ^ etc.
See a commentator who
same as
wrote a gloss on Pänini's Astä-
above the word siG dhyayl in the T<'irnil language.
(1) Pratyähära or a brief term
standing for all vowels, semi- % (1) a class of words headed
vowels, and the fifth, fourth and by the word &P4 to which the affix
third of the class-consonants; all tf5T (3lR?i) is added in the sense of
letters excepting the surds and sibi- ^(grandchildren etc.) je.g.^POT^:
lants; |2) substitute 3? for the word ^icll7^:, ^ViT^: etc.; cf. P. IV. 1.
13-^ before affixes of cases beginn- 110; (2) a class of words headed
ing with the instrumental, and by the word 3?^ to which the
for 133^ before the tad. affixes ^ taddhita affix W{ is added in the
and cf?[; see P. II. 4.32 and 33; sense of a cause of the type of a
(3) substitute BT for the genB sing, meeting or an accidental circum-
case-affix ^ 5 alter the words ^CM\ stance; e.g. siif^H^TfA^^cf. P.
and ®im\; see P. VI1.1.27, V. 1.39.
incapacity to pronounce PpR another name for the famous
words correctly; cf. work of Panini popularly called
S O T ?fcr 3 * 3 ^ the Astädhyayi; cf. "atetf ft
M.Bh. on Siva-sutra 2.
unnecessary to be prescribed gq^f^i &&> tffitfsm} Käs on P* V,
or laid down.; cf.a<ä$&N[ tffTOTf^Tci; 1. 58; ( 2 ) students of Panini's
P. 1.2. 53; also fei sfäN ^ p ; * ^ - grammar, c> g. nWSi* ciifur^iqr; ; cf.
M.Bh. on II. 1. 36. ^P\1^ %nm*l l Käs, on P.IV. 2. 65.
a class of words headed by a term ased by ancient gram-
the word 3T^r^to which the taddh- marians for the vocative case*
ita affix ^ is applied in the four name of a commentary on
senses specified in P. IV. 2. 67 to the Katantra Vyakarana by Ram«
70; eg, 3RTO, OT^, akisoracakravartin*
etc. cf. P.IV. 2.80, name popularly given to the
compounds like pmfä Sutrapätha ^f ?änini consisting of
which cannot be strictly correct as eight books (adhyayas) containing
^sffewrer, but can be «säfaTO if the In all 3931 Sitras ? as found in the tra-
word cf^n in the rule ^3^1 cRffl^- ditional recital, current at the time
^ f l c I S ^ ^ I : be understood in the of the authors of the Kä&kä, Out of
sense of ^meant for' a particular these 3981 Sütras, seven arc found
thing which is to be formed out of given as Värükas in the Mahäbhä**
It; cf. fäfä ^fi ^ ^ sya and two are found in Ganapä-
. on I I . 1. 36. tha.Thc author of the Mahäbhä. ya
^ a class of words headed has commented upon only 1228 of
by JcW# to which the taddhita these 3981 stttras. Originally there
affix <q^ (8?) is added in the senses were a very few differences of read-
mentioned in rules before the rule ings also, as observed by Pafafijali
^ N t P , IV.4. 2* which arc {see Mbh on I Ad ) ; but the text

was fixed by Pataiijali which, with nection with avyayas or indeclina-

a few additions made by the auth- bles; q%F f| a ^ ^ ^ q ^ T O ^ q f i f
ors of the Käsikä,as observed above, M. Bh. on II. 4. 82.
has traditionally come down to the
present day. The Astädhyäyi is a term used for the C'andra
Gramrnar3as no samjnas or techni-
believed to be one of the six Ved-
cal terms are used therein;
änga works which are committed to
memory by the reciters of Rgveda.
The text of the Astadhyayi is recited not used as a technical term or
without accents. The word STSWRT" name of a thing; cf. ^roq^RtxT-
was current in PatanjalPs time; cf. PJr ^^TiqTOfiPiW PJ.I.34.
fälSlTRT^r sq-^T^l^I M. Bh. on VI. ( i ) separatedness as in the
3.109. case of two distinct words; ( 2 )
^ a metre having eight sylla- absence of co-alescence preven-
bles in a foot;cf.^TTW ?fe ting the sandhi; cf. R.T. 68,70.
ftfelFT the same as 3*tf|?fö$; see
Pr. XVI. 9. above; e. g. wr 1 ^ ; ^5 ^ftimFlcr.
E name of a metre of four feet rSRSR failure to understand the
consisting of 64 syllables in all, 12 sense; cf. %mni %m$tä^föQ&
syllables in the odd feet and 20 in M. Bh. on 1.1.23 Vart. 3.
the even feet; e. g. % Impossibility of occurrence
etc. R.V. II. 22. 1. (used in connection with an
case affix of the nominative operation); cf. ^ T ^ J f|;w4^in ^
and accusative plural and the ab- ^ s r ^ r : I ft cif| I sTwqift | M.
lative and genitive singular («r^, Bh. 1.1.12 Värt. 3; (2) impossibi-
5TJ, ^ftj a n d ^ r j ; (2) taddhita affix lity of a statement, mention, act
3?§; ( zffis ) added to «jsf, ^m and etc. cf. mm: ^ f ä ^«fäfcRSq M.
Bh. on II. 1.1.
<mx, by P. V.3.39; (3) compound-
ending 3T^( srf^Rj applied to the absence of the conjunction
words s*tf and ^WT standing at the of consonants; cf. sw^tnrf^: i%rr
end of a Bahuvrihi compound P. I. 2.5.
( P. V.4. 122 ); (4) Unadi affix ^B absence of juxta-position,
prescribed by the rule tf^33%s33[ absence of connectedness; cf.
and subsequent rules (648-678) to 1X fSfe ^^
form words such as W^^KJ etc. (5)
ending syllable 3T*T, with or with- M. Bh. on I. 3.1.
out sense, of words in connection (1) absence of m^ or entity;
with which special operations are (2) other than a substance i. e.
given in grammar; cf. P.VI. 4.14; property, attribute, etc. cf. sn^:
cf. also ^^^^T^I^IT^^cIl ^H'^R ^ srarsi^Rr fäqRrtför ^ T % M. Bh. I.
^^•fcff^r sr^^sff^cf Par. Sek. Pari* 16. i 4. 59; cf. also Ä^tcraffcrgq: M.
affix 3RT mentioned in the Niru- Bh. on IV. 1.44. cf. also
kta in the word 3TW ( sr^+W ) P. I. 4. 57.
•Nirl.17. (1) syntactically not con-
not possessing any notion of nected, e. g. ^Rt: and g^q: in the
number; the word is used in con- sentence ^Fl? JJRi: g # % ^ 3 I (2)

unable to enter into a compound not admitting all case-

word, the term is used in con- affixes to be attached to it; cf.
nection with a word which can- ^ f r : P. L 1. 38;
not be compounded with another
word, although related in sense Käs. on I. 1.38.
to it, and connected with it by
absence of a syntactical con-
apposition or by a suitable case
nection; cf. sar ^ : \ SRR %%: \
affix, the reason being that it is
connected more closely with an-
other word; cf. sffcfäFRfltö ^IcT M. ft
Bh. II. 1.1.; e. g. the words ^S
I M. Bh, on I I . L30,
and f§Rl: in the sentence
dissimilarity in apparent
form (although the real wording in
a existence might be the same) e. g.
compound of two
words, which ordinarily is in- wi? SJS; ^ig^; cf. ^ i ^ ^ f ^ [ ^ [ f , t ^ j
admissible, one of the two words Par. Sek. Pari. 8.
being more closely connected fe) Unadi affix ^ ; ( 2 ) tad,
with a third word, but which affix 3J7J. Sec above the word srg.
takes place on the authority of §f^ samäsa-ending aflix 3 ^ . See
usage, there being no obstacle above the word m^
in the way of understanding the
invalid; of suspended validity
sense to be conveyed; e. g. ^
for the time being; not functioning
for the time being. The term is
* M. Bh. on
frequently used in Pinini% system
IL 1.1. of grammar in connection with
not compounded, not en- rules or operations which are
tered into a compound with an- prevented, or held in suspense, in
other word; cf. <WI% 3RRRCR3 Hem. connection with their application
IL 3.13. in the process of the formation of
a word. The term ($&$;) is also
(1) absence of a compound.
used in connection with rules
^fe P. VIII. 4,14; that have applied or operations
(2) an expression conveying the
that have taken place, which are*
sense of a compound word al-
in certain cases, made invalid or
though standing in the form of
invisible as far as their effect Is
separate words; ^ ft
concerned and other rules arc
applied or other operations are
* Bh. on II.2.29« allowed to take place» which
not having the same out- ordinarily have been prevented
ward form or appearance; e< g, by those rules which arc made
the affixes ew, 3f«r, % sjsr, sr, and invalid had they not been Inva*
the like which are, in fact, Wf as Mated* Paninl has laid down
they have the same outward form this invalidity on three different
viz. the affix 3T. ^ and W^ occasions (1) invalidity by the
are w ^ ; c £ ^SBWlsfeRp^ P. IIL rule ^ n t e ^ VIIL 2*L which
1.94, makes a rule or operation in the

second, third and fourth quarters &cgr invalidity of a rule or ope-

of the eighth chapter of the ration on account of the various
Astädhyäyi invalid when any pre- considerations sketched above.
ceding rule is to be applied, (2) See
invalidity by the rule sfö^spTWig;
which enjoins mutual invalidity the same as Antaranga
in the case of operations prescrib- Paribhäsä or the doctrine of the
ed in the Äbhiya section begin- invalidity of the bahiranga ope-
ning with the rule ration. See the word srf&SC above.
; For details see the Paribhäsä
4.22-) and going on upto the end " asiddham t bahirangam anta-
of the Päda (VI.4.175), (3) invali- rafige " Par. Sek. Pari. 50 and the
dity of the single substitute for two discussion thereon. Some gram-
letters, that has already taken marians have given the name
place, when s^ is to be substituted to the Paribhäsä stf^
for 5, or the letter g; is to as contrasted with
be prefixed, cf. ^$pTO%*1£: which they
(VI. 1.86). Although Pänini laid have named as
down the general rule that a the augment STST seen in Vedic
subsequent rule or operation, in Literature added to the nom. pL
case of conflict, supersedes the case-affix ^5 following a noun-
preceding rule, in many cases it base ending in sj; e.g. SRTCT:, %=flRT:
became necessary for him to set. etc, cf srr^ra<§^ P. VII. 1.50, 51.
that rule aside, which he did by ; substitute 3T$r for the last letter
means of the stratagem of inva- of the word W before the <d4«ii^-
lidity given above. Subsequent 3?TH affixes i. e. before the first
grammarians found out a number five case affixes,e.g. gsrra; q^i^f etc.;
of additional cases where it be- cf. attsgs P. VII. 1.89
came necessary to supersede the Unädi affix ^ ( ^f§^ ) by *$-
subsequent rule which they did R&H Un. Sü,628; cf. ?i
by laying down a dictum of in- i M^^rcWrr: - Käs. on
validity similar to that of Pänini. P. VI. 3. 75.
The author of the Varttikas, ktt affix in the sense of the infini-
hence, laid down the doctrine tive (<pT*f) in Vedic Literature,e.g.
that rules which are nitya or cf. gtö mwz* P. III. 4. 9
antaranga or apaväda, are strong-
er than, and hence supersede, tad. affix SRcIig; in the sense
the anitya, bahiranga and utsarga of the base itself, but called 1%^l%,
rules respectively. Later gram* prescribed after words in the sense
marians have laid down in general, of c direction ', e. g.
the invalidity of the bahiranga rule etc. cf.
when the antaranga rule occurs t: P. V. 3. 27.
along with it or subsequent to it. and srr^ This term is
For details see Vol. 7 of Vyäka- used in Rk Tantra cf.
rana Mahabhäsya (D. E. Society's W&Q R. T. 94. 3TO possibly means
edition) pages 217-220. See also belonging to 37 i. e* all the three
grades $*W, 0& and *&[ of $r '•
Pari. Sek. Pari. 50.
i ess j n contact with the vocal air
organ than the semi-vowels; the
term occurs in Hemacandra's I (1) the long form of the vowel <%
Grammar (Hem. I. 3. 25) and is called 3fNf,consisting of two matras,
explained by the commentator in contrast with (1) the short 3?
as t f %4 which consists of one mäträ and the
stands for the letters ^ and q which protracted ^\J\ which consists of
are substituted for the vowels tar three matras; (2) substitute 3fl
Ö: and m ^T when followed by a of two matras when prescribed by
vowel; cf. also Säk I. 1. 154. the word ^ or ffi for the
short vowel 37; (3) upasarga 3}T
p not in contact with any vocal ( 3TT|?) in the sense of limit c. g. SJT
organ; the term is used in connec- w^^\ im (P. I. 4.1.) wr&ni m:
tion with the effort required for q\Ww: Käti. on II. 1.13. mi "SraFBrarac
the utterane of vowels, srg^R and (M, Bh- on I. 1.14.); (4) indeclin-
sibilants when no specific contact able err in the sense of remem-
with a vocal organ is necessary; brance e- g. mi v:ßi 3 *F7H; cf.
cf. ^rogpiW^TFRsS $tfr f%ran R.
Pr. XIII. 3. M. Bh. on
[ first person; the term is used in LI.14; (5) augment 3*T ( 3?!^ ) as
the sense of the first person in the seen in WF*K, ^^w^ etc. cf. M*
grammars of Hemacandra and Bh. VI. 1.12 Vart. 6; (6) augment
Säkatäyana. cf. ^tfar sn ( 3T!2 ) prefixed to roots in the
(Hem. III. 3.17 ); tenses §f, ^ and f^; (7) substi-
tute 3^1 prescribed for the last
^f a term used for those letter of pronouns before the lach
compounds, the dissolution of affixes 5f,S$r, S%Jand ?4rTfJ as in ^I^f,
which cannot be shown by the cfT^f etc.; (8) feminine affix *&?r (?j%
members of the compound; c. g. %\q or ^ ) added to nouns end-
#; cf, rf % fe^t ing in m; (9) substitute 311 ( mi
or s ^ or gj or ^FfJ for case
M.Bh* on V. 4. 5. affixes in Vedic literature "OTI
T: etc.
A term used for the per-
fect tense; cf. 5 s5RRT??Rspfefe (R.T. indeclinable W pronounced nasa-
191). lized, e. g. W^ sfr w : M. Bh.
I 3.2*
not homogeneous; asavarna, cf»
VF&i ^ ^ q ^ ^ H e m . I. 2.21, see above the word w sense (5).
a l s o ^ S ä k . L 1.73. the substitute s n ^ for ffl^ of
untoned; a word without the gen. pi- after the words
an accent, as different from a and «siwr c, g- %f-m% cf.
word which has an accent»but whi- P. VIL i;S3.
ch is not uttered with that accent;" ( a word ) aUracting ano-
cf, arfisprtfr i P R ^ i ^ s n f e fe ther word stated previously in
5: M.Bh* on VII. the context e. g* the word x| in
1.2, VIL 1.89. the rules of Panini«
a class of words headed by cf. also
the word <s{\%$ to which the tadd-
hita affix ^ (c^) is applied in the M. Bh. I. l.Ähn.l • ( 4 ) a metre
sense of clever or expert; e. g. consisting of 88 letters; cf. R. Prät.
%:, ^rw: 9 ST#W: etc.; cf. P. XVI. 56, 57.
wt: *H P. V.2.64. a class or gp
group of words
P (o r ^WTg. also) expectant of in which some words are actually
another word in the context, e. g. mentioned and room is left to
cg^ and s^TS* in Sfff ^ 3,3^ \ include others which are found
% «TTW Käs. on undergoing the same opera-
.VIII. 2.96). tion; cf. V w i : ffflnföft: I ^ W f :
en V@F$t fKllf^^i^l: M. Bh. on
g expectancy with regard to II. 1. 59. Haradatta defines the
sense-completion, generally in word as ^
compounds such as ^TFFiT^,
etc. cf. % |
Padamanjari on ILL 59 ; cf.
M. Bh. on I I I . 2. 114. Pradlpa of Kaiyata also on II. 1.
a word for which -there IS 59.Some of the ganas mentioned by
Pänini are äkrtiganas, e.g. sp&-
expectancy of another word for
the completion of sense.
the letter SIT ; cf. SF^T^I "RT^Ffa- directly or expressly
^ST ^TO^yTW | M. Bh. I. 1 Ahn. mentioned in the fourteen Pratyä-
2. hära Sütras of Pänini; a letter
rf%l%5r £ac^ ajff# sirfä^ affixed to actually mentioned by Pänini in
the word 133? in the sense of his alphabet c sr^grV 3fl5E3> 3 ^ tc -
* single/ -alone'; cf. (1) taken as understood, being
P. V. 3.52. required to complete the sense; cf.
a group of 43 roots of the ftflft sniträt wftr M. Bh. onIII.2.
p class of roots beginning 178;(2) a term used for the circum-
with the root f^j; and ending flex accent or ^rftcf as it is uttered
with <pq; which are Atmanepadin by a zig-zag * motion of the organ
only. in the mouth caused by the air
producing the sound; cf. 3Tf%<
lit. form; individual thing; cf.
; Uwata on R« Pr. IIL 1.
rcT M.Bh. on I I L 1.40
%tf a zig-zag motion of the organs
Värt. 6. The word is derived as
producing sound caused by the
T 3^i^%: and explained as
cf. m^m s q ^ ar^qr %fä air; see 3ftfer above.
H ?pg yäsa
y on IV.-L63;; designation, conventional
(2) general form which> in a way, name; cf. %^=tl 5 ^ f t zmfä sfn*n«
is equivalent to the generic notion WU ^ «I5rf^ M. Bh. on I.L1 ; cf.
or genus; cf. sTTU^^Tf^r^ I SRoft- also ^sjrrilfcf^T^T^R P. L 1.35; cf,
% W M. Bh. also qof: sBltRKt ^ f e l Tai. Prät. L
L 1„ Aha. 1; (3) notion of genus; 16.

verbal form, verb; cf« larly declined;cf.f^ff|tf

=wrft Nir. Wft M.Bh. on II. 2. 19 and III?
I.I; 1,67, where the words Trfcf, *F52fl,qnp
qiciT^ M. Bh. I.I. Ahnika 1; also and others are given as instances.
A.Prät, XII. 5, ?mK ^wm Regarding indeclinable words end-
M. Bh. I. 2.37 VSrt. 2, ing with krt. affixes such as ^ 1 ,
ngq fäqrerra^ Sid. Kau. fM, and others, the modern gram-
on II. i. 72, ftqHTWTK^ V. marians hold that in their case the
verbal activity is not shadowed
Pr. V.I; cf.
by the static element and hence
^ . Prat, VIII. 52; cf. also they can be,in a way, looked upon
Athar. Prat. I. 1. 12,18; 1.3.3,6; as akhyatas; c£ s ^ f t f *tff Vaiyä-
II. 2. 5 where äkhyäta means ver- kara^abhüsana.
bal form. The word also meant in P??ncfSfI5fPn a work dealing with
ancient days the root also,as differ- verbs, written by Anubhüüsvarüpä-
entiated from a verb or a verbal cäryaon the Sarasvata Vyäkarana.
form as is shown by the lines a work dealing with
verbs and their activity by Krsna-
R. Pr. XII. 5 where ' *HF$m ' and Shästrl Arade a great NSiyäyika of
*^T§' are used as synonyms. As the the 18th century.
root form such as f», «j etc. as dis-
a treatise on verbs
tinct from the verbal form, is never
discussing verbal forms by Vanga-
found in actual use, it is immater-
ial whether the word means root or sena.
verb.In the passages quoted above iqpggj | j t ^ adventitious, an addi-
from the Nirukta and the Maha- tional wording generally at the
bhäsya referring to the four kinds end of roots to show distinctly
of words, the word äkhyata coulcl their form e.g. ?4fe t^f% \4€ etc»;
be taken to mean root (isrfiS ) ct # ^ T ^ r ^ i ^ P I, 2. 6; cf.
verb (fäw?). The äkhyata or verb also WWS\ p
is chiefly concerned with the '^raig^P. III. 4.16, ^
process of being and becoming IIL 4. 17 and a number of other
while nouns faRTft) have sattva or sütras where % or ft is added to
essence^ or static element as their the root; cf. ?fi%ft W^%} wn-
meaning. Verbs and nouns are WR:, %^%: 1\ IIL 3.108 Värt. 2.3,
concerned not merely with the acti- 4, where such appendages to be
vities and things in this world but added to^ the roots or letters are
with every process and entity; cf, given. The word si|ip§ is an old
^Mh i % Nir. I.; word used in the Nirukta, but the
term sqpr^R appears to be used
fß TOP f W for the first time for such forms
; LaghumafijSS. When a lot byHaradatta; c£iM<%! «&8Ä,
affix is added to a root, the static apt;g%^ $m fJf^sj:Padatnanjari on
element predominates and hence VII. 2* 31- In the traditional oral
a word ending with a krt affix in explanations the second part of a
the sense of bhäva or verbal acti- reduplicated word is termed
vity is treated as a noun and regu- which is placed second

i. e. after the original by vir- placed immediately after the last

tue of the convention STR^ vowel of the word* The aug»
qm% ftR^r:, although in fact, It ments become a part and parcel
is said to possess the sense of of the word to which they are
the root in contrast with the added, and the characteristics of
first which is called abhyasa.A nice which they possess jcf.s
distinction can, however be drawn F%, also
between the four kinds of adventi- ^ Par. Sek. Pari.ll. Those
tious wordings found in grammar grammarians, who hold the view
viz.STFFg, 13^ ^"^TO andsTPFT which that words are unproduced and
can be briefly stated as follows; eternal, explain the addition of an
The former two do not form a augment as only the substitution
regular part of the woird and are of a word with an augment in the
not found in the actual use of the place of a word without an aug-
word; besides, they do not possess ment; cf. ^ rf#
any sense, while the latter two are T 5T*mr: M. Bh. on I. 1.20;
found in actual use and they are I. 1.46, The term ägama is defined
possessed of sense. Again the as <%*m fq^WFRg ^ m: «pcfßRJ: (
ägantu word is simply used for T. Com.
facility of understanding exactly on Tait. Prät.L 23.
and correctly the previous word a base to which an augment
which is really wanted; the 33
wording, besides serving this pur- is added; cf. ta^irfä qu siyrareR
pose, is of use in causing some MJSh. I.I. Ähnika %
grammatical operations, spf^ira1, is a class of roots forming a
the first part of the wording which subdivision of the Curädigana or
is wholly repeated and it possesses the tenth conjugation beginning
no sense by itself, while, Igama with q^ and ending with T[\ which
which is added to the word either are only ätmanepadin; e. g.
at the beginning or at the end or
inserted in the middle, forms a pPSm name of an ancient writer of
part of the word and possesses the Vedic grammar and Pratisäkhya
sense of the word. works ;cf. R. Pr. 1.2.
pnspjf an ancient scholar of
augment, accrement, a word Nirukta quoted by Yäska; cf.
element which is added to the q^f sfe: \ ^PR^ftßt 3TTOPPI: Nir.
primitive or basic word during the 1.9,
process of the formation of a com- ^ the preposition 5RL See the
plete word or pada. The ägarna word 3TF above.
is an adventitious word element
and hence differs from ädesa, the ff an operation prescribed in the
substitute which wholly takes the section, called angädhikära, in the
place of the original or ( stf^f^O. the Astädhayi of Pänini, made up
Out of the several ägamas men- of five Pädas consisting of the
tioned by Panini, those that are fourth quarter of the 6th adhyäya
marked with mute 2^ are prefixed, and all the four quarters of the
those, marked with % are affxed, seventh adhyäya. snfRi; ^ ^WPfT
while those, marked with ?£, are : M. Bh. on I. 3,60 Värt.

5;cf. also by P. VI. 2. 146 when they are

wm Par. preceded by the prepositions IT, q^T
Sek. Pari 55; also M. Bh . on
III.2 .3. etc. although they arc used as
( tad. affix 3?r applied to the proper nouns, e. g.
word ^IIRT and 3W; cf.P.V. 3.36^ ; cf„ Käsikä on P. VI.2.146.
38, e. g. ctflWT ^rafcTa 3TRT W ^ N ) augment 3TT prefixed to roots
K a i on V.3. 36, 38. beginning with a vowel In the
(1) customary usage of putting imperfect, aorist and conditional,
or employing words in rules; cf. which is always accented ( ^ x t ) ;
^ R W ^ T ^ T I ^ ^ P.I,1.1, Värt. 4. cf. P. VI. 4. 72; (2) augment err
(2) behaviour;cf.OTTOTCTSft;P.III. prefixed to the imperative first
1.10; cf.' also person terminations, e.g. «BWlftr,
on VI. 3.109. sp& etc; cf. P. I I I . 4.92; (3) aug-
ment an to be prefixed to case-
%<7 denora. affix 1%q^ applied affixes which are f^ after nouns
to any prätipadika or noun in the called nadl; e.g* %&{%; cf P. VII.
sense of behaviour; cf. ^ 3.112.
^ tad* affix (SHE) in the sense of
M. Bh. on III. 1. 11; cf. possession added to the word m^;
t Par. Sek. on Pari.52. e g . ^rFSiW cf. P.V.2, 125.
preceptor, teacher; a designa- (1) longsrras different from short
tion usually given to Panini by or protracted sr prescribed by the
Patatljali in the Mahäbhssya; cf. word 1 ^ or $$ in the case of sr,
the usual expression ^fqqf% STFW*?: or by the word 3TH; when substitu-
as also ^T^sp|iTTlTq-qi&; also cf. ted for another vowel* as for exam-
pic in the rule 5Pn§PC BWJSfefai and
also the popular definition of the following; cf. P. VL 1.45, 57;
Ä given as (2) substitute for the ablative affix
^g after words ending in 3T; cf* P,
VILL12; (3) mbstitutc snq for a
^ a partisan of the precep- case affix in Vedic Literature, e g .
tor Pänini or the Sfitrakära who is ST c!l^ MW\\% f^^!1% KSLs. on VII.
looked upon as having approxi- 1.39?
mately the same authority as the ^ Atmanepada third person dual
Sütrakära; cf. S T I ^ ^ I H snf— ^ ending, technically sutotilutcd for
sRf75q ^ 1 Kaiyata on I, 4» 105- y P. I I I . 4,78
Värt 2.
tad. affix sji?^ applied to 3 ^
i^ztB^ necessary qualification to and zfärn by P > \ 3 J 4 .
teach the Veda with all its pathas if^^ applied by extension or
having the necessary knowledge transfer of epithet as opposed to
of accents, mätras and the like,G£ gftqiy^ Sec the word aqßfer; the
term is often used in connection
, PratJ. 8. math rules or operations which do
a class of words headed by not apply or occur by the direct
the word anPw which do not have expression of the grammarian; cf*
their final vowel accented acute

M. Bh. on 1.2 J . ; cf. also P. VI. 3.7 and

Par.Sek. Pari, 93,6. 8 Värt. 1; cf. also STr^qf^T Vmi
a tad-affix in the sense Mw^r?W%^m^ sqcrftw,Kaiyata
of excellence; a term applied to on VI.3.7.The term is found in the
the affixes cFl and ^g as also cR and Atharva-Prätisäkhya. III. 4.7. It
s£sp^ prescribed by Pänini by the cannot be said whether the term
rules STTcf^T^ cWfäg^T and Ü S ^ - came in use after Pänini or, although
T ^ ^ N ^ ^fag^t cf, P.V. 3.55, 57, earlier, it belonged to some school
This superlative affix is seen doub- other than that of Pänini or,Pänini
ly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. put into use the terms Ätmane-
e g- ^ScFTTO spüfo Yaj. Sam. I.I; cf. pada and Parasmaipada for the
also cfW^ mf $ fä affixes as the ancient terms Ätman-
P.V.3.55 Vart. 3 ebhäsa and Parasmaibhäsa were in
use for tha roots,
cC a word ending with an
ätisäyika affix; cf. the substitution of &{1;,
M. Bh. on V. S3J cf. w^^nir: P.VI.3.
3.55, 90.
the substitution of long 3TT 5 possessed of the vowel 3n;
prescribed by the term 3 ^ as in containing the vowel 3fl; e.g. RT^;,
3Tl\c[ ^q^Sftll^ and the following; ^jm etc. cf. ^Rqtr m\^ ^aCTrisP.VI.
cf. P.VL1.45 etc. 1.159.
agent or Kartr as in the terms T^ffi^R belonging to the second con-
<R or 3?r^RWT% cf. gq sflcW. jugation or class of roots which
III. 1.8. begins with the root 3K; cf. t&Tfä;-
i^ a technical term for the 3^3 g|tf} ^ ^ % qi^rf^^l Pur.Pari.
affixes called ^ (^ 3TicfI^etc.) and 67.
the affix 3FH ( % } ^ ^ 11^ (1) commencement, initial; cf.
called so possibly because, the srjjfem ^Trf^: M.Bh. on 1.1.21, (2)
fruit of the activity is such as of the kind of, similar;
generally goes to the agent (3TR*ft)
when these affixes are used. Con- commencement of an action;
trast this term (Atraanepada) cf. ^if^ft Käs . on
with the term Parasmaipada when i p.m. 4.71.
the fruit is meant for another. For possessed of the mute indica-
an explanation of the terms see P. tory letter 3TT signifying the non-
VI.3.7 and 8. application of the augment % ($0
j^riq^sj; a root which always take to the past- pass. part, term «Rf, e.
the Attnanepada affixes. (See g. 1^DOT from the root M^raj; simi-
above). larly i%M, 1iw ^ifeT^ P.VII.
[TcfWr^n^r a technical term used for 2.16.
such roots as speak for the agent f the Vrddhi substitute pres-
himself; the term ^i^^FT means cribed for the first vowel of a word
the same as the term to which a tad-affix, marked with
The term sTR^fcrW is not mention- the mute letter 5T,5T, or «& is added;
ed by Pänini; but the writer of the e.g. ^ftqiR1,3j|% etc.; cf. ^ ^
"Vartikas explains it, cf. S P.VIL2.117, 118.

1 (1) prescribed for substitution; %%^ that for which a substitute

specified for an operation; cf„ {&£ is prescribed; the original, sthä-
g silfäs^ g^RTci; M.Bh. on VI. 1. nin; cf. ^l\T^lFiR^T: cf. also M.
155; cf. also M. Bh. on VL 1.158 Bh.onPJ.1.56.
Vart. 3; M. Bh. on IV.3.23 Vär. (1) premier; cf,
5; cf. also ^ T ^ T ^ R : fh M. Bh. ( ^ 1 ^ ^ ! ^ ) i%Tt^qreq^IFt Vak.
on 1.1.57; (2) indicated or stated; Pad. 1.16; (2) preceding, as oppo-
sed to succeeding ( 3 ^ ); cf. ^T^-
(1) substitute as opposed to 0%%: V.PrJ.100; (3) original; cf.
in^ the original. In Panini's 8H3[5Fgrfct: qR^flcf: (original base)
grammar there is a very general Bhasa Vrtti. IV. 1.93; (4) first,
maxim3 possessed of a number of preceding, sii% q|5{ ft f
exceptions; no doubt, that " the M.Bh. on III.1-9L
substitute behaves like the origi- l , consideration
nal5' («nSprar^Ef; 3Rferli-pj.i.56.); of a single or solitary letter as the
the application of this maxim is initial or the final one according
called WTfäclsa^; for purposes of to requirements for operations
this ^ntffaFKl ! the elision (^q) of a prescribed for the initial or for
phonetic element is looked upon the final* Both these notions -the
as a sort of substitute ;cf, OT^TTO initial and the final-are relative
OTft^cUcj; Käs. on P. 1.1.58, Gram- notions^, and because they require
marians many times look upon a
complete word or a word-base as the presence of an additional letter
a substitute for another one, alth- or letters for the sake of being
ough only a letter or a syllable in called initial or final it becomes
the word is changed into another, necessary to prescribe W**FW1W$ in
as also when a letter or syllable is the case of a single letter;
added to or dropped in a word;
cf. ^ ^

M. Bh. on LI.56; cf- also t# wt- on PJ.1.21; cf. also mw \

*L3$ffi T$3W£%m qrfafä; M.Bh. on wjf^
P, mißpi^rm^ m% wfö 1 T, Pr.
I.I»20; cf- also sraiwPFTt WW6\ 1.55. This mm^F^ of Panini is,
srföjOT: M. Bh- on 1.1,20; (2) indi- in fact, a specific application of
cation, assignment;* cf. %£? wfeft; the general maxim known as
vyapadesivadbfoftva by virtue of
r: R.PrJ.30-32; cf. also which Han operation which affects
something on account of some
r: com. on TaL~Prat. 11.20: special designation* which for
cf. also spn^t3?ßwc: V.Pr.IV.131, certain reasons attaches to the
where Uvvataremarks^ letter^ affects likewise that which
« i wit ^rfMit ^ stands atone;** cf* Pari*Sck Pari*
cf. also ^ 30.
A.Pr. II. 1. 2} where tr is pres-
cribed as a substitute for a case- H a word beginning with an
affix and # and a#r are cited as acute*accent Le. which has got the
examples where the acute aceat is first vowel accented acute; words
also prescribed for the substitute TJT. in the vocative case and words

iormed with an affix marked with in the sense of past time forming
a mute sj or ^ are adyudätta; cf.P- the perfect participle; cf. fes:
VI. 1.197, 198; for illustrations in P.IIL 2.105.
detail see P. VI.l.189-216. £ substitute sn^in the place of the
specific mention of a last letter (sp) of the first member
word with the accent udätta or of dvandva compounds of words
acute on the first syllable; cf. meaning deities or of words show-
W^ra%IcR *fif^q?t M.Bh. on LI. ing blood-relationship which end
56, VI. 1.12. with the vowel W; e.g. f f
receptacle or abode of an cf. P.VI.3.25, 26.
(1) close proximity; absence
Käs. on P. 1.4.45 also M. Bh. on of any intermediary element
III. 3.121; the Prakriyä Kaumudi generally of the same nature;
mentions four kinds of ädharas; cf. mm ^ K ; cf.
f ^^j M. Bh. 1.4.2. Vart. 21;
355fr Prak. Kau. on II.3.36. Par. Sek. Pari. 51. This close proxi-
t^TO^TRT«? a non-differential rela- mity of one letter or syllable or so,
tion (sfiRsratf) between the perso- with another, is actually i.e. phone-
nal endings "i%^? cftf etc. and the tically required and generally so
noun in the nominative case found out also, but sometimes such
which is the subject of the verbal proximity is theoretically not
activity ;relation of a thing and its existing as the letter required
substratum; cf. ftrf^S for proximity is technically not
present there by the rule ^%f%'<^.
superfluity, superiority, In such cases, a technical absence
notion of surplus; cf. ^^TTf^R is not looked upon as a fault, cf.
^TO:^f:M. Bh. on II. 3.46, IL3.
ET a sub-division of roots belon-
ging to the ^Tf^Ff or tenth conju- T: M. Bh. on VIII. 3. 13.
gation beginning with gg and end- ( 2 ) close connection by mention
ing with ^ which take the Vika- together at a common place etc.;c£
rana ^ 5 optionally i.e. which are k ? #H M. Bh. on LI. 27.
also conjugated like roots of the Djame of a Buddhist
first conjugation; e.g. ^ ^ % grammarian, the author of the
work named Cändra-Vyakarana
a thing placed in another or Paddhati.
depending upon another, as oppo- absence of any utility;
sed to adhära or the container; cf. superfluity; absence of any object
W^a*TT%^£T #r^tSf5|^rnaT: M. Bh. or purpose; cf. ^ T ^ ^ ^ R ^ mmi~
onP.IV.1.44. fe5^T^ I M. Bh. on P. VL 1.86
(1) krt.affix fäFF^or =^T^T) substi- VSrt. 5 cf. also P. VI. 1 158 VSrt.
tuted for the lakara c5^ and appli- 4; VI. 1. 161 Värt. 1, VL 1.166
ed to ätmanepadi roots forming Vart. 1, VI.L 167 Värt. 3.
the present participle; (2) kit, affix imp. 1st per. sing affix Pi with
v&m% applied to ätmanepadi roots the augment sn prefixed, which

has got its q changed into «n by P. also cf.

VIII. 4.16. . Sek.
^ the augment STT^, added to the on Pari. 11; cf. also 1% =3
words ^*%9 w , qöf and others
before the fern, affix %; e. g. ^gjoft, Pari. Sek. on Pari. 50.
WflRTcf. ^ ^ T O q ^ f e . . . Z\T$% P. closest affinity; cf.
g f t R nasalization; utterance M.Bh. on VII. 2.84, as also
through the nose, an additional OTT^l l%g^ M. Bh. on VII 1. 96
property possessed by vowels and Värt. 6,
the fifth letters of the 5 classes (f, proximity; close affinity; close
% % ^ H.) cf. sTig^rte^ ^raWr relationship. There are four kinds
^q: M.Bh. on I.L 9. of such proximity as far as words
serial order, successive order in grammar are concerned: Re; the
of grammatical operations or the organs of speech (^ffiff:)as in^^o^T-
rules prescribing them as they SRJ, regarding the meaning(3:l<4cf:)as
occur; cf. srrgjsqi "RßJ^cig; M„Bh. on in qT^^fl^:, regarding the quality
V- 3. 5;^cfB also fa (gpT) as in qFS: ^T:, and regarding
the prosodial value (vtmpi) as in
; ^ f ^# $
JBh, on. P. L 1.57.
p Par. S'ek. Pari. 13,
3 ^ successive order, as prescri-
cf. also Käs. on L 1.50,
bed by tradition or by the writer;
cf. % $ word ending with 3?H, which
TO*. ^ 1 ftfW has the consonant dropped and
I M.Bh. II. 2.34Värt 3;also the preceding sn nasalized; e. g*
^ t ^ f ^ : M.Bh. f ^ ^^F^Rk.Sam. VIII. 35. 20,
on II. 2 „34 Värt. 6; cf„ A- Rk Sam V I J 9 J ; cf.^NlRife
f q ^ P, VIII„ 3.9,
VIIL 3.3; cC also ^\4i iff %cTT
R, Pr, II. 2; cf, also 3TO[-CRJ: vqgmt R. Pr. IV, 26, 27#
Söra. Pari. 6. W ^ (1) common term for the fern.
g j g ^ g | the he samhitäpatha
samhitä-patha or endings 21^, ^!^ and m^ given b y
recital of the runningi Vedic
Vi text Päiiini in Adhy. IV» Päda 1; cf*
in accordance with the constituent aiswiSFg*: P. II. 4.82. P. IV, L L ;
words; e. g. ?$%: ^ ^ pfä^ or P. VI. 1.68; cf. also P. VI. 3 . 6 3 .
TO dtf 3T ?JTO^ as opposed to the P. VIL 3- 44; R VII. 3. 106,
^ q j g ^ g ^ f which is actually found 116; P, VIL 4.15. e t a ; (2) a
in the traditional recital e. g. brief term for case-a(fixes beginn-
gpfäpltf •ftf^fqsRk sarhh. V 2. 7 or ing with the inst, sing and ending
mi m tiö gjmn ^k sarftfi. X* 64.3. with the loa pL cf. 3|qfcq:|i; P.
See R. Prat. II 43, VIL 2.112.
^ « h " obtained or made out by (1) production; resulting of
inference such as Paribhäsi rules something into another; change;
as opposed to Srauta rules such as
the Sutras of Pänim; cf. ^Tfgpfi^f »WH: V. Prat. L 42 and Uvata's
fä% KM. on VL1.85j com# thereon; c£ also

explained as qprorä R- Pr. VI. 9. the grammars of Jainendra, Saka-

(2) modification; cf. SfN^lcf ^TOf täyana, CTändraand Hemacandra;
5TRgt 3T R. Pr. XIII. L; (3) con- cf. C'andra II 1. 43; Jainendra I.
tingency, undesired result. 2. 119; Säk. IV. 3. 120; Hem.
patronymic affix such as 31<J[ III. 3. 31. Hence, the term m^i
and others. The term snqcq, which is used for a transitive root in
is the same as the usual term these grammars.
ssraq in cfWW^ P. IV, 1 3 is ending with the fern, affix
found sometimes used in the STT ( ST«T, 31^ or =^N ); cf. STFRT: P.
Värttikas and in the Mahäbhäsya; II. 4. 30 Värt. 3.
cf S T R ^ ^ T ^ W ^ P - I Hsft^T g^Rrä:
P. IV. 1.163 Värt 6. (1) similarity of one phone-
tic element, for instance, in the
son of 3R*a^3, the author of case of iS; with 3TT resulting from
Sphotanirüpana (17th cent, A.D.). Sarhdhi; e. g. ^^qr abrief fMi^tr
(1) a work of possi- 3W; where S^W and f^Ri^rT stand
bly his grammar; cf. srrfä^WcT for 5T^TI and fä%c%; cf. ^lü^cfTf^
M.JBh. on IV. 1.14; (2) a student ^TT^RT^ Ath. Pr. II. 1.4; (2) Simi-
of Apisali's grammar; sffftKRWTsficf larity of accent of words in the
te M. Bh. on IV 1.14; Samhitäpätha and Padapätha; (3)
^flRr; M. Bh. followed by; cf. A. Pr. IL1J4;(4)
on VI. 2.36,; cf. distress; cf. srrcräf ^ P. VIII. 1.10.
a rule given in the sec-
tion called srr^qsRRPT extending
an ancient grammarian from P. VI. 4. 22 to VI. 4. 175,
mentioned by Pänini and his wherein one rule or operation is
commentators like Patanjali, Helä- looked upon as invalid to another;
raja and others; cf. 3T gcqrfäsfe: P. cf. ^i%£c^HI^ P. VI. 4. 22 and
IV. 3.98; cT^rr ^TföÄl%; M. Bh. M. Bh. thereon; cf. also ^cFT
on IV. 2.45. siftfäai i®: ^qfq S T R T ^ T ^ Vyädi
3 ^ augment sn^ added to the Pari. 38.
words m , 37^ and e^ before the repetition of an action; cf.
affix f^; cf. M. Bh. on III. 1.25 nTfisreis; Käs. on III. 4.22;
and Värt. 1 and 2 thereon; e. g. cf. M. Bh. III. 4.24; VIII. 1. 4;
VIII. 1. 12.
augment ( ^ ) suggested in an operation prescribed by
the place of 3?J35 by Patanjali a rule in the section called
to be prefixed to the affix f&R; cf. . See aqpiT^T^I above.
M. Bk on III. L 25.
to be obtained by an activity; a pection of Panini's
(the same as vyäpya). The term grammar from VI. 4. ^2 to VL
is used in connection with the 4. 129, called sntfR, as it extends
object of a verb which is to be to the rule *m VI. 4. 129, in-
obtained by the verbal activity. cluding it; but as the governing
The word ^fT^ is found used in rule W&l is valid in every rule
the sense of Karman or object in upto the end of the Päda, the

also extends upto the

end of the Päda. See
invalidity or supposed
M. Bh. on P. IIL3.161.
invisibility of one rule with
respect to another, in the section (1) a word in the vocative
called sntffcpTWF. See ^I^IT^I^I sing. cf. 5En5Pn?3RI^P. II.3.48; a tech.
above. term in Panini's grammar, the
n^RRSfqc'T internal effort made peculiar features of which are
in producing a sound, as con- TOfj^rare (cf. P J L 1.2), ^^m^^m
trasted with the external one (cf. IWIII.1.72), f£& (cf. P.VIII.
called sfTSPRCTU There are four 1.8), 5RT^TrTcer (cf. P. VI.L198),
kinds of internal effoits described ^ I ^ I T T ^ (cf. P. VIII. 1.19), splitt-
in the Käsikävrtti.; cf. ing of IT into S?T and %, e. g. 3T3T
into ^m $% {cf. P. VIII.2.107
I Vart. 3); (2) Vocative case? cf.
t w s , f , 1%pcir ^ « Käs. 2Rftf»K ^il^F^cI^: Wim* ?k. Prat. L28;
on P. 1.1. 9. See also q^f fc^Ti Väj.Pr, IIL139; 11.17; IL24 VI.L
STP^RTCf «TTU«? etc. Si. Kau. on S a word connected with
I. 1.9. the verbal activity possessed by
changes prescribed in con- ^raf e.g. f ^ q in ^otqfieq^; cf.
nection with the s r ^ ^ or redu-
plicative syllable; cf. a^TtfföspH
Kaiyata on P. II. 1.2.
: M. Bh. on I I I . L6.
m*^ a word in the vocative case;
(1) augment * 3ir prescribed in
lit. a word possessed of the sense
connection with the words =^rg^
and sffii!^ before the case-affixes of invocation; cL e n ^ ^ ^ I ^
called g«RPRwrc; cf. ^ ^ p r o n * . S^s 3?w^q: Sak. 1,3.88; cf. also
: P. VII. 1. 98; (2) the affix 3Tl*F52Rt q^r^w«^ com. on Hem»
^ added before f&^or a perfect II.L25.
termination by rules 3GT$TcW3JJJ, sr tad. affix stffäq in the sense
<5W?if fefi and the following (P. of possession, applied to the word
I l l 1. 35-39), as for instance., in m cf. ^i«lrg4 P, V.2.126.
completely mixed; cf.
etc.; (3) geni, pi. casc-
afBx arp^as in STO^, STCKR^, with
^ prefixed in p i ^ etc., and
with 5 prefixed in ^ f ^ ete.; (4) on VI. L85; similarly
loc. sing, case-affix 3*1^ substituted ftrfter
for % (ft?); cf, % *\ etc-
P. VI. 4. 116, g tad, affix (3TT^f) added to the
(1) calling out from a dis- affixes ^ L e. a< and 3W which are
tance; (2) an invitation which may placed after indecliaables; c. g*
or may not be accepted; cf. M%~ Tfcf^iq;, q^torq: etc. c€ P. V»4J L
f^^mjwmi^m^mvA^ fe^ P. i n . ( 1 ) Iterative; a repeated
3,161 whereon M, Bhw remarks ®m word, define'd as %%m *Wi
ft: iftfäm: i ^^r cL f^5W«?mM q?^ el g.

Vaj. Prat. I. 146; substitute vfti for m in the words

the second or latter portion, of ftg andwgje.g. toWTcT^T; cf. P.
a repeated word according to VI.3.33.
Pänini; a . ^ q (fl^RRq) TOWhias P. ^ tad. affix ( SIR ) applied to
VIII.1.2. The Ämredita word gets the word ^fi^T in the sense of off-
the grave accent and has its last spring according to the Northern
vowel protracted when it implies Grammarians ; e. g. afi^R:, (op-
censure; cf. P. VIIL1.3 and VIII. tional forms Tfföq and Tfr*fc a c e to
2.95.Haradatta has tried to explain others); cf. P. IV. 1.129, 130.
how the term aroffefl means the tad. affix applied to the
first member; cf. ^3 sniffl^I°tl
words ^ ! and %^ e.
f?^T^: ; cf P.
2.122 Vart. 3.
Padamanj, on
puted Naiyäyika of Banaras of
an iterative com- the nineteenth century-, who
pound; cf. 3TT^%OTira cT 1 A. Prat. wrote, besides many treatises on
III. 1. 5. Nyaya, a short gloss on the Sutras
the substitute 3 ^ for i!r before a of Panint, called Pänini-sütra-vrtti.
vowel; e. g. ^ I ^ J for %+SFF: cf. tad. affix applied to the word
P. VI. 1.78. 3#fR when the whole word refers
to a year, cg.q^fftin the last year;-
(1) the affix S^T^ applied to the
cf, B. V, 3.22 Värt. 2.
roots JJ^,, *jt£ and others ending
with which they are looked upon krt. affix applied to the roots |f
as roots; cf. P. III. 1.28; P. IIL1. and cp^in the'sense of habituated
32. The affix is applied optionally etc. e.g. srere:, sRire:. cf. Po III.
when an ärdhadhätuka affix is to 2.173.
follow, e.g. 3Ttan%rr, % T ; cf. P. i l l . t n attribution or imputation of
1.31; (2) augment; cf. 3TOTT fe properties which leads to the
: R. Prat. XIV. 1 Uvata secondary sense of a word; cf.
tension of the limbs or organs ^ P
producing sound, which is noticed Sek. on Pari. 1
in the utterance of a vowel which rffar same as ; see above
is accented acute ( 3KRf ) <%WW\
*TT^F[f f^RT^W cjT; com. on Tait, resultant from sense; made up
Prat. XXII. 9; cf. gf^Tnw Ti^nqi^ of sense; wnm VWF{ WlA; cf. cf^T-
cfrgfäfät Uv. on R. Prat I I I . l ; cf. Par. Sek. on
also ^ % T ^ ^Wl com. on Vaj. Pari. 37.
Prät. I. 31; cf. also BnqTti ^ ^ ^ ^ ISffllü combination of the mean-
% M.Bh. on P. ings (of the base and affix); see the
1.2.29. word 3Ti^ above.
krt. affix s n ^ before which fa ^R a term used in contrast
(causal %) is changed into ^ ;cf, to the term si^snps for such ver-
^rq e ^ R ^ n ^ n ^ ^ g i P. VI. 4.55. bal and krt affixes, as are not
e.g personal ^ndin^s of verbs nor

marked with the mute letter R. Prät. XIV JO. The word
cf. fäsfej[ ^ g J is explained as tr&RTZ by the com.
\®x | P. III. 4. 113 and 114. on Vaj Prät. IX.21, and as Vaidika
The personal endings of verbs in sarhdhi on X. 13, Palanjali has
the perfect tense and the benedic» looked upon the pada-pätha or
tive mood are termed ärdhadhä- Pada-text of the Samhitäs of the
tuka, cf. P. III. 4.115, 116; while VcdaSj as anar^a, as contrasted
both the terms are promiscuously with the samhitä text which is
found utilised in the Vedic Litera- ärsa; cf. sn^^T in the sense <
ture; cf. P. III. 4. 117. The main R.'Prat. II. 27; cf also
utility of the ärdhadhätuka term ^lYLBh. on III. L 109.
is the augment \ ( XS,) t 0 be tad-ailixes H7g, 3 ^ etc. as also
prefixed to the ärdhadhätuka the senses in which the affixes are
affixes. The term ^ivT^lg^T was applied, given in the section of
in use in works of the old Vaiyä- lVuiinis giarinnar P. V. 1. . 9-7 L
karanas; cf. 4 _ case aillx in Veclic, literature
e.g. 3•TOT ^RT Kris, on VII. 1. 39.
M.Bh. on tad-aflix { ~t\\<% ) applied to the
II. 4,35. It cannot be said how word -^3 in the sense of 'talkative'
the term ärdhadhätuka originat- e. g.TO*:; cf P. V.2. 124.
ed. Probably such affixes or pra- ^ tad. affix in the sens« c <TvT ^ ^ '
tyayas, like the krt aflixts gene- e„ g. ^ftcTT'2:, Zx:fitf%: P* V. i.122.
rally, as could be placed after cer- krt. allix ( 3-fPg ) applied to
tain roots only were cilled ärdha- the roots ^jj,, i^qcf, etc.e.g. ¥hlW'i'>*
dhätuka, as contrasted wiih the ^qi3:, ft.iji?cttT. cf P III. 4-M58.
verbal and the present participle incomplete pronunciation» cf.
affixes which were termed sarva- ^ ^ M.Bh. on L L 8.
dhätuka on account of their
tad-affix applied to the word
being found in use after every
OT5 cf. wu^ cR-ffä M. Bh. on
V. 4.30.
old term for £%; see necessary notion or thing;

the topic or section on III. L 125, IIL 3. 170-

in Pamiri's grammar where ope- having a fixed gen-
rations, caused by the presence der as opposed to
of an ärdhatuka affix ahead, are possessed of all genders; cf,
enumerated, beginning with the W^ ^
rule sn^T^p VI. 4. 46 and ending »11 L 2. 52;
with ^ sqft VL 4. 69. Such opera- e* g# the word swro in ^*n^ %<?!;-
tions are summed up in the stanz repetition, c. g. ^ifi-fi; sec
com. on Väj\ Prät* IV. 21; cf. also
g ; M. Bh. as ^lffxRT; ea^R^ wtä M. Bh. I* 1.
also Käs. on VI. 4. 46. Ahn. 2.
derived from the holy sages the benedictive mood; cf.
founded on sacred tradition, such P, IIL 4. 104» called
as the Vedangasjcf, %$& regularly as

g (1) name of a work on *%: 1 Pari. Bhaskar Pari.

grammar written by Täränätha 97.
called Tarka~väcaspati5 a reput- ÜJ a variety of q^ftfi" metre
ed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of of 40 letters with 8 letters in the
the 19th century A. D. who first and second quarters or pädas
compiled the great Sanskrit and 12 letters in the third and
Dictionary named 3i^W#rer and fourth quarters; cf. STraK^irfrtf-
wrote commentaries on many f^cl: R.Pr, XVI. 40. For instances
Sanskrit Shastraic and classical of 3TT^cTRq^i% see Kgveda sükta 21,
works. The grammar called sng^l^T Mandala XB
is very useful for beginners; (2) (1) placed after, following,
name of an elementary grammar which follow; cf. 3T1WIT^RTORR!-
in aphorisms written by 3HT%^- ^cfCT^Uvvata on R. Pr. IV. 1.
*ER£3cft, which is based on the (2) properly placed at the end
Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva. e.go fösR i;icf W*K.
(1) relation of dependence; (1) place of articulation^ the
cf. 3?i^ifcH5^ *rf¥*tfci M. Bh. mouth, cf. 3flPF#tt ^f^^l% ^WH,
I. 1.12 Värt 4; (2) substratum, M. Bh. on 1.1,9; (2) found in
place of residence; cf. the plaee of articulation; e gB the
effort made for the utter-
\ ance of words; cf,sr$q W I R ^ M.
Bh. I I . 2. 29. Bh. on 1.1.9, also
an authoritative Laghuvrtti on Säk. LI.6.
Pratisäkhya work attributed to a sub-division of the
Saunakathe teacher of Asvalayana, (Xth conj.) roots, beginning with
belonging prominently to the Säk- the root Si*[ and ending with the
ala and the Bäskala Sakhäs of the toot ^ ^ , which take the Vikarana
Rgveda. It is widely known by the Fl^ i.e. which are conjugated like
name Rk-Prätisäkhya, It is a roots of the tenth conjugation,
metrical composition divided into only if they are transitive in
18 chapteis called Patalas, giving sense.
special directions for the proper tad-affix (3fl?) in the general'
pronunciation, recitation and pre- Saisika senses, e.g. belonging to,
servation of the Rksamhitä by lay- produced in, etc.» added to the
ing down general rules on accents word 3 ^ , e.g. alfarci? cf.
and euphonic combinations and : I; M.Bh. on IV.2.104.
mentioning phonetic and metrical tad-affix added to the word
peculiarities. It has got a masterly in the general sense of direc-
commentary written by Uvvata. tion but when distance is specially
nearest, most proximate; cf. meant; e.g. ^T%qif| *{%% * ^%Tlt|
\ V.t Pr. 1.142; cf. also mmq*i* See Käs. on s-ufl =g ^ P.
the sütra 3TO5T: Sak.I.1.7? explain- V.3.37.
ed as ^^Hg^WioTTT^T^^TfWlH^;; cf- name of Pänini. cf.
also 3TT^r: Hem. VII.*. 120.
close proximity of a word a class of compound
with another; cf. oft words headed by the word

in which the past pass. part.Js affix %% applied to ^ q e.g.

optionally placed first.e.g.3]Tl|cf1T%:? cf. ^ t TOai: P.III.3-125 Vart. 3W
s f f l ^ i : ; ^ ^ * s^iTcT:. The class the same affix as ^ mention-
BTTTIcnJRlfö is stated to be ed by the ^ifctV^R in the Värtikas
cf. Kas.onP.II.2.37. on P. IV. 2.60.
tad. affix fqy applied to com-
pound words with q^; as the latter
member e.g. ^jkl^p; cf. f^T^rR-
P.IV.2.60 Vart.
(1) the vowel %, representing all its
krt. affix applied to ^ e. g.
eighteen forms viz. short, long
protracted, acute, grave, circum- fäWft: cf. ^^=$T ^RT^: P. III.
flex, pure and nasalised; e.g. 5 in 3.125 Vart. 4.
qftfa =3 P.VI.4. 128;(2) Unädi affix the letter 5 with all its 18
5 (3)tad-affix ^(t)appKed toBahu- varieties (?+^R).
vrihi compounds in the sense of ex- the presence of the word
change of action or as seen in words 335 (vowels %, 3, 3£ and ^5) in a
like fätf^ e.g. %WR%, ^§RT%, rule3 where the operations QOT and
%61% etc. cf. ?3 #^fälTC p. V.4. tfö are prescribed by putting the
127, also V.4,128; (4) krt. affix |% words 7T0T and |I%; e.g.
(t) cf. OTi 4t: T%: P.III.3.92; (5) q ^ f t g P.VIL2.1; cf.
augment ^ (3); see ^ ; (6) con- P.I.1.3.
jugational affix ^ o f the 1st pers.
the substitution of the
sing. Ätm.
vowel called ffl; i.e# the vowel 3?T3
3f (1) short wording (sRqifTC) for the ^ or 3Ü prescribed specifically for
\owels 5, 3, 3£ and ^ ; cf.f^l qorfä the vowels called %^ L e. % 3, m
P. VL1-77; x& VZS&fo p« 1-1.48; ando& e.g. ^JnßWaiTffe: P.I.1.3.
^Sl 3<W P-1-1-3; 1 ^ ' äTOKPR P. Vart. 11; cf.also ^2SR|^l1^HRcnr^
I.L45, f^sWf 20T^W f ^ P - V L Siradeva Pari. 2,
1.127, 1% 5#ss^t ^ni^^^ P. VI.3.
f W the same as ^7f^. See below. The
61; (2) krt. affix ^ (%) applied to
word fif is used for ^"f^ in the
the root form to cite a root e. g.
Atharva Prätisakhya cf. ?fr|RTI^ft-
cjfä, «rief etc. cf. ^fi^rqt ^gft^t P.
III. 3.108 Vart 2; (3) krt. affix 3$
t f c $t .Pr. IIL 3.12.
a separable word as opposed to
applied to the roots f>^ and others
J ; part of a compound word
in the sense of verbal # activity
which is separated or may be
e.g. ffä:, ftftf, f^lfts cf. ^ ß
separated from the remaining part
P.III. 3.108 Vart.8.
when the word h split np into its
the Paribhäsa rule constituent parts» Generally the
P.I. 1.3; cf. goTgf^ word is applied to the first part of
i ^ r ^n*c gotr ^^r w ^ Sira- a compound word when it is split
deva. Pari.93. up in the recital of the padapatha.
B (1) substitute for theaffix^ given The 'ingya" word is shown by a
as 35, 3^ or foT5 by Pänini; cf, pause or avagraha after it which
OTH?7 P.VIL3.50; (2) taddhita is shown in writing by the sign (S);
affix ^ 5 , ff^ t ^ ^ mtentioned in
t^e Värtikas on P4V.2.60; (3) krt. w com« on Tait*

Prät. L 48.OT3ffl5q^TSF5^ Com.on seen in actual use in the spoken

T.Pr. 1.48. . language; cf. 3mpf? ^» Säk. 1.1.5,
^ (1) short wording or pratyähära Hem.L1.37. The 53; letters are
for vowels except 3T. cf. ^ i f W applied to a word before it, or
gwfTSf^: P.III. 1.36; cf, also VI. after it, and they have got each of
1.104, VI. 3.68. VIII.4.31,32; (2) them a purpose in grammar viz.
Samäsanta affix % after Bahuvrihi causing or preventing certain
compounds showing a mutual ex- grammatical operations in the
change of actions, e.g. %sn%ftl/ formation of the complete word.
sperrte; cf. f3 ^^fcliR P.V.4. Pänini has not given any defini-
127 also 128. tion of the word ^ , but he has
mentioned when and where the
?3T (1) krt. affix (f), in the sense of
vowels and consonants attached to
verbal activity applied to any root,
words are to be understood as ^
the word so formed being used in
(cf. ^ 1 f^?c^ I etc.
the fern, gender and in connection
with narration or in interrogation; P. I. 3.2 to 8) and stated that
e.g. SRT & ^lf^W?f: I SRT ^FrftFFPI^I these letters are to be dropped in
cf. Päaini III.3.110; (2) krt. affix actual use; cf. P.I. 3.9. It appears
in the sense of verbal activity that grammarians before Pänini
applied to the roots c^ and others had also employed such 33; letters,
e.g. mft:, snftr: etc. cf^P.III.3.108 as is clear from some passages in
Vart. 7;(3) tad-affix % in the sense the Mahäbhäsya as also from
of offspring applied to a noun their use in other systems of
ending iu 3?; e.g. 3 j % cf.PJV. 1. grammar as also in the Unädi list
95-7, 153. of affixes, for purposes similar to
5K^ (I) augment % eprfixed,in general those found served in Päninfs
in the case of all roots barr- grammar. Almost all vowels and
ing a few roots ending in vowels consonants are used as 13 for
except gj and m and roots 3^, qg, different purposes and the ^letters
etc., to such affixes of non-conjuga- are applied to roots in the Dhä-
tional tenses and moods as begin tupätha, nouns in the Ganapatha,
with any consonant except land ^; as also to affixes, augments and
cf. 3 T $ ^ F ^ f viVf^: P.VII.2.35 to substitutes prescribed in grammar.
Only at a few places they are
78 and its exceptions P.VII.2.8 to
attached to give facility of pronun-
34; (2) personal ending of the
ciation. Sometimes the ^ letters,
third person sing. Ätm.
especially vowels, which are said
W (1) short wording or pratyähära
to be U^when uttered as nasalized
for all vowels except $r and the
by Pänini, are recognised only by
consonants | , g, *[, 3, <*; cf. fit: m
convention; cf. %i
P. VIII.3.39,also P. VIII.3.57,78 *m(S.K.on P.I.3.2).The word ^
(2) krt. affix % applied to roots which literally means going away
such as 3?5 3 ^ etc. in the sense of or disappearing, can be explained
verbal activity.e.g snf^^snfcT:, anftt; as a mute indicatory letter. In
P. 111.3,108, VartB6. Pänini's grammar, the mute vowel
^ (1) a letter or a group of letters 3T applied to roots indicates the
attached to a word which is not placing of the Ätmanepada affixes

after them, if it be uttered as anu- to the word at the beginning; cf.P

däita and of affixes of both the 1.1.64, while applied to a nominal
padas if uttered svarita;cf. P.I.3. base or an affix shows the addition
12, 72. The mute vowel sn signi- of the fern, affix i (sty, cr.P.IV.l.
fies the prevention of 3SFTO before 15;«[ signifies the elision of the last
the past pait. affixes; cf. P. VIL syllable; cf. P.VI.4.142; qT signifies
2. 16. Similarly, the mute vowel \ fit, cf.P.VII.2.115ft signifies^%
signfies the augment Rafter the last accent, cf. VI.1.181, as also that
vowel of the root; cf.P.VII. 1.58; f variety of the vowel ( g^f, tf% or
signifies the prevention of the aug- cgcT) to which it has been applied
ment % before the past part.affixes cf. P.I.L70; ^signifies 3?r^T*ff cf.
cf.P.VII.2.14;3 signifies the inclu- P.VI.1.193;5 signifies s^^j^f accent
sion of cognate letters; cf.P.I.1.693 cf. ^g?TW gi^f P. HI. 1.4. as
and the optional addition of the also 3^fcf for the vowel before the
augment ^before <3T; cf. P. VII.2. affix marked with j cf. P/VI. 1.192;
56; ^signifies the optional appli- H signifies in the case of an aug-
cation of the augment ^sjcf.P.VII. ment its addition after the final
2.44; Wi signifies the prevention of,while in the case
f^f to the vowel of a root before of a root, the shortening of its
the causal affix, cf.VIL4.2; c5 sig- vowel before the causal affix f&i,cf.
nifies the Vikarana sjf; in the Aorist P.VI.4.92; ^ signifies the acute
cf. P.III. 1.55; u; signifies the pre- accent for the penultimate vowel
vention of Vrddhi in the Aorist,cf. cf.P.VI.1,217; ^signifies the acute
P.VII.2.55; 3?T signifies the substi- accent for the vowel preceding
tution of ^ for q; of the past part, the affix marked with 5 ; cf.P,VI.
cf. P. VIII.2.45; 5 signifies the 193; 3J implies in the case of an
prevention of jpi and %% cf, P, I. affix its^fT^ig^ri; cf, P. Ill A113,
1.5; 53 signifies the addition of the while in the case of substitutes,
augment g q ^ a n d t h e shortening their substitution for the whole
of the preceding vowel; cf.P. VI.3,
65-66; 3j signifies the prevention of ^4U?H c£ P.I.1.55;^ signifies the
gq and ffö, cf.P. I.I.5; sr signifies addition of the fern, affix f ( W{)
^ cff P.VII.3.62; % applied to cf«P.IV.1.41;5 in the case of aflixes
affixes, signifies the prevention of signifies ^ ^ T to the base before
501 and f t ; cf. P.I.L5; it causes them, cf. P.L4J6. Sometimes even
% % in the case of certain without the actual addition of the
mute letter, affixes are directed to
roots, cf. P. VI. 1.16 and signifies be looked upon zs possessed of that
sn^FR if applied to roots; cf.P. L mute letter for the sake of a gram-
3.12, and their substitution for the matical operation e.g# €fW?fPif^ci;
last letter if applied to substitutes,
P.L2-4; sfl^mnffe M P. I#2.5; mi
cf. P. LL 53, ^signifies the acute
P.VIL 1.90 etc, (2) the short
accent of the last vowel; cf.P.VI. 1.
vowel ^ as a substitute; cf.
159; ojr signifies &WR% i.e. the plac-
T<f^i: P« VI. 4. 34.
ing of the affixes of both the podas
after the root to which it has been % tad. affix ^ in the sense of
affixed;c£P.U.72; z in the case of 'found' or 'produced in*, which is
an augment signifies its application affixed to words cTOR,^ 5!p$ and

others; e.g. ff, • § T < P K T , of 3R{ for T% before it; e. g

etc.; cf. k M.Bh. on VI. 4.55.
P. V. 2. 36. krt affix, added to the roots m,
possessed of interdepende- c& 3S£etc. in the sense of instru-
nce; depending upon each ment; cf. 3TT^c^gjf(qg^ ^f: P. I I I .
other; cf. *cRcft ^ W s * ^ Cändra 2. 184-6. e. g. 3?fe\, ^ f t ^ ^ f ^ q .
Pari. 5K Grammatical operations etc. The words ending in sjsf have
are of no avail if the rules stating got the acute accent on the last
them are mutually depending syllable; cf. P. VI. 2.144.
on each other. The word a letter which is termed ^ ;
has the sense of fcHTO^ here. see ^ above.
mutual relationship with augment %^} e. g. qre'fcR:, ^T^r-
each other. Out of the^four senses : ; cf. ^ätfiaf P. V. 2. 53.
of the indeclinable =3 viz. ^Tg^R,
possessed of the mute indicatory
SRF5R, ^terc^PT and ^ f | K , the
letter %; e. g the roots qfe, f^ft
Dvandva compound is formed of
and the like3 in whose case the
words connected in the last two
augment gj^ ( q ) is affixed to the
ways and not in the first two
last vowel; cf %f^ 3 ^ WltTi'P.
ways. The instances of %?% in
VII. 1. 58.
the sense of ^KTC^ta are
feq^f^JT:, 3 ^ W 4 T etc ; cf. ^ ( i ) krt affix % applied to the
P. II. 2.29; cf. also g roots fij f:, 3Tg3 and ^ when they
are preceded by certain words like
M. Bh. ou II. 2. 29; cf. etc. in certain senses; e. g.
ft & :; cf. P. I I I .
Siradeva Pari. 16. 2. 24-7;(2) kit affix 33 (f&fft) pres-
cribed by P. III. 3.170 e. g.
depending upon each
other; cf,
( 1 ) substitute for the inst, case
| M. Bh. o n L l . l . 1 ending in STT (SI) after bases ending
See %$W, above. i
in ; cf. El^-fti^rT^I^-qT: P. VII. h
12; ( 2 ) tad. aff. ^f affixed to gt e.
a grammatical operation caus- g. qftftT: 3^81: cf. P. IV. 4. 133.
ed by ^3; i. e, by a mute letter
Sfrf^ substitute ^ for the last vowel
which is purely indicatory; cf. o$
of the words ^^l^% g^FTT, ^F\J and
others before the affix 3 i. e. ^
Bh. I. 3.2. See ^ above.
prescribed after these wordsi n the
the substitution of short % by sense of offspring e. g.
^J^tftsT P. I. 2.17, 5TO I^fl^F: P.
VL 4. 3i 3 etc. P. IV. 1. 126, 127.
^jprS^R characterization; indi- [ tad. affix %^ in the sense of poss-
cation by a mark; e. g. sföTR- ession applied to the word fä which
^cTTW: cf. X^^ijR ^ ^ (9jNF) P. is changed intopci^, e. g. f^R:;cf.
II.3.2U * v - 2- 33 -
krt affix mentioned by Pänini in ( 1 ) krt affix applied to the
VI.4.55 as causing the substitution roots ^t with ft with sc, and the

roots fä, £, 1% and others, e. g. Pänini. Many quotations believ-

tRTf^pfr, vm, ^RT etc. cf- P. III. ed to have been taken from his
2. 93 and III. 2. 156457; (2) tad. work are found scattered in gram-
affix %^ affixed to the word qFf^F^ mar works, from which it appears
in the sense of 'covered with' ( cf. that there was an ancient system
P. IV.2.11), in the sense of collec- prevalent in the eastern part of
tion to the word W$ e. g. ^fe^ft cf. India at the time of Pänini which
P. IV. 2. 51, to the word could be named ^[s^Ewradct,
in sense (student o f c. g. to which Pänini possibly refers by
cf. P. IV. 2. 62, to the words ^ the word HMJJ. From references, it
and f m cf. P. IV. 3.111, to the appears that the grammar was of
word *$ cf P.IV. 4. 23 and to the the type of sn%% discussing vari-
word srn£ cf. P.V. 2. 85 and srar^ ous topics of grammar such as
cf. P. V. 2. 91 in specified senses alphabet, coalescence, declension,
and in the general sense of posse- context, compounds , derivatives
ssion to words ending in 3T, cf. P. from nouns and roots, conjuga-
V.2.115-117 and to certain other tion, and changes in the base.
words cf. P.V. 2. 128-37. The treatment was later on follow-
^ krt affix ^ by P. III. 3. 44 ed by Sakatäyana and writers of
followed invariably by the tad. the Kätantra schooLFor details see
affix ^ by P. V. 4. 15, e. g. Mahäbhäsya ed. by D« E. Society,
Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127,
author of 'TOF^f a com- [ author of the < Güdhaphakki-
mentary on the Paribhasendu- käprakäsa', a gloss on the difficult
Sekhara of Nägcsabhatta. passages in the Mahäbhäsya»
author of s^qrcr, a .com- 5<i a technical term for ffeffar (accu-
mentary on Nyasa, the well-known sative case ) in the Jainendra
commentary on the 'Käslkavrtti by grammar; cf. wft^ Jain. 1.4.2.
Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations ?<T a technical term in the Jalnen*
from the Anunyäsa are found in dra Vyakarna for $fFTT (the loca-
the Paribhäsavrttl of Slradeva. tive case)»
The word ^g is often used for 5 ^ tad. affix applied to l ( letter ^ )
f in the sense of the consonant 1; c
r: Sira. Pari. 36.
gM:; cf. qfcfc P. IIL 3.108
Vart. 4.
author of a commentary
on the Paribhasendusekhara. augment % added to the base jj
name of a great grammarian who after the last vowel, e# g. ^ife; cf.
Is believed to have written an ex- ^P.viL 3.92.
haustive treatise on grammar ; or fnfti^ tad. afSx ^ R ^ applied
before Pänini; cf. the famous verse to the words %%> q& m% ^ g^
of Bopadeva at the commence- words showing colour and words
ment of his Dhätupatha f^$R[; such as | s , qft|5, ^Sf, *sna, 5W etc.
in the sense of Equality' or 'attri*
(I No work of bute?; cf. Pan. V. 1.122, 123, For
Indra is available at present» changes in the base before the
He is nowhere quoted by affix ^ s e e P. VI.4,154-163,

krt. affix f*T applied to words P.IV.2.79. The tad.affix q^i5 also
showing *TR or verbal activity; affixed in the same sense. See *q.
e.g. qjiw^, ^#1*1? ;cf. Hi^Rw^rnf^- (2) tad. affix ^ (^^5) in the sense
WBRfjsq: Käs. on P. IV.4.20. of possession, prescribed after the
tad affix ( SRQ in the sense of words ^ , i$m\ "%% I%3KTT Hk
'pity'; e. g. \faq:9 *rfiPi:; cf. P. IV. 3 ? ^ ^ ^ , ^> m etc.; e. g.
2. 79. ^[Ro5, ^fte, ftRjfcRs gF^? etc. cf.
P. V. 2,99, 100, 105, 117.
^ substitute for the last %
T substitute for ^55 before an
before a vowel generally in the
affix called Vibhakti*; e. ej. ^f; cf;
case of monosyllabic roots end-
P. V. 3.3.
ing in % and the word §ft;
e. g. fafäg:, ftä £R:, % t ftp?:; S. a word frequently used in
cf. sqi^ f^Tä^rt ^Tf^f^r P. VI. the Värttikas and the Mahäbh-
4. 77-80. äsya and other treatises in the
senses of (1) a desired object,
case-ending for inst. sing, in
(2) a desired purpose, (3) a
Vedic Literature; e. g. 3T*hT,
desired statement, (4) a desired
< Ä ; cf. P. VII. 1.39. and Vart.l
form i. e. the correct form; cf.
^srar^qrt *assrfqr wfcf; M. Bh, I . I .
mute indicatory ending of roots, Ahn. I. ^qtrifwr^TTfegRrfe: Pari. Sek.
signifying the application of the Pari. I l l
aorist sign 3T ( 3lf ) optionally ;e g.
^jcfc<UT a short treatise on
fä or ST^ftcT from the root
^l in "bhätupätha); cf. grammar ascribed to Jayadeva.
also ^^ 3 ^^|^ncrfromT%^(%K^); a class of words headed by
cf. P. III. 1.57. % the word p to which the taddhita
tad. affix ( ^ ) in the sense of affix ^ ( ^R) is added in the
possession applied in Vedic Lite- sense of SFffi a. e» * by him' i. e.
rature to m e. g. tfSfli; cf. R V. by the agent of the activity de-
2. 109 Vart. 3. noted by the past pass, participles
fg and others; cf. %€] ^ , gäf ^
tad. affix ( %l) in the sense of
etc. Käs, on P. V. 2. 88.
possession applied in Vedic Lite-
rature; to ^ e, g. cf. P.^fcrc: a word generally used in the
V. 2.109 Värt. 3. statements made in the Maha-
bhäsya, similar to those of the
a root ending with mute indi-
catary ending %\. See %lm Sütrakära and the Värttikäkäras,
which are 'desired ones' with a
( $ f ) substitute for the perfect view to arrive at the correct
3rd pers. *pL Atrn. affix n; e, g. forms of words; cf. srrfä^T
*$&, <Kf% etc.; cf. P. III. 4.81.
J tad. affix applied to the words M. Bh. on I I . 4.56.
*$m, ^ ^ V&m and others in the the superlative tad* affix in
four senses prescribed in P. IV. the sense of ^f^gi^f or
2.67-70; e. g, ^TRI^:3 3?^«^:, ( excellence )• The commentators,
q < Ä : ; cf. P. IV. 2,80. however, say that the taddhita
® (1) tad. affix %® (^55) in the affixes *ro and ^ l i k e all the tadd-
sense of pity; e. g. \\%% ^%w*; cf. hita affixes showing case-relations,

are applied without any specific % in Panini's alphabet being

sense of themselves, the affixes the long tone of that vowel; (2)
showing the sense of the base itself substitute "I for the vowel s?T of
( ^ # r ) ; e. g g^cw:, ifte;; ^ C R ; , the roots 5TT and >^T before (he
crfeg:; q^fäcWEJ, ^cW;, 3^2: etc.; cf. frequentative sign q^F as for ex-
P. V.3. 55-64. The affixes fq*T and ample in «raiqcT, ^ritq%, cf. P. VII.
?g are applied only to such subst- 4.31; (3) substitute i foi the
antives which denote quality; cf. vowel sr before the affixes f% and
P. V. 3. 58. 3 ^ as, for instance, in 51^"^%?
the same as ^g. See ^g.- 3#rf?rctc.;cf%P. VII. 4,32, 33;
(4) substitute % for the vowel 3^r
possession of the same pro-
at the end of reduplicated bases
perties for causing grammatical
as also for the vowel 3JF of bases
operations as the tad. affix | g ^
ending in the conjugational sign
possesses, as for instance, the elision
m, e.g. fJrtfr^3 g ^ r : etc.; cf. P.VI.
of the syllable beginning with the
4. 113; (5) substitute t for the
last vowel ( fäöSF )s substitution of
loc. case affix f ( ft: ) in Vedic
the masc. base for the fern, base
Literature, e.g. *K?ft for l^ftf in Ocf
( }&m*fö ) etc., before the denom.
^T g?e* 6 ^ ^i^R^,; cf. K a i on P.
affix W%\ e. g- RcPficT in the sense
VII. 1,59; (6) tad. affix % m the
of T2?ff 3TT^; similarly W M , re^lcT,
sense of possession in Vedic Litera-
saqft; cf. M, Bh. on. P. VI 4.
ture as for instance in VA]:,^^]:,
155 Värt, 1.
cf. Käs on. R V. 2-109; (7) the
j krt affix ^g^applied,in the sense fern, affix % ( *?rs, W\% or ^ ); cf.
of * possessed of habitual behavi- P. IV. 1.5 8, 15-39, IV. 1.40-65,
our, action, or splendid accomp- IV. 1.13.
lishment,' to the roots 3^5f, i?RH»,
etc. e. g 3#^T^:53^fcF3j:> tad. affix t^'^ added to
3:^2:etc.;cf.P.III 2.1 '6-138. and qfe e. g. ^frat^; fern. M W ;
krt affix in Vedic Literature in the an&sfc; cf. P. IV. 4.59; (2) tad. affix
sense of the infinitive, e. g. \}f^% ^ j added to ^ € and M^ in the
aqsqfo^; cf P. III. 4.10. sense of comparison, e. g. Wfiffifi*,
( 1 ) substitute f*T for the vowel ^\\€wc ( vf&%: )? cf. Kas. on P. V.
of the roots, ifr, *n5 ^r, ^T? *JJ, q^etc. 3.110; (3) tad. affix #fr¥ added to
before the des'derative aiKx ^ ; ^ 5 , e. g. ^rCt^r; cf. %fyfä&\*n ^%
e. g.ftwfcr,fic^rßr,s n f t ^ e t c . cf.P. #B«P. IV.1.85. Värt. 4-5; (4) tad-
VII. 4.54; ( 2 ) unädi affix ^ e. g. affix f^gr in Vedic Literature added
to srf^r e.g. ^TCT^: cf- K§5. on P. IV.
3 alternative affix mentioned in 1.85,Vart.6; (5) tad. affix p a d d e d
the Mahäbhäsya in the place of to m§ e. g. fö^<$R ; c£ P, V.
; cf M. Bh.on III. 2. 57. See 1.33.
augment % prefixed to a Sarvad-
hatuka (strong) affix beginning
t with a consonant after the roots
5, % *g, and others e. g.
f the long vowel | which is techni-
cally included in the vowel cf, P. VII. 3.93-98,

[ long vowel | as different from and (2}an independent treatise Sab«

% o r | ^ prescribed as a substitute; dabodhatarangim. He is believed to
cf. P. VI.S.27, VI.3.97. have been a pupil of SJc^H*^ and
( a root ) possessed of long % as lived in the latter part of the 16th
a mute indicatory ending meant century A.D.
for prohibiting the addition of the l an external effort ( (; )
augment % to the past part, ter- in the production of sound charac-
minations cf and ^cRj;; e. g. $3??:, terized by the emission of breath,
sfa: etc.; cf. P VII, 2. 14. when the cavity made by the cords
of the throat is kept wide apart,
a desired object, which, in con-
as found in the utterance of the
nection with transitive roots, gets
consonants q, f^and ^.
the designation 3vtf,when the agent
has a keen desire for it; cf. f p an external effort ( ^ifPRR)
^ P. I. 4. 49. in the production of sound charac-
torized by only a slight contact of
tad. affix #R=r added to the the cords of the throat, made in the
word *i& in sense of possession; utteranee of semi-vowels; cft
e.g. 3wre:, cf. P. V. 2.114. .K. on P.I. 1.9.
substitute for the tad. affix s ; e.g- stage of the quality of a
301^:, W^rfq: etc; cf P. VII. 1. 2 thing or of an undertaking which is
and IV. 2. 114. almost complete?to show which,the
affix s& added to the root ^ , tad-affixes q^q, ^ q and ^üfäf are
| showing the application of the applied to a word;e.g. 'T?2^:?1^?^«-
Atmanepada affixes; e, g t% ^g^T^fv T ^ ^ ^ j ^^(Rl^ 1 ^; cf. P,
cf. P. III. 1. 29 V.3.67.
an external effort characteri-
^ , showing superi- zed by slight resonance or sound-
ority or excelJence of one indivi- ing of throat cords when they
dual over another in respect of a slightly touch one another.
quality, added to a substantive ex~
presive of quality; when the subst- effort made for the production of
antive ends in the affix cj, that affix sound; cf. f
5 is removed; e.g. qifar^, 55-frqR,
3tPrifir (%:); cf.P.V.3.57-64. R.Pr.XIII.L
sarae as
t ^ which see
tad-affix added to the word wg
(1) labial vowel standing for the
in the sense of possession; e.g. longhand protracted3^ inPänini's
n£ta:;cf. ^T^^T^K^K^r P.V.2.111. grammar unless the consonant ci;is
^ substitute i for 33^ before the affixed to it, gq; standing for the
tad-affixes %$>, f^T and ^^; e.g i short ^ only; (2) Vikaraila affix H
Ts also f w : ; cf. P.VI.3.90. of the 8th conjugation ( cRrf§PT&r )
author of ^Dhätumälä', a and the roots fSp^ and f^jjcf.P.IIL
short metrical treatise on roots. 1.79-80; (3) substitute (3) for the
^CFF3[ author of (1) a gloss on vowel 3T of ?,e.g. ^cf;, fj^f^f before
Kaiyata's Mahabhasya-pradlpa, Särva^hiäti^ka affixes^

4.110; (4) krt. affix 3 added to Patanjali, also Mahäbhasya D.E.

bases ending in *ER and the roots S,Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71,*72.
sTTtTH, f£r?J, fäs, m as also to bases J P a word with its meaning (in
ending in sp^in the Vedic Litera- the neuter gender) unchanged
ture,e.g, f^t|: fag;, föf :.^g:»iag; when used in the masculine gender;
cf. P. III. 2.168-170; (5) Unädi generally an adjectival word; cf,
affix 3 ( 3* ) e.g, *m\, 3T§:, 3Tg:5 Cändra Vyäk. I.4.30.
etc.; cf. Unädi L I ; (6) mute vowel
3 added to the first letters of a a word or expression whose
class of consonants in Patini's sense has been already expressed.
grammar to show the whole class The expression 3^I4HT3R^FT: is
of the five letters; e.g. §, % I, g,jj frequently used in the Mahä-
which stand for the Guttural, the bhasya and the Varttikas and cited
palatal the lingual, the dental and as a Paribhäsä or a salutary con-
the labial classes respectively; cf. ventional maxim against repetition
also g=jT §: P.VIIL4.41;(7) 5 added of words in the Parlbhäsäpäthas
to ^showing the consonant q as of Vyädi (Par- 51), Candragomm
nasalized n; cf, g: V.Pr. III.133. (Par 28) and Kätantra (Par. 46)
and Kaläpa (Par. 46) grammars.
short term for the vowels
, ep and 55; e.g see
P.VII.1.80, also *fP; föfä P a short anonymous
,11, ng^rr^RL^: P.VIL3, treatise on case-relations, com-
51. pounds etc. written mostly in
(1) the krt. affix 3 ^ applied to Gujaräti.
the roots 55*, *Rj[, q^ and others?e.g* %^fF=fv?; a short grammar work,
^ I g ^ : , ^ ^ : etc. with udätta accent written by ^TH ? ^, explaining
on the first syllable; cf,P.IIL2.154; declension, cases and their i mean*
(2) tad.affix 3 ^ ( 3 ^ ^ ) added to ings, compounds, etc. and giving
the word wA^i e.g. m4% ^ : ; cf. a list of Präkrta words with their
Käs. on P.V.I.103. Sanskrit equivalents.
the same as 3^. See HU. a class of words headed by
prescribed, taught, lit, said (al- the word ^zm to which the taddhita
ready). ;3rfr ^T is a familiar expres- affix ?3» (33j> ) is applied in the
sion in the Mahäbhasya and the sense of £one who studies and
Varttikas reierri ng usually to understands'; cf. ^«micT <fä ^T
something already expressed.Some- 3ft%RF:, similarly ^«BWCßftJ: Käs» on
times this expression in the Ma- P. IV. 2.60.
häbhasya, referring to something a writer on Vedic phonetics
which is not already expressed, and euphony quoted in the Tait-
but which could be found sub- tirlya Prätisakhya; cf. :3l«|^t W^t
sequently expressed, leads to the Tai, Prä. VIII. 22.
conclusion that the Mahäbhä-"
syakära had something like a characterized by the trmte
'Laghubhasya3 before him at the indicatory letter g:, %$ or $j; see ^
time of teaching the Mahäbhäsya# or g^rrapi writer of a gloss on
See Kielhorn's Kätyayana and the Nirukta, called «NIruktabfaisya1

believed to have lived in the 18th pronunciation, enunciation

century A. D5 wriier also of a (in the Sästra). The phrase 3^WT-
grammatical work SÜsyahitävrtti or €R«q!^ is often found used in
Sisyahitänyäsa, which was sent to the Mahäbhäsya and else-
käshmir and made popular with where in connection with the
a large sum of money spent upon words of Pänini, everyone of which
it» by his pupil Änanadpäla. is believed to have a purpose
a technical term for ^q^r, the or use in the Sästra, which pur-
penultimate letter in the Jai- pose, if not clearly manifest, is
nendra Vyäkarana; cf. ^cp1^: Jain. assigned to it on the strength (^Tsp^l)
V. 4.28. of its utterance; cf. W
the higher tone also called ^ R on
or acute; cf. # ^ 5 ^ ^ R. T. 55, III.4.89 V. 2; cf. also M.Bh. on
also T^CT ^TO: S^^cf ^ ^ 3 R ^ l ^ ? T : IV.4.59, V I A 1 6 3 , V I I . U 2 , 50,
R. Pr. I I I . 19; cf. also the terms VII.2.84, In a few cases, a letter
R. T. 61, T T ^ R. T. 62, is found used by Panini which
^ etc. cannot be assigned any purpose but
which has been put there for faci-
* 3=5=3 or acute; see above; lity of the use of other letters.
cf. % P. 1.2.35. Such letters are said tobe $
pronounced or uttered; the cf. *n%: 1 ^ S R
phrase ^^?fä^qT%?l: is used in Käs. on II 4B36
connection with the mute indica- &n4:; ^K: umm: l Käs. on I I I . l .
tory letters termed ^ in Pänini's 43. The expressions g^ig^iR: and
grammar, as these letters are not £OTT*f: in the Mahäbhäsya mean
actually found in use in the lan- the same as !
guage and are'therefore supposed to diverse; cf.
vanish immediately after their pur- Nir. I.3.4.
pose has been served* The phrase
specially accented;
' has been cf. P. I. 2.35.
given as a Paribhäsä by Vyädi
(Pari.ll), in the Gändra Vyäka- ^ the famous commentator
rana ( Par. 14), in the Kätantra on the Unädi sütras. His work sis
Vyäkarana (Pari.54) and also in called Unädisütravrtti, which is
the Käläpa Vyäkarana ( Par. a scholarly commentory on the
7i). Patanjali has used the ex- Unädisütrapätha, consisting of five
pression in connec- Pädas. Ujjvaldatta is belived to
tion with ordinary letters of a have lived in the 15th century
word, which have existence for a A. D. He quotes Vrttinyäsa, Anu-
moment and which also vanish nyäsa, Bhägavrtti etc* He is also
immediately after they have been known by the name Jäjali.
uttered; cf. ^^OTrf*fc[: ^cffq qqf: T^( 1 ) short term ( 5f^T|R ) for
.,.?{ofafr 5[<fc[ fl$R: M. Bh. on 1.4.
vowels excepting 3? and %9 semi-
vowels, nasal consonants and the
af^fsi1^f^f55[ vanishing immediate- cansonants | , ^ and ^.; cf m g%
ly after utterance. See tr ^f[ P. VIII.'S. 33; (2) the par-
tide 3; cf„ P. VIII. 3.21, words and that there are many
also33r: P. 1. 1.17. interpolated Sutras, still the Unäd
a class of words headed by collection must be looked upon
the word 3^5 which have their as an old one which is definitely
final vowel accented acute mentioned by Pänini in two
cf. 3"5^: :£§5^T, ST^T; | "O^T different rules; cf. Pänini
f^K: 5TTcT: I Kai on P. VI. 1.160. 3f$^ P. H I . 3.1 and grw
augment 3 affixed to the roots f crfi^q; III. 4. 75, Patanjali has
and 5 before the kit affix g; cf, given a very interesting discus-
sion about these Unädi affixes
and stated on the strength of the
Käs. on Värttika, ^mßpri^r:, that these
P. VII.2.34. affixes and the words given in
T the affix 3^,
3 causing on ac- the Unädi collection should not
count of the mute letter &T , pre- be considered as genuinely de-
scribed after the roots fj, 3T, % f«r, rived.The derivation is not a very
and ^ by the rule systematic and logically correct one
f ; T which is the and therefore for practical pur-
first rule (or Sutra) of a series of poses, the words derived by .the
rules presbribing various affixes application of the affixes ^ and
which are called unädi afflxces, others should be looked upon
the affix 3<JT being the first of them, as underived; cf, ^
e.g. qjft:, qig, ^7§, W$ etc.; cf. i. M. Bh. on. P. I. 1.16,
Unädi 1,1. III. 4. 77, IV. 1. 1, VI. 1. 62,
affixes headed by the affix 3^, VII. 1. 2, VII- 2. 8 etc. There is
which are similar to kit affixes of a counterstatement also seen in
Pänini, giving derivation mostly of the Mahäbhäsya ^spff ogeq^fö,
such words as are not derived by representing the other view pre-
rules of PäninL No particular vailing at the time; cf. M. Bh*
sense such as agent, object etc is on III. L 133; but not much
mentioned in connection with importance seems to be attached
these affixes, but, as Pänini has to it« The different systems of
stated in "^r*R^"PnT?3: " P. III- grammar have different collect-
4.75, the various Unädi affixes are ions of such words which are also
applied to the various roots as known by the term UnädLOut of
prescribed in any Käraka sense, the collections belonging to Pani-
except the gsr^R and the ^qi^jsr; ni?s system, three collections are
in other words, any one of the available at present, the collection
senses, agent, object, instrument into five padas given in the prin-
and abode, is assigned to the ted edition of the Siddhanta
Unädi affix as suits the meaning Kaumudl, the collection into ten
of the word. Although some Pädas given in the printed edi-
scholars believe that the Unädi tion of the Prakriyä-Kaumud! and
affixes are given by a grammarian the collection in the Sarasvatl-
later than Pänini as there are kanthabharana of Bhoja forming
words like cIP^, ^fHTC and others Pädas I, 2 and 3 of the second
included in the list of Unädi Adhyäya of the work.

a metrical work explain- the sütras in five chapters

ing the ^cnyf^ words referred to or in ten chapters or one, com-
above, with meanings assigned pletely different from these, as
to them. There are two such scholars believe that there are
compositions one by Ramatar- many interpolations and changes
kavägisa or Rämasarmä and the in the versions of Unädi sütras
other by Rämacandra Dlksita. available at present. A critical
study of the various versions is
^f^ word form or crude extremely desirable.
base, ending with an affix of
the un class, which is looked >ssnn^ the text of the Unädi
upon as practically underived, Sütras divided into five chapters
the affixes un and others not be- which is possessed of a scholarly
ing looked upon as standard commentary written by Ujjvala-
affixes applied with regular mean- datta. There is a commentary on
ings attached to them and it by Bhattoji Dlksita also.
capable of causing operations to a gloss on the Unädi
the preceding base as prescribed Sütras in the different versions.
by rules of grammar; cf. Out of the several glosses on the
Unädi Sütras, the important ones
are those written by Ujjvaladatta,
. Pari. Sek. on Pari- Govardhana, Purusottarnadeva,
bhäsä 22. Rämacandra Dlksita and Hari-
%^? T%I?nT3 the text of datta. There is also a gloss called
the Sütras which begins with Unädisütrodghätana by Misra.
the Sutra prescribing the affix There is a gloss by Durgasimha
3«n after the roots f,
fj, %
% %% f*T,
f, \ on the Kätantra version of the
and 3I|T; cf- Unädi Sütra 1. t Unädi Sutras«
For the different versions of the (1) Short vowel 3 in Pänini's
text see ^vnfc. Similar Sütras in terminology; cf, P.I.L70, 1,2.21.
Kätantra, Äpisali, Säkatäyana and IV, 1.44, V . l . l l l ; (2) tad-affix 33
other systems of grammar are also applied to <jt and «jtcR for which
called Unädi Sütras. q* is substituted; e. g. q^. See P.
^ 1 % £ ^ ^ the text of the V. 3.22 Värt.
Unädi Sütras divided into ten a class of words headed by
chapters believed to have been the word g^R, to which the tad-
written by SIT^SPH. It is printed dhita affix ^ is added in the four
at the end of the Prakriyä Kau- senses, the affix being popularly
mudi and separately also, and is known as ^igtfsN»; cf. 3cWqq^
also available in manuscripts etc.; Käs. on P. IV. 2.90.
with a few differences,, Patanjali a variety of the Kratna des-
in his Bhäsya on P.III.3„1> seems to cribed in the Pratisäkhya works.
have mentioned SSäkatäyana as the (1) the best,the highest,the last;
author of the Unädi Sütras al- (2) the last letter of the consonant-
though it cannot be stated defi- classes, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.IL4.14;
nitely whether there was R.Pr. IV.3; cf. also ^m meaning
at that time, a version of non-nasal; (3) the ^fljjw or the

premier or the first person qg or sffftq^, the famous astrologer

constituting the affixes % 3H of the tenth century.
and fl?T and their substitutes, cf. possessed of short 3; cf.
P.I.4.1Ö7. P v 3 i i
(1) following, subsequent, e. g. a general rule as contrasted
.. v the latter part of a com- with a special rule which is called
pound word; (2) end of a word, or exception; cf. ^^fw^T^F-
q^j^cf; cf. 3>rf^ ^T% «fcRFH Com. on . Pari. 56; ^^q
T. Pr. IILL rf^I^ Par.Öek.
TFC3RI^[ subsequently, then, after- Pari.63, Sira. Pari.97; cf. also
wards; cf. clcj; ^rT^T^I^ C§3^ M.Bh. OTH^IT ^qqi^r;. For the
on 1.1.1. relation between SOT? and 3
in subsequent rules; cf. and its details see Nägesa's Pari-
M.Bh. on LL23. bhasendusekhara on Paribhäsas 57
to 65: cf. also ^i%^^i^3Tcrcn^T^HTci;
the latter member or portion explained by the commentator as
of a compound word as contrast-
ed with <jch^; cf.
A, Pr. II. 3. 11; cf. also
P. VI. 3.1. R. Pr. L23-
ulterior form. ^ T not consistent withf what is
serving a purpose in subse- taught in rules of a £5astra; cf.
quent rules; of use in a subse-
quent rule; cf. qfarfei*iFT 3TR7^:, Sisupäla-
^ M. Bh. on 1.2.22, vadha II.
?IffTI^ a class of words headed by
elevation of tone. the word 3e8§?T, to which the tadd-
(1) production; cf. hita affix ^ ( z ) is added in the
production of a phonetic element sense of cFf %tfft (takes away by
T. Pr. 23.1; (2) production of means of); cf, ^^fc^TT'cTOT^r «IcRT I
a grammatical element such as <R0t^ W"^ Mhültai*: l sftfföp: t Kai
the application of an affix or onPIV.4.15. N
addition of an augment or sub- ^flf^ a c | a s s o f words headed by
stitution of a letter or letters the word ^ to which the tadd-
during the process of word-for- hita affix s^ ? instead of the usual
mation; cf. *Tfc^R4»rqq^iqt ffög ^ affixes ^OT and others, is added in
OTre^^T srr^ gspqrF; Pari. Sek. Par. the sense of an offspring; cf» ,
75; M. Bh. II. 2.19. Värt. 4.
?j etc. Käs. on PJVJ*86 #
\ to be produced, to be placed that which follows; a term fre-
after; to be annexed; (caus*) to quently used in the Pratisakhya
produce, to get annexed, to add; works in the sense of following' or
cf. §g?ai% ^3^qT% Äpisali's Värt. m; cf* % %
quoted in M; Bh. on PJV.2.45.
explained by the commentator as
author of a commentary on 3TR*ffi ^qrf^RTl^WR: T.PrJI.47jcf.
Pänini's Lingänusäsana. It is doubt- also qR^R Z"^i spa^ explained by
ful whether he was the same the commentator as ^ %

R.PrJI.ll;cf. also marked acute or udatta, when

P.VIII.4.67. ordinarily it should not have
p surnamed Päthaka who wrote been so, to imply that a Pari-
a commentary on the Laghusab- bhäsä is to be applied for the
dendusekhara named Jyotsnä and interpretation of that Sutra; cf.
a very critical work on Paribhäsäs a^f^rffcsn P.VI.1.13 Vart.14,
similar to Siradeva's Paribhasavrtti; alsoSira. Pari. 112.
the work is incomplete. an accent made up of
Udätta, i. e. an accent which is a
author of a treatise giving reduced udätta.It is called also
rules for the determination of the ^r^. It is mentioned in connection
pada or padas of roots; the trea- with an acute vowel following ?i%
tise is named q^q^HiWf^I£F£T. in the Padapatha, according to
He was a Jain grammarian, and Kanva's view ;cf. ^
one of the pupils of Sädhusundara.
the acute accent defined by
Pänini in the words 3%3JxT: P.I.2. : com. on V. Pr, 1.150
29. The word ^#: is explained by the same as ^gfcf, accent-
Patanjali in the words less tone, mentiont d in connection
where with the latter half of a circumflex
( restriction of the vowel as also with a grave vowel or
organs), f^clT rudeness ) and vowels, if not followed by another
( W&& ^tcTcTT closure of acute or circumflex vowel; cf.
the glottis) are given as specific fafctf* P.VIIL4.67.
characteristics of the acute accent. similar to udatta although
The acute is the prominent accent not exactly acute, which character-
in a word—a simple word as also a izes the latter half of the circum-
compound word-and when a vowel flex vowel; cf. ^Trram^T.Pr.1.42.
in a word is possessed of the acute a grammatical example in
accent, the remaining vowels have explanation of an interpretation;
the 3T3C[ITT or the grave accent. cf. i f a ^ T i w ^ i ^ s%5raf?r P.VI.
Accent is a property of vowels l.n.
and consonants do not possess any 5 characterized by short ^ as a
independent accent. They possess mute indicatory vowel, by virtue
the accent of the adjoining vowel of which the word 5, for instance^
connected with it. The acute signifies along with f its cognate
accert corresponds to what is consonants % JTS % and ^ also;
termed 'accent' in English and cf, ^gf^^iq^ ^Ricqq: P. I. 1. 69.
other languages. Roots marked with s as mute get
raised acute, a tone slightly
gy the augment % optionally added
h the acute tone which
higher than before the krt affix sR3T; e. g.
is mentioned in connection with the and ^TF^r from the root
first half of a circumflex vowel; cfl ( ^5 ) by virtue of the rule

conventional understand- possession of short ^3 as the

ing about a particular vowel in penultimate letter, e. g.
wording of a sutra being P.VII.3.4L

a class of words headed by on I. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage

the word 3£ig to which the tadd- of occurrence; 3^1 ^fei^T:; cf;
hita affix sqsj is added in the sense q^iX^ ^iq^qT^Fari.Sek, Pari. 2.
of 'nature9 or 'profession'; cf. referred to; pointed out, sub-
fa # f Similarly ject, as contrasted with the pre-
s. on P. V. 1.129. dicate ^ ^
alleviation, ease, relief; name
given to a SamdhI in the Prätisä-
khya works when a visarga and a
short vowel $r preceding it are in grammar refers to the subject-
changed into short 3?, (e. g. q: + part of a sentence as opposed to
^ ; es ^ ^5:), as also when the the predicate-part. In the sen-
vowel 13; or sn is changed into ®T tence ifefVg; the case is strikingly
being followed by a dissimilar an opposite one and the explana-
vowel; e- g. s& + ^ j ; = 3T?T %*%:; tion given by Patanjali is very
cf. R.PrJI.10.
^ ^ name given in the Rk*
Prätisakhya to the Udgrahasarndhi #, M, Bh.
where the vowel 3? is follow- on I. l.L
ed by a long vowel; e.g, W* l^cf =^J relationship between
fsRTR.Pr.IL 10. the subject and the predicate
name given to a samdhi where generally the subject is
in the Rk. Prätisakhya when the placed first in a sentence; cf.
vowel 3? or sjy is changed into 3f rq 3cT:TO?;I c£ also
e. g. % ^pgpq:=$&&jFq: also srjpiT +
;p cf. R. Pr. II. 11. fcj^^ Padavakyaratnäkara*
elevation; named also gNffflffi. the word always refers
(1) elision, a term used in the in grammar to the famous com-
sense of ( lopa ' in the ancient gra- mentary by Nagcsabhatta written
mmar works; (2) name of a com- in the first decade of the 18th
mentary on the Haima-lingä- century A. D. on the Mahabha-
nusäsana. syapradlpa of Kaiyata, The
^ description; mention of quali- Uddyota appears to be one of the
ties; cf. 3$: siRiirn M. Bh. on I . earlier works of NHgesa. It is
3.2; the word is used in contrast also called Vivarana, The com-
with ^q^ sr or direct mention; ef. mentary is a scholarly one and is
looked upon as a final word re •
the exposition of the Mahabhasya-
It is believed that Magesa wrote
12 Uddyotas and 12 Sekharas
which form some authoritative
commentaries on prominent works
in the different Sästras.
^TcRSTSffi name of a commentary
on the 'Tantrapradipa* ofMai-
M. Bh, treya Raksita,which latter h a

mentary on Jinendrabuddhi's I The

Nyasa which itself is a commen- word is found in the sense of
tary on Jayaditya's Käsikä. Pada in the Mahabhäsya on P.
"** a technical term In thejainendra III. 1.40. The commentator on
Grammar for the terms g j and <g^; Puspasütra explains the word as
cf. er^Rfiqft \ OTW etffq qsact ifcT OT3T|:. The
Jain. Pari. 85, author of the Kasikä on P. VI.
ain Pari. 20. 2.134 has cited the reading
fJN instead of =^oi^a-
a class of words headed by r: and made the remark
the word ^q^ after which the
taddhita affix, added in the sense This remark shows that in an-
of Tfipsr ( grand-children etc. ) is cient times 3q$r? meant m^^i i. e.
optionally elided, provided the a word in the genitive case. This
word is to be used in the plural sense gave rise to, or was based
number; cf. OT^ss^T: upon, an allied serse3 viz. the
also 3W5BT:, sftq^T^RT: meaning of ^gT i. e. possession.
^OTil; WJtV. 3m«R: 1 Kas. on PB Possibly the sense * possession '
II. 4. 69. further developed into the further
a fault in the pronunciation sense 'possession of the fruit or
of letters, noticed sometimes in result for self or others' referring
the utterance of a letter adjoin- to the T%2; affixes which possessed
ing such a letter as is coloured that sense. The old sense cßr§^f?cfJ
with a musical tone on account of the word c^q?T|' having gone
of the proximity of the adjacent out of use, and the sense cq^'
letter which is uttered in a musical having come in vogue, the word
note and which therefore is called '%m9 must have been substituted
for the word cm^9 by some
q 3 ^ | Kaiyata's grammarians before the time of
Pradipa on M.-Bh. I. Ähnika L the Käsikakäras. As Patanjali
a term used by the ancient has dropped the Sutra (VI. 2.134),
grammarians in the sense of the it cannot be said definitely
Parasmaipada and the Ätmane- whether the change of reading
pada affixes. The word is not took place before Patanjali or
found in Pänini's Astädhyäyl. after him.
The Varttikakära has used the (1) taking a secondary sense;
word in his Värttika implication; lit. moving for a sense
on P. I I I . 2-127 evidently in the which is near about; the same as
sense of Pada affixes referring to &m. The word s?F(K is explained
the Ätmanepada as explained by as OTTO, employment or current
Kaiyata in the words aqjR^ sncrft- usage, by Patanjali; cf. W3KR5; I
tRS^FTT ^ $ : I The word occurs ^ i M. Bh. I. 1. h
in the Slokavärttika §fnf qsi|l%W^ W Värt. 4; ( 2 ) substitution of the
* quoted by Pata^jali in his Mahä- letter ^ for fägtf ; cf.
bhäsya on s^wff ^ g ^ , ?• 'III. % P J V . U Värt 7.
1.85, where Nägesa writes lit. origin; one that originates,
augment^ gq^cT sflgfr m^\: I i

word is used in the sense of 'addi- upon as occurring in the original

tional phonetic element'^ cf. instruction although it is not
"Hqsffi oqin^: M. Bh. on Siva- there. See ^q^ g f a s n g q ^ q s ^
sütra 5; cf. also . VII. 1 58. Värt. 1.
j r a ; I Siva Sutra 5 Värt. 15. name of a samdhi which is
The Rk Prätisäkhya gives 5 in described as ^üTf^; in R.Pr; e- g,
5^?£ as an instance of. OT3F! cf. ^ ^Ü%„ See
R.Pr. IV. 37. In the Nirukta
gqsffi is given as the senae of the penultimate letter, as defined
prefix C3q' ; cf.^^jqsR^: The com. in the rule 3^^Tq4 ^q'^T P. I.
on the Nirukta explains the word 1. 65, e. g. see ^
as sr^Riq^ etc,; lit.
that which is placed near the last
a term used by later gramm- letter.
arians in connection with such a
rule on which another rule depends TSTR5n*faC a word or a noun which
cf. sq^FWcRIT^ W\A sraös^ Pari. has got the penultimate letter
Sekh, on Pari, 97, as also M. Bh. omitted; cf. 3R 3q^I#ffq%-q^^in
on \&tfa ^ P. III. 1.26. The P. IV. 1. 28.
relationship known as Jsqsftsqtqsft- a letter or a phonetic elem-
spPTFJ occurs several times in gra- ent substituted for a visarga foll-
mmar which states the inferiority owed by the first or the second
of the dependent as noticed in letter of the labial class, Visarga is
the world. simply letting the breath out of
the mouth. Where the visarga is
instruction; original enuncia-
tion; first or original precepts or followed by the first or the second
teaching; cf. ^ letter of the labial class, its pronun-
ciation is coloured by labial
K. on the rule utterance. This coloured utterance
P, I. 3. 2. cf cannot be made independently;
Bh. on Ahn. 1. Värt, 15. For diff- hence this utterance called * OTvsrr-
erence between ^q^T and j ^ see
qfa ' ( similar to a sound blown
; cf. also ^qfeq^cgql^
p n , ^ :fe«5qT3&rKäsikä on P. from the mouth ) is not put in, as
I. 3.2; cf. also Vyädi. Pari. 5; (2) an independent letter^ in the c*4-
employment (of a word) for others qmwn attributed to *f|^. Pataüj-
cf. sqfcsr:TO*r:R%i: I ^*#r g f^TT ali, however^ has referred to such
^T ^T^gq^?l: Käs. on dependent utterances by the term
P. I. 4. 70. % i See swrTRTI; cf. X^ ^f&
: i fäü*Rfo vRRsrig; i xq ^gq-
such a word as is found in
the original instruction. also called <Rf4i%e^. See ^^1%^»
lSt^Rr occurrence in the origi- proposition, statement The
nal statement before the applica- remark *%FR ^q^^TOT;' is of frequ-
tion of any affixes etc., cf. ^cRtgq- ent occurrence in the Vyakaraija
>föF*Krat q^öm, M. Bh. on P. I. Mahäbhäsya in connection with
1.56, Värt. 23. statements that are defective and
fe statement to the effect have to be refuted or corrected; cf.
that a word should l?e looked M.Bh, on P. 1.1,21,46,50; 1.2*5 etc,

Ht.a word placed near; an adjo- kavibhakti than in the case of an

ining word. In Pänini's grammar, upapadavibhakti.
the term ^qqc[ is applied to such jq^^fSTig1 the compound of a word,
words as are put in the locative technically termed as ^^ by
case by Pänini in his rules prescri- Pänini according to his definition
bing kit affixes in rules from III. of the word in III. L 92., with
1, 90'to IIL 4 end; cf.' ^jmt another word which is a verbal
LP. III. 1. 92; e. g. ^ in derivative; cf. ^wq^:, ^JR^iTC:-
^ P. III. 2.1- The word is also Here technically the compound of
used in the sense of an adjoining the words =£3*1, ^TJ< etc. which are
word connected in sense, e. g. upapadas is formed with sfn^before
gsrifqqsco as also 5f^T% =3 % % a case-termination is added to the
P. I. 4. 105, 106; cf. also nominal base ^K; cf. 7]ß[^R^tqq^t
ffe: ^f^TW^^[5n^lS?f%: Par. Sek.
Käs. on P. III. 3.10; cf. also Pari. 75.
% P J.3.10, a technical term used in the
P. I. 3.71, as also ^ Pretisäkhya works in the sense of
P. II 2. 19; and JT^R^R^fg; P. words which proceed from a rule
VI. 2. 139. Kaiyata on P. III. 1. to the following rules upto a par-
92 Värt. 2 explains the word ticular stated limit; cf. ^q^F^Rg
as ^qr^rft or 3q"F3rföf qt ^ ^RTR FR3^ T. Pr I. 59 explained
The word OTT? is found used in by the commentator as $
the Prätisäkhya literature where I
it means a word standing near and
effecting some change; cf„ ^ 3T f

Uvata on V. Pr. ^ J seven

VI. 23. stages or places in the production
of articulate speech, upämsu being
a grammatical operation the first stage; cf. *r^gqf§jR?j
caused by a word which is near; Tait. Pr. 23.9 explained by the
cf. ^qqc^fcf^t ^^rf^uf^w^ P. I. 1. 72 commentator as:
Värt 95 also 3#TTO1? 3qq^fä*fT P. IV
1.1. Värt. 8 where rules such as
* sf^faqa^ * and the following are g (l) the famous commentator on
referred to as gqq^fäfä, the words the grammatical verses attributed
> etc. bing called to Nandikesvara which are known
by the rule ^ P. III byy the name ^f^%*^=Fn^ft
^ n ^ and
1. 92- which form a kind of a comment-
finrirR a case termination add- ary on the sütras of Mahesvara;
ed to a word on account of the (2) a comparatively modern gra-
presence of another word requir- mmarian possibly belonging to the
ing the addition; cf. the well-known nineteenth century who is also
Paribhäsa ^qq^i%^%: ^ R ^ ^ I % # Q 5 I - named Upamanyu and who has
W . Par! Sek. Pari. 94; and M.Bh. written a commentory on the fam-
on 1.4. 96 stating the possession of ous Käsikävrtti by Jayäditya and
greater force in the case of a kara- Vämana. Some believe that Upa-
manyu was an ancient sage who an ancient grammarian and
wrote a nirukta or etymological Mlrnämsaka believed to have been
work and whose pupil came to be the brother of Varsa and the
known as sftcR^. preceptor of Pänini. He is refer-
a well-known term in Rhetorics red to, many times as an ancient
meaning the figure of speech writer of some Vrttigranthas.
simile ' or c comparison \ The
Immediate contact, as for
word is often found in the Nirukta
in the same sense; cf. 3T2ricrOTWI instance, of one word with another;
^ ^cRX^g^J^^fcr^: I Nir 111.13. : cf. ^<sm ^ w^\ ^F%fwf-tr qfää-
Generally an inferior thing is com- l T f^fcf 3FW 3 q % ^ i M.Bh. on VI,
pared to another that is superior J^ 1.72. The word 3TCT%g: is also
in quality. found in the Mahäbhäsya in the
standard of comparison. The same context.
word is found in the Päninisütra jq^t^TH mention, generally of the
^ : PJI.L55 where type of the annexation of some
the Käsikävrtti explains it as words to words already given, or
of some limiting conditions or
an object which is compared. additions to what has been already
The word is found in Päninisütra stated. The word is often found
OTfa& ^Mf^fcf: P J L 1.56, where at the end of the statements made
the Kasikä paraphrases it by the by the Värttikakara on the sütras
word ^Jtq and illustrates It by the of Pänini.; cf. P.I.L29 Vart. I;
word jps[ in jpspKfla. 1.1.36 Vart. 3 etc. The words
cTF^I and sftpq are also similarly
an object which is to be com- used. The word is found similarly
pared. See gqföl. used in the Mahäbhäsya also very
j^^pJT implication^ indication; a frequently.
thing indicatory of another thing.
The term is very frequently found inclusion of something, which
in commentary works in connec- is not directly mentioned; cf.
tion with a word which signifies l\I.3.48,also
something beyond it which is Kas.
similar to it; the indication is on P. VII.4,65.
generally Inclusive; cf. Käsikä on union ;<
^ ^ PJ.3.68 ^ q ^ S ^ O T I ^ prepositions arc
as also qr^o} g *&?%& signs to show that such a union
, s. on I L 4.80. The with another sense has occurred
verbal forms of^f and ^q®i$t as also in the case of the noun or verb to
the words Sfcgfägq3 3 ^ t e , ^i%cT etc. which they arc prefixed, Nir.
possess the sense of 'expressing (2) addition; cf. s#^i5} f|
the meaning not primarily, but ^tt&tinft: wi^: m^ M.Bh. on P.
secondarily by Indication or IV. 2 21.VSrt. 2.
implication*. drawa close; cf*sngif
a substituted word element; T* Fr* IL14. The root gwäf is
cf. %R: 33% ^ used in the sense of fiBishijag in
the Mahabhasya; ^ t # ^ ^
ir. X. 17.

as possessing some specific senses

M.Ph. on Pll.4. 109 Värt. 6. when preceded by some specific
TO^tr compounded together, join- prefixes (see P. I. 3.205 24, 25,
ed together by special grammatical 4 0 , 4 1 , 4 6 , 52, 56, tic), which
connection called ^srre"; cf. implies possibly that roots them-
selves possess various senses, while
M. Bh. on VTL 1.1. Värt. 18. prefixes are simply instrumental
f preposition, prefix. The in indicating or showing them.
word ^Hq^t originally meant On the other hand, in the topic
only c a prefixed word 5; cf. ^Tqgrrjj of the Karmapravacaniyas,the same
qmg R. Pr. X V I . 33. 'I he word words 5Tj TO etc. which, however,
became technically applied by are not termed Upasargas for the
ancient Sanskrit Grammarians to time beingj although they are
the words sr? mj, arc, ^ etc, called Nipätas, are actually assign-
which are always used along ed some specific senses by Pänini.
with a verb or a verbal deriva- The Värttikakära has defined
tive or a noun showing a verbal ^m as T%s|TT%ts(ffi 3TO^r; P. I.
activity; cf. 3WfT: f^T^R P. I. 3.L Värt 7, leaving it doubtful
4.59. These prefixes arc necessari- whether the 3TO3T or prefix posses-
iy compounded with the follow- ses an independent sense which
ing word unless the latter is a modifies the sense of the root,
verbal form; cf. ^TlcOT^q: P. II. or without possessing any inde-
2.18. Although they are not pendent sense, it shows only the
compounded with a verbal form, modified sense of the root which
these prepositions are used in also is possessed by the root.
juxtaposition with it; sometimes Bhartrhari, Kaiyata and their
they are fonnd detached from the followers including Nagesa have
verbal form even with the inter- emphatically given the view that
vention of one word or more. not only prefixes but Nipätas 3
The prefixes are instrumental in whi h include 2?? q^T and others
changing the meaning of the root. as Upasargas as well as Karma»
Some scholars like Sakatäyana pravacamyas, do not denote any
hold the view that separated from sense, but they indicate it; they
the roots, prefixes do not express are in fact ^rcl^ and not m^W*.
any specific sense as ordinary For details see Nir. I. 3, Väkya-
words express^ while scholars padiya I I . 190, Mahabhäsya on
like Gärgya hold the view that IB 3.1. Värt. 7 and Pradipa and
prefixes do express a sense e. g. Uddyota thereon. The Rk Prä-
5T means beginning or ETCWJ; cf. tisäkhya has discussed the ques-
l f ^ tion in XII. 6-9 where, as
explained by the commentator,
it is stated that prefixes express a
sense along with roots or nouns
Nir. I. 8. It is doubtful, however, to which they are attached. It
which view Pänini himself held. is not clear whether ihey convey
In his Ätmanepada topic, he has the sense by denotation or indi-
mentioned some specific roots i ^ the words ^F^FF in stanza

6 and f%*f^ in stanza 8 being in (1) adjective, subordinate

favour of the former and the member which does not get the
latter views respectively; cf treatment of the principal mem-
ber, eB g. ^TT%^TO^^ P. 1.2.48,
P.I V. 1.14
^ r : R. Pr, XII. l: SM K . on P. I. 1.29, also
st. 6 and 8. For the list of upa- P.I.I.27 Vart.2;(2) a word referred
sargas see R. Pr. XII. 6, T. to by the word which is put in the
PJC. I. 15, V. Pr. VI.24, and S. nominative case in rules of Pänini
K. on P. I. 4.60. prescribing compounds, e. g. «£2
H^raicSRn the view or doctrine (in the compound ^5]^:) which is
that prefixes, by themselves, do referred to by the word T%jfRT in
not possess any sense, but they the rule TScffqT 'feOTRTo P.ILL24
indicate the sense of the verb or which prescribes the Ace. Tat-
noun with which they are conne- purusa compound. These words
cted. For details see Vakyapadiya are given the first place in a com-
II. 165-206; also vol. VII. pages pound; cf. ssRifäf^ä OTTO ^ r o ^ n i
370-372 of Vyäkarana Mahäbhä- P.I.2.43,3TO*t q ^ P JL2.30; (3) a
sya ed. by the D. E. Society, word which has one and the same
Poona. case when a compound in the
connection with a prefix; different cases is shown as dissolv-
joining of the prefix. Some ed, e. g. the word ^teli^t in the
scholars of grammar hold the view compound fä^Sflffer: which keeps
that the Upasarga is prefixed to its ablative case when the com-
the root and then the verbal pounds ft^Wn^m, f5ir4t^m%^T,
form is arrived at by placing the ^j etc. are dissolved; cf.
desired terminations after the ^ PJ.2.44.
root, while others hold the oppo- l attended with a prefix, gene-
site view; cf. ijs ^ rally used in connection with
T % roots; e,g. fW||"req^[2%: ^ ^ P J . 4 3 8
f: Siradeva's Paribha- where the Kasika has explained
sävrtti Pad. 131, 132; cf. also the word as fl
vol. VII. Mahäbhasya edited by introduction of the necessary
the D. E. Society, Poona, pages changes in the wording of the
371-372. base, such as elision^ or addition
a treatise on upasargas, by or substitution of a letter or letters
Harikrsna,, as caused by the addition of
a treatise on upasargas suffixes.
by Gadädhara Gakravartin. occurrence; presence by vir-
a short anonymous
y work tue of anuvrtti i. c* recurrence or
on the nature of upasargas or continuation of a word in the
prepositions explaining their mean- rules that follow; cL ^
ings with illustrations.
^ITI a treatise on upasargas by M.Bh. on 1*3.11. Vart. *L
Bharatamalla in the Sixteenth a word used rather techni-
Century A.D. cally in the sense of the word ^ft

which is used in the Krama and change of Visarga into s (5);

other recitals when Vedic reciters sibilation of Visarga, e. g.
show separately the two words qfcf; =5 TO^i^Tcr:. The words
compounded together by uttering and ^qi^Rcf are found used in the
the compound word first, then same sense by ancient Grammari-
the word ^i% and then the two ans. See 3q=3R; cf.
compound words, e. g. g^RJ 3 ^fcT 5R4, CI^T o]
§-^RJ I T^FTO! ITcT fä^HWT. The
Käsikä defines the word sqfäsRT as R, Pr. VIII.12.
[ hypothesis, presumption,
; Käs. on VI. 1.129. acceptance.
The Rk-Prätisäkhya explains the lit. near the first; second.
word rather differently, but in the
same context.The word after which condition, limitation3 determi-
^fcf is placed is called upasthita e.g. nant, qualification; e.g. ^ ft 3qT^-
the word q j | in 3lf ^fcf or f^TFWT ^qif^T%, f^W^T ö[T fätWU. M.Bh.
in f^rRFI^t fRT as contrasted with on 1.3.2 as also on V J . 1 6 ; cf- also
"Rsjcr i. e, the word without fßf e.g.
3Tg or fä^iTTOt, as also contrasted \ M.Bh. on I I I . 1.7.
with 1%ltTqf^RT i. e. the whole word lit. near the last; penultimate.
•fäsTR^t ffct isRTS3$T which is also The word is generally found used
called $\%ß or fäföcT; (2) occurring, in the Cändra Vyäkarana.
present; cf ^T%TQ* ä$I<Tft*irc^ I q^ see 3qRT; the word is gene-
^ I Par. Sek. Pari.3. rally found used in the grammars
(1) with, preceded by; e.g. of Säkatäyana and Hemacandra.
ft pffaficl; (2) sticking to, near or before the last;
connected with, 'sq^f^cf; cf.Durga the term is generally used in con-
on Nir.V.12;(3) coming to be^plac- nection with words having two or
ed near or in juxtaposition with the more syllables, where it means
preceding word; cf. f^flra the vowel before the last (vowel);
R. Pr. 11.15. cf. sqtxm ftfit P. VL1. 217 and
3£ lit. inaudible. The word is P.V.l. 132 where
explained in the technical sense the writer of the Käsikä explains it
as the first place or stage in the as f ^
utterance of speech where it is giving mtfm and m$m as examples
perfectly inaudible although pro- where the long t is upottama; cf.
duced; cf, aqjg iftr si*tf sn^i; CTH^ alsoT.Pr. XI.3. andNir.1.19 where
Com. on T. Pr. XXIII. 5. the word refers to the third out of
the four feet of the verse.
l1 (1) sibilation; substitution
of a sibilant letter for a visarga; ^ a supporting assertion or
cf. tg^qraf^r * R. Pr. XI.I9; (2) statement ;cf. cf^ttqtS^^^RI^ M.Bh«
name of the samdhi in which a on 1.2.64. VSrt. 38-39.
visarga is changed into a sibilant both the alternatives; both
letter; cf. €^#IRföT: € ^1%: R. the senses; double signification;cf.
Pr. I V . 14 which corresponds to gippifäfts Wfä PJJ.23,Värt,4,Pari.
Pänini VIII. 3.18 and 19. Öek, P^r. 9 where the word ubhaya,

refers to both the senses—the ordi- (1) double voice—the Paras-

nary one ( sjffösr) and the techni- maipada as well as the Atmane-
cal one ( |-4*ffi)—e.g. the meanings pada; (2) both the words or
( i) numeral, and ( ii) words ^ T\U\ members (in a compound); cf.
etc. of the word *fc3T. ; Käs on P.L2.57.
Rn presenting a difTiculty in a root conjugated in both
both the ways; cf mi the Padas; a root to which
* M.Bh. on VI.L68.
both, the Parasmaipada and the
lit, speaking or showing Ätmanepada terminations are
both the padas or voices; possess- affixed; e.g. roots ?., 4l5 J)3 etc.
ed of both the padas viz. the
Parasmaipada and the Atmane- R3Tfö a case or a matter in which
pada. The wrord is found common- both the alternatives occur, as for
ly used in the Dhätupatha of instance, the genitive case for the
Panini. subject and the object of a verbal
in both the ways lit. in both derivative noun ( f ^ ) ; cf.
the places; cf. ^m =g P. I. 1. 44
V:rt. 22. The word 3*R^fcRTO is
used in grammar referring to the fqj ij^; %\i\\q\<z:$«\ Kä». on P.
option ( fcRTST) which is srifT as also II. 3. 66.
3T5JTJT; cf.M.Bh.on P.I.1.26 Vart.22. possessed of both the kinds
in both the ways (in the case of properties; cf. 3 ^'-.I^l^vf^iq^ ^
of an option, of course); cf. ^ ^ 3 - <icfRmi^t ^% milft ^ M.Blu on
*R*CT PJII.4.117 where the word P.I.2.:31; cf. also wnmu% W\i%: V.
ubhayathä refers to both the alter- PrJ.110.
native uses e.g. Sürvadhätuka and the augment :s affixed to the
£rdhadhatuka;so also vidhilin and last vowel of ?i*{ by P.VIL4.2Ü;
äsirlin; cf. Käsikä on P.III.4.117. c.g. VMr^
The term ubhayathä is described tad-affix 3 ^ with ucldtta accent
as synonymous with *bahulam9 or on the last vowel, affixed to the
anyatarasyarh5 or'vä'or *ekesäm\' word <^<f when it refers to protu-
cf. STfoS^clWSWlT err q&qrßfä M. berant teeth; of. P.V.2.66; c-g.
Bh. on PJ. 1.44; Värt. 19; cf. also
^ w ^ f R W wfäf R.Pr.XV.8.
¥fq^err a . hiatus or a stop which a class of words headed by
occurs between two long-vowelled the word Hl^ to which the saraa-
syllables; the term <PTO^RT is a santa affix ^ ( ^ ) is added, when
conventional term in the Prati- these words stand at the end of
sakhya literature. The termgsR- Bahuvrlhi compounds; cf. oajj53<te*l
f ^1 is similarly used in connection o^K^:similarly ftqyW«^:» Kai on
with short vowels. 1W.L151-
a restriction understood in produced at the breast; cf*%1^-
both the ways; cf. %TT 3 ^ 1 R.l*rJ.18, explained by
the commentator as %f^PH^
! M. Bh. on P.
III.1.2, Värt. 11; cf. also M„ Bh. opening (of the hole of the
on VL2.148. throat); the words.

used in the sense of 'opening of conjugation, roots ending in

the glottis' which is described as and the root ^ ? e. g. q^g: g
a characteristic condition of the | sif^^^ 3^:, 3 1 % , etc.; cf.
utterance of a vowel accented s. on III.4.108-112.
grave or ^g^RT; cf. Unädi affix ^ applied to the
root ^ to form ^gg; cf. 5f^R%: Un,
g M.Bh. sütra. 272.
on sfi^RSSRT: P. I. 2.30; cf. T. Pr.
on XXII, 9,10.
a variety of the Vedic metre
in which the first päda con- long vowel ^i", ^ being the short
sists of twelve syllables and the vowel.
rest of eight syllables; cf. R. Pr.
i augment padded to the ^qi^r or
XVI. 33.
the reduplicative syllable of the root
( 3^1;) substitute for the vowel ^^ which is doubled before the
3 belonging, to the Vikarana 3T, to affix m which is used instead of sr
roots and to the noun ^J under ( £ f : )); e,g.
certain conditions; cf sipg
4 # P. VI. 4.77. krt affix g^P added to the root
to form the word ; cf.
also ^*tt or ^SJH: a reputed
Kaasmirian scholar and writer who
was the son of Vajrata. He wrote f fern, affix ^ prescribed after
many learned commentaries, some masculine nouns ending in the
of which are known as Bhäsyas. vowels and denoting a human be-
Some of his important works are ing as also after some other specific
Rkprätisäkhyabhäsya, VäjasaneyL masculine bases; cf, 3vfcT: P. IV.
prätisäkhyabhäsya, V&jasaneyisa- 1.66 and the following sütras. e.g.
mhitäbhäsya, Vedärthadipikä etc. ^ ^ etc.
ÖT^ (3N5) name of the second of Sft
c T also ^S ägama ^ and C3 prescrib-
the main "seven Vedic metres ed after the roots 5 and % before
which are known by the name the affix <^ or ^ e- g„ ^m]i cl^cflt
5 5
^nqfcF ^ ^. The Usnik metre con- ^T vwnq;, ^cnt ^5iit ^fi:; cf. Käs.
sists of 28 syllables divided into on P. VII.2.34.
three pädas of 8, 8 and 12 sylla- ^ ^ (1) samprasärana vowel 5R sub-
bles. It has got many varieties stituted for the ^ of 3il[ under cer-
such as 3^3f^li>, *E*g$ and others; tain conditions e.g., 3^:» cf. m%
for details see R. Pr. XVI 20-26. ^ P . VI. 4.132; (2) substitute 3?
(1) substitute for p e n d i n g of the for ^ before certain affixes; e. g*
third pers.plu., in the perfect tense ^ c|ji: etc. cf. ^
and in the present tense in the P. VI.4.19, 20.
case of the roots fc[<* and gr, e.g. J (1) long vowel ^ which cannot
% and siTf: cf. P. I I I . 4. 82-81 ; be combined by rules of samdhi
(2) substitute ^ (gg) for % in the with the following vowel when it
potential and the benedictive comes at the end of the forms of the
moods, as also after the aorist dual number; e. g. € 1 ^ 3 ^ etc.; c£
sign € and after roots of the third

L1.19; (2) long name of a combination or

vowel 3? substituted for the short 3 fa where a visarga is changed
of the root art| before an affix be- into a breathing (3OT^). It has
ginning with a vowel e. g. got two varieties named ^mq^
cf. a^gWFJT ^ : P. VI.4.89. where the visarga is changed into a
substitution of the long vowel 3^; breathing as for instance in q ^ ^ : 3
see M. Bh. on P. 1.1.12, VI.1.85. while it is called f^pf/i^ (passed
^ marked with the mute indica- over) where it remains unchanged
toryy letter <R;; cf. ^ ^ ^ j as for instance in m qs*gm9 m q^;
I prescribing the addition of the cf. R- Pr. IV. 11.
augment % optionally in the case modification of a word» in a
of grf^ roots P. VII. 2-44. Vedic Mantra, so as to suit the
deficient, wanting; often in com- context in which the mantra is to
pounds e. g. "TKto, SR, Wfä; cf. be utilised, generally by change of
$ rf^ R. Pr. VIII. 28; case affixes; adaptation of a man-
IN fäf ^TT%FT if^ R. tra; cf, 3R? f ^ifüf^
FS§|5cft (fä*I«r) a variety of the
metre Brhati which has three M, Bh. on P, 1.1 Ahnika 1.
pädas of twelve syllables each; cf.
% C%f fä R
Pr. XVL33.
a class of words headed by 3R fourth vowel in Pänini's alphabet;
the words gtfr 3^t etc. ending in possessed of long and protracted
the taddhita affix f^r, which are varieties and looked upon as
given the designation *ifä provided cognate ( ^qrff ) with $S which has
they are related to a verbal acti- no long type in the grammar of
vity, and as a result, which can be Pänini; cf.R.Pr.I,9; V.Pr.VIIL 3.
compounded with krdanta words (2) unadi suffix sp applied to the
ending in ^ §ft, etc. cf; g^fKq, root ^IT to form -the word ^ ;
^tfcT^etc; Käs on P* 1.4.61. e. g. 9%T mW%:; cf.
tad. affix applied to the words Un SO, II. 101.
^TTcT and ^ in the sense of 'unable the letter *m with its 18 varieties
to bear'; e. g- 3TJ^:, ^"^5; see Käs. made up of the fw, # i 5 ^cf» and
on V. 2.122. ^II^ITI^^ varieties and characteriz-
aspiration letters, spirants call- ed by the three accents. *fl and gj
ed breathings also; the name is are looked upon as cognate In
given to letters or sounds produced Pänini's grammar and hence, *R
with unintonated breath through could be looked upoa as possessed
an open posision of the mouth; cf* of 30 varieties including 12 varie-
fät^QTR M - Bh, on P. I. L10 ties of 55.
Vart, 3. The word refers to the a work consisting of five chap*
letters 5, 5, H, | , visarga, jihvämfi- ters containing in all 287 sutras. It
liya, upadhmaniya and aixusvära; covers the same topics as the PrSt*
cf. gwT ^ng^r^qRT m] w*m: R. Pr. Isakhya works and is looked upon
J.12; cf. ^lso T, Pr. 1.10. as one of the Pratiiäkhya woyks of
T Pr
the Säma Veda. Its authorship is f ^ - - XXII. 13. Accord-
attributed to Säkatäyana according ing to Rk. Tantra it consists of
to Nägesa, while em^psr is held as two mäträs.
its author by some, andTO^rFffiby short vowel ^?. before which the
others. It bears a remarkable preceding vowel is optionally left
similarity to PäninFs Astädhyäyi as it is, i. e, without coalescence
especially in topics concerning co- and shortened also if long; cf.
alescence and changes of ^ and ^ : P. VI. 1.128,
to ^ and qT respectively. It cannot possessed of short sp; cf. 3
be definitely said whether it pre-
ceded or followed Pänini*s work. ,
possessed of the mute indica-
T I ^ one of the Prätisäkhya tory letter ^ signifying in the
works belonging to the Äsvaläyana Grammar of Pänini the preven-
Säkhä of the Rg Veda. The work tion of the shortening of the long
available at present, appears to be vowel in the reduplicated syllable
not a very old one,possibly written of the Causal Aorist form of
a century or so after Pänini's time. roots which are marked with it;
It is possible that the work, which
e. g. 3I3MTCR1; ^ « t t ^ S R ^ F ^
is available, is based upon a few
etc. cf. qpätflW^fßRrra: P. VII.4.2.
ancient Prätisäkhya works which
are losL Its authorship is attribu- a class of words headed by
ted to Saunaka. The work is a the word ^F^I to which the tad-
metrical one and consits of three dhita affix ^ is added in the four
books or Adhyäyas, each Adhyäya senses prescribed in the rules IV.
being made up of six Patalas or 2.67-70; e. g. WWfX) ^SRlP^: etc.
chapters. It is written, just as the cf. P. IV. 2.80.
other Prätisäkhya works, with a the metre of the Vedic
view to give directions for the seers. The seven metres—^TFHt,
proper recitation of the Veda. It l%, f^rgSL and
has got a scholarly commentary consisting respectively of 24,
written by Uvata and another one 28, 325 36, 40, 44 and 48 syllables
by Kumära who is also called are named ^ t ^ ^ H as contrasted
Visnumitra. See with the metres %, sn^tFT^f and
a class of words headed ^T§*, which, when combined to-
by to which the taddhita gether, make the metres of the
affix srcrr (3T) is affixed in the Vedic seers. For details see R.
sense of * produced therein * (cf^r Pr. XVI. 1.5.
m: )? or e explanatory of * ( taddhita affix s ^ in the sense
: ); cf. s ^ of ^descendant' applied to names
of ancient sages, by the rule
f: etc. Käs. on P. IV. P. IV. 1.114;
3.73. e. g.
verse-pause equal to 3
mäträkälas or three maträ units,
long variety of the vowel ^g.

p (roots) ending in ^ which cf. si ^4% T^af M. Bh. on P; I.

have the vowel m changed into 4.2 r.
^ by the rule ^cT %5J%\: P. VII, transitive verbs having one
1.1.00; e, g. f^fö, object, as contrasted with iär-b&b";
cf. katantra IV. 6. 62
^ possessed of one verb; given
as a definition of a sentence; cf.
short vowel ^ taken to be H^iclf P.ILl. 1. Värt 10, explained
cognate of ^, and described as by Patanjali as R
vocalic form of the letter 3>.
(roots) marked with the mute ^ in the same direction, given
indicatory letter c5, which tale as the sense of the tad. affix cR^by
the substitute 3T ( sif?) for f^, the Pänini; cf, cftspfiEjj I cH%&T I P. IV.
Vikarana of the aorist; e. g. j 3. il2, 113.
$r^^ cf. ^f a part or a portion of the
P. HI. 1.55. whole ;cf. tTc^ifc[|,cFT^?^cfcJ Pari-Sek*
Pari 37; also M. Bh. Siva-Sütra 2
Värt 4; i ^ ^ i g ^ M.Bh„ on P.VI,
1. 93 Värt. 5;" cf. also q^R^Hft
t* diphthong vowel ^ made up of si . IX. 16.
and ^ and hence having ^ffScFig- a thing or a substance )
W^ as its place of origin. It has composed of parts; cf. the term
no short form according to Panini. ^ or p, in
In cases where a short vowel as a connection with compounds of
substitute is prescribed for it in words such as ^ ®& and others
grammar, the vowel % is looked with words showing the constituted
upon as its short form. Patanjali whole (tj^jtföO prescribed by the
in his Mahäbhasya has observed rule ^q^^xi#^fe%il%^l[ P. II.
that followers of the Satyamugri 2, 1; (2) a partisan; cf. the word
and Ranayamya branches of the ^ ^ used often by com-
Sämaveda have short t? ( Q; ) in mentators.
their Sämaveda recital and has ^ the maxim that * a
given gsift wjg^r, spstfl wfftTm thing is called or taken as that
g ^ a s illustrations; cf,M. Bh, on very thing although it is lacking
I. 1.48; as also the article on. in a part/ stated^ briefly as xj^sfs»
(1) Singular number, ekavacana* ft Pari, 8ek Pari- 37. The
cf. tl ^T ^r q& fttftsg. V. Pr. II.3; maxim is given in all the different
the term is found used in this schools of grammar; cf, Sak Pari.
sense of singular number in the 17; Gandra Pari, 15, Kat. Par. Vr.
Jainendra, Öäkatäyana and Haima 1, Jfain. Par.Vr.l 1, Hem,Pari..7 etc.
grammars; ( 2 ) single (vowel) ^3»rf§r consent to a part of the
substitute (TT^JT^) for two (vowels); whole, admission of one part as
cf ^ : gWft: P. VI. L 84; 3$rcsgSf correct.
T. Pr X. 1; ( 3 ) many, a certain one and the same individual
number; (used ia pi. in this sense), substance; cf* the words

M. Bh. on P. I. 4. 23, (1) combination of two Sütras

on P.VIII.l. 51, into one; |
given as a definition of
M, Bh. on P. I. 4. 1. 25; (^) one and the same Sutra;cf.
made up of one word; con- lJ^[Trf^KSRt ^ff ^T Uffrlläf ^T RfT%:
sisting of one word; cf.'QT^T ^ Pari.Sek.Pari.17; cf. also tT^iTTFrf^
P. IV. 1. 27,
_ ^ M.Bh. Värt. 2, Pari. Sek. Pari. 39.
first Ahnika; (2) a continuous characterized by i.e.
word paraphrased as sra^gq^ and mentioned in one and the same
by commentators; cf. rule; cf. T ^ ^ T ^ S ^ T 53^i^% M.Bh.
sfg^FOT^ V.Pr.II. 18; (3) on P. I. 1. 62. Värt. 10. See also
every individual word: cf. £ M. Bh.on P. VL1.37.
singular number; affix of
made up of a single word; cf. the singular number in Pänini's gra-
mmar applied to noun-bases ( sufcf-
^ ^ i M. Bh. on P.I. qf^j) and roots when the sense of
1.21 Värt. 5; (2) made up of one the singular number is to be conv-
foot ( =3RN or qi^); cf. IT^J ts^pq^t* eyed; the singular sense can be of
(R.Pr.XVII.24) explained by the the form of an individual or colle-
commentator as % ction or genus. The word ^3=33
in the technical sense of singular
number is found used in the
combined together; cf. R. Prätisäkhyas and Nirukta also.
Pr. com. T37&qTfiR; or
u s e or treatment
5pJr H^rifl §^&; R. Pr. X I . 25, also of the plural sense as if it is singu-
XVIL26. lar; cf. ^ ^ ^ r t t s ^ 4 ^ ; i f
f5*TF^C (vowels) combined by rules M.Bh. on I I . 4.12. Värt 5.
of Sariidhi; cf. % 5 ^ % ^ T ^ R R. Pr. (a pada) made up of a single
VII.22. letter; cf. TZftm q ^ srr, 3 ITcT;
(1) possessed of one mäträ commentary on R.Pr. X.2; cf.
or mora; (2) a term used for a also V.Pr.IV. 144-145 where ^wm
short vowel which measures one is defined as ^FR^n^cSf capable
mäträ or mora; cf. of being produced with a single
Ath.Pr.1.60. effort. Pänini gives the term B^RI
a view or doctrine pro- to an affix made up of one single
pounded by one of the many letter; cf.SFjw t?3n*5 sm%: P.1.2.41.
ancient sages or munis who are an expression giving one
believed to be the founders of idea, either a single or a composite
a Sastra; a view propounded one. A positive statement and its
only by Panini, to the exclusion negation, so also, a general rule
of Kätyäyana and Patanjali; and its exception are looked upon
cf. ^5f^q% 3 SP^I f^^T^TR i as making a single sentence on
^ ^ Dur- account of their mutual expectancy
ghata-Vrtti 1.1.5; see also 1.4.24, even though they be sometimes
11.3.18/ detached from each other; cf«

M. Bh. on P. 1.2.64; cf. also

III. 4. 67; cf. also
3 I Bhasävrtti on P. I.
2.64. There is a dictum of gra-,
a mmarians that every individual
Par. Sek. object requires a separate ex-
on Pari. 3. Such sentences are, in pression to convey its presence.
fact, two sentences, but, to avoid Hence, when there is a dual sense,
the fault of rfosr, caused by gm^R, the word has to be repeated, as
grammarians hold them to be also the word has to be multiplied
composite single sentences. when there is a plural sense. In
ftp|¥fT% a pada having the same current spoken language, however,
case in the various dissolutions of in such cases the word is used
the compound word; e. g. the only once. To justify this
word €wi**ft in the compound single utterance for conveying the
word fäs#[#^, which stands only sense of plurality, Panini has laid
in the ablative case W M : , alth- down a general rule g^qiiyj^liq:
ough the wordftT^"RT,which stands tr^jcfsffift and many other similar
for the word fä?r, could be used in rules to cover cases of plurality not
many cases. The word f S r i i % of one and the same object, but
is also used in the same sense» plurality caused by many objects,
p single vrtti or gloss on the such as plurality caused by ideas
Vedic as well as classical portions going in pairs or relations such
of grammar. Purusottamadeva has as parents, brothers and sisters,
used this term in his Bhasävrtti grand-father and grand-son, male
to contrast his Vrtti (^TWfIrf) with and female. For example, see the
the Käsikävrtti and the Bhägavrtti words spsp* fim pri; similarly fijf:
which deal with both the portions; for many% trees, ted for ^TcTf xf
cf.3R$ ^PFf^TSqf^l Bhasävrtti on TOT =3; %Cl forVfi x? %m; cf. also
L 1. 16, cf. also Bhasävrtti on III, the words qsjCt, WcRf, wm (for 7TR
4. 99, IV. 3.22 and^ft% and ^rrprarfqaiJ^T^T^ffor r4 ^ Wi ^),4l
is possibly used by Purusottama- (for € =sf ?m) and ri\m fern, <%M) fem,
deva in the sense of g^fi% or mm- W^T: masc. irrespective of the indi-
^ifrf i. e. the common chief gloss viduals being some males and
on both the portions. some females* Pänini has devoted
a word having one sense 10 Sütras to this topic of Eka-
only, as opposed to S^^^RJ many sesa* The Daiva grammar has
words having the same sense or completely ignored this topic»
synonyms which are given in Patanjali has very critically and
Äs also in aprc#$r; ct 3T exhaustively discussed this topic«
: Mr. IV.L Some critics hold that the topic
a kind of composite formation of tT^tt«i did not exist in the ori-
in which only one of the two or ginal Astad'iyäyl of Panini but it
more words compounded together was interpolated later on, and ad-
subsists, the others being elided; duce the long discussion in the
cf. T33>; färBRf ?cK % Mahabliasya especially the Pürva-
I Kaslka on paksa therein, in support of their

argument. Whatever the case be,

the Värttikakära has commented
upon it at length; hence, the vz | M. Bh. on P. I, 2.33.
addition must have been made possessed of one vowel,mono-
immediately after Pänini, if at all syllabic; a term used by Hema-
there was any. For details see candra in his grammar for the
Mahäbhäsya on 1.1.64 to 73 as al- term X3^rf of Pänini; cf. &Ff#£[
sojntroduetion p. 166-167, Vol.7 t33j^[ Hcm.IV-1.2i which means
of the Mahäbhäsya published by thesame as 13331%I; spwsqP.VI.l.l.
the D. E. Society, Poona» ^o5lf^ having a single consonant
statement by subsistence of at the beginning; cf. T 3 C
one word out of many. The phrase P. VI .3. 59.
is very often used in the Mahä- (a vowel) placed between
bhäsya where the omission of an two single consonants; e.g. the
individual thing is explained by vowel 3T in q^f, ^ ^r, etc.
saying that the expression used is
consisting of one single sylla-
a composite one including the
omitted thing along with the thing ble ; e.g. &, *k ^Tg etc.; cf.
already expressed; cf. ^fä^
onP.V.2.115, as also on VI.1.168,
M. Bh. on I. L 27, on I. 1.59, VI.4.161.
I, 2.39, as also on 1.3.1 Värt. 5,1.4. ^ ^ 1 ^ possessed of a single vowel,
101 Värt 3, II. h l . Värt. 19 etc. monosyllabic; cf. ^ T % \ 5T«W^q P.
that which has got the same VI. 1 . 1 .
accent or tone; uttarance in the ^ ^ name given by Siradeva
same tone; monotone. The word and other grammarians to the
is applied to the utterance of the first päda of the sixth adhyäya cf
vocative noun or phrase calling a Pänini's ÄstädhyäyT, as it begins
man from a distance, as also to with the sütra NiT
that of the vowels or syllables VI. 1.1.
following a Svarita vowel in the I^^X a single substitute in the place
Samhitä i.e. the continuous utter- of two original units; e.g. n in the
ance of Vedic sentences; cf. i33jgfir place of 3T and i;,or aft in the place
I5R93S& and the foil. P. L2.33-°40 of 3T and 3 . The ädesas or substitu-
and the Mahäbhäsya thereon. In tes named 'jjfeq and^^q are looked
his discussion on I. 2.33 Patanjali upon as ekadesas in Pänini's
has given three alternative views grammar although instead of
about the accent of Ekasrutl sylla- them, the omission of the. latter
bles : (a) they possess an ac- and former vowels respectively, is
cent between the ^pcf (acute) prescribed in some Prätisäkhya
a n d s r g ^ (grave), (b) they are works. jpT and fft; are sometimes
in the same accent as is posses- single substitutes for single origi-
sed by the preceding vowel, (c) nals, while they are sometimes
Ekasruti is looked upon as the ekadesas for two original vowels
seventh of the seven accents; e.g tä $ ^fi ^f
cf. tlrar ^ ^ : etc.; see P.VI.1.87 to 111,
cf. also A.Pr.II 3.6.

an accent prescribed for G.

the single substitutes^ for instance, Vy. II. 2.1; (5) analogous
by rules like fäJ ^ ^ cf. fi
and the following rules P.
VL2.4, 5 and 6. Hem. Vy. III. 1.22; cf. also
** 1 Säk. II. 1 A.
part, portion. Augments or
Ägamas in the Vyäkarana Sästra I^cffHT^r union of meanings; one
are looked upon as forming a part of the two ways in which the
of the word to which they are word gwq is explained; cf. t£3FF#
attached; cf. %w ^ *TT% 3T m^ WK o^tajr m I M. Bh.
on II. 1.1.
r: | M. Bh. on 1.3.9, Jl^ possessed of one single pho-
Värt,*9; cf. also T^P^T: Par. Sek. netic element or letter; cf. wixfi
Pari. 5. HcW; P. I. 2.41.
separated or intervened by fusion, mixture, union, com*
one single thing, a letter or a bination (of 2 or more letters); cf.
word; e.g. srf q^l% ^ra^rr, where
^cf^rf follows 3fiF^ with one word is said to be result-
qRl% intervening; cf. 3TR ing from the coalescence called
% P.VIII. 1. 55. , cf. R. Pr. II. 16, 17.
( Eggeling) a well-known
the letter n; looked upon as a German scholar of Sanskrit
diphthong ( € ^ R ) made up of Grammar who flourished in the
the letters 3? and ^. The combina-
tion of the two constituent parts 19th century and who edited
is so complete as cannot allow any the Kätantra Vyäkarana with the
of the two parts to be indepen* commentary of Durgasimha and
dently working for samdhi or any many appendices in 1876»
other operation with its adjoining a brief term ( SRSTRJTC ) for the
letter; cf. ^«qqf^^T &&?$ crftM*TT two diphthong letters tr and ah;
fyf. Bh. Siva Sutra. 3 Vart. 9. cf. tTff^i^flt: P. VL 1,69, n*:
^T<cTf^I% VI. 1.109. etc.
(1) possessed of one sense as
contrasted with «i^, §jq etc; (2) a short term (SR^R) in Pinini's
synonym, cf. f| grammar standing for diphthongs
or letters ^»sfr, zft; e.g. ti^rqcrrqT^:
M. Bh. on I. 2. 45 Vart. 9; (3) P. VI. 1.78, T ^ m fWfe^r p.LL48.
possessed of a composite sense; [Edgerton, Dr. Franklin] an
cf. mm gq^rcfifa M. Bh, on II. American Sanskrit scholar and
1. 1 Värt 1. The words \wi^[ author of ^Buddhist Hybrid Sans-
and isjPT^fer derived from the word krit Grammar and Dictionary.1
T^T4 are often found used in the f au it in pronunciation
sense of possession of a compo- when the voice is indistinct, and
i ' & % % ^ the word pronounced is not dis-
m; cf« tinctly heard; cf. ^oftfKU Bift&lg: I
M. Bh. on P. I. 2-42 •f%*F^R; w*fN»R tfe ^ ^ % Pradipa
« 1; cf. also the word on M*Bh.I.l.l9explained asaitmig:
(4) potent to be connected; & by NSgela in

his Uddyota. a term used in the Jainendra

tad, affix applied to the Vyäkarana for the term JJJT of
word srifsr in the general ffä Pänini standing for the vowels
senses; cf. snf 3T, q; and $\; cf. ^ 3 : g^T^q Jain.
Käs. on P. IV, 3.17. Vy. V.2J22.
the vowel q;,- cf. ending added to the consonant *
P . I . 1.11. when a mention of it is to be
limitation of the kind; c such made; cf. T.Pr.1.19; e.g.^;.
and such' (words etc.); cf A. PrJ. (1) krt. affix %]%^ e.g. q^f^l
the substitution of IT; cf. : cf. P. III. 1.96 Värf. 1; (2)
^ . VII. 3.103) tie ^ Unadi affix T3,fö»R applied to q^
M.Bh, on P.V.3.10. cf. q^ i r f ^ Un. S.IV.37.
tad. affix applied to the in- tad-affix ^§in the sense of unable
declinable 1J; e. g. 3^q: qf^F: I cf. to bear, found in Vedic Literature
^ l : ^ : Käs. on PJV.2.104; cf. only; e.g. ft$rg: cf.
also fjRPfr ^W^: I <f^q: M.Bh. on P.V.2J22Vart. 7.
P. IV. 2.104. (1) a particle in the sense of re-
^ ( marked by the mute indicatory gulation (ftro); cf. H5FPR: T^%J:
letter u;. Roots marked with indi- •PWRT«?: M. Bh. on V. 3.58; (2) ,
catory T3T do not allow |i% for determinant indeclinable; cf. xm
their vowel in the aorist; e. g. ^r; cf. ^RWaTT^lt I ^
fi r^fr^; cf. P. VIL2.5. 1 srsirö gng^n^l^ M. Bh.
tad. affix TT^T applied to the on V. 3.58.
pronoun q^t when the word refers use of the word 03; cf.
to a day;cf. q^r^f^ q^rf% Käs. on
P.V. 3.22. M. Bh. on P. III. 4.24.
^ tad. affix T2gg applied to the L ( ) the substitute T3; for the per-
pronouns ^t, spq, SRicTC, ^R, fect affix cT, substituted for the
3W*, 3T3R, s^q and 3rR when the whole cl by reason of the indica-
words so formed refer to a day; tory letter ^T attached to T£; cf
c g. 1%:> ^%f: etc.; cf. P. V.3.22. te^ and sr^r^lOT^q P.
^ tad. affix TT^T substituted for the III. 4.81 and I. 1.55; "(2) affix TT
tad. affix qj optionally^when appli- applied to the root =gg in Vedic
ed to the words ft; and fa. e.g.ftwT, Literature;; cf. *n^% I
1 ^ , ftW, %^T, swjj cf- K äs. on : Käs. on P. IIL4.15.
P. V. 3.46. necessary to be sought;
tad. affix IT?! applied to 3 ^ $ 1 ^ necessary to be prescribed; cf.
cTOT^^ft^SPTT |H[tfel«lT M. Bh. on
and rf$!P\ optionally instead of the 1.1.3. Värt.8.
tad. affix 3Tifcf in the senses
^ r and ^i^, e.g. ^ ^ r , STR^
Words with this 123 at the end
govern the ace. case of the word
syntactically connected with them. diphthong vowel Ö;; composite
e. g. ^Fn<^Rq1©3!?^ 3^T Kälidäsa; form of 3Ti and ^ also termed f
in Panini's grammar.

given in the group of eka- t$ vowels in the Rk Prätisa-

padas or solitarily stated words khya. Sakatäyana says they are
as contrasted with anekapadas or
synonyms. See 133?^ above. ll the vowel ^; cf. M.Bh.
treatment as one single word on P. III. 4.93.
especially found in the case of the substitution of Tj; for tz; by the
compound words (STRH^R ) rule T23 ^; prescribing the substitu-
which, as a result of such treat- tion of the vowel tr for tr in the
ment, have only one accent case of the imperative first person
(acute), and one case affix after terminations; cf. P. III. 4,93.
the whole word; cf.
name of an ancient school of
M. Bh.on P. LI .29. grammar and of the treatise also,
belonging to that school, believed
possession of the same tone to have been written under
or accent; uniformity of tone or instructions of Indra. The work is
accent. See the word i^gßr above; not available. Patanjali mentions
also see P. I. 2.39 Värt. 1,2; VIII. that Brhaspati instructed Indra for
1,55 Värt. L one thousand celestial years and
still did not finish his instructions
^ having only one principal in words1; (M.Bh. L I. 1 ), The
accent (Udätta or Svarita) for the Taittinya Samhita mentions the
whole compound word which is same. Pänini has referred to some
made up of two or more indivi- ancient grammarians of the East by
dual words; cf. M. Bh. on P. the word wwi. without mention-
I. 1.29. ing their names, and scholars like
R t possession of a single com- Burn ell think that the grammar
posite sense (by all words to- assigned to Indra is to be referred
gether in a compound); cf. &ncR3 to by the word sn^FT^. The Brhat-
kathamanjar! remarks that Pani-
2.45 Värt 10; cf. also M. Bh. on ni's grammar threw into the back-
II. 2.29 Värt 7; cf. also ;TO ground the Aindra Grammar.
•fpSföpät mi£\ *r§3^ Hem. III. 1.18 Some scholars believe that Käläpa
where the commentator explains grammar which is available today
\^\^ as TT^i#qTc[; In the com. is based uponAindraJiist as Cafidra
on Hem. Ill 2.8 \¥wA is explain- is bused upon Panini's grammar.
ed References to Aitidra Grammar
T short term (5RqT$R) standing for are found in the commentary on
the two diphthong vowels ^ and the Sarasvata Vyakarana* in the
4 ; cf. ^ ^5iTwqt q^rarai <p?i 3 %m$% Kavikalpadruma of Bopadeva as
P. VII. 3.4; cf. ^%Jf^W-n<i; also in the commentary upon the
M. Bh. on P. L 1.48, The short Mahäbhärata by Devabodha*Qpo~
substitutes of ^ and aft are % and tations, although very few, are
3 when prescribed; cf. P. I. 1 *48; given by some writers from the
so also the protracted forms of work. All these facts prove that
\ and sft ar^ protracted % and 3 ; there was an ancient pre-<P%iBlan
cf. P. III. 2.106. They are called treatise OB Grammar assigned to

ffc which was called Aindra-Vyä- should not coalesce with the
karana.For details see Dr.Burnell's following vowel. The Prätisäkhya
• Aindra School of Sanskrit Gram- works prohibit the coalescence of
marians' as also Vol. VII pages sfr in many cases with the succeed-
124-126 of Vyäkarana Maha- ing vowel; cf. R. Pr. I. 7o;. V. Pr.
bhasya, edited by the D, E. Society, 1.94.
Poona, marked with the indicatory
a term used in the Jainendra letter €ft; roots marked with the
Grammar instead of the term ?fe mute letter ^T have the Nisthä
of Pänini which stands for BTT^ ^ affix cT or crq^ changed to ^ or ^^[;
and aft; cf. P. I. 1. 1. e . g . Q5?T;3 Q5?T3T^; ^ ; , ^F^isfT^ e t c .
taddhita affix x^ applied to the cf. sftfäw P VIII. 2. 45; cf. also
word -cid^i in the sense of offspring
to form the word =3ldk; cf i. Kau. on P. VIII. 2- 45.
. IV. 1. 128. f [Gustav Oppert 1836-1908]
a class of words headed a German scholar of Sanskrit
by the word ^npflft to which the who edited the Sabdänusäsana of
taddhita affix SOT is added in the Säkatäyana.
sense of* place of residence 5; e. g* [ See aiteR above-. 3 ^ consists of
\^\fivmKy ^rr^rqq^Riq; cf. Käs. 2\ mätras, cf. 3f%fiwr x& && T.
on P.IV.2.54. Pr 18. 1; IR^FH says that %3;has
substitute for the case affix any one of the three accents,
after words ending in 3?; cf. while cfrffte;qj Says it has v^m or
p. vn. 1.9 to ii. i. e, absence of any accent,
a scholar of grammar of the
nineteenth century who wrote a
Vrtti on Pa$ini sutras called qifäft-
f (1) diphthong vowel made up of q3«n%. He has written many works
the vowels $F and 3, termed as on the Pörvamimänsä and other
guna in Pänini's grammar and Sästras.
prescribed sometimes in the place lit. lip; the place of origin
of the vowel 3; ( 2 ) affix aft app- ) of the labial letters called
lied to the root ip^ or TTT to form ^ i e the vowels ^, 3&,
a noun; cf. #^l% ^srwr: Nir .11.5. the consonants ^ *§, «r, 5 ? 5^ and
N the syllable aft called by the the 3^ffT^R letter; cf. ^
term %m and generally recited at $1$ Sid. Kau. on a
the beginning of Vedic works. P.LI.9, also ^$wm aSftV. Pr .
Patanjali has commented upon 170.
the word briefly as follows; lit. produced upon the lip; a
letter of the labial class ;letters 3 " ^
^ ^ 5? S5» ^ 3 ^ and^are given
M.Bh. on VIIL2. 89. as aStgra" letters in. the Rk Pratis-
the vowel SHT; cf. sffä; PI. 1.15,16 äkhya, cf. R. Pr. I. 20. See the
prescribing- srewSir f° r Nipätas word $tE above. For the utterance
like antlf, ^ % and others with a of the letter ^ tips of the teeth, are
view that the vowel at their end also employed; hence the letter %

is said to have as its an affix or an operation

^ the case affix of the gen. resulting from the general rule
and the loc. dual. tfJ Cf. 3?qc^ ff^Bcf ^ Z\$\^~
i: M. Bh. on IV. 1.161;
cf. also n;^cqfi^n5t%iqt cllt^WT ^
M. Bh. on IV. 2.66.
( 1 ) the vowel 3TT; diphthong ^ an ancient sage and scholar
vowel made up of W and 3TT; ( 2 ) of Vedic Grammar who is believ-
the substitute 3?T for the final letter ed to have revised the original
3 of the word ^3 before the fern, text of the s ^ ^ j ^ f ö ^ q o f the
affix t; cf *CT: m *RFfi, *TCTCT,13S Säma-Veda. cf. Sab. Kaus. I. 1.8.
Käs. on P. IV. 1. 38; ( 3 ) case TrT an ancient sage whose
ending of the nom. and ace. dual doctrine of * evanescence of
called sflf also. words' (lit. existence as long as
% a term used by ancient gramm- its cognition is had by the sense
arians for the affix s^ of the nom. organs) is seen quoted in the
and the ace. dual. The vowel | (?[fr) Nirukta; cf. W
is substituted for aft in the case of Nir. I. 1.
nouns of the feminine and neu- enumerated; actually stated;
ter genders; cf. afte: sift P. VII.
I. 18, 19. q" Nir. I. 4.
the case ending sft of the ace* resulting from
dual; cf. P. IV. 1.2. or
; metonymical.
h an affix mentioned in the
class of affixes called ^vrtfk in mentioned in the original
s t a t e m e n t ; cf.
treatises of Pänini and other
grammarians; cfaRjfä; I Käs. on ^ ^ P . I. 1,24; cf.
: Kää. on P. VI. 3. 75; ftfäfT also ^qfctfäRETpft^ ??5-
^ M.Bh. on Siva Sutra r. SeL Pari, 120.
2. See the word ;3*Tißj above. n a m e of a n ancient etymo-
|tJT|f^cj>q^pjrg a collection of words logist referred to by Yäska in his
called aflönfia»; a name given to N i r u k t a possibly as a commenta-
his work by q|*if of the 18th tor o n fäRtjg; cf. fä*rapr U& %*$t
century. ^ : Nir.
(1) the letter 3?r included in the I* 1. line 4.
crf^; vowels ^n, § and 3?r3 and figurative; metaphorical ap-
hence called f f§c in Pänini's gra- plication or statement; cf* (f*RI2 )
mmar, (2) substitute for the case- f^t^ %Pr*Tt3L Nir. VII. 13.
ending % ( H£ ) in Pänini's gra* resulting from immediate
mmar;cf. P. VII. 3,118, 119. contact; immediately or closely
M ^^ pertaining
p g to the ulte- connected; one of the three types
rior member of a compound; cf. of aqr^T^F^OT or location which is
$ % WGfc (P. VI. 3.61) # given as the seme of the locative
M. Bh. on I. 1,62. case; cf.
the substitution of the vowejl
; cf. P. VII. 3.117-119. ] I I M. Bh, VL L72-
97 O

subsequently stated by breath from the mouth; sound or

way of addition or modification utterance caused by breath escap-
as done by the Värttikakäras; cf. ing from the mouth; breathing.
I I The Visarjanlya» just like the
Käs. on P. IV. 2. 129; cf, anusvära, is incapable of being
also Käs. on V.L29 and VI.3.41. independently uttered. Hence, it
produced from the chest; the is written for convenience as sr:
Visarjanlya and h (f«[>TC} are look- although its form for writing pur-
ed upon as 3?TCf and not ^ ^ by poses is only two dots after the
some ancient phoneticians; cf. % vowel preceding it; cf. sr: ^f%

com. on R> Pr. I. 18; cf. also p Kät.

Vyäk. I. 1.16. See 3?: above on
g ^ c R l| Pan* page 2:
Siksä. 16.
produced from the chest. See X

substitute sfl for the nom. and § a phoneticai element

ace. case endings applied to the or unit called Jihvämfiliya, pro-
numeral 3T5^; cf. ®m&{ after P. VIL duced at the root of the tongue,
L2L which is optionally substituted
in the place of the Visarga (left
beginning with a stanza of
the Usnih metre; cf. out breath) directly preceding the
utterance of the letter 5 or ^
4 and hence shown as X 35. See
: Uvata onR.Pr.XVIII.5.
above on page 2.

O (
or nasal (1) looked upon
as a phonetic element, indepen- ö OTäFriqrq lit. blowing; a term
dent, no doubt, but incapable of applied to the visarga when
being pronounced without a vowel followed by the consonant t[ or 5.
preceding it.* Hence, it is shown The upadhniäniya is looked upon
in writing with 3f although its form as a letter or phonetic element,
in writing is only a dot above the which is always connected with
line; cf. 3f J^jg^m: I $WK I? 3^rcm«J the preceding vowel. As the
^ f färjgfn^t ^^tg^T^tr *Fn% Kat. upadhmanlya is an optional sub-
Vyäk. 1.1.19; (2) anusvara^showing stitute for the visarga before the
or signifying Vikarai.e. sri^Wand letter \ or ^3 when, in writing,
used as a technical term for the it is to be shown instead of
secondfäsrfxfror the accusative case. the visarga, it is shown as
See the word $r above on page 1. O, or as co ,or even as xjust as the
Jihvämüllya; cf, g^an^r ST^ra ?1%,
3q sräfä ^ f l ^ "swzfa %f$ m com. on
Kät. I : ; cf. also ^ ^
or f^33]; lit. letting out 44 i: S.K.onP,VIIL2.L

in the Vedic recital, when the

second of the doubled consonant
, a nasal letter or utterance which is coloured by the follow-
included among the 3#3T=ITf letters ing nasal consonant is called q*r.
analogous to anusvära and yama This q*i letter is not independent.
letters. It is mentioned in the It necessarily depends upon the
Väjasaneyi Prätisäkhya as | %]% following nasal consonant and
^nfesR: on which Uvvata makes hence it is called SFqtaens« ^he
the remark ^^^^iraT^t SiRiS- The nasalization is shown in script as
Rk-Prätisäkhya mentions ^Tf^W, -^followed by the consonant; e.
=W and srg^fR as ^nfasR or nasal g. qrßs^^jntj 3 ^ i r , etc. The pro-
letters, while Uvvata defines mfWW nunciation of this yama or twin
as a letter produced only by the letter is seen in the Vedic recital
nose; cf. %3^fTR^r ^FWWr W only; cf. qföqpnT ... w%m'^; q>
snfeR: Uvvata on R. Pr. I. 20. cf^r^ir 123 W : S. K. on P. VIII.
The Taittiriya Prätisäkhya calls 2. 1. cf. $ t S I SfcT mi;
the letter §; as näsikya when it is V. Pr. VIII. 24.
followed by the consonant ^ or \
or 5^ and gives <%%F[%i W&J^ and
$%{ as instances. The Paninlya
Siksä does not mention ^!7%£R as (1) the consonant «B; the first con-
a letter. The Mahäbhäsya men- sonant of the consonant group as
tions ^rri%qp? as one of the six also of the guttural group; (2)
ayogaväha letters; cf. % % substitute f> for consonants ^and ^
before the consonant H ;cf.V.l\2«41.
M. Bh. on Siva- For the elision (??N ) of 5K on ac-
sfitra 5 Värt. 5, where some count of its being termed x^ see
manuscripts read ^TF&FJ for wg^T- P.L3.3 and 8.
fäfq; while in some other manus- (l) tad.afRx ^applied to the words
cripts there is neither the word of the *R32? group in the four senses
nor ' It is likely called ^T2*f% c* g. wmw>:7 WTp^;,
that the anunäsika-colouring given % ^ : etc., cf, P J V . 2.8Ö; (2) tad.
to the vowel preceding the conso- affix ^ applied to nouns in the
nant ^ substituted for the conso- sense of diminution, censure^ pity
nants ^ ^ a n d others by P. VIII. etc. c. g, W^:, Wf?*:y gppp:, cf. P.V.
3.2. to 12, was looked upon as a 3.70-87; (3) tad. affix y> in the very
separate phonetic unit and called sense of the word itself { ^T^ ) e.g.
fi as for instance in ft v(k*:, m<%:7 ^ I ^ F ; ; cf. P.V. 4.28-
etc. 33; (4) Unadi affix m e.g. ^5%» «p[»,
TRJT»%% %% m^y m% ^m etc* by
Unadi sütras IIL 40-48 before
which the angment \\ is prohibit-
m, a letter called m which is ed by P. VII. 2*9; (5) kit affix %
uttered partly through the nose. ( si) where 5 is dropped by P. I*
A class consonant excepting the 3.8? applied, In the seme of agent^
fifth, when followed by the fifth to certain roots mentioned in
viz. % % %, \ot q;? gets doubled P.IILL135, 136, 144, III. 2.3 to

7, III.2.77 and III.3.83 e.g. the Karmadharaya compound, e.g.

5fr^tf$rf^[: Ifäf^jy^rc:; cf. Käs. on
: etc.; (6) ^substitute ^ II.2.38.
ior the word fä^ before a case affix, (1) a class of words headed
cf. P.VII.2.103; (7) the Samäsänta by ^OT to which the taddhita affix
affix Wi (3?) at the end of Bahu- STT^R ( fivgj) is applied in the four
vrihi compounds as prescribed by senses given in P. IV.2.67-70;e.g.
P. V. 4.151-160. ^onqfä: ^TT%^T3{fJr: etc.; cf, Käsp on
the consonant 3?; cf. ^raJK: P. P. IV.2.80; (2) a class of words
III.3.108 Värt. 3. headed by ^of to which the taddhita
a Jain grammarian who affix «m (W$$) is added in the
wrote a commentary by name sense of a 'root' e.g. ^ 1 ^ 1 ^ ; cf.
& on the Käs. on P.V.2.24.
^ name of a commentary on
a class of words headed by Nägesa's Paribhäsendusekhara by
the word m^Sf, the word SR^C after Mannudeva, known also as Mantu-
which in a compound, does not deva or Manyudeva, who was a
have the acute accent on its first pupil of Päyagunde in the latter
vowel, e. g. qtffcm:; cf. P. VI.2.87, half of the 18th century.
^ a class of words headed by glottis; cavity in the throat
3^3 to which the taddhita affix 3R holding vocal cords; the place of
is added in the miscellaneous the production of the sounds 3?, S?T
(tn^fi ) senses, provided the word, and f; cf. 3T51^&TNT: W% V, PrJ.
to which the affix 33<JT is to 71; cf, also ^i^^
be added, is the name of a R.Pr.1.18.
country; e.g. spf^ftg STRF: 3JTI%:;
similarly *nftl%:, ^ffi:; cf. Käs. gutturopalatal. The diph-
on P.IV.2.133. thongs T 3; and ^ are called Kantha-
tälavya, as they are produced in
tad. caturarthika affix sp (1) by P. the Kanthatälu-sthana.
IV. 2.80 after words headed by formally mentioned; directly
3F0?, e.g. TO^;, q^l^j^:; (2) by mentioned.
P.IV.4.21, after the word 3?qftcq
e.g. ^TRftc^^: B^ JIB^J gutturo-labial, the
diphthongs SRt and aft are called
fcrt, affix ( 3? ) affixed to the root Kanthosthya as they are produc-
5|t preceded by *qsr, g^ctc. by P. ed at both the Kantha and the
IV. 2.60 e.g. c n s ^ s ^ ^ s etc-> fem- Ostha Sthänas.
i y P. IV.1.15.
produced at the throat or at
^ tad.affix ^z affixed to tf, rr, 3^ the glottis;" the vowel ar, visarga
and aw by P.V.2.29, 30; e.g. *B3:, and the consonant | are called
etc. sfTOq1 in the Prätisäkhyas, while
^ tad. affix ejj£3j affixed to the later grammarians include the
word m in the sense of collection guttural consonants fa, % TJ, ^and
by P.IV.2.51 e.g. m^^h f^among the Kanthya letters; cf.
f^ a class of words headed byy ^ ^ # : Sid. Kau. on
d h i h l h h
the word ^SK which, although adje- dj P. I* 1.9* See
i' /ctivalyare optionally placed first in

a group of words which are of Bahuvrihi compounds e.g.

headed by the word ^ a n d which cf. P. V^4.151-154. For its prohibi-
are either nouns or roots or both, tion, see P.V.4.155-160.
to which the affix q\ is added to fl%iq[I^ name given by Slradeva
arrive at the secondary roots, e. g. and other grammarians to the
second päda of the third adhyäya
cf/ gg of Pänini's Astädhyäyl, which
sTTi^T^f%r i$ ??q ^ # % % ; i l Käs. begins with the sütra 3$nqor P.
on P. IIL1.27. III. 2.L
a class of words forming a krt. affix 3T£f; in Vedic Litera-
portion of the class of words call- ture in the sense of the infinitive,
ed *mffä, and headed by the e. g. f-rast in vris % \m
word 3F*j5r, to the derivatives of 2
which, formed by the affix ^^ by vibration of the larynx which
the rule *nn(Ml ^ (PJV.1.105), produces the sound*
the affix sw is added in the misce-
llaneous senses; e.g. a fault in uttering an accent-
similarly affair:, SN ed vowel especially a vowel with
^T^T: etc; cf. P.IV.2.1I1 and II. the circumflex accent which is not
4.70. properly uttered by the vSouther-
ners as remarked by Uvvata; cf.
a class of words headed by
the word «3>i% to which the tad.
affix ta?PR (^^5) is applied in the ^ 1 m ^ w4i I Uvvata
miscellaneous senses; e.g. ^r%w,3 on R. Pr. 111.18.
^ ^ ; 3 ^ m * ( f r o m p ) ; cf. P. the same as ^*iq"?f. See WWH
IV.2.75. above.
a class of words headed by ^311% a class of words headed
the word ^m to which the affix ^ by the word ^HlH* the affix vpi
(3?) is added in the sense of placed after which is elided, pro-
'good therein3 (m sng:); e.g vided the words ^FtR and others
% are names of countries; e*g. ^T%^f;
cf. P.IV. 4.102. %5: 9 %^5:, m"*h VPFK etc, cf. P.
q } ^qjq;; kit affix IV. 1.175.
of the
infinitive in Vedic Literature; cf. (1) Ht. instrument; the term
g ^ % > . . . ^ V % ^ . ^ : P.HI.4.9. signifies the most efficient means
(1) unädi affix as in the words for accomplishing an act; cf*
K% % , ^J^ etc; (2) tad.affix ^ as
given by Pänini sütras IV.2.131,
IV.3,32, 653 147, IV.4.21; V.l.22, on mwmti wm^ l\ I. 4,42»
23, 51, 90, V.2. 64, 65, 66, 68-75, e. g. tä*t in ^m g?nf%; (2) effort
77-82, V.3.51, 52, 75,81,82,87, 95, inside the mouth ( w^^-mt% )
to produce sound; e. g. touching
96, 97. V.4.3,4,6, 29-33.
of the particular place ( *WR )
krt affix sp prescribed after inside the mouth for Bttcrlng
the root 55 e, g. sRFRgqr; c£ P.III.2. consonants; cf. ?gg wokf *®W$, M.
7O;(2) the Samasänta 3T at the end Bb t on P. I. 140 VIrt 3; (3)

disposition of the organ which produces the fruit or result of an

produces the sound; cf. ^ra^T^T- action without depending on any
other instrument; cf. ^cfof: ^cif P.
ÖflcfPRTOT^ ?fcf ^TrfcT I Com. on R. I. 4.54, explained as 3?
Pr. XHI.3;cf also ^ ^ q i g ^ ^
M. Bh. on I. 2. 32; cf. also in the Kasikä on P, I.
4. 54. This agent, or rather, the
nq^ ^ ü p ^ ; T. IV. word standing for the agent, is
XXIII. 2 where karana is describ- put in the nominative case in th$
ed to be of five kinds 3T35R"R (i. e. active voice (cf. P. 1.4,54), in the
3T? or resonance), $G*\ (contact), instrumental case in the passive
and qf^TOT; cf. voice (cf P. II. 3.18), and in the
genitive case when it is connected
with a noun of- action or verbal
derivative noun, (cf. P. II. 3.65).
Com. on Tai. Pr. XXIII. 2. the affix 1 of the passive
The Väjasaneyi Prätisäkhya men- voice where the object functions
tions two karanas ^r|cf and Pt^; as the subject; e. g. ^ in vgfa
cf. I; 3R0T Offfföp^ ^T%W: V. %3[R: W$ft; cf. 3F3: q%[% P. VI.
Pr. I. 11; (4) use of a word e. g. L95 and the Kasikä thereon.
cf. 33 experience (of something)
: M.Bh.on. P.VI.1.129. by the agent himself; cf. g^rßpsft
d or ^OTT" name of a svara- t ^ . III. 1.18.
bhakti. i. e, behaviour like the (an affix) applied in the
vowel ^5, noticed in the case of sense of the agent of an activity;
the consonant <g when followed heftier *pn I q^mmtä ^q: M.
by the sibilant | ; cf. Bh. on P. I. 3.1. Vart. 7.
%: I ? M (a root) whose activity is
found functioning in the subject; cf,
Com. on T. Pr. XXI. 15. See f i $ ^ §ft Kaiyata on
P. III. 1. 87 Värt. 3. Such roots,
name of a svarabhakti i, e.
although transitive do not have
behaviour like the vowel *R any Karmakartari construction by
noticed in the case of the conso- the rule ^fewilT §^f%^: P. I I I .
nant^, when it is followed by ^ 1.87. as e.g.
g 5TR rRsfcT 33^TT: has no
e, g. «TjJ|:. ^fwf is named # g also? construction; cf.
ft ancient technical
terms for the future tense;the word
is more frequently used. f M. Bh. on III.
j^ produced at the root of 1.87. Värt. 3.
the ear; the utterance of a cir- ^ (a root) whose action or
cumflex vowel is described as happemng is noticed functioning
Karnamüliya. in the subject; e.g. the root 9j. cf«
agent of an action, subject; ^ ( W?ßt: ) M. Bh.
name of a käraka or instrument I. 3.67, ^
dp gejieral, of £H action, which

T meant for the agent of primarily to achieve* The main

the action. The word is used feature of ^ ^ is that it is put in
in connection with the fruit or the accusative case; cf.
result of an action; when the P. I. 4.49; II.3.2.
result is for the agent, roots Panini has made ^4 a technical
having both the Padas get the term and called all such words
Atmanepada terminations; cf. 'karman 5 as are connected with a
ismfca:täfosfo% w P. I. 3.72. verbal activity and used in the
accusative case; cf. ^
^ object of the transitive verb
which functions as the subject and
when there is a marked facility
^r on PJ.4.49-52;cf. also ^ ^
of action;'RFT j s karmakartari-
?H Kät. II.4.13, ^ c ^ Jain I. 2.
object, functioning as subject,
120 and w&^fcA ^ Hem. I I . 2. 3.
in cpq% 3TT^; ^pftw. The word
Sometimes a karaka, related to
is used also for the W^ffiit
the activity ( f^T) as sarhpradana,
where the object, on which
apädanaor adhikarana is also treat-
the verb-activity is found, is
ed as karma, if it is not meant or
turned into a subject and the
desired as apadäna,sarhpradana etc.
verb which is transitive is turned
It is termed 3^f«lcPCTin scuh cases;
into intransitive as a result.
cf. ^ s r e i f ^ j ^ ^ ^
^IF?I name technically given to Käs. on 1.4-51. See the word
a compound-formation of two Wfifwt above. Karman or object
words in apposition i.e. used in is to be achieved by an activity or
the same case, technically called fsg?lT; it is always syntactically con-
OTHTp^RtfT showing the same sub- nected with a verb or a verbal deri-
stratum; cf. ZZgW.OTHTT%WT;3FR- vative.When connected with verbs
«TRS: I 2.42. The karmadhäraya or verbal derivatives indcclinabl-
compound is looked upon as a es or words ending with the affixes
variety of the tatpurusa com- 33», Tfi, 3cJ3g, <|^, etc» it is put in
pound. There is no satisfactory the accusative case. It is put in
explanation of the reason why the genitive case when It is con-
such a compound is termed ¥$~ nected with affixes other than those
SJK^. Säkatayana defines Karma- mentioned above; cf. P, II # 3j>5,
dharaya as fätM ^tofft x^m 69# When, however, the karman
3flfcrrcw where the word f^Wl is is expressed (sifitf^fr ) by a verbal
explained as o^refe or SR3» (distin- termination ( fcfi£ ), or a verbal
guishing attribute) showing that noun termination (ffl[), or a noun-
the word ^A may mean JRayf^T. affix ( ?nfef), or a compound, it is
The word qs&m in that case put in the nominative case. e.g.
could mean %$ stufen, m Wife
ST#[ spt^i^q:* a compound which
gives a specification of the thing etc» It is called ^ftt^?! in such
in hand. cases;cf;PJL3XSec the word wr-
i^f|?r abovc^The object or Karman
(1) object of a transitive verb, which is i^cFcW is described to be
defined as 'something which the of three kinds with reference to
agent or the doer of an action wants the way' in which it fa obtaiaed

from the activity. It is called connection with a preposition

when a transformation or a change which showed a verbal activity
is noticed in the object as a result formerly, although for the present
of the verbal activity, e. g«. ^TSTf^f time it does not show it; the
, etc It is called word is used as a technical term
when no change is seen to in grammar in connection with
result from the action, the object prefixes or gwfs which are not us-
only coming into contact with the ed along with a root, but without
subject, e. g. $TR 3T^T%, VRWA ^RflrfcJ Jt; cf. 3R ^ fe
etc. It is calledftift4when the object M.Bh. on P. I. 4.83; e.g.
is brought into being under a
specific name; e.g. cf. Käs. on P. 1.4.83
rä cf. FR$ ^ to 98.
HRT5^ I cT^KfcTOi; Padamanjarl the activity of the agent or
on I. 4. 49; cf. also Väkyapadiya kartä of an action represented as
III.7.45 as also Nyäsa on 1.4.49. object or karman of that very ac-
The object which is not i[fäRRW tion, for the sake of grammatical
is also subdivided into four kinds operations; e. g. fil^RT *ffii W$3i
e. g. (a) SCTT^Rt (%\A *T5=$^) ä ^f^sagt ^z: ^^cf. To show facility
wn%, (b) sfartft^ft W^ or of a verbal activity on the object,
or srg^ra e. g, ( 5TR W^i ) fSfj| when the agent or kartä is dispen-
( c ) 3Tq[T^ITcr or sraföcF e.g. sed with, and the object is looked
in * # qRct 3 ! ^ (d) SFTJjfo upon as the agent, and used also
e-g ? T ^ H ^ifif» JTTOTfrrft^rcf; cf. as an agent, the verbal termina-
Padamanjari on 1.4 49. The com- tions fcF, cf; etc. are not applied in
mentator Abhayanandin on Jain- the sense of an agant, but they
endra Vyäkarana mentions seven are applied in the sense of an ob-
kinds JJM, f^PPJjT, f^T^, f^^T^i^ ject; consequently the sign of the
"iftSRf, spfif^raf and ^cTOj;, defining voice is not 3T ( ^ ) , but ^ ( q^ )
3J*T as ^P[T f^^^T ^ 9TM c(cX ^T^ and the verbal terminations are cf,
^ ; cf. ^fitqq, Jain. Vy. 1.2.120 sfRmi etc. ( elf ) instead of fä,
and com. thereon. Ü^^Tf^ is cf*[ etc. In popular language the
given therein as an instance of use of an expression of this type
fäsFqsffi. (2) The word ^ 4 ^ is also is called Karmakartari-Prayoga,
used in the sense of (%^T or verbal For details see M. Bh. on ^fe^qq? >
activity; cf. ^ r ^ j ^ P r P. I. 3.24; g^lf^j: P. III. 1.87. Only such
f ^ P.III.4.71, wi% roots as are ^ ^ t ^ ^ or ^fenqFF^
sft P. 1.3.14- (3) It is also i. e. roots whose verbal activity
used in the sense of activity in is noticed in the object and not
general, as for instance,the sense of in the subject can have this Kar-
a word; e. g. makartari-Prayoga.
Nir. I. 3.4, where Dur- exchange of verbal acti-
gäcärya explains karman as csense5 vity; reciprocity of action;
rt fR means f or ft R;
lit. noun showing action, cf.
participle, P. I. 3.14.; also
a technical term used in Käs. on P. III. 3.43.

The roots having their agents or the affix T%rf; cf, 3$*Tiqf^3TR^fq;
characterized by_a reciprocity of
action take the Atmanepada ter- ; M.Bh.on 1.1.44.
minations; cf. P. I. 3.14. A kind of svarabhakti. See
fep prescribed in the sense of
an object; a term used in the extension; protraction, defined
Mahäbhäsya in the sense of as kalaviprakarsa by commentators;
affixes used in the sense of a peculiarity in the recital as
'object5 as contrasted with ^ST^R noticed in the pronunciation of z
or ^FRÜ^R; eo g. the affix i% in the when followed by ^ , or <| when
word fäfä, explained as fSräNäf ?fä followed by ^ e. g. ^ ; ^«n?T. cf.
fäfä: or in the word m^ explained Nar. Sik. 1.7.19.
as w*m q; ® wr:; cf. T^T %f H a fault of pronunciation conse-
VX&ä, swrafös 3 SSWL MBh. on P. quent upon directing the tongue
L 3.1. See similarly the words to a place in the mouth which is
sraifTC M.Bh. on II. 1.51 and OTi%not the proper one., for the utte-
M.Bb. on V. 1.13. rance of a vowel; a vowel so pro-
Ä^F%ST (roots) having their verbal nounced; cf. tffen w \
activity situated in the object; e.g. ^tcf 1 cf.also ^f^W^
the root 3tf + ^ [ i n 3JWlfe ^TT^ or M.Bh. Ahnika 1.
the root fi in ^Ulcf 3>a^; cf. ^£R£R> ( ) alternative name
SRFHT "OTS^RM ^ P. III. 1.87 given to the treatise on grammar
Värt. 3. written by Sarvavarman who is
(roots) having their verbal believd to have lived in the days
action or happening noticed in the of the Sätavähana kings. The trea-
object; e. g. the root 3ff*[ and m in tise is popularly known by the
% where the function name Ktuantni Vyakarana. The
of the root bears effect in the available trcatise5viz. KalSpasütras,
object boy and not in the move- is much similar to the Katantra
ments of the object as in the Sutras having a few changes and
sentence «TToflrawfe. See WE;#R additions only here and thcrc.It is
above as also M.Bh. on III«, L87 rather risky to say that KalSpa
and Kaiyata on the same. was an ancient system of grammar
lit. karman and others; a term which is referred to in the Paninl
often used in the Mahabhasya for Sütra ^ ^ f ^ l t P. IV, 3» 108; For
kärakas or words connected with details see
a verbal activity which have the j a commentary on the karaka
object or karmakäraka mentioned portion of the Kaläpa grammar as-
first; gqi 3stfh$c3Wf; % cribed to the famous commentator
.Bh, on 1.4.21. Durgasirfiha»
flf^rf^l operations prescribed speci- a cotBmeataty on
fically for objects i, e* prescribed Kaläpa Sutras«
in the case of objects which are fi the author of the work re-
described to be functioning as the ferred to as Kaläpa in the Mahä-
subject to show facility of the bhäsya which perhaps was a work
verbal action; e*g. the vikarana on grammar as the word

mentioned with the word ^ Hemacandra's grammar. He lived

in the Mahäbhäsya, cf. M.Bh. on in the 16 th century A. D.
^5rfq^tsw P. IV. *3. 108. Kaläpin is ^gsfff^ a class of words headed
mentioned as a pupil of Vaisam- by the word ^sqiuft to which the
päyana in the Mahäbhäsya; cf„ taddhita affix crq (^y) is add-
I ^ M.Bh. on P. ed , in the sense of ' offspring '
IY-3. 104. and3 side by side, the ending 13
the tad. affix ^q<j added to any ( ^ f ) is substituted for the last
substantive in the sense of slightly letter of those words; e. g. ^R3T-
inferior, or almost complete; e.g. ffito:, *farföp?:; cf. Kas. on P. IV.
m^r.; cf. P. V. 3. 67 and 1.126.
thereon. the class of guttural consonants
, supposition, assumption; consisting of the five consonants
cf. jyw^RRT =3 fäspj^^
Käs. on P. IV,3. 110; cf. also a treatise on roots wri-
T^S^q^^aqr %mi s i e r r a ; Pari .Sek. tten by Bopadeva, the son of Kes-
on. Pari- 94. ava and the pupil öf Dhanesa who
qRr$5TSR brevity of thought; bre- lived in the time of Hernädri, the
vity of expression; minimum Yädava King of Devagiri in the
assumption. See the word thirteenth century. He has written
tad, affix ^ q . See a short grammar work named
Mugdhabodha which has been
name of a commentary on very popular in "Bengal being
Bhattojfs Praudhamanoramä by studied in many Tols or Päthas-
Krsnamisra. alas.
the same as karman or f^f5^2'£Rri^T a commentary on the
object of an action especially Kavikalpadruma, written by the
when it is not fully entitled to be author ( $\R%& ) himself. It is kno-
called karman, but looked upon wn by the name Kavyakämad-
as karman only for the sake of henu; ( 2 ) a commentary on
being used in the accusative case; Kavikalpadruma by Ramatarka-
subordinate karman, as for instance vägisa.
the cow in qf q^t 4ffa. The term author of a small treatise on
was used by ancient grammarians; grammar called Särasatvari. He
cf. $nM g v&m cfcj q^q ^ lived in the seventeenth century
M.Bh. on P.*I. 4. 51. See A.D. He was a resident of Darbha-
§ author of the commentary ngä. Jayakrsna is also given as the
äabdaratnadipa on the Sabdaratna name of the author of the Sarasa-
of Hari Dlksita. tvari grammar and it is possible
author of the Laghus- that Jayakrsna was given the title,
ll grammar work. or another name, Kavicandra.
ärasvata, a small
He lived in the 18 th century name of a writer on the
A.D. Gändra Vyäkarana.
5?nurerFR author of the Haimalifigä- krt affix 3}^ found in Vedic
nusasana-vivarana, a commentary Literature, in the sense of the
on the Linigänu^äsana chapter of infinitive; e. g. fyspH fäi§3^ (

cf. P. III. 4.13, 17. The declension, syntax, compounds

word ending in this ^H^ becomes noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes )
an indeclinable; cf. ^T^g^SpT. conjugation, voice3 and verbal
P. I. 1.40. derivatives in an order. The total
^ krt affix aq% in the sense of number of rules is 1412 supple-
the infinitive in Vedic Literature; mented by many subordinate
e. g. 5fr, fspfc; cf. Käs, on P. III. rules or Värttikas. The treatise
4.9. is believed to have been written
by Sarvavarman, called Sarvavar-
a class of compound-words man or Sarva or Sarva3 who is
headed by %%$ in which the said to have lived in the reign
visarga occurring at the end of of the Sätavähana kings. The
the first member is noticed as belief that Pänini refers to a work
changed into g against the usual of Kaläpin in his rules IV.
rules;* e. g. i ^ : ? ^icRf cl; W<jp!p:, 3.108 and IV. 3.48 and that
and others; cf, Patanjali's words - ^I^fqq"s and
P. VIII. 3.48. As this ?TT|T^TI^H support it, has not
is said to be ^fifcPT^ similar much strength. The work was
words can be said to be in the very popular especially among
fuj although they are not those who wanted to study spoken
actually mentioned in the Sanskrit with ease and attained
a technical term used" in the for several year.) a very „promi-
Jainendra Vyakarana for the term nent place among text-books on
ft used in Pänini's grammar, grammar especially in Bchar,
tad. affix *FF¥ prescribed after Bengal and Gujarat. It has got
words like |3T, ^ WM in the a large number of glosses and
sense of OT5; cf. ^"Rt^: (v. L commentary works, many of
; Käs. on P.IV. 2.51. which are in a manuscnpt form at
name of an ancient writer present» Its last chapter { Gatur-
of a Prätisäkhya work who held tha-Adhyäya) is ascribed to Vara«
that Visarga before the consonant rucL As the arrangement of
e is dropped only when H is topics is entirely different from
followed by a surd consonant; cf# Panini's order» inspite of consi-
Tai.Pr. IX. L derable resemblance of SStras and
name of an important small their wording, it is probable that
treatise on grammar which the work was based on Pänini
appears like a systematic abridg- but composed on the models of
ment of the Astadhyäyi of Psnini* ancient grammarians viz, Indra,
It ignores many unimportant Säkatayana and others whose
rules of Pänini, adjusts many, works^lthough not available now,
and altogether omits the Vedic were available to the author.
portion and the accent chapter of The grammar Katantra Is also
PäninL It lays down the Sutras called Knlapa. A comparison of
in an order different from that of the Kätantra. Sütras and the
Pänini dividing the work into Kaläpa Sutras shows that the
four adhyäyas dealing with one is a different version of
technical teitnsj samdhi rules, the other» The Kätantra Gram-

mar is also called Kaumära as it name given to a

Is said that the original instruc- text consisting of Paribhäsäsütras,
tions for the grammar were re- believed to have been written by
ceived by the author from the Sütrakara himself as a supple-
Kumara or Kärttikeya. For de- mentary portion to the main
tails see Vol. VII Pätanjala grammar. Many such lists of Pari-
Mahabhäsya published by the bhäsasütras are available, mostly
D. E. Society, Poona, page 375. in manuscript form, containing
§ (i) a commentaryy on more than a hundred Sütras divi-
the Kätantra Sütras written by ded into two main groups—the
Govardhana in the 12th century. Paribhäsäsüfras and the Baläbala-
A. D*; (2) a commentary on the sütras. See qft^MOTl ed. by B. CX
Kätantra Sütras ascribed to Gaft- R* I. PoonaB
gesasarman. rfcPTWTffrl (1) name of a gloss
a gloss on the com- on the Paribhäsapätha written
mentary of Vararuci on the ^ ^ by Bhävamisra, probably a Mai-
ascribed to Hari Diksita of the thila Pandit whose date is not
17th century if this Hari Diksita known. He has explained t 2 Pari-
is the same as the author of the bhäsäs deriving many of them from
Sabdaratna. the Kätantra Sütras. The work
$prf ascribed to Durga- seems to be based on the Paribhäsä
simha, the famous commentator works by Vyädi and others on the
of the Kätantra Sütras who lived system of Pänini, suitable changes
in the nineth or the tenth centmy. having been made by the writer
^ ^ I T a commentary with a view to present the work as
ascribed to Ramänätha and call- belonging to the Kätantra school;
ed Manoramä on the Kätantra* (2) name of a gloss on the Pari-
dhätuvrtti of Durgasimha. See bhäsapätha of the Kätantra school
% above, explaining 65 Paribhäsäs. No name
of the author is found in the Poona
n^9n a name usually given to manuscript. The India Office
a compendium of the type of Viva- Library copy has given Durgasimha
rana or gloss written on the Kä- as the author's name; but it is
tantra Sütras, The gloss written by doubtful whether Durgasirnha was
Durgasimha on the famous com- the author of it. See qfönwsfel? ed.
mentary on the Kätantra Sütras by by B. O. R, I. Poona.
Durgasimha ( the same as the
the famous Durgasimha or ascribed to Sripatidatta,
another of the same name) whose date is not known; from ä
known as ^FlfeiT |frf is called number of glosses written on this
Kätantra Panjika or Kätantra- work, it appears that the work
vivarana. A scholar of Kätantra was ' once very popular among
grammar by name Kusala has students of the Kätantra School.
written a Panjika on gtffäf's' |i% [%[35T a gloss on the
which is named srefa. Another Kätantra-Parisista ascribed to a
scholar, Trivikrama has written a scholar named Rämadäsa-cakra-
gloss named Uddyota. vartin who has written another.

work also named Kätantravya- Kätantravistara of Vardhamäna

khyäsära. by Prthvidhara who lived in the
fti^ a g gloss on the fifteenth century A, D«
^ a famous work on the
Kätantra-Parisista written b by a Kätantra Grammar written by
Kätantra scholar Pundarlkaksa. Vardhamäna a Jain Scholar of the
a gloss on the twelfth century who is believed to
Kgtantraparisista by Goyicandra be the same as the author of the
in the twelfth century. well-known work Gatiaratna-
%% a gloss mahodadhL
on the Katantra-parisista by Siva- ^ name of the earliest com«
rämendra, who is believed to have mentary on the Kätantra Sütras
written a gloss on the Sütras oi ascribed to Durgasimha. The
Pänini also. commentary was once very popu-
rsrf^lf a name given to the Kä- lar as is shown by a number of
tantra Sutras which were written explanatory commentaries written
in the original form as a Pra- upon it, one of which is believed to
krlyägrantha or a work discussing have been written by Durgasimha
the various topics such as alpha- himself. See Durgasimha.
bet, euphonic rules3 declension, a gloss on ^ W
derivatives from nouns, syntax,
written by Gunaklrti in the four-
conjugation derivatives from roots
teenth century A.D.
etc. etc.
c^f a commentary on
a grammar work written Durgasimha's Kätantravrtti by
by a scholar named Kusala on the Moksesvara in the fifteenth Cen-
Kätantrasütravrtti by Durgasimha.
tury A.D.
See ^cT'^i^Ff.
named Astamafi-
a short explanatory
galä on Durgasimha's Kätantra-
gloss on the Kätantra Sütras by
vrtti written by Ramakisora Cakr-
Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived
in the fourteenth century and who avartin who is believed to have
wrote a work on grammar called written a grammatical work
a work on the Kätantra ^ K n S T C a work of the type
Sütras ascribed to Ramanätha of a summary written by Rama-
Vidyäväcaspati of the sixteenth dasa Cakravartm of the twelfth
century A. D. century.
^ an old Vrtti on the
a work,, explaining
p g the
f Kätantra Sütras ascribed to Vara-
various forms of nouns and verbs ruci who is, of course» different
according to the rules of the from Vararuci Kätyayana* The
Kätantra grammar, ascribed to Vrtti appears to have been occu-
Bhävasena of the fifteenth century. pying a position similar to that of
^ £ % a short ggloss on the Durgasimha.
Kätantra Sütras ascribed to a a treatise on the Kätantra
scholar named Ghucchukabhatta. Grammar believed to have been
a commentary on the written by Vldyananda»

an ancient writer of Nirukta desired; liberty of applying any of

quoted by Yäska in his Nirukta. the rules of grammar that present
(1) another name sometimes themselves; cf. c^ sp-prartt nwrfm
given to Kätyäyana to whom is 3T fä*n% f^p^g sr|^ srr M. Bh. on
ascribed the composition of the P.I.1.27 Vart.6.
Värttikas on Pänini-sütras; (2) an g abridgment ofWRf^RÄg of
ancient writer Kätya quoted as Bopadeva; the word is" also used
a lexicographer by Ksirasvarnin, as a short form for
Hemacandra and other writers. g^p a commentary on the
!Hfl<W the well-known author of the Kävyakämadhenu by Ananta, son
Värttikas on the sütras of Pänini. of Cintämani who lived in the
He is also believed to be the sixteenth century A. D.
author of the Väjasaneyi Präti- optionally; at will; cf, ^wfef-
säkhya and many sütra works M. Bh. on 1.1.57.
named after him. He is believed ajBBx in the sense of c desiring
to be a resident of South India on for oneself applied to nouns to
the strength of the remark ftsRff&clT form denominative roots; e. g,
3J%fT5qT: made by PataSjali in SWwrft; cf. ^pqw P. I l l , 1. 9.
connection with the statement C W an affix, given in the Prätisäkhya
is looked upon as works and, by Katyayana also in his
Kätyäyana's Väittika, Some schol- Värtlika, which is added to a letter
ars say thatVararuci was also ano- or a phonetic element for conve-
ther name given to him, in which nience of mention; e.g. f^R;, 3TO;:;
case the Värttikakära Vararuci cf, 3of: ^RTTRT ^fofN^T; ^f^lfr fJj^SR^
Katyayana has to be looked upon Tai. Pra.I. 16; XXII.4.;cf. also V.
as different from the subsequent Pr. 1.37. It is also applied to sylla-
writer named Vararuci to whom bles or words in a similar way to
some works on Prakrit and Kätan- indicate the phonetic element of
tra grammar are ascribed. For the word as apart from the sense
details see Mahäbhasya Vol. VII. of the word; e, g/ m ä
pages 193-223 published by theD. Vyäk. Paribhäsä; cf.
E. Society, Poona. See also qncfeqra also the words ^FT^;, f|^K:; (2)
below. additional purpose served by a
affix 3tR forming perfect parti- word such as an adhikära word;
ciples which are mostly seen in cf. c#r^: spR: i g^feißÄ^T ^ vfs%*m'
Vedic Literature. The affix mm% M. Bh. on P. 1.3.11.
is technically a substitute for the lit. doer of an action. The
f^ affix. Nouns ending in ^R\ is used in the technical sense
govern the accusative case of the of ^instrument of action'; cf; 35
nouns connected with them; e.g.
; cf. P. IIL3.106 and , \ *m % l fami Kas. on P. I.
P. I I . 3.69. 4.23; cf. also tffift \T§ ^ T ^ S 5 : I
a u g m e n t s ^ applied to «N* fJl^* mwm wsk I M.Bh. on
just-as $W% is applied, e,g.; P. I. 4.25. The word 'karaka* in
fl» «pfar* M. Bh. on V.3.72. short, means cthe capacity in which
< option; permission to do as a thing becomes instrumental in

bringing about an action \ This (1) written by Purusotta-

capacity is looked upon as the madeva a reputed grammariar
sense of the case-affixes which of Bengal who wrote many work
express it. There are six kärakas on grammar of which the Bhäsä.
given in all grammar treatises. vrtti, the Paribhasävrtti and Jna-
. . . —/>. _JSL_ . . . i
pakasamueccya deserve a special
£ to express which the case affixes mention. The verse portion oi
or Vibhaktis q^Fft, ^§*?f, %H$t9 <2cfNi, the Kärakacakra of which the
fefcjT and sr^T^TF are respectively prose portion appears like a
used which, hence, are called commentary might be bearing
Kärakavibhaktis as contrasted with the name KarakakaumudL
Upapadavibhaktis, which show a a
relation between two substantives work on Kärakas as-
and hence are looked upon as cribed to Bhairava.
weaker than the Kärakavibhaktis; a treatise on the topic of
cf. 3qq^*r%: TO^f^f^VMt Pari. Ivärakas written by Cäkrapäni-
Sek. Pari.94. The topic explaining sesa, belonging to the famous
Kärakavibhaktis is looked upon as Sesa family of grammarians, who
a very important and difficult lived in the seventeenth century
chapter in treatises of grammar A. D.
and there are several small com» a work discussing the
pendiums written by scholars deal- various Kärakas from the
ing with kärakas only. For the Naiyiyika view-point written by
" topic of Kärakas see P. I. 4.23 to the well-known Naiyäyika, Gadä-
55, Kat. II. 4.8-42, Vyäkarana dhara Ghakravartin of Bengal,
Mahäbhäsya Vol. VII. pp.262-264 who was a pupil of Jagadisa and
published by the D. E. Society, who flourished in the 16th cen-
Poona. tury A. D» He is looked upon as
vrc^KTi33>T possibly another name one of the greatest scholars of
for the treatise on Kärakas known Nyayasästra. His main literary
as ^T^RSB written by Purusotta- work was in the field of Nyäya-
madeva the reputed grammarian sästra on which he has written
of Bengal who lived in the latter several treatises.
half of the twelfth century A. D. ^ N a work dealing with
See ^IW^fr. Kärakas ascribed to Rudrabhatta f
I^^RfTOjI a work on the Kätantra name given by Sivadeva
grammar discussing the Käraka and other i
grammarians to the
portion. fourth päda of the first adhyäya
vT also called of Pänini's Astädhyäyi which be-
which is a portion of the gins with the Sutra wdf I. 4. 1
author's bigger work named and which deals with the Kära-
=^R1%^T. The work is a discourse kas or auxiliaries of action.
on the six kärakas written by (1) a treatise discussing the
Manikantha? a grammarian of the several Knrakas, written by
Kätantra school. He has also Krsnasästri Arade a famous .Nai-
written another treatise named yäyika of Benares who lived In
the eighteenth century A» D ; (2)

a treatise on syntax written by Pada-

Jayarämabhattäcärya which is vyavasthäsütrakärikä of Udaya-
called ^ # # £ also, which see kfrti.
below. (1) ancient term for the
j a work on Kärakas as- causal Vikarana, ( fo]^ in Pänini's
cribed to Manikantha. See Kära- grammar and ^ in Katantra);
kakhandanamandana above. (2) causal or causative as applied
case affix governed by to roots ending in f^ or words
a verb or verbal derivative as derived from such roots called
contrasted with ^qq^q^r% a case also <nyantaJ by the followers of
affix governed by a noun3 not Pänini's grammar; cf. %^ ^if^ä
possessing any verbal activity. fä Kät. III. 2.9, explained as
See the word 3^3? above. See
also the word
the dictum that a class of words headed
a Karaka case is stronger than by the word ^##?rq, which are
an Upapada case/e. g. the accu- all dvandva compounds, and
sative case as required by the which have their first member
word ^FRf<% which is stronger than retaining its own accent; e. g*
the dative case as required by the sffiä^förqt, ^ ^ ^ M ^ T : etc. cf« Käs.
word ^;m Hence the word yf'W* on P. VI. 2.37.
has to be used in the sentence
Rif^f and not the word the original instructor of the
q cf. ^ q q ^ ^ % Kätantra or Käläpa Grammar,
to S'arvavarman who composed
Pari. äek. Pari. 94.
the Sütras according to inspira-
l a n anonymous elemen- tion received by him. The Kä-
tary work on syntax explaining tantra, hence, has also got the
the nature and function of the name Kaumara Vyäkarana.
six Kärakas. Wffi^ the word is found used in
known as also; Yäska's Nirukta as an adjective to
a short work on the meaning and the word &3JR where it means
relation of words written by Jaya- 'belonging to nouns derived from
rämabhattäcärya who lived in the roots (WTr?!)'like q T ^ , ^ ^ etc.The
beginning of the eighteenth cen- changes undergone by the roots in
tury. The work forms the con- the formation of such words i. e-
cluding portion of a larger work words showing action are termed
called 3iR##tf which was written ^NTft^R^K; cf. ^f^JfFf s&*fcn*T|
by ^ { f ^ l R l i . The work aföjq vrci: qn^^nfißj; Durgavrtti on
sflRWR has a short commentaiy Nir. 1.13.
written by the author himself.
VR\M (1) brought into existence ,by
p«iqT the same as activity (1%qqT $\i^ ^T%) as oppo-
written by «fzRi^^sr^R. See sed to fäsq eternal- cf, r& f
5tT^f>T^ ^ ^r%^ R.Pr. XIII.
a verse or a line or lines in also ^3 ^ ^OTf^r wft: ( sascjr: )
metrical form giving the gist of S p r ^ M. Bh. on 1.1.44 Vart.
the explanation of a topic; cf. 17;(2) which should be done, used

in connection with a grammatical 9 lit. measurement of time;

operation; cf. 3fl3 ^ ^ # H W § ; | (2) degree of a vowel, the vowels
3T*Nr 3$cR3 ^TR 3^#*rfcf j R. Pr. being looked upon as possessed of
XIV,16; cf. also föriciW ^ ^T% P. three degrees j ^ , ^ , & tgcf measur-
1.4.2; (3) a grammatical opera- ed respectively by one? two and
tion as for instance in the phrases three mäträs; cf. ^fc
fl^T^n, ^fösfflsfäfftetc.; cf. also P.T. 2.27; (3) time notion in gene-
g f i a i g ^ ^ ^ cpiqöq5qq: Par. Sek. ral, expressed in connection with
Pari. 15; (4) object of a transitive an activity in three ways past
verb; cf. ffä: 35$ Säk. ( §5fl» present ( ^im^), and future
along wi h the operation; cf. ( ^rfcT^Rj;) to show which the terms
WW3> ^qft^T^H,, rules laying *JclT, 3&TRT and *rf^Rft were used
down technical terms and regulat- by ancient grammarians; cf. the
ing rules are to be interpreted words gcfa>R5, 3TT<3^; also cf. q # -
along with the rules that prescribe jgq^spi^» ö^p^^q^ Käs. on P. II.
or enjoin operations ( provided 4.21; (4) place of recital ( m&&j )
the technical terms occur in those depending on the time of recital,
rules, or, the regulating rules con- cf. ^ q^To5: g$p& 3^: (V.Pr.III. 3)
cern those rules). See Pari. Sek. a dictum similar to Pänini's %
Pari 3. , VIIL2.L
F ^ one of the important
p ^ l a word not sanctioned by
Paribhasas, regarding the h applica-
li rules of grammar. The word pro-
tion of the Paribhäsä rules, See bably refers to the corruption tak-
Ep^FTös. For details see Par. Sek. ing place in connection with the
Pari. 3. use of a word on account of lapse
^ T looking upon the substi- of time; cf. 35repr ^q3F3j: Durgh.
tute as the very original for the Vr. on II.2.6.
sake of operations that are caused signifying time; cf.
by the presence of the original/the
word is used in contrast with ¥Trifle^ % difference in the time of
where actually the original is re- utterance; cf. fägfSRf f^qR^Tf^icf I
stored in the place of the substitute q 3^; ^T^^I^r I M. Bh. on Öiva
on certain conditions. For details Sütra 1.
see Mahäbhäsya on il^N^fäl P. interval of time; cf.
[ the word or wording that I M. Bh. on Siva Sutra 1.
undergoes the operation; cf, OTf 11 time in general; unspeci-
tftfm: 5F% s i f t e d M. Bh. on LI, fied time; cf. f
1. Vart. 7, also ^T^rg*^ i | Käs. on PJII.3,142-
Par. Sek. Pari. 10. g name of the comm-
notion of time created by differ- entary by Bopadeva on his own
ent contacts made by a thing with work spf^^qp. See
other things one after another. (l)]an ancient grammarian
Time required for the utterance of and philosopher referred to in the
a short vowel is taken as a unit of Mahäbhäsya; (2) the work on
time which is called *P[T or grammar by Kasakftsna;
Society, Poona. ( 2 ) The name
M.Bh. on I.I, Ähnika L Käslikä is sometimes found given
a class of words headed by to their commentaries on sta-
the word ^W to which the taddhita ndard works of Sanskrit Grammar
affix 5*3 is affixed in the four senses by scholars, as possibly they were
stated in P.IV.2.67-70 e.g. q^fti^, written at Käsi; as for instance,
^ f i c . ; cf. Kas. on P.IV.2.80. (a) Käsikä on Vaiyäkaranabhüsana-
(l)name given to the reputed sära by Hari Diksita, and ( b )
gloss 0f]%) on the Sütras of Pänini Käsikä on Paribhäsendusekhara by
written by the joint authors Jayä- Vaidyanätha Päyagunde.
ditya and Vämana in the 7th %%^OTtf|%^f also called Nyasa,
century A.D.Nothing definitely can the well-known commentary
be said as to which portion was written by Jinendrabuddhi on the
written by Jayaditya and which by Käsikä of Jayaditya and Vämana.
Vämana, or the whole work was See Käsikä above.
jointly written. Some scholars p a commentary on the
believe that the work was called Käsikävrtti named SFJ^frfä by
Käsikä as it was written in the Väranävatesa-sästrin.
city of Käsl and that the gloss aRR5FI name of an ancient gramma-
on the first five Adhyäyas was rian quoted by Panini, possibly an
written by Jayaditya and that on author of some Prätisakhya work
the last three by Vämana. Although now lost.
it is written in a scholarly way,
the w^rk forms an excellent help name of a gloss on the
to beginners to understand the Cändra Vyäkarana.
sense of the pithy Sütras of Pänini. a class of words headed by
The work has not only deserved the words ^Tför, %K and others to
but obtained and maintained a which the taddhita affixes sg and
very prominent position among stu- are added in the miscellaneous
dents and scholars of Pänini's gram- senses; e. g. ^
mar in spite of other works like the %T^T etc.; cf. Käs. OB P. IV. 2.116.
Bhäsävrtti, the Prakriyä Kaumudi, The femB affix % is applied when
the Siddhänta Kaumudi and others the affix 35 is added to the word
written by equally learned scholars. %; cf. P. IV. 1.15.
Its wording is based almost on the a class of words headed by
Mahäbhäsya which it has followed, the word ^TS after which a word
avoiding, of course, the scholarly standing as a second member in a
disquisitions occurring here and compound gets the grave accent
there in the Mahäbhäsya. It ap- for it,e. g. ^TST^q^:; q^T^lT^: etc.
pears that many commentary cf.P.VIIL L67.
works were written on it5 the well- (1) krt affix % prescribed after 5
known among them being the Käsi- roots with a prefix attached;e,g.sife
kävivaranapaSjikä or Nyasa written 5ri%; cf. P.III.3.92, 93; (2) krt affix %
by Jinendrabuddhi and the Pada- looked upon as a perfect termina-
maSjarl by Haradatta, For details tion andj hence, causing reduplica-
sec Vyäkaranamahabhäsya VoL VII tion and accusative case of the
pp 286-87 published by the D. E. noun connected, found in Vedic

Literature added to roots ending in mute 5 cause the Vrddhi substi-

3}T, the root % and the roots tute for the first vowel in the word
§3 and s?^;e. g. qfä; gW, ^ft:, to which they are added.
etc., cf. P. III. 2.171; (2) a term marking with the mute letter
used in the Jainendra Vyäkarana §>, or looking upon as marked
for the term fe with mute .5 for purposes men-
fsfc^rT a form derived from the pro- tioned above; ( see fä*t above )„
noun f^; cf. fäiJTt fxi fäftffl^ | T'^eRT- The word is often used in the
5T$fa uilWRq^ 5TcfNlc1TgcTfft =^ | Käs. Mahäbhasya; see MJBh. on I. 1.
on P. VIII 1.48. 3, 5, 46; I. 2. 5, etc
^ a class of words headed krt affix % prescribed along with
by the word T%3J*3% which get their T%- See fä» above. The affix f%^
final vowel lengthened when the causes the acute accent on the
word "Ftft is placed after them as first vowel of the word ending
a second member of a compound, with it, while the affix ki ( % ) has
provided the word so formed is itself the acute accent on its
used as a proper noun; e. g. i ^ j $ - vowel ?.
sffrfaft:, STSRTfilft:; cf. Käs. on P.
a class of roots headed by the
VI. 3.117.
root ^, viz. the five roots ep, jr, £,
( ) marked with the mute letter <f and W^ after which the desidcera-
^ which is applied by Pänini to tive sign-, i.e. the affix ^ , gets the
affixes, for preventing guna and augment 5 ( ? £ ) ; e. g, f^McT,
vrddhi substitutes to the pre- ; cf. Käs. on P.VII-2.75.
ceding ^5> vowel (%, 3, «p or c5); , a class of words
cf.fäsfä =?, Pan. 1.1.5; (2) con- headed by fiff&i meaning some kind
sidered or looked upon as marked of scent, which get the taddhita
with mute indicatory g> for pre- affix 33» ( gq ) applied to them
venting guna; cf. 3^ä%mfe2 fei; when the word so formed means
and the following P. I. 2*5" etc. f
a dealer of that thing; * e. g.
The affixes of the first type are for f^OK^:* l%^Ii%fr; cf; Käs, on P.
instance ^ WTT, $cR[ and others. IV. 4. 53.
The affixes of the second type are
given mainly in the second pad a of ^ Kielhorn F., a sound scholar
the first Adhyäya by Pänini. Be- of Sanskrit Grammar who brought
sides the prevention of guna and out excellent editions of thePatafij-
vrddhi, affixes marked with \ or ala Mahäbhasya and the Paribhas-
affixes called f%$, cause Samprasa- endusekhara and wrote an essay
rana (see P. V I . 1.15,16), elision on the Värttikas of Kätyäyana. For
of the penultimate ^ ( P . VI.4.24), details see Pätaiijala Mahäbhasya
elision of the penultimate vowel Vol VII.p,40, D, E society edition,
(P. VI. 4.98,100), lengthening of Poona,
the vowel (VI. 4.15), substitution (I) guttural class of consonants,
ofgj (VI. 4.19.21), elision of the L e* the consonants 55, ^r, JT, 3,??-
final nasal (VI. 4.37), substitution The vowel ^ added to 5, signifies
of 3?r (VI.4.42). The taddhita the class of 5. e. g. s3Fstr: 3? F ^
affixes which are marked with VII. 3. 52, $$r«p VIL 4,62, %i

VIII.2.30, :; VIII.2.62; ed condition* je.g

cf. ^ P.I.I. 69; (2) cf. P.V.2.24.
substitute $ for P. VII. 2. [|I name of an ancient gram-
104. marian who lived possibly after
augment ^ (1 ) added to f at Pänini and before Patanjali and
the end of a word before a sibi- who is referred to in the Mahä-
lant letter; e. g mf$$&; cf. P.VIII. bhägya as giving an alternative
3. 28; ( 2 ) added^to the words TO form for the standard form of cer-
and s^reR before the affix !^> cf. tain words; cf. f^WT^R^lTl 1^1 ^frfl
P. V. 2, 129; ( 3 ) added to words M.Bh. on III. 2,14; cf. also
of the qg group before the tad.
affix 3 ( tq ), e. g. ^ ; M.Bh. on VII.3.1.'
cf. P. IV. 2. 91. name of an ancient Vrttikara on
^ a commentary by the Sütras of Pänini, mentioned in
bhatta on Jinendrabuddhi's their works by Kaiyata and Hara-
kävivaranapafijikä which is known datta; cf, Kaiyata's Pradipa on P.
popularly as Myäsa. 1.1.74, also Padamanjan on 1.1.1.
( 1 ) a commentary on substitution of the consonants of
Nägesa's Laghümanjüsä by Krsna- the ^ class or guttural consonants;
mis'ra; ( 2 ) a commentary on 5 % a famous grammarian- of
Nägesa's Paribhäsendusekhara by the eighteenth century who wrote
Durbaläcärya. some works on grammar of which
a class of words headed by the qftffl^lFIR^ is an independent
to whtch the taddhita affix treatise on Paribhisas.
(^5) is applied in the sense ^R^a word containing a guttural
i. e; grandchildren etc. e. g. letter in it;,cf. ffltcF ^ P. VIII. 4.
3RT:; cf. Käs. on P. IV. 1. 9 '. 13.
a group of roots headed by the iR (1) Kärtikeya who is believed
root fZ of theVIth conjugation after to have given inspiration to theKät-
which an affix which is neither f^ antra-sütrakära to write the Kätan-
nor "Pig; becomes Ugandas a result tra-Sütras; (2) named Visnumitra
prevents the substitution of rpj or who wrote a commentary on the
Ü for the preceding vowel; e. g.
TO^fP a phrase used in
I. 2. 1. the gloss on the ^T^^{ by Durga-
f^ name given by Slradeva siriiha to give along with the defi-
and later grammarians to the sec- nition of f^ret^fFJ or fcp£R a graphic
ond päda of the first adhylya of description of it as shown in script;
Päninfs Asfädhyäyi, as the päda cf. Kät I.1.16 com.
begins with the Sutra ^ii a class of words (1) consisting
P, I. 2. L gSS, ^ t ^ etc. to which the
tad. affix egzK added to 3? taddhita affix Z^ is applied in the
e, &• ^ f £R*^; cf. P. V. 2. 30. four senses given in PJV,2.67-?Ö;
tad. affix f«T added to words e.g.f%W$*{, ?$&&{ etc. ;(2) consist-
oi <?r§ group in the sense of *ripen- ing of ^ 5 ^ %Rf, ^ W etc, to which

the taddhita affix 13» ( 33? ) is T (1) root fj in the general sense
applied in the senses referred to of activity; (2) pratyähära or short
in (I); e.g. ^gi%F^3 OTM^*! etc.; form for the three roots f,, ^ and
cf. Käs, on P.IV.2.80. 3}H, Cf. f^^l3?Tf5^ MZ P.IJI. 1.40.
SHWff^ a class of words headed lit. activity; a term used in the
by «psrqfr in which the word qR grammars of Panini and others for
at the end of the compound is affixes applied to roots to form
changed into q[^ and further chan- verbal derivatives; cf.
ged into q^ before the feminine
affix %; e.g. ^WRtj 3Mq^t3 ?q^t3 ^ \ Käs. on IIL1.93. The krt
q^q^t etc.; cf. Käs. on P. V.4. 138^ affixes are given exhaustively by
139. Panini in Sütras III. 1.91 to III.4.
krt. affix ^ applied to the roots 117. f*X and cif^T appear to be the
and f^;; e.g. f%^: I ft^r^ I ancient Pre-Päninian terms used
I "cf. Käs."on PJIL2.162. in the Nirukta and the Prätisäkhya
a term found in the Brähmana works in the respective senses of
works and used by ancient gram- root-born and noun-born words
marians for 'the present tense3. ( f ^ f and ctfl^IFcI according to
effective or efficient as oppo- Pänini's terminology), and not in
sed to dormant, as applied the sense of mere affixes; cf.
(cause); ^ T ; Nir„ L14;

Nir. II.2; ^
^ f ^ i Pada-
manjarl on P.VII.2.36. V.Pr. 1.27; also cf. V.Pr. VI.4.
Patanjali and later grammarians
^ ^ a class of words headed by the have used the word f^[ in the sense
word <p to which the taddhita Of f3>xF; cf. ^fcR»R%FR5Rf W&: ^§
affix q (wq ) is added in the sense QiTK-r^^ SIT^ §^q%:Pari.Sck.Pari.75,
of 3TO3 or descendant; e.g. ^ s q : The krt aflixes are given by Panini
4; etc.; cf. Käs. on PJV.hi5L in the senses of the different Kära-
a kind of svarabhakti; see kas srarecR, m^m, ^o|, cqT%^W, WM
and «F^J stating in general terms
a class of words headed by that if no other sense is assigned to
the word g^5io5 to which the tadd- a krt affix it should be understood
hita affix s?^ ( g^) is applied in that WT or the agent of the verbal
the sense of cmade by3, provided activity Is the sense; cf. ^ f t fic^ I
the word so formed is used as a ^ c r ^ f ^ t qiftar ci%^qfyfö% Kas. on
proper noun; e g ^ III.4.67. The activity element
cf. Käs. onP.IV.3.118. possessed by the root lies generally
intervention by a letter of dormant in the verbal derivative
the guttural class; cf. nouns; cf. f^f|<tt nm ssqeraafit,
ftqr^ft i MJBh.on V.4.19 and VIf
;, P.VIII.4,2 Värt, 4,5. 2.139.
name of a grammarian who (1) a term used by ancient
wrote a commentary on the Käta- grammarians in the sense of cpast
ntra Vyäkarana; see tense';(2)effected, done» The word

is mostly used in this sense in ly found in use, are cl^ 3RR and
grammar works ;e.g. T% cffi f^t^R; 3 ( ^> ^ and nqfl;).
^ ^ Par. SeLPari, 6. artificial; technical, as opposed
a definition of the term to derivative. In grammar, the
in the sense of a rule which term ff^R means technical sense',
occurs after certain another rule as contrasted with sifa^R< ordi-
is applied, as well as before nary sense'; cf. fil^RT^R^r: f^
that rule is applied; cf. f^fJcfOTft? - Par. Sek. Pari. 9.
Pm^ 1 clI^lOTft^q: I Pari. Sek. WWI^T a term popular-
Pari. 42; cf. also 3r4 j p $ fäc3: I ly used by grammarians for the
^aitici^i%ccfTfl; I M. BhB on VI a
4. 62. qftWf or maxim that out of the
two senses, the technical and the
a class of words such fF,fäcT, derived ones, the technical sense
TO, ^ , ^Wi and others with which should be preferred; in rare cases,
the words Srfft, 133?, IJTT, 3?^, ^ # the other too, is preferred; cf„
and others are compounded, pro- Pari. Sek. Pari.9.
vided both the words forming tad. affix f.^5 applied to
the compourd are in the same numerals to convey the sense of
case;,e. g. ^FTf^rr:, ^fJclT:, repetition, e. g. q^f^j: ^If^'. cf.
etc. cf. Käs. on P. II. 1.59.
lit. which has got its purpose
served; a term used in connection form of the tad. affix in
with a rule that has been possible Vedic Literature. See
to be applied (without clash with the same as the
another rule) in the case of cer- retention of its accent by the
tain instances, although it comes second member of a tatpurusa
into conflict in the case of other compound, if the first member is a
instances; cf. m pflpfen^ fcFKK1^ word termed Gati or Käraka, by
q^oy 333^ ^fffiH, Käs. on P. IV. the rule *rffo^qq3jq; fcj; P.VL2.
3, 5* The word ^fän«r is used 139; cf. 3T*q^^ ^^cR: M.Bh. on
almost in the same sense. VI.2.52; cf.f^Rfl^^FfJ^^: M.Bh.
lit. that which should be done; VL2.52 Van. 6.
the word f^q is used as a tech- the word ending with a krt
nical term in grammar in the affix; the term f*{ is found used in
sense of krt affixes which possess the sütras of Pänini for fi^r; cf.
the sense * should be done/ * 1.2.46. The term
Pänini has not defined the term for root-nouns, or nouns deri-
f5^, but he has introduced a topic ved from roots, is found in the
( WfiFffrc) by the name fCT (P. Atharvaprätisäkhya (1.1.10, II.3.8,
III. 1.95), and mentioned krt II1.2.4), the Mahäbhäsya and all
affixes therein which are to be the later works on grammar. See
called fj?q right on up to the men- the word fc}\
tion of the affix 035. in P. III. fä% expressed by a krt affix ;cf.
L133;cf. WW ^ f ^ P. III. t ß M.Bh. on P.
L 95. The krtya affixes, common- II.2.19, IH.1.67, IVJ3, VL2J39,

mention of a krt i.e* of a an alternative name

word ending with a krt affix. The for the well-known gram mar» work
word mainly occurs in the Pari- ^i%q[c^g^t written by Ramacandra
^ f Sesa. See ^
which occurs first as an expression called also ^Rf^r, a scho-
of the Varttikakära (P.L4.13 Vart. lar of Sanskrit Vyäkarana who
9) and has been later on given as wrote ^^Tc[i%f^a commentary on
a Paribhäsä by later grammarians the Prakriya-Kaumudi of Rama-
{Pari. Öek.i Pari.28).TheParibhasä candra Sesa.
is referred to as fgppiqf^W in later
grammar works especially comme- a scholar of grammar and
ntary works. nyäyaofthe 17th century A.D.
a short term used who wrote many commentary
by the grammarians for the maxim works some of which are (1) a
5 ^ ^ . Par. S commentary called Ratnärnava on
Pari. 28. See f>^QT.
the Siddhänta- Kaumudi, (2) a
commentary named Kalpalatä on
% a short treatise by a gramma- Bhattoji's Prauclhamanorama, (3)
rian named ^TT^NR who lived in the a commentary named Bhavad|pa
fifteenth century. The work deals on Bhattoji's Sabdakaustubha3 (4)
with verbal derivatives. a commentary on Magojibhatta's
p the elision of a krt affix; the Laghumanjüsä by name Kuücikä
word is found used along with the and (5) a commentary on Vaiyä-
words RfJ%£^Rf%;, and karanabhösana.
in the Värttika
an alternative name
by means of which the . See
phrase $H sftcRfct is formed for the son of üovardhana and
sentence ^*wraär. surnamed Maunl, who wrote a
the dropping or removal of the commentary named gfff^fr on the
verbal noun(f^?cr)after the words sr, Siddhänta-Kauraudi at the end of
TO etc., when they are compound- the 17th century A.D.
ed with the following noun; e.g. n^SJI^pBgnr author of a commen-
the dropping of TRf from the tary named Purusakara on BhojV$
expression färo; sfM«m when it Sarasvatikanthabharana,
is compounded into KRJtenftefc 1 cf,
f^ft ft^?[rrf^:, ft^oil%: MjBh. on ( W^ ) a famous gram-
PJAl.Vart. 18. marian and logician of the 18th
f^ a class of words headed century who wrote Äkhyatavlveka
by the word fJWeF to which the and Kärakaväda» See %
taddhita affix ^ ( ^SJ ) is applied a famous grammarian of the
in the four senses given in PJV.2. Sesa family who wrote a commen-
67-7.0. e.g. ^W>4F7:, Wl%k:; cf, tary named the Gudhabhavavlvrti
Kai on P.IV.2.80. . on the Prakriya Kaumudf of Rama-
also %?£ the foremost of the seven candra Öesa. See ^
Yamas; cf. krt. affix tar in the sense of f^
Tai. P r ,„XXIH44, (pot.pass.part.) found in Vedlc

Literature; e.g. fe would have remained unlit, that

cf. Käs. on P.III.4.14. is unintelligible, at several places.
krt, affix T3?q in the sense of Later grammarians attached to
in Vedic Literature; e.g. ft^ 5F^iq almost the same importance
; cf. Käs. on P.III.4.14. as they did to the Mahäbhasya
and the expression cT^ m^<\-
^ krt. affix q^ir in the sense %qs%: has been often used by com-
o f p q ; e . g. q^f^rr W^TT:; cf. % r ^ mentators. Many commentary
, P. III. I. 96 Vart. works were written on the Pradipa
isolated ;a term applied to a letter out of which Nägesa's Uddyota
or a word when it is not combined is the most popular. The word
with another letter or another %qs came to be used for the word
word in a compound; cf. ^WKf^f ^ITXiM^PT which was the work of
% I %qö5R q^rg^HT^; Käs. on Kaiyata.For details see Vyäkarana
- P. V. 4.124; (2) simple (word) Mahäbhasya published by the D.
without an affix added; cfB 3?^TIT E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII. pp.
• ^qq#%#?r 3?sp^n^ | P. I. 2.45 389-390.
Värt. 7, also a commentary on the
T M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.
writer of a commentary named Mahäbhäsyapradipa of Kaiyata
written by Nilakantha of the Dra-
on the Siksä of Pänini. He vida country, Nilakantha lived in-
, lived in the 17th century. the 17th century and wrote works
! ^ T ^ T I writer of the commentary on various subjects,
named g^fere: on the grammar ? a commentaryy on the
^ff^K written by Goyicandra,
Mahäbhäsyapradipa of Kaiyata
krt affix "% used in Vedic Litera- written by Pravartakopädhyäya.
ture as noticed in the forms snq nf (1) a commentary on the
and W^?AA; cf. P. III.4.10. Mahäbhäsyapradipa of Kaiyata
lit. position of questioning written by Isvaränanda, in the
the utility; absence of any appa- 16th century; (2) a commentary
rent utility; cf. % ^ on Kaiyata's Pradipa by Rama-
f^T MB Bh. on I. candra-Sarasvatl, who lived in the
4.S, III. 1.46; III. 2.127, III. 16th century.
3.19; VI. 4.49, VII. 2.26, and a c j a s s o f w o r ( j s headed by
VIII. 4.32. the word $TH3 which get their final
vowel lengthened when the word
name of the renowned com-
cffi is placed after them as a second
mentator on the Mahäbhasya,
member of a compound, provided
who lived in the 11th century.
the word so formed is used as
He was a resident of Kashmir
. and his father's name was Jaiyata. a proper noun; e,g.
The commentary on the Mahä- Jt cf. Käs. on P, VL 3.117.
bhasya was named ^T^WSH by a reputed grammarian who
him, which is believed by later wrote an extensive explanatory
grammarians to have really acted gloss by name Vaiyäkaranabhüsana
as spg(jq or light, as without it, on the Vaiyäkaranaslddhäntakä-
the Mahabhasya of Patanjali rikä of Bhattojl Dlksita. Another

work Vaiyakaranabhusa^asara. in the past time as past pass.parti-

which is in a way an abridgment ciple e. g. fcf:,'g3fcf^ etc.; cf. P„
of theBhüsana, was also written III. 2.102; (2) the sense of the
by him, Kondabhatta lived in beginning of an activity when it is
the beginning of the 17th century. used actively; e. g. Sfrcr: 3Ä ^ 3 ^ : ,
He was the son of Rangoji and cf. P. HI.2.102 Värt. 3; (3) the
nephew of Bhattojl Diksita. He sense of activity of the present
was one of the few writers on the tense applied to roots marked
Arthavicära in the Vyakaratiasästra withe mute s? as also to roots in
and his Bhüsanasära ranks next to the sense of desire, knowledge and
the Väkyapadiya of Bhartrhari. worship; e.g. im:, F^ÜIJT:3 'fl: as
Besides the Bhüsana and Bhüsana- also ^fff ST3:, ^ I Ä : , M p [ : ; c f .
sära, Kondabhatta wrote two P.III.2.187, 88; (4) the sense of
independent works viz. Vaiyäka- mere verbal activity ( ^RTc{ ) e. g*
ranasiddhäntadipikä and Sphota- ^%cf^5 ^Icl^j ^^rf^q^, (used always
väda. in the neuter gender); cf. P.IIL3.
a scholar of Sanskrit Vyä- 114; (5) the sense of benediction
karana who composed when the word ending in q^f is
SFffT a small treatise dealing with used as a technical term, e.g.^^ri:
the declension of nouns. in the sense \qj ^ ^ l § % The krt
affix frfvrl^ is also used similarly
an ancient grammarian e.g. ^n%: wf%: irfScr:; cf. Käs. on P.
referred to in the Taittirfya IIL3.174.
Prätisäkhya (T. Pr. V. 38) and krt aiBx CTSRJ which also is call-
Pänini's AsHdhyäyi, (P.II.4.70). -'' ed fJrST- It is prescribed in the
(l)an alternative active sense of somebody who has
name of the Katantra Vyäkarana done a thing sometime in the past.
given to it on the strength of the A word ending in it is equivalent
traditional belief that the original to the past active participle; e*g.
inspiration for writing it was 'grE^T^mpn:; cf. P.I.I ,26. The fern,
received by Sarvavarman from affix ^i^ ( % ) is added to nouns
Kumära or Kärtikeya; (2) small ending in sRfcjg to form feminine
treatises bearing the name Kau-
bases; cf. P. IV. 1.6.
maravyäkarana written by Muni»
puhgava and Bhävasena. The a noun base ending in the krt
latter has written Kätantrarüpa- affix sffi; past passive participle;
mälä also. cf. "§fa ^ffraj^ c^fr%q[ ^ Wf&fa |
^RI%^Ii^^cf a XT£^ M. Bh.on 11*2.
flgSFJ5* an ancient grammarian 47.
referred to in the Taittinya Pratx-
säkhya; cf. T.Pr. XVIIL2. sense of «Rf Le* sense of the past
cf krt affix ^ in various senses, call- pass, participle; cf» 3<wrfi: Wi%
ed by the name fägT in Panim's Uj^q: <$<$£[ ( ^nPF% ), P- IL 2. 18,
grammar along with the affix ERF^ Värt. 4,
cf. ^ r a ^ i^sr P.LL26.The various ^; krt affix % f added to roots in
senses in which 3RT is prescribed the benedictive sense to form
can be noticed below : (1) the or nouns in a technical sense;
general sense of something done ; in the sense of ggprq;; cf.

on IIL3.174. ^FcT is also added in of a verbal root which does not

the same way. See 3cT. leave its verbal nature on the one
krt affix T% added to roots to hand although it takes the form of
form nouns in the sense of verb- a substantive on the other hand.
action; e.g. ffcf:, ftsrfct:, srfä: etc;cf. 3 krt affix 3 added to the roots ^H,
P.III.3.94-97. ^3j> W( and w^ in the sense of
habituated etc as given in the rule
krt affix ft" added to the roots
marked with the syllable g by Pan-
ini in his Dhatupätha; after this e.g. ^R3:> ^ g : etc. cf. P. III. 2.140.
affix T%3 the tad. affix ^ ( ^ ) ^n ^ rt affix m added in the sense
the sense of fäf^ (accomplished) of habituated etc. to the roots q;,
is necessarily added, e. g. qj^R^, qn and ^ ; e. g. qpft:, q^R:, 3T?r^:
f P p ^ ; cf. P. III. 3.88. and P. IV. cf. P.III. 2.134 and 360.
4.20. common term for the Vikaranas
¥R[ 9 ^^f. and ^ ; cf# ^ : ^ p^ i #
krt. affix ^T added to roots (1) in 4.153aiso cf. P. III. 2.170, VI. "
the sense of prohibition conveyed ^ . 50.
by the word 3T3 or ^ g preceding
the root, e.g. SRS f*ejr, ^ g f^T; cf. ^FW? affix q taking Atmanepada termi-
P. III. 4.18; (2) in the sense of nations after it, added in the sense
exchange in the case of the root % of similar behaviour to a substan-
e. g. srqföcq 3i=3cr;; cf. P. III. 4.19; tive. The substantive to which
(3) to show an activity of the past this affix ^ is added, becomes a
time along with a verb or noun denominative root; e. g. ^"PF>: $HT-
of action showing comparatively ^> 5S5 3^<I^ 3 cf. Käs. on P. III.
a later time, provided the agent 1.11-12, also on P. III. 1.14-18.
of the former and the latter activi- denominative affix ( fäwi ) in
ties is the same;e,g. vgfäi stfsrfct, S3MT the sense of desiring for oneself,
$m W^tt ^ f ö ; cf- P. III. 4. 21. added to nouns to form denomi-
This krt affix is always added to tive roots; e.g. jj^refä; ?m% is also
roots when they are without any added to nouns that are upamä-
prefix; when there is a prefix the nas or standards of comparison in
indeclinable, ending in^n, is always the sense of (similar) behaviour;
compounded with the prefix and e.g. ;p'FM ^WU cf. Käs. on P.
^Tis changed into :^ ( ^ ) , e.g. flf^, III. 1.8, 10. It is also added in the
8553; cf. ^RI%55fTSog ^3T 5 ^ P. VII. sense of c doing ' to the words
L37. The substitution of^is at and fäft ;e. g. ^fm'^
will in Vedic Literature; e. g* fm ^» MT^CI; cf. Käs.
Wltf crRSTCfösiT (instead of on P. I I I . 1.19.
), cf. P. VII. 1.38, while ^ krt affix q applied to the roots
sometimes, ^ is added after ^r p[5r and q^ in the sense of c verbal
as an augment e. g. ss^raf ^cIT activity ' and to the roots ^ ^
^ : cf. P. VII. L 47, as also with ^ , «s^ with ft etc. to form
sometimes K% or K$m%i is substi- proper nouns e. g. ^ T , l^T,
tuted for ^T e. g. %&fä ^ R ^ ^ % H ' W etc.,cf. P. III. 3.98 and
, cf. P. VII. 1.48, 49. 99; (2) krtya affix q in the sense
gerund; a mid-way derivative of 'should be done9 applied to the

roots 3^, *j and | q (when preceded %-, (VII. 2.77)

by certain words put as upapada), Kas.onP.IV.2.78; (3) succession of
as also to roots with penultimate the same consonant brought
5F and the roots gsr, %9 * about; doubling; reduplication;
others; e.g. sifted, ^fJ^W ? =OT[ is used in this way in the Rk
^ P R ete. cf. Kasa on P. I I I . 1. Prätisäkhya as a synonym of
106,121. dvitva prescribed by Pänini; e. g.
OTT ^T 1% becomes STT TC|T )
^ affix q added to certain nouns
like §lf|cf and others to form becomes
denominative roots after which cf.
terminations of both the padas gq 1 etca R. Pr. VI. 1
are placed e. g. 3i1|<TPjftr, ^tf|cTf^; to 4; cf. also € H3 il^fe^qt FIT%
cf. Käs. on P. III. 1.13. ^ j q ^ «tftSPi: Uvvata on R. Pr,
VI. 1. The root ^ IA. is
Unadi affixes sffi. several times used in the Präti-
a class of words headed by säkhya works for fl$sR, cf. also T.
the word sftg, which have their first Pr.XXI.5;XXlV. 5; (4) repetition
vowel accented acute in a Bahu- of a word in the recital of Vedic
vrihi dompound, provided the first passages, the recital by such a
member of the compound is the repetition being called WTfö,
word §; e.g. §?Bg;, gqgrfif: etc.; cf. which is learnt and taught with a
Käs. on P. VI.2.118. view to understanding the original
forms of words combined in the
(1) serial order or succession
as contrasted with 4\WF0t or simul- Samhita by euphonic rules,
taneity.The difference between ^m substitution of letters such as that
and q\wi is given by sj^gft in the of j[ for ^ , or of ^ for 5 , as
line 5j£| ftf^% m ^fqqlf q f^% also the separate words of a com-
Vak. Pad. 11.470. In order to pound word ( ^HTi%w^ ); e. g.
form a word by the application of
several rules of grammar, a parti- 1 p H $w$t I flf ^
cular order is generally followed in 1 cf. ml
accordance with the general prin-
cfple laid down in the Paribhäsä R. Pr- X. 1. For details and
^ ^ g ^ ta:, as special features, cf. R. Pr. ch„ X
also according to what is stated and XI; cf. also V. Pr. IV. 182-
in the sütras ^fes^RpTP^ ^ l f ä s ? i 190; T. Pr. XXIII. 20, XXIV. 6.
etc.; (2) succession, or being doubling. Irregular doubling is
placed after, specifically with re- looked upon ss a fault; cf.
ference to indeclinables like 03, $ R . Pr. XIV, 25.
=qf etc. which are placed after author of a grammar named
a noun with which they are who lived at the end
connected. When an inde- of the 13 th century.
clinable is not so connected, WI3 recital of the Vedic Samhita
it is called $wm; cf. qf^F4 =3 by means of separate groups of two
(P. IV. 4,36), mm te*?: words, repeating each word ex-
m%$ «sMifit, Ka£. on PB IV. cept the first of the Vedic verse-
4.36; also f line; see vfw above. The various

tules and exceptions are given in a statement made frequently r by

detail in Patalas ten and eleven the Mahabhäsyakära. Some scho-
of the Rk Prätisäkhya. The lars draw a nice distinction bet-
Vedic Samhita or Samhitäpätha ween ]%?n and qre, f%3T meaning
is supposed to be the original one dynamic activity and TRQ mean-
and the Padapätha prepared later ing static activity; cf.
on, with a view to preserving the
Vedic text without any change ^ I ^ ^ T ^ g fam Kaiyata's Pradipa
or modification of a letter, or on M, Bh. I l l , 1.87.* Philosophi-
accent; cf. ^ QS^&R q^KI 3*33?qT: I cally f^TF is defined as HrTT
fefe ^ M. Bh. on appearing in temporal sequence
III. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and VIII. in various things. When ^rai does
2.16, where Patanjali clearly says not so appear it is called flT«r.
that grammar- rules are not to Tf^^fcfa grammatical, work on
follow the Padapatha, but, the the conjugation of roots written.
writer of the Padapätha is to by Vijayänanda,
follow the rules already laid down. ?IIlJH^ a grammar work quoted
The Jatäpätha ? the Ghanapatha by viWtm in his ,*rtriWi#^%.
and the other recitals are later
developments of the Padapätha as ^ lf^^frf
f^f lit. over-extension
overexeo or-
they are not mentioned in the excess of action; the word is,
Prätisäkhya works. however, used in grammar in the
sense of non-happening of an
a class of words headed by expected action especially when
the word ^ to which the tad- it forms a condition of the con-
dhita affix 3T^ (gsj) is added in ditional mood ( f g ) ; cf.
the sense of 'one who studies and
understands3; e, gB %&*$:, <T?3>t, Käs. on P. III. 3.139; cf. also
tffafcnfr, ftreffi: etc, cf. Käs. on
IV. 2.61. tf w M. Bh,
a consonant which is subjected on III. 3.139.
t o ' doubling cf. ^*qT qdj; j t sire^> intended fruit of a verbal
$ R. Pr. XVIIL 18. activity; cf.
action, verbal activity; cf.
association with a verbal
ig: M. Bh. on I. 3.1; cf.
also f ^ R R ^ I ^ I c ^ R. Pr. XII. activity; cf 3<wrf: ftqrfft P.I.4.59.
8. quoted by Uvvata in his Bhäsya 7|J (adj. to fim) lit. meant or in-
on V. Pr. VIII.* 50; cf. also tended for another action; e. g.
f: 1^n%^ P. I. 4.59, I^ *faRS ^rlct where 31^1%^ is intend-
. P. III. 2.126; cf. also ed for ifrsrcföqr; cf.
.III.3* 10.
^im €T M. Bh. Ahnika 1. meaning or expressing a
The word W=T many times is used verbal activity; a term generally
in the same sense as kriyä or applied to dhätus or roots, or even to
verbal activity in the sütras of verbs. The term is also applied to
Pänini. cf. PJ.2.21; 1.3.13; III. 1. denominative , affixes like W%%
. 6§xtc;cf. also ^ ^ ^ l t t ^^53t?f which produce a sort of verbal,

activity in the noun to which they the root m ( 1^5 ) to which the
are added; cf. f^T^FCT: TOfl^: conjugational sign ?n ( 3TT ) is
MJBh. on III.1.19. added; roots of the ninth conjuga-
iR3?Tfw?FfWW determinant oor modifier tion.
b l activity;
of a verbal ii f
cf. ^fä^ a word used in the sense of
^% f 'neuter gender' by grammarians
II.l.l;nouns used as Kriyävisesana later than qcH§n§s and the Värtti-
are put in the neuter gender, and kakära; cf. m^Fl ^Mfel^^-
in the nom. or the ace. case in the Bhasä Vr. on PJI.2.2;
sing, number; cf. TiRTfäll^Fri qsjq^ Kaiyata's Pr. on I L L
§ Pari.BhaskaraP3ri.56. 51; ^5TiiKi;% ^I^c^ST«!!^ Durgh.Vr.
repetition or intensity on P.IL4.17.
of a verbal activity; cf. f i^ krt affix gsp added to the roo t
cftq: ;g?3 ^T^I 3T, Käs. on P.1.4.2. ; e.g. 4 r ^ ; cf. P. III.2. 174.
krt affix 5 applied to the root sfr, X krt affix ^ in the sense of
e.g. tfre;,cf. P.III.2.174. agent added to (1) a root preced-
krt affix w ; e . g . *ftw.; cf.(ftw) ed by an Upasarga or a Subanta
spRpHft P.III.2.174 Varttika. Upapada or sometimes even with-
out any preceding word je.gJTcfR^T,
^ a root belonging to the vfi% cfteu; (2) to the root gsj, pre-
class of roots which are headed by ceded by an Upapada which is the
m and which are popularly known object of the root ?|T3 e.g.
as roots of the ninth conjugation; (3) to roots 2£c* and fpj having
cf. k as their object, e.g. irsfgvsij
Padamanjarl on VII.2.48. cf. Pänini III.2.94-96.
a class of words headed by krt affix ÜR, taking the affix |
the word %g to which the tadd- (#15^) in the feminine gender,
hita affix ^ ( sq^) is added in the added to the roots %9 q5T, ik etc.;
sense of a female descendant; e.g. %^% ^^:» f^<T, *imi; c£ P.III,
$m\, 3Tifei^qT, *rma\ etc,; et Käs. 2.163«! 64.
k^t affix sfH, taking the fem.
5R|^(?| an ancient school of gramma- affix % (#1^) in the feminine gender,
rians who are believed to have prescsibed in the sense of perfect,
written rules or Varttikas on some tense,which is mostly found in Vedic
rules of Pänini to modify them; Literature and added to some
* the sßt^R school is quoted in the roots only such as $ 5 , 3g, g etc* in
„ Mahäbhasya; cf. q^^NFcf^wfcf ^ the spoken language; e, g»
% 1 M. Bh. on P. ^ 1 ^
on P.III.2.107-109.
t a class of words headed by a common term to signify krt
the word s$t?& which do not take affixes #R, and % both; cf. P- I I I .
the feminine affix ^ when they 2.134, VI. 3.115» VI.4.40; VIIL3,
stand at the end of a compound; 25, VL4.15, VI.4.97.
e.g. ^STOPSPST» §^f3TT3 i^^^lT etc.; ^ ktt zero affix, i.e. aE affix of
of. Kafi, on PJV-K56, which every letter is dropped and
a class of roots htaded by nothing ?ernain^ added to i&e ?drote
J; 5, <9§J, €?[, etc. under certain k or K. C. CHAT.
conditions; e.g. ^R£&, #*fr^, ^T^J, TERJI a scholar of Sanskrit
; cf. Käs. on P.III.2.53-60. grammar who has written a work
krt affix zero, added to the on technical terms in Sanskrit, who
roots € ^ , ^, "fe^ and others with a has edited several grammar works
preceding word as upapada or and is at present editing the
with a prefix or sometimes even Candra Vyäkarana and conduct-
without any word, as also to the ing the Sanskrit journal named
root ^ preceded by the words Manjusa at Calcutta.
^ ^ o ^T and *pr5 and to the root fi
preceded by g, ^ ^ etc., and to the lit. rapid, accelerated, a short;
roots g, and fäf under certain con- name given in the a Prätisäkhya
ditions e.g. 3TOc^? ^-, 5R3J, ^^fc^, works to a Sarhdhi or euphonic
SFÜIT, f^lT5 ^i3?g^3 snsr^i;; cf.P.IIL
combination of the vowels f, 3Ü ^;
2.61, 76, 77, 87-92; 177-179; (2j ?S with a following dissimilar
the denominative affix zero appli- vowel; cf. Uvvata Bhäsya on R.Pr.
ed to any substantive in the sense 111,10; cf. also ^ T mft P.VI.U77.
of behaviour s p ^ , n^{% etc.; cf. The name Ksipra is given to this
M.Bh. and Käs. on P.III.1.11. Sarhdhi possibly because the vowel3
short or long, which is turned into
a substantive ending with the a consonant by this sarhdhi be-
k?t affix T%g" (zero affix) added to a comes very short (i.e. shorter than
root to form a noun in the sense of a short vowel i.e. a semi-vowel).
the verbal action fare). The words The word %R is also used in this
ending with this affix having got sense referring to the Ksiprasamdhi.
the sense of verbal activity in them
quite suppressed, get the noun- % a kind of commentary
terminations §, aft, srg; etc. and on the Dhatupätha of Pänini
not fä, cf: etc. placed after them; written by Kslrasvamin.
cf. 1?6^IT^F *n% £ 3 * ^ ^fo How- an abridgment of
ever, at the same time, these by the author himself^
words undergo certain operations See
peculiar to roots simply because
the krt affix entirely disappears a grammarian of Kashmir
and the word formed, appears of the 8th century who wrote the
like a root; cf. fifi^Rn WTgc^r ^ ^|T%. famous commentary Sjf^%afT oil"
Kaiyata's Prad. on VII. 1.70. the Amarakosa and a commentary
a Jain grammarian quoted in on the Nirukta of Yäska. - -
the well-known stanza sp^Rfft: a class of wordings such as
^o which enumerates jcg and the like in which the
the seven genas of the court of consonant^is not changed into
Vikramäditya, on the strength of tj although the consonant ^ isf
which same scholars believe that preceded by W> My ^ o r ^ and int-
he was a famous grammarian of ervened by letters which are
the first century B.C. admissible; e, g. g¥Tfi
r a Jain grammarian v,ho etc. cf. Kas. on P,
a small grammar work class ( g^f^Fi}. is styled as
as A p M

author of a commentary on (2) applied to the words 3?s[R, C ^

«TTCraTC and 3?qr^K in 'the Saisika
senses, e. g. cq^RM;, TRT^: etc.; cf.
(1) another name of the P. IV.2.93 and Värttikas 25 3 on
See the word Tm above; (2) i.ame it; (3) applied to words ending in
given lo the Svarita accent borne the word qrr ( which does not
by the vowel following the semi- mean 'sound5 or 'letter 9 ) in the
vowel which results from the Ksipra- sense of c present there, 9 e. g.
s a m d h i ; c f R . P r . I I . 8; III.'7,10; ^T#^jfii:, 3f8rfs^#i:; cf. P. IV.
VIII. 22; cf. ^ r a T ^ 3 3 O T # %5f 3.64; (4) applied lo the words
: V. Pr. XX. 1; cf. also ff ^rfg^ and T33j§[i in the sense of
sr: V. Pr 1.115; ^ ^ 'bearing/ and to a f t ^
P. VIII. 2. 4. ^^Wl and «j^, e. g.
hissing or whizzing sound etc., cf. P. IV." 4.78, 79, 130, 132,
given as a fault in the utterance 133; (5) applied in the sense of
of sibilants; cf. %%g3F(i%£t 3TO[ 3 W 'favourable to3 to the words
: l coin, on R. Pr. XIV. 6. fiPSFSffi, etc. (P. V. 1.9), to
(1) aorist vikarana affix sub- (32) to sn^% sTn%?r5 qT^f and others
stituted for f^; cf.P.III. 1. 45,46; (53-55), to OTT (85-86), to IT\%
e. g. 3TcScRk 3nf^5£lcfy 3T*pffi( cf. Kas. 3R[^, «^ER and spa ( 8 7 - 8 a )
on P. III. 1. 45, 46; (2) krt affix « and ^T^R and mwm (92); e. g.
applied to the root gsj preceded by
a pronoun such as ^ 5 ^ etc. e.g. : etc.; (6) to the words
2JT£Sr[:, cTT^: etc. ef. %%\: «Rfäi 3x17^: etc. e. g. ^TCNF#M; cf. P. V.
P. III. 2. 60 Varttika. (3) affix ?sr 2.5 to 17; (7) to the words s^gr,
app[ied to the root 3Tif[ or ^ i or ^ etc« cf. P. V. 4.7, 8. e. g.
to form the noun «p^f; cf. 35S§T TTT§%: '•*. (8) ^ is also a technical
<f8 s[fcf "4WW*l: ^"RFsfi" ^ ^ n Nir. term in the sense of elision or
II. 2m ^H in the Jainendra Grammar
Unädi affix ^R;; cf. cf. Jain I. L6L (9) The word ^
Unadi III. 75. is used ia the sense of 'glottis* or
Unädi affix T%; cf. gr% the hole of the throat ( 3TQ5T%$$ )
F: Unädi III. 155. in the ancient Prätisäkhya works,
the consonant ^ ; see ^f,
krt affix If in the sense :rt affix <% in the sense of
in Vedic Literature; e. g,^ 'agenf applied to the roots ^\J
Kas. on IIL 4. 9.
31^, and ^ when preceded by
certain OTT? words standing as
objects« Before this affix W% the
augment gq; ( H ) is added to the
1^ second consonant of the guttural preceding ^Wj if it is not" an
class of consonants possessed of indeclinable, e, g, ft#f3[;j ^ft^F^;,
W'SrigxRH, BT^T^ and ^ K qualities. f^^l qtciq: mdPR: etc. c£ P* I I L
*3" tad. affix, always, changed into 2.38-47.
tR5 (1) applied to the word f^5 ^ 3 ^ tad. affix t^f, applied to §
^ ia tbe sense of a descendant, c. g. in the sense of a descendant; ,e* g0
# ^ i : ; cf. P. IV- 1,139; ' ä.v.iy, hUi$ to

(P. IV. 2.94), to g ^ and ^ krt affix sr added to any root

in the Saisika senses (P* IV. preceded by the word t^r?, <£5 or
to sn%^ i^gn etc. (P. IV. 4.99)> g, and to the roots \ and f> pre-
to mm and =3^ (P. V. 1.11), to ceded by an upadada word form*
w&*l (P. IV. 3.71), to m (P. i y . ing either the subject or the
3.81), to words meaning corn in object of the roots, e. g . t ^ ^ :
the sense of a. field producing ^ iPRcn, t ^ ^ M ^cTT; cf. P. I I I .
corn5 (P.V.2.1), tog^sR^(P.V.2.5), 3.126, 127.
and to the words arts, ere, 5IR5T etc. { krt affix added to the roots ^
in some specified senses (P. V. (causal), ?m$, ^r, q%., fc5f, v%9 &l,
3.18-23). A vrddhi vowel ( 3TT, % cF^, *Fl etc. preceded by certain
or 3?i ) is substituted for the first specified upapada words. The
vowel of the word to which this root undergoes all the operations
affix i$\ is applied, as ^ is the such as the addition of the con-
mute letter applied in the affix jugational sign etc. before this
tad. affix applied to 3>*R ^ ^ on account of the mute letter
etc. in the sense of £W|[, e. g. ??L which makes mi a Särvadhä-
^CTcHePSH, awt^f^gij, also to the tuka affix, and the augment ^
words IS! and its synonyms, e. g. is added to the preceding ^ T ^ if
; etc.; cf# Käs on P. it is not an indeclinable on
IV. 2.38, 5L account of the mute letter *=£;
frf^ a class of words headed e* g. SRJFSR:, srt^r*, =nitw:, 3fi$.
by the word igft&sR to which the q^qt qfig^pm etc.; cf. Pan. III-
affix 3 ^ is added in the sense of 2.28-37, 83.
collection; e. g. ; characterized by the mute letter
%f>^; cf. Käs. on P, IV. 2.45. ^ , applied to krt affixes which,
p ^ krt affix 3?^ applied to the by reason of their being f%^3
root u when preceded by a word cause (a) the addition of the aug-
standing a? the object of the root, ment 35 ( 5 ) to the preceding
provided an abuse is meant, e. g. words arot, t S ^ a n d words end-
'trfcsrt 3n#Rfa; cf. P. III. 4.25. ing in a vowel,and (b) the shorten-
\ the pratyähara W^ standing for ing of the long vowel of the
the first and second consonants preceding word if it is not an
of the five classes; cf. sof^T: w\: indeclinable; cf. P. VL 3.66-68.
P. VII. 4.6; also cf. P. VIII. 3.6, a supplementary recital or
V I I I . 4.54. enunciation which is taken along
^ the pratyähära ^ standing for with the original enunciation or
hard consonants viz. the first and upadesa generally in the form of
second letters of the five classes the sütras.The word is used in the
and the sibilants, before whicfr, ^ Käsikä in the senseof one of the te&fs
at the end of a word becomes forming a part of the original
fcf^, and soft consonants i, e. text which is called upadesa; cf.
the third and fourth consonants of Käsikä ^ &
the five classes become hard; cf. (on P.I.3.2); cf. also
P. VIII. 3.15,
and ^ =3 P. VIII- 4.55. Padamafijari on Käsikä h
3 ^ kit affix ^ 3 in the sense of (2)an old scholar of Vyäkarana who
an "agent added to the root \ , is believed to have written a com-
e. g. s n s w f ^ : , Wgsvfa^; cf. P. mentary on Vikrtavalli of Vyadij
III. 2.57. (3) a comparatively modern scho-
krt affix 3 ^ in the sense of lar who is said to have written a
an agent added to the root sj, commentary named Induprakäsa
e. g. m&miw>> s ^ ' t o i ^ ; cf. P. on the Sabdendusekhara;(4) author
III. 2.57. Seeffcwp^ of the Vyakaranadipaprabha, a
short commentary on the Vyäka-
£% krt affix 3R applied to the raria work of Cidrüpasramin, See
root fj in the sense of an instru-
ment when preceded by the words
STT^T, §*PT, ^j55 etc. provided the writer of Kätantra-kaumudi
whole word is similar in sense possibly different from the reput-
to cvi-formation ( =333$ ), e. g. 3TF3Ö ed Gangesa Upädhyäa who is
WT*i> gFtfFSWU cf. P. I I I . 2.56; looked upon as the founder of the
fem. sn^sRoft, cf. Navyanyäya school of modern
,15.Varttika. Naiyäyikas, and who lived in the
twelfth century A, D.
% a gpgraphic description
p o^
the Jihvämüllya letter as found
^ third letter of the guttural class in script, given by Durgasiriiha;
of consonants, possessed of the cf. f ^ t
properties % , *tcf, ^K and s^qqFl; Durgasimha's com. on Kät. I.I.
some grammarians look upon the 18. see o ( ^WTRiq ).
w o r d i ^ ; (P.I.1.5) as made up of a class of words, as found in the
|> 3 JT and f and say that the Guna sütras of Pänini by the mention
and Vrddhi substitutes do not take of the first word followed by the
place in the vowels %9 3, % and 5J word ifä; e.g. ^m\ w r r \ ^mK>
if an affix or so, marked by the *5nf§E, ^Tsafe TiTftf^ etc. The ten
mute letter *j follows. ganas or classes of roots given by
[GANGADHARA SHASTRI Pänini in his dhätupatha are given
TELANG] (1) a stalwart gramm- the name Da$agani by later
arian and Sanskrit scholar of grammarians,
repute who was a pupil of Bäla- the mention individually of
sarasvati of Väränasi and prepared the several words forming a class
iii the last century a host of Sans- or gana, named after the first word
krit scholars in Banaras among said to have been written by Pänini
whom a special mention could be himself as a supplementary work
made of Dr. Tfaebaut, Dr. Venis to his great grammar called Astaka
and Dr* Gangänätha Jhä* He was or Astädhyäyif the Siksa,the Dhatu-
given by Government of India the pätha and the Linganusasana being
titles Mahaoiahopädhyäya and (X the other ones. Other grammarians
I.EJEiis surname was Mänavalll but such as 3JFR3PR, 3|||q^# and otkers
he was often known as *if tsRSFSft have their own ganapätfaäs. The
|^f. ipor details, see Mafoäbhäsya, ga^apatha is traditionally ascrib-
D.E. Sccloty Ed.3?oona p.p^S, 34; ed to P&Qim; the issue is question*

ed, however, by modern scholars. Mannudeva who flourished in the

The text of the ganapätha is nineteenth century,
metrically arranged by some (1) lit. motion; stretching out,
scholars. The most scholarly and lengthening of a syllable .The word
authoritative treatise on ganapä« is explained in the Prätisäkhya
tha is the Ganaratnamahodadhi works which define it as the
of Vardhamäna. lengthening of aStobha vowel with
a grammar work,consi- the utterance of the vowel \ or 3
sting of a metrical enumeration after it, e.g. fn; or fjfä for ^T; simi-
of the words in the Ganapätha of larly vn — % or an —ft ; (2) a tech-
Pänini, written by Vardhamäna, a nical term used by Pänini in con-
Jain grammarian of the 12th nection with prefixes and certain
century, who is believed to have indeclinables which are called ^ ,
cf. P.L4.60-79. The words called
been one of the six gems at
gad can be compounded with the
the court of Laksmanasena of
following word provided the latter
Bengal. Vardhamäna has written
is not a verb, the compound being
a commentary also, on his Gana-
named tatpurusa e.g, sifc^, ^Clf^i
ratnamahodadhi. Besides Vardha-
cf. P.II.2.18; the word m is used
mäna's commentary, there are
by Pänini in the masculine gender
other commentaries written by
as seen in the Sütra 3lfe^«rf^: P.VI.
and *Tfl<=TC.
2.49 and hence explained as form-
also called WF$\- ed by the addition of the affix frf>5
commentary on to 31^, the word being used as a
the TO^RffälW of Vardhamäna technical term by the rule Irfr^jft ^
written by the author himself. See ^ H F [ PJII.3,174; (3) realization,
understanding; cf h
^ a metrical com- Par. Sek. Pari.g^i^
mentary on Vardhamäna's Gana- Par. Sek. Pari 76;
ratnamahodadhi. The name of the ^#q% Purusottamadeva Pari.
author is not available. Päthall9.
Rf^JFC^F^^n^rT a popular name
a statement of the type of a
given to the maxim *lfifäilR3*W^Ht
Sütra in the Ganapätha of Pa^ini
ffe: € | ^^9"=^ RT^ § 5 ^ : ; cf. Par.
where mention of a word or words
Sek. Pari. 75.
in the Ganapätha is made along
with certain conditions; e.g. the grave ( ) accent
^ in the of the ?Ticf word before a verb with
, an acute ( 3^1^ ) accent; cf. "
xn¥TRN: in the ^FCrßFM. Some of
the ganasutras are found incorpo- a compound with the prece-
rated in the Sütrapätha itself. ding gati word prescribed by the
Many later grammarians have rule pfäJIRS: P J L 2.18; cf. TTI%-
appended their own ganapätha to k : M.Bh.
their Sütrapätha. on II. 4, 26.
öl^prt^srpc a commentary on the a root denoting motion; the
Ganapätha of Pänini written by word frequently occurs in the

Sütras of Panini and theMahäbha- ans in connection with some-

sya in connection with some special thing.» which involves greater
operations prescribed for roots effort and longer expression
which are *Tcq4. There is also a and, hence, not commendable
conventional expression # t TKqqf in rules of the Sbastra works
^rffiT«n: meaning ' roots denoting where brevity is the soul of 'wit \-
motion denote also knowledge'; cf. cf. q"c^tf^T^t;nf%:RT3Tt ^TCFil^ Par. Sek.
Hem. Pari. 121. Pari. 121. The word Jp is also
T a popular name given to the sometimes used in a similar sense;
scholarly commentary written by cf. cf^ 5^ ^f% M. Bh. LI Ahn. 1
Vaidyanätha Päyagunde on the VärL 2.
Paribhäsendusekhara. The comm- ftqför? greater effort or prolixity of
entary is called 3arftra»T also5 as it expression which is looked upon
was written in the town of Kasi as a fault in connection with
(Väränasi). grammar-works of the sütra type
^ the reputed
p Naiyä-
y where every care is taken to make
yika who wrote numerous works the expression as brief as possible;
on the Navyanyaya; he has written
a few works like Par. Sek. Pari. 122. The word if\m
is often used for
on Vyäkarana themes although the a class of words headed
treatment, as also the style, is by 3FJ to which the affix ^ ( ^ j
logicaL causing Vrddhi to the first vowel
that which should, be under- of the word, is added in the sense
stood; the word is used in the of a descendant barring the son
sense of 3T3*Rf5q; cf. m or daughter; cf. irftfäp^fii ^Hi P. IV.
M. Bh. on 1.1.9. 1 105 and the instances vwk:,
capable of conveying the sense; mm:,%mm^:^^mt cf. KasB on
intelligible; the word is often used P. IV, 1. 105.
in grammatical works; cf. lit. just like a foetus. The
: ;cf. also word is used in connection with
affixes that are placed like a foetus
Z. # g M. Bh. on in the midst of a word In spite
II. L 1. of the rule that affixes are to be
to be tmderstood,not expressed; placed after; cf. TOP. I I I . L 2.
cf. WOpR *l*% ^ ^ 2^^: Sig^fef S *l&h\ The affixes ^ ^ £T9[ etc, are of
com, on Hem. I I . 2» 62. this kind; cf. ^
a c j a s s of w o r ( j s headed by
the word r\^\ which are formed Slradeva Par* Vr#
by the application of unadi affixes Pari. 91.
in the sense of future time; e. g» ^ the word occurs in the Pratis-
3TOH, s n ^ i ^ $®ctä etc- cf. äkhya works in connection with
„ on P. I I L 3, 3 . the definition of #CT,in the krama-
involving a special effort. The pätha. The word $%m mean«? bring-
word is frequently used by the ing together two words when they
Värttikakära and old grammari- are combined according to

ofSamdhi. (See the word given in the Prätisakhya works5

In the Kramapätha, where the Nirukta and Panini's Asta-
each word occurs twice by repeti- dhyayi. Although belonging to
tion, a word occurring twice in a the Nirukta school, he upheld the
hymn or a sentence is not to be view of the Vaiyäkaranas that all
repeated for Kramapätha, but it words cannot be derived, but
is to be passed over. The word only some of them; cf. Nir. I.
which is passed over in the 12.3. cf. also V. Pr. IV. 167, M r .
Kramapätha is called ? r e ^ ; e. g. I. 3.5, I I I . 14.22; R. Pr. I. 13;
XIII. 12; P, V I I . 3.99, V I I I .
3.20, VIII. 4.69.
W I In the Kramapä- an ancient grammarian and
tha qeft Tf^f: and ^i are passed niruktakära quoted by Pänini;
over and q^jjn is to be connected cf. R VI 3.60, VII. 1.74, V I I .
with ^TiRPJ. The words <?cR w : 3,99, VIII. 4.67, cf. also Nir.
and 3*T: are called galatpada; IV. 3.
cf. q^^r^TO^^ BTTTQSCTT 5^5 B T O w ? ;
a technical term for the term
V. Pr. IV. 197. There is no
(pertaining to the base in the
i in q^qr^.
grammar of Pänini); cf. «TFlfe; ^«T
? a class of words headed by *BH: Kät. Pari. 72.
the word <HT to which the affix a conventional term for 3«TOR1 in
q?3; is affixed in the senses men- the Jeinendra Vyakarana.
tioned in rules from P. V. 1. 5,
to V. L 36; e. g. *TKR^ ff^q^ marked with the mute letter TT;
5*q^, Spszp^ etc.; cf. Käs. on P. affixes that are fflci; prevent guna
V. 1.2, or vrddhi in the preceding word;
cf. FfWfcT =3 P. I. 1.5; cf. also M .
TC^SPJl^ the dvandva compound Bh. I. 3.10; III. 2.139; cf. also
words 3iqra, 7T % Tt^cq^f «qc^Sj^t ftf^% Käs. on
and P. I. 1.5.
others which are to be declined
in the neuter gender and singular writer of '(^W^R^aFl, a work
number; cf. P, IL 4.11. on syntax.
a class of words headed by H[^^| a grammatical work
the word TH? to which the tad- written by ^3RR, pupil of Bha*
dhita affix ijq (^f) is added in the ttoji Dlksita in the 17th century
Saisika or miscellaneous senses; who wrote many works on gram-
e. g. I ^ H , ^RFSP^frqq^; this class mar such as ^q^g^t, ^l^F5^t etc.
called *gahlya3 is looked upon a class of words headed by the
as 3Tif>t^FT? a t l d hence the word gs1 to which the taddhita
words t g ^ q ; ^^Nq^ and the affix"^ ( 35J,) is added in the
like could be explained as correct; sense of cgood therein'; e.g. *ufs<6S
cf. Käs. ön P. IV. 2.138. Ig:, ^flTfSt^T 3 ^ ; rf. Kas. on P,
IV. 4.103.
| an ancient reputed grammarian
and possibly a writer of a Niru- (1) degree of a vowel; vocalic
kta work, whose views, especially degree, the second out of the three
in fcöimeGtlbn. with accents are degrees pf a vowel viz. primary

degree, guna degree and vrddhi I cf. also g

degree e.g. %9 ^ and % or 3 5 3TT M.Bh. on I. 4J31.
and sfi. 3T is given as a guna of 3}; a Jain writer of the thir-
but regarding er also,three degrees teenth century who wrote a com-
can be stated 3f, 3? and 3TT. In the mentary named ^ffi^tföT&qaft on
Prätisäkhya and Nirukta n; is i
called gar or even JJOTFTO but no a vowel, liable to take the
definition is given; cf. guna substitute e. g, ^ ^, W} 5j
¥m% %^f R.Pr.XI.6; ^ and the penultimate ar; cf. ^
^or:"l ö * ^ f o ^ N i r . X . 1 7 ; (2)
the properties of phonetic elements
or letters such as W , ^ etc.; cf.R. M. Bh. on I. 1.5.
Pr. Gh.XIII; (3) secondary, sub-
ordinate ; cf. ^r:, &[§, s<n: ?i% SffiraT*tf: difference in properties; cf.
Durgäcärya on Nir. 1.12; (4) pro-
perties residing in a substance just I M,
as whiteness, etc. in a garment Bh. on I, 1.2.
which are different from the sub- ]it, expressing quality; words
stance ( SC3^ ). The word gq is expressing quality such as §3^,
explained by quotations from y etc.; cf. 2^
2 ^
ancient grammarians in theMahä« P.V.l. 124. See page 369 Vyäka-
bhäsya as % fäfä^% i rana Mahäbhasya Vol. VIL D.E,
f Society edition, Poona.
a class of words headed by
the word gor, which, when pre-
M. BhB on IV.L44;cf. also ceded by the word *r| in a
TOBFFsrr g ° T l ^ t ? ^ ^ ^ ,M.Bh. on Bahuvrlhi compound, do not have
V.l.119; (5) properties of letters their last vowel acute; e. g. ^|g^T
like ^^Ixicsr, 3T35ITR5T, ^[pta^, f^Sf- ^ : ; s n p 3 t q^> etc. This class
ngRifinpi etc.; cf. of jpnfSt words is considered as
i ^T3^n%^^ ^T^r gar: i W ; cf. Käs. on P. VI. 2.176.
M. Bh. on L l . L Värt. 13; (6) possessed of a qualify; c€ "%$
determinant; cf.*T«rfcF ^g^\% ci^goi^r-
Wl^n M.Bh. on P. I. L2T; (7)
technical term in Panini's gram- W ^ * M. Bh* on 1.4.2 K
mar standing for the vowels , ^ subordinate, lit. which has
and % cf. QT^f 307; P.I. 1.2. For the become subordinated, which has
various shades of the meaning of become submerged, and therefore
the word gar, see Mahäbhasya on has formed an integral part of
V119 S ^ * another; e. g. an augment ( $TFW )
with respect to the word to which
a term used by the an- it has been added ;cf* : 55
cient grammarians for the Tfte#^ ^ M. Bh. L 1.20
or indirect object of a verb
having two objects. The word Värt 5; Par. Sek. Pari, 11.
is found quoted in the Mahäbhä- (1) possessed of a special effort
as opposed to ^ 3 ; cf. ^ p ^^ftf
M» Bh* Ähnika 1* (2) heavy, a

technical term including tf& affix nq (&5T) is affixed in the sense

(long) vowel as also a ^ (short) of tfan offspring3 ( srq^f); e g, ^TTS^^
vowel when it is followed by a feq: etc.; cf. Käs. on P. IV. 1.136.
conjunct consonant, (cf. $W\ included; cf. ^«m^fsr xxcf
3^ \ <$$^ i P. I. 4.11, 12) or a Kas. on^P. III. 2.178.
consonant after which the word
a grammarian whose view
terminates or when it (the vowel)
in connection with the correct-
is nasalized; cf. Tai. Pr. XXII.
ness of the expressions ?[cnwi §#
14, cf. also R. Pr. I. 5.
and ^cTT5^ ifsrcq is given by the
'word containing a TP§ vowel Mahäbhäsyakära in the words
in it; cf. s^T^T JJSUfffä^: P.III.1.36. fi
both expressions are justified*
consideration of prolixity ( OTW Tfrforangsn ). Nägesa has
and brevity of expression; cf. observed that TfTFWTH^ is nobody
else but the Mahäbhäsyakära
M. Bh. on l / l . l 7 himself; cf. ^TiTOTip: WWR l^Tf: I
the same which Nagesa's Uddyota on Mahäbhä-
see above; cf. W syapradlpa on P. I. 4.51.
Siradeva Pari. lit. family. The word is. used
held up or caught between two by Pänini in the technical sense
words with which it is connected; of a descendant except the son
e. g. the word arj% in %$ !r uz ^RH or a daughter; cf. SR^? q^ppjfä
$n% -^PFR: m; *rw I cf. V.' Pr. inwi P. IV. 1.162. The word
I V . 176. ^IWW is also used in the same
^ % T E l 3 T a short gloss on the sense. The affix, which is found
SiddhantakaumudI of Bhattoji many times in the sense of gotra,
Diksita, by Indradatta. barring the usual sp^} is qsr ; cf,
H ^ l a commentaryy on Ramaa ftfc ^ P . IV- r
candra's Prakriyä Kaumudi by affix in the sense of Tfa;
Krsnasesa of the famous Sesa cf.
family of grammarians, The M. Bh. on IV. 1.93.
date of this Krsnasesa is the R^ lit. inhabitant of Gonarda
middle of the sixteenth century. which was the name of a district
For details about Krsnasesa and in the province of Oudh in the
the Sesa family see introduction to days of the Mahäbhäsyakära
Prakriyäkaumudi B. S. S. No. 78, according to some scholars. Others
FT^tf^ff a commentary ( fT%) on believe that Gonarda was the
the sutras of Pänini by Sadäsiva name of the district named
Misra who lived in the seven- Gonda at present. The expression
teenth century. f\nkm sns occurs four times in the
Mahäbhasya where it refers to a
a commentary on the scholar of grammar in Patanjali's
Laghusabdendusekhara by M. M* time; cf. M.Bh. on L 1.21; I. 1.29;
Vasudeva Shastri Abhyankar III. J.92; VII. 2.101. As Kaiyata
(1863-1942). paraphrases the words f^fa
a class of words headed by as W ^ scholars say that
the Word *Tfi> to which the taddhita was the name taken by tjie

Mahäbhäsyakära himself who was a have written Katantraparislsta-

resident of Gonarda. Hari Dlksita, praddyota.
however, holds that %*CN w a s t a e
term used for the author of the see
a ta/
Varttikas; cf. Brhacchabdarafna. i- affix applied to nouns
like srg, ^2, etc. in the sense of a
yfjtf^TIf^ a class of eight words head- pair e. g. ^ ^ 3 ^ 5 , ^ ^ 7 5 ; cf.
ed by the word rftq^T, the taddhita % Käs. on P. V. 2.29,
affix in the sense of 3tl^ ( i . e, a a we
• descendant excepting a son Or a i^ ^ known German
daughter) such as the affix q>F or scholar wh^ made a sound study
• 3?5j after which, is not elided in of Pänini's Sanskrit Vyäkarana and
the plural number; e. g. ifrqsRT:, wrote a very informative trea-
t j ; etc.; cf. Kos. on P. II. 4.67. tise entitled Tänini, his place in
Sanskrit Literature/ He lived in
^ f ) known more by the the latter half of the 19th century.
nickname of *ffi%$ or SFg^cf who
lived in the eighteenth century fa a grammarian who has writ-
and wrote several commentary ten a work on Kätantra Grammar
works on well-known grammatical called ^cf^^rg^T and also a com-
treatises such as the Vaiyäkarana- mentary on the Ganaratnamaho-
bhüsanasära, Laghusabdenduse- dadhi of Vardhamäna. A gloss on
; khara, Paribhasendusekharaetc. He the Unadisütras is also assigned to
; is believed to have written a Govardhana who is likely" tö be
: treatise on Ganasütras also; (2)
the same as above:
| a grammarian different from the % ^ writer of a commentary known
. above *F2^ who has written an as 3T«[T^f by reason of that wor-k'
I explanatory work on the Präti- beginning with the stanza 3F3T
saktiyas;((3) a scholar of grammar, ^pffo, on the Paribhäsendusekhara
different from the above who is of NageJa, . - '.,."
believed to have written a gloss f ( =gs£-#qj writer of Samasa-
named Visamärthadipikä on the vada? a short treatise on the sense
Särasvata Vyakara^a at the end of conveyed by compound words.
" the sixteenth century. f%?^Cfij writer of 'SabdadlpikS,' a
known also by the name commentary on the Mugdh'a-
f f l ^ ^ who ,has written several bodha Vyakarana of ßopadeva.
t .commentary works on the gram- f^ff^ a class of words to which
, matical treatises of the Safhksfp- the taddhita affk 3ffi ( l ^ ) is
• tasära or Jaumara school of Vya- added in the sense of possession
, kara^a founded by Kramdlsvara provided the word so formed refers
,. and Jumaranaudin in the 12th to a chapter ( 3?v:^fq )' or a section
...century, the well-known among ( 3T3*7ffi )» c. $*n$*:, I g ^ : - etc.; cf,
j'them being the ^TORjtm, tfT^iT- Kai on P. V. 2.62. , ; y
! wqf^^R^m and ^feewftßr^r* a taj^fgx applied to words like
\ He is believed to* have lived in and others in the sense of *a pla~
'the thirteenth century A. D. ' ce'; cf. %3Tf3?i: WTJJTÖ
ft a Bengali scholar of, Kätan-
t*:tta^Grammar, who is belicy<?<l to s. on f .V.2.29T

It is very likely that words like ^ tad. affix in the sense of posses-
ifrg, 3H and others were treated as sion; cf. qi^t fariSfel W$U P.I.2.124.
pratyayas by Pänini and kätyäyana cf a fault of pronunciation due to
who followed Pänini, because they the utterance of a letter hindered
were found always associated with or held back at the throat; cf.
a noun preceding them and never d RJPr.XIV. 3; cf-
independently. also
(1) a word subordinate in syntax I Pradlpa on
or sense to another; adjectival; M. Bh. Ahnika L
3TO5fcfi*Ei; (2) possessing a second- (1) technical term for a word
ary sense, e. g, the word 4l in the or sntcWt^f» in Veda; cf.
sense of ca dull man3 ;cf.5fiqg^q%g^q sgct lief 5T|ot %^*T: SK: \ 3
^ % W f t , M. Bh. on 1.1.15, 1.4.
108, VI. 3. 46. See also Par. ^reqg^»: STTO: 3Ti^if[^% I Cora, on
Sek. Pari. 15; (3) secondary, as T.Pr.1.22; (2) citing, quoting; cf.
opposed to primary; cf. f
Pari* 31; cf. also ^ ^
p the maxim that the Com. on T.Pr.1.24. (3) mention,
primary sense,occurs to the mind inclusion; (4) employment in a
earlier than the secondary sense, «rule of grammar; cf, ^TfcTTT^'MfST
and hence words used in the pri- Tlsf fäf^rrfq WW{. Par. Sek.Pari.71.
mary sense should be always flTU citing or instructing the inclu-
taken for grammatical operations sion (3T§n) of certain other things
in preference to words in a secon- by the mention of a particular
dary sense. See the word ??FI. thing; e. g. the rule spjgfegqofei
an ancient sage referred to in =^TSTc$q: is a iT^W rule as it advises
the Prätisäkhya works as a Präti- that the citing of the letters sr, ? 3
säkhyakära; cf. T.Pr. V.38. 5, W etc. includes the long and
protracted forms of sj, f, ^ etc; cf.
greatness of effort; prolixity as
also ij^oi^OT^q mM^
opposed to esraq; ctf q^fq^^HT
^T^%^pfT mi&fa Par.Sek.Par. 115; sn^fi^fe;- Sid. Kau. on
cf. also q^^T#nif^Flft ifölT^ Par. VI. 1.101.
Sek. 'Pari. 121. specifically mentioned in a
rule, individually mentioned;'cf.
a class of words to which the
affix | ( # i \ ) is added to form the Sek.Pari.31. See the word iffiT*
feminine base; e.g. ^T^ T^ft, f
ffim; the class contains a large a class of roots headed by the
number of words exceeding 150; root 2*| to which the affix f^ (ffrlfö),
for details see Käsikä on P.IV.l. causing vrddhi to the preceding
41; (2) a small class of eleven vowel of the root, is added in the
words, headed by the word * sense of an agent; e.g. 3CT& ^cgfT^tj
which do not have the acute 5?TPft, W?^l etc.; cf. Käs. on P.III.
accent on the last syllable in a 1.134-
tatpurusa compound when they are a fault in. the utterance of a
placed after the preposition 3q; cf. letter which makes it indistinct* by
P. VI.2.194. being held up at the,;tliroat.See2T^.

applied to the roots 136,141, V,l.71; (5) krt affix^

kit affix
fl- in the sense of an when the word to which it has
, f% and
been applied becomes a proper
agent; cf.
noun i.e.a noun in a specific sense
or a technical term; cf. III.3.118,
(1) fourth consonant of the gut- the consonant ^; see sj.
tural class of consonants having tad. affix %^9 as found in the
the properties ^FOTfcf^r, 3fa, word %fsR; cf. % f ^ [ q ^ T ^TT%^[:
qRTSSRFR^ andflSTOFlc?;(2)the con- P.V.2.92 and Käsikä thereon.
sonant % at the beginning of a ^ krt affix 3T causing the substitu-
tad. affix which is always chang- tion of vrddhi for the preceding
ed" into 5& cf. P. V I I . 1.9; (3) vowel applied in various senses as
substitute for |^ at the end of roots specified in P.IIL3. 16-42, I I L 3 ,
beginning with s,as also of the root 45-55,111.3.120-125, e.g. qT^:, ^
q? under certain conditions; cf.
P?VIIL2.32,33,34; (4) substitute
W\: etc.
for the consonant fr of V&\ placed
after the pronouns T%H and j ^ tad. affix 3? applied to the words
which again is changed into ^ by 3^> q^T, and to multisyllabic
VII.1-9; e.g. ft*n^, v^U cf. P.V. words in specified senses, causing
2.40. the acute accent on the first vowel
of the word so formed; cf.IV.2.26,
t (1) consonant % a? being added at
IV.4. 115, V.1.68, V.3.79,80.
the end for facility of pronuncia-
tion; cf.Tai. PrX21; (2) technical I a variety of the pfrRqra1 or recital of
term for the tad. affixes cRJT and the Vedic hymns to show the serial
cWj;, cf, P.I.1.22» causing the short- order of words there; one of the
ening of i at the end of bases eight vikrtis of the padapatha.
before it, under certain conditions, tad» affix 1^, occurring in Vedic
cf. P. VI. 3.43-45, and liable to Literature,applied to the w o r d ^ ,
be changed into ?RH, and cWT^ e.g. 3f4 % ^tft^RsR;; c£ Käs* on P.
after Pfi\, verbs ending in ^ and V.l.106.
indeclinables; cf. P.V.4.11; (3;
(1) a tech. term applied to noun
tad. affix ^ ( ^i) in the sense of c a
bases or Pratipadikas ending in %
descendant' applied to 3p{, and in
and 3 excepting the words ^{%
the sense of 'having that as a
and qf% and those which are term-
deity' applied to ^qfaccj, STOPF^ and
ed «f$; cf. P - 1 . 4.79; (2) a conven-
also to *%?£ and to the words *T|
tional term for ^ ( a short vowel)
etc, e.g , , , found used in the Jainendra
^C*rau*rf^: etc.; cf, P. IV.L138, Vyäkarana,
IV.2.27, p, 93; (4) tad. affix %
applied to ®m9 *rg£ and w% in the affixes having the mute letter sr,
sense of 'present there', to *Tf in as for instance, sfij ^ ^ etc*which
the sense ofepossession', to ^ p { cause the substitution of a guttu-
without any change of sense, and ral in the place of the palatal
to ^ and spfcjfr in the sense of letter ^ or *r before it; e.g.
Meserving'; cf.PJV.4.117,118,135, m: cf. P,VII.3.52.

g krt affix ^ c a u s i n g the su^s- ment added to it, if standing at

titution of Vrddhi for the preced- the end of a word and followed
ing vowel, as also to the penulti- by a sibilant, e. g. sn^fjlfa cf. fof[:
mate vowel 3T, applied to the eight W£ i f *& P. VIII. 3. 28; (3) the
roots 5in,cU£, ^ e t c . 5 a s also to*Jj^ consonant sg which, standing at
ST-psr e t c - an<^ ^ ^ ®% e t c -' e - g. the end of a word and preceded
3rat,cm, 3*ft, £q*C ^ R T , srarft e t c ; by a short vowel, causes the vowel
cf. P.III.2.141-145. following it to get the augment
^ prefixed to it; e. g, 5Rq^®#t; cf.
(noun bases or Prätipadikas) fa fJ P. VI 11.3.32.
called or termed fä. See fä.
(1) fifth consonant of the guttural
a tech. term applied to the roots class of consonants which is a
^T and % as also to those like % or nasal (3^«i[|£fcE) consonant; the
% which become ^T by the substi- vowel $r being added at the end
tution of on for the final diphthong for facility of pronunciation; cf. T.
vowel, barring the root ^ (to Pr. 1.21; (2) a conventional term
cut) and |q^ (to purify); cf. used for all the nasal consonants
P.I. 1.20. in the Jainendra Vyakaratia.
a conventional term for the a short term or Pratyähara
first five case-affixes; cf.§fe =3 Kat. standing for the letters ^, or, ^ ,
II. 1.68. The term g^ is used in %{, and ^ , casually mentioned in
the Kätantra Vyäkarana and cor- the Mahäbhäsya; cf. "^cT^^g ^^^Fl
responds to the term 3&^RTO«TR of ^ T f ^n^N ^ i ^ ^ W r a l ML Bh. on
Mähesvara Sutras 8, 9.
krt affix applied to the a short term or Pratyahära for the
roots q fS^in the sense consonants fj5 «T, and ^. See
of habit; e.g. f ^ augment ^ i. e. f, % or ^
^ qg:; cf. Käs. on P.III.2J6L prefixed to a vowel at the beginn-
ing of a word provided that vowel
an external effort in the pronun- is preceded by ©, o[ or q standing
ciation of a sonant or a soft con- at the end of the preceding word.
sonant which causes depth of the See f (3).
tone; cf. srö 3 3far- *g: ^ ^ : e t c ^ ^ ending of the genitive case sing-
Sid. Kau. on VIII. 2.1. ular; ^ is substituted for ^F after
a consonant characterized by bases ending in «r; cf. P. IV. 1 • 2
the property sfter at the time of its and VIL 1. 12.
utterance; cf. gcft^sJ^lf: ^f^1^^^!; case-ending of the ablative
: M,Bh. on P. 1.1.9. case, changed into 3{ffl[ after bases
ending in 3} and into Wfät after
pronouns; cf.P.IV.1.2,VILU2,15.
case-ending of the locative case,
(1) fifth letter of the guttural class changed into (a) STR, after bases
of consonants having the properties termedNadijfem. bases ending in^{j
j and the word sft, (b) into afl after
and 3ng^n%W; (2) the consonant f bases ending in % and 3, and (c)
getting the letter ^ as an aug- into f^PR, after bases of pronouns;cf.

P.IV. 1.2, VII. 3. 116, 117, 118, words headed by *?TC, as also to
119 and VII. L 15, 16. noun bases ending in affixes
f (1) affixes with the mute letter marked with mute g^, as also to
^ attached to them either before words mentioned in the class
or after, with a view to preventing headed byqg; cf. P.IV.1.41-46. It
the guna and vrddhi substitutes is also added in the sense of e wife
for the preceding ?, 3, % or of ' to any word denoting a male
^ as for example, the affixes person; cf. P. IV. 1. 48, and
=qSF, ^ and others; (2) affixes con- together with the augment sng^
ventionally called ffe^ after certain words %?%, ^m etc, e.g.
bases under certain conditions; T, ^RT^ft meaning c the
cf. ^ ? f < ^ T f ^ l F ^ P. I. 2. 1-4; script of the Yavanas 3 cf. P. IV.
(3) roots marked with the mute 1.49. It is also added to words
letter f? signifying the application ending in SBM and words ending
of the Ätmanepada terminations to in w* and also to words expressive
them; (4) substitutes marked with of c limbs of the body ' under
mute ® which are put in the place certain conditions; cf. P. IV. 1.
of the last letter of the word for 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65.
which they are prescribed as sub- ^ augment |? mentioned as |?£, in
stitutes; (5) case affixes marked Käsikä, added to the vowel follow-
with mute letter *? which cause the ing the consonant f? at the end of
substitution of guna to the last a word. See ^gs.
vowel % or 3 of words termed T%. dative case termination changed
common term for the fern, affix t, into ^ after bases ending in short
mentioned as #}<?, # ^ or #t^by 3T and into ^ after pronouns; cf.
Ränini; cf. P. fv\ 1/5-8; IV. 1. P. IV. 1.2, VII. 1.13, 14.
15-39, 40-65 and IV. 1. 73. noun bases ending with the
fem. affix f added to words in fem. affix #1 ( #fa, #fa, or gfcl ); cf.
the class headed by 3tr#C3"; cf. P. ^ ^ T ^ 4 Hl>^T% MN.Bh. on P, L,
IV, 1. 73. Words ending with this 1.89 Vart. 16.
affix #t^ have their first vowel a popular name given by
accented acute. grammarians to the first päda of
^ ern, affix % which is anudätta the fourth adhyäya of Paninfs
(grave) added (a) to words ending Astädhyäyl as the päda begins
in the vowel ^ or the consonant with the rule ^ F ^ r f c T ^ ^ TV*
^(cf.P.IV.1.5), (b) to words ending I.I.
with affixes marked with mute S, 9R ^ krt affix ^ in the &tme of
or ^ ; cf.P.JV.1.6, (c) to words end- an agent referring to an activity
ing with affixes marked with mute of past time, added to the roots 5
£ as also ending with the affixes and sfg; e. g« fpcfT ^ ^
cL P. I l l 2.103.
^ and sH^(c£PJV.L15) and to
certain other words under certain
conditions; cf. P. IV. LI6-24.
^ . affix f, which is udatta, l
v first consonant of the palatal
applied to words in the class of class of consonants, possessed of

the properties, a grammarian who is said

and sF3fäf <ftcL ^ at the beginning to have written a work named
of an affix is mute eB g. ^qßsj, cf. Dhätusamgraha.
^ P. I. 3.7; words, having the a kind of fault in the appli-
mute letter ^ (dropped)* have cation of operations, resulting in
their last vowel accented acute confusion; a fault in which one
- g- ^ M i *KWK *cf- ^rar-' V L returns to the same place not
L163. immediately as in Anavasthä but
(1) the letter ^ the vowel 3? after several steps; cf. 5^#T^^IN:
being added for facility of utter- # M.
ance, cf. T. Pr. L 21; (2) a P^a- Bh. on I. 3.60 Värt 5.
tyähära or short term standing known by the name
for the palatal class of consonants also, a small work on syntax
?> % % 5>
5 fff and sr; cf i^FTOT^r V. attributed to c^^f%.
Pr. I. 66; (3) indeclinable ^ call- ( 5fa) a grammarian of
ed Nipäta by Pänini; cf. ^TC^tS^ the Sesa family of the latter half
P. I. 4.57. ^ possesses four senses of the 17th century who held
icfewt^T and views against Bhattoji Dlksita-
cf. Kas. on II. 2.29. See also and wrote Ä ^
M. Bh. on II. 2.29 Värt. 15 for a and
detailed explanation of the four
senses. The indeclinable =3 is a grammarian who has
sometimes used in the sense of written a small disquisition on
a determined mention' or ava- the correctness of the form
dharana; cf. Käs. on II. 1.48 and See
72. It is also used for the pur- a Vikarana affix of the aorist
pose of 3?gfl% or sigwi "i. e. substituted for $& after roots
drawing a word from the previous ending in the causal sign für,, as'
rule to the next rule; (cf. M. Bh. also after the roots fSr, g and
on P. VI. 1.90) with a convention others; this ;^f causes reduplication
that a word drawn thus, does not of the preceding root form; cf. P.
proceed to the next rule; cf. I l l 1.48-50. e. g. ^ kf
=3T3^3 3txTC3 Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) cf. also P. VIL 4.93.
a conventional term for srwiref a grammarian who has
(reduplicative syllable) used in written a work on the topic of
the Jainendra Vyakarana; cf. the five vtttis. The work is named
^ f i ^ % Kit.
Pari. 75. a short treatise written by
the consonant ^ , the vowel ®{ dealing with the topic, of
being added for facility of utter- the five compact expression's or
ance and ^K as an affix to show Vrttis viz. f^3 flfer, ;OTRf. tajfifW,
that only the consonant 5 is and OTTf^lTä.
meant there; cf. T. Pr. I. 16, 21.
or ^ T ^ ^ W a scholar of
a grammarian who r wrote a grammar who has written an inde-
commentary on the ' SJabdalin- pendent work on Sanskrit Vyaka-
* of Sujanapandita. rsßa cajle4 %W?I#^T3* Thetrca«

tise is also known as or fä, g are found. There is no

section on Vedic Grammar and
^ the indeclinable =3 (with or as a accents. The work is based on
mute letter added to it which Päriini's grammar and is believed
of course disappears) possessing to have been written by Candra
the sense of ^ or condition, e. g. or Candragomin in the 5th cen-
srä ^ ^f^rfcf cf. Käs. on P. VIII. tnry A. D. Bhartrhari in his
1.30. Väkyapadlya refers to him; cf.
tad. affix W\ in the sense of
(known by) applied to a word VäkyapadTya II. 489. A summary
which refers to that thing by which of the work is found in the Agni-
a person is known, e, g. färaF^Ti'* puräna, ch. ^48-258.
; cf. P. V. 2.26. called also ^o5T, a well-
writer of a Prakrta gram- known commentary on Nägesa's
mar.He was known also as w& and Laghusabdendusekhara by Bhai*
hence identified by some with ravamisra who lived in the latter
Candragomin. half of the 18th century and the
p a term used by ancient gram- first half of the nineteenth century.
marians for the fourth consonants a Jain grammarian of the
which are sonant aspirates, termed twelfth century A.D. who has
3? by Panini; cf. R. Pr. IV. 2. T. written a commentary named
Pn L 18, V. Pr. 1 54. R. T. 176. SubodhinI on the Särasvata Vya-
$ a
term used by ancient gra- karana.
mmarians for the dative case; P^-rnfsf^ named also =SR^ a Bud-
cf. 3$r ?rol föt $ ^f dhist scholar who has written an
Nir. I. 9.3. easy Sanskrit Grammar based on
jJ the tatpurusa compound the Astadhyäyl of Panini. He is
with the first word in the dative believed to have lived in North
case in its dissolution; cf. ^g^feRilr India in the fifth century A.D.
ML Bh. See
on II. 1.36. a grammarian mentioned
consisting of four mätras or by Bhartrhari in his Vakyapadiya
moras, a short vowel consisting as one who took a leading part in
of one matra, a long vowel of two restoring the traditional explana-
mätras, and a protracted vowel of tion of Päninfs Vyakarana which,
three maträs; cf. ^fcri by the spread of rival easy trea-
tises on grammar, had become
3RT ^ M i 1 M. Bh. on Siva sutra almost lost; cf. *| ^ ^ ^ S
[ a famous Buddhist Sanskrit
grammarian whose grammar
existing in the Tibetan script, 3^: 11 Väkyapadlya II. 488-489#
is now available In the Devana- See =£F& and x r f f t
gaii script. The work consists of ^ short term (Pratyah5ra) foir
six chapters or Adhyäyas in which the first letters ( ^ , \ 9 % ^ and \)
BO technical terms or samjfias like of the five classes« Sometimes as

opined byy q^Rsrrft, second
ft, letters jj cf.
are substituted for these if a sibi- j Par. Sek- Pari, 65.
lant follows them, e. g a term used by the ancient
c I cf. ^% Hsfrai: sift grammarians in connection with a
cfpsq^cf, S.K, on secondary root in the sense of
P. VIIL3.28. frequency; the term ^Tf^FcI is used
a short term (Pratyähära) for the by comparatively modern gramm-
hard unaspirated surds and 31, ^3 arians in the same sense. The ^#-
H. The change of the second, third ^icT roots are treated as roots of the
and fourth letters into the first is adädi class or second conjugation
called ^ ; cf. sr^rer ^ \ WK and hence the general Vikarana
I Pan. VIII.4.54-56, 3T ( ^ ) is omitted after them.The
word is based on the 3rd pers.
tad. affix m in tne sense of j sing form ^krfct from ,the root f>
'being (so and so) in the past', j in the sense of frequency; e.g.
e.g. sn^l^tj fern, sjr^sp^t; cf. ^KT1^ | ^CTTCT, ^ H ; $im\m %^ife; cf. =3^-
^ P.V.3.53. ftcT =3 a gana-sütra in the gana
explained as a synonym of the named 'adädi5 given by Pänini in
word 2OT<3T which means a branch or connection with
a school ofVedic Learning; cf. =SROT- Pan. II.4.72; cf^ also n
J: Käs. on P.IV.2.46. 5jf§^: HT^t ^TT Bhasä Vr. on P. II.
4.72. The word ^TT^r is simi-
having kriyä or verb« larly used for the frequentative
activity hidden in it. The term when the sign of the frequen-
is used by Bhartrhari in connec- tative viz. 1 ( *lg ) is not elided.
tion with a solitary noun-word or See ^
a substantive having the force of a ^ a form of the frequenta-
sentence, and hence which can be tive or intensive, e.g.
termed a sentence on account of 1 cf.
the verbal activity dormant, in it.
Nir. II. 28; f j
e.g. fipgtqj cf. cf-RR g^ft *F3F% qST^
Vakyapad.II. 326, and ^ Nir.VI.22. See the
(1) splitting up of a word into
I Com. on its component parts, which is gen-
Väkyapadiya II.326.
erally shown in the PadapStha by
which has got already a &ffi%$. (S). The word3 hence means
scope of application; the term is q^HT£ or recital by showing separa-
used by commentators in connec- tely the constitutent words of the
tion with a rule or a word forming Sarhhita or the running text of the
a part of a rule which applies in Veda. The word is used almost in
the case of some instances and the same sense in the Mahäbhäsya
hence which cannot be said to be in respect of showing the words of
oSf«T (superfluous) or without any a sütra separately; cf. %
utility and as a result cannot be
said to be capable of allowing some
conclusion to be drawn from it ac- ^ M.Bh. on
cording to the dictum Mahesvara Sütra 1 Värt. 6 1 ; {2J ä

repeated word; cf. four senses-

2 ; Uvvata cR^ p{^W. and aq^OT: mentioned
on V. Pr. IIL20; (3) a discussion by Pänini in IV.2-67-70; cf.3Tq^Ti^-
or a debate where consideration is vqsTTg^^q^cl^: ^%?T: ^f^: M.Bh.
given to each single word; cf* on IV.2.92.
j f «TTßNct Par. the affixes prescribed in
&ek. Pari. 115. the four senses mentioned in P#
repetition of a word in the IV.2.67-70. These taddhita affixes
^ , WRTy, SCTTTS etc. where the are given in the Sütras IV.2.71 to
several Päthas appear to be called IV.2-9L The term ^Tg^f% is
=3=3?.In the q^qjs a word in a comp- used for these affixes by commen-
ound is repeated twice, in the tators on Pänini sütras.
5RTO every word is repeated twice, words mentioned in the
in the 3IOTI3, six times. class headed by ^Tät1^ where the
component words of a runn- tad. affix «qsr is applied although
ing text or of a compound word. the words =3g$Sr, =^g% and others
substitution of a hard consonant are not rpTsp^R words to which
o** % 5? 3> for soft consonants and ^ 5 is regularly applied by P.
aspirates. See the word =3*. V. 1.124. cf. ^ ^
W^re^T name of a Nirukta writer P. V . l . 124 Värt 1.
quoted by Yäska; cf. Nir.III.15. a class of words headed by ^
the group of consonants of the which are termed RTfcf by Pänini
palatal class, viz. g, ^, 5J, ^ and sj. e. g. % qr3 i, TZ3*£ *SFk ^ i *nf
The word ^ is used in the same etc.; cf. =sn^TS^>. P. 1.4.57. For
sense in the Pratisäkhya works,See the meaning of the word STOTC? see
the word ^f. p,370 Vyäkaranamahäbhasya. Vol.
VIL published by the* D, E.
JT an ancient grammarian Society, Poona.
whose view is quoted by Pänini in
his Sutra f 3 ^ r ^ i f ^ f P.VL 1.130. krt affix ^T^T applied to a root,
sam to signify habit, age or strength;
^ as ^ or =srrw or e. g. 3TT$fn3 ^JTR?; I ^PT^ f^rami: t
j a grammarian who compo- sjtffam^VA cf. P. I I I . 2. 129.
sed a compendium on grammar
called I^TO^sfNTjä and also a com- name of a treatise on grammar
mentary on it. written by Gandra, who is believed
to have been the same as Can**
^ a treatise on the grammar
dragomin. The Grammar is based
written byy =3i^g3T€ g in the Sutra
upon that of Pänini, but it does
form^which was named % not treat Vedic forms ana accents.
by him. See the word ws. above» For
^flr the same as details see pp. 375- 376 Pataäjali
the view that there are Mahabhäsya. Vol. VII, D. E.
four accents—the udätta, the Society's Edition.
anudatta, the svarita and the ir^o&j i^^tqpg[|% name of a com-
pracaya~4ield by the Khandiklya mentary on the "W^mm written
and the Aukhiya Schools» by
^ a tad- affix prescribed In the e fern, affix w , applied to

words ending in the tad. affixes reply to the treatise named f

and «qg; e. g. Nfcreqr, 3TCI5T, ^ . See t^goiiSR. For details see
; cf. Käs. on P. IV. 1. 74. pp. 39, 40 of Vyäkarana Mahä-
an ancient grammarian re- bhäsya Vol. VII. published by
ferred to by Pataiijali in the Ma- the D.E.Society, Poona.
häbhäsya as a scholar who had a substitute 5 causing vrddhi, in
line of pupils named after him; the place of the aorist vikarana
cf. ^ S ^ ^ W T F I T : M. Bh. on P. I. affix 1%3, prescribed in the case of
1.73. all roots in the passive voice and
ftsrpKi fulfilment of the object or in the case of the roots q^, ^«T, ^
the purpose. The word is used in etc. in the active voice before the
connection with a rule of grammar. affix cT of the third pers. sing, in
See =ctffarf. the Ätmanepada, which in its
the meaning of the indeclinable turn is elided by P. VI. 4. 104,
^ to convey which, as existing in cf. P. I I I . 1.60-66.
different individuals, the dvandva T%?i; affixes or substitutes or bases
compound is prescribed „Out of the marked with the mute letter ^ sig-
four senses possessed by the inde- nifying the acute accent for the
clinable =3, the Dvandva com- last vowel; e. g. arg^, 5 ^ , f T % ^
pound is prescribed in two senses etc. cf. P. VI. 1. 163, 164.
viz/j5T^%T and flfnfrc out of the marking with the mute letter
four *rg*rq, S R J T ^ , I^cTC^FT and 5, signifying the acute accent of
; cf. qj; jjpäfa fäl«T: I flfsgqt- the last vowel; cf. fi fä
OTTJR ffcf M. Bh. ; M. Bh. on P*
on P. II.2.29; cf. also Cändra III. 1.3 Värt. 16.
Vyäkarana II.2.48.
name of a commentary
3 tad. affix ( ®H®) applied to the on the Paribhasendusekhara by
word g^q, in the sense of posses-
sion, optionally along with the
affixes 33; JR and *%. e. g. 5?*ng:, name of a commentary
on the Laghusabdendusekhara by
f ^ F H , S^ft anc * f ^ P - ; cf. Käs.
Vaidyanätha Päyagunde,one of the
on V.2. 122.
distinguished disciples of Nägesa-
ficT desiderative formation; a bhatta.
term used by ancient grammarians
for the term ^5RT of Pänini on the jjMRSPj named also f^|jnw who
analogy of the terms wrote a learned commentary
etc. cf. 3FT l^TOK STO^T; named ^ M t on the Paribhasen-
dusekhara of Nägesabhatta
Nir. VI. L (1) view; theory, e.g.
rWdal in the sense of the ^ ^ cf. ^
desiderative; cf. Par. Sek. Pari.
: Durgäcärya on Nir. 58; (2) a matter of scrutiny on a
VI.l. suspicion; cf. f^rTT
name of a commentary
on the Paribhasendusekhara writ- ; Durghata Vr. on VI.4.69.
rcn by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in name of a commentary

on the Sütras of the Säkatäyana was a similar ^ T on the sutras of

Vyäkarana written by ^ ^ R \ . It is Pänini.
also called $5§^I%. ^TRcT the sign q ( q^ of Pänini )
SfSBTRT^T a commentary on of the frequentative or intensive.
the f%=crwM of WT$q> written by The word is mostly used in the
in the twelfth century. See Kätantra Grammar works; cf.

questionable; contestable; III. 2. 14. The word^?TT%T is used

which cannot be easily admitted. in the Mahäbhasya in the sense of
The word is used in connection ^cT where Kaiyata remarks q^:
with a statement made by a sound qqi^T^T ^TI%Ffe cf. sr$q on
scholar which cannot be easily M.Bh. on P. IV.1.78 Värtika. The
brushed aside; cf. 133^ Ä word ^6tf2Rn?cr means q^rT in
Pänini's terminology meaning a
. Par. Sekh. Pari. secondary root derived from the
93.5. primary root in the sense of in-
tensity. The word =^?£lcfRr is used
the group of palatal consonants for the frequentative bases in which
viz. 3» §>, 3, <=£ and ^ ; cf. ^ P . ^3 the sign of the frequentative, is
I. 3. 7, =%: $: VIII. 2. 30, f|>f : omitted. See ^4m.
VII. 4 62.
<§ tad. affix \z& applied to the word
tad. affix gsg applied to a fi&r in the sense of * unable to
in the sense ofc well-known bear ' e. g. f^f:> cf. P. V. 2. 122
by '; c. g. fanpf:; cf. P. V. 2. 26- Värt. 7.
a class or group of roots raprrsr a southern grammarian of
headed by the root ^?, familiarly the seventeenth century who has
known as the tenth conjugation. composed in 430 stanzas a short
% % a grammarian who is suppo- list of the important roots with
sed to have written a gloss (|I% ) their meaning. The work is called
on the Sütras of Pänini; cf. m =3
(1) an objector; the word is co-
- ( V . 1. mmon in the Commentary Litera-
Nyäsa, on the benedictory verse of ture where likely objections to a
particular statement are raised,
at the very beginning. without specific reference to any
a gloss on the Sütras of Pänini individual objector, and replies are
referred to by Itsing and Sripati- given, simply with a view to mak-
datta# Some scholars believe that ing matters clear; (2) repetition
Pataftjali's Mahabhasya is referred of a word with ^fcf interposed; cf«
to here by the word =cjfäi, as it fully $vsft: ^m; W f 4 ^ ^ See ft
discusses all the knotty points. and
Others believe that ^|pf,stands for ^ the crude form of the word stft
the Vrtti of ^M^. In Jain Reli- with the mute consonant a^ added
gious Literature there are some to signify the addition of ^ to
brief comments on the Sütras which form the feminine base e* g.
arc called 'gfffi and there possibly cf. P. IV, 1.15.

a root belonging to the tenth IV. 1.143,144 and 149; (2) to the
conjugation of roots ( ^T]^n^ ); cf. dvandva compound of words
meaning constellations^to the words
Käs. on P. VII. 3. 34.
y the consonant ^ with =3 prfiexed, etc. as also to %x&J9 ^r%<, «& etc. in
for which ^ is substituted by ^ certain specified senses, cf. P. IV.
2.6, 28, 29, 32, 48 ; 84, 90 &91;(3)
% ^ P- VI. 4. 19. to words beginning with the vowel
{ tad p affix arrcq causing a vrddhi "called Vrddhi (sn^r or ^T),to words
substitute for the first vowel of the ending with TJ^ to words of the
word to which it is added. The TTf class, and to ^ ^ and sr^T^ in
affix ( ^m ) is added in the sense the tft^F senses, cf. P. IV. 3.114,
of c a descendant except the direct 137-45 and IV. 3.1; (4) to the
son or daughter 9 to words if^ and words l%1|Tfp, 37^3Tfe, as also to
others; cf. P. IV. 1. 98. words ending in cprf in the sense of
the sign of the aorist ( g s ) for « present there '; cf. PJV.3.62-64;
which generally ftra and 3Tf?, SRT, ^ (5) to the words ßrg^F?, :%:mq)
and f^oj^are substituted in specified dvandva compounds, ^^R^T and
cases; cf. P. III. 1. 43-66. others in the sense of c a book
tad. affix ( of which nothing re- composed in respect of3, cf* P.IV.
mains ) to signify the taking place 3.88; (6)to words meaning warrior
of something which was not so tribes, to words %rfcR> etc5 as also
before; after the word ending in ^T3^> and 3T5T, in some specifi-
1^r the forms of the root f>9 ^ or ed senses; cf. P.IV. 3.91, 131, IV.
a**^ have to be placed; e. g. g^r- 4.14, 117; (7) to all words barring
cf. P. V. 4. 50 those given as exceptions in the
general senses mentioned in the
possessing the sense of fä. See sec. V.l. 1-37; (8) to the words gsr,
l^r cf. P. I I I . 2. 56 also P. I I I . i, words ending in
3. 127 Vart. 1. etc. ^fäT, s^fä^f and ^
in specified senses; cf. P. V. 1. 40,
69,70,91,92,111,112,135, V.2.17,
V.3.105; (9) to compound words
the second consonant of the in the sense of ^ ; e. g.
palatal class of consonants (=3cFf), etc. cf. V. 3. 106;and
which is possessed of the properties (10) to words ending in ^rn% and
^W, 5#q, qfun&T and ^TOföpranffer. ?TR in specified senses; cf. P . V.4,
?5 , placed at the beginning of 9,10.
affixes, is mute; while s^T is substi- the letter ^, the word ^n\l being
tuted for ^ standing at the begi- looked upon as an affix added
nning of taddhita affixes; cf. P. I. to the consonant f which, by the
3.7 and VII. L2. ^ at the end addition of sr, is made a complete
of roots has got BT substituted for syllable; cf, T. Pr. I. 16, 21.
it; cf. P. VIII. 2.36. ^ tad. affix ^ causing the vrddhi
tad. affix %^ added ( 1 ) to the substitute for the first vowel of the
words ^^3 $ng and to words end- word to which it is added. ^ is
ing with the tad. affix fä^; cf. P. added (1) to the words ft^q and

l ^ in the sense of 3TC?q; cfB P* cf. also

IV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the word 8 ; M. Bh. on 1.1.5.
f O T ^ f t s and others as a =^ig^f^ a learned commentary on Nä-
affix; cf. P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the gesa's Mahäbhäsyapradipoddyota
words fclTxfft, sRcFä, ^ F ^ and 3 ^ written by his pupil «ITo^i (possibly
in the sense of instructed by3, cf. the same as, or the son of, %H[£[
PJV.3.102; and (4) to the word qiqjjo%) who lived in the eighteenth
sossig* in the sense of 'being a century.
national of or 'having as a domi- sspiVnE a grammarian who wrote
cile.5 e. g. 5[R5T3fa:; cf. P. IV. 3.94, a short gloss called ^TcF^3^rf on
[ (1) Vedic Literature in general the Kätantrasütras.
as found In the rule 3ip5 3^1%
which has occurred several times
in the Sutras of Panini, cf. w%-
3cq?flf8f *R"FcF M. Bh. on 1.1.1, and
third consonant of the palatal class
1.4.3; cf. also V. Pr. I . I , 4; (2)
of consonants, possessed of the
Vedic Sarhhitä texts as contrasted
properties m^ jqfa, a^qsnoi and W3-
with the Erähmana texts; cf. s^f-
^fxi^n^. ^ at the beginning of
snsrorft ^ cfit^RiM P, i v . 2 . 6 6 ; ( i )
metre, metrical portion of the affixes is mute in Pänini's grammar*
Veda. the consonant ^ with sr added to
it for facility of pronunciation; cf.
?3[PTTO Vedic language as contrast-
T. Pr. I..21. See 5.
ed with 33M (ordinary language in
use); cf. ^ a poet and grammarian of
Kasmira of the fourteenth century
T. Pr. XXIV. 5. who wrote a commentary named
on,the Katantra Sutras.
% a popular name given by gra-
mmarians to the first pada of the (1) the well-known poet and
fifth Adhyäya of Panini's Asia- scholar of Vyakarana and Alarn-
dhyäyi as the pada begins with kära who wrote many excellent
the rule JTTf ^f 5 ^: P. V. l.L poetical works. He lived in the
^ a short term or Pratyähära stand- sixteenth century. He was a pupil
ing for ^ %? 5, =^? s and 3 ; cf. of f>^i%sf and he severely criticised
VIIL3.7. the views of Appaya Dlksita and
Bhattojl Dlksita« He wrote, a sort
tad. affix % added to the word of refutation of Bhattoji's commen-
in the general |jföp senses, tary Praudha-Manoramä on the
e. g. ^CR;;cf. P. IV.2.115. The Siddhanta Kaumudl, which he
mute letter H has been attached to named ^H^K^T^i11^7! but which is
the affix ^ so that the base ^ ^ popularly termed ^^wf^Hc?f« His
before it could be termed pada famous work is the Rasagangä-
(cf, -m 1 P, 1.4.16) and as a dhara on Alankärasästra; (2)
result have the consonant ^ chang- writer of a commentary 011 the
ed into 3 by P. VIII.2.39. Rk-Pratisakhya by name Varna-
found in the Vedic Literature; kramalak^ana; (3) writer of Sära-
Vedic; cf. ^\^ßr srfif mf=%\ ^llW^rf pradlpikä, a commentary on the
% Bhäsävrtti on P. IV. % 4J43; Särasvata Vyakarana»

a kind of Vedic recital wherein padiya, as a grammar treatise

each word is repeated six times. written some 40 years before his
SföT is called one of the 8 kinds visit, the time of ^T%£Tfl% is fixed
( argfägfir) of the Krarnapätha, as the middle of the 7th century
which in its turn is based on the A.D. Some scholars believe that
Padapätha; cf. s^fe^ was the same as swfe a
$ m ^R: I king of Kasmira and 3FR was his
5R<jtfSlfii: 1 SW is defined as minister. For details, see pp. 386-
388 of the Vyäkarana Mahäbhäsya
The Vol. VII published by the D.E.
recital of can be Society, Poona. See 3»TI?R5T.
illustrated as ajain grammarian of the
fourteenth century who wrote a
commentary named J3gR on the
a famous grammarian of the ER of Hemacandra.
Mauni family who lived in Värä- a short term ( smi%K ) signifying
nasl in the seventeenth century. the soft inaspirate class consonants
He wroteftWR^sftSpfrc,^Fa^f^FT, a
commentary on the Siddhänta- substitution of a sjsj consonant
kaumudi called gftf^Rt and a prescribed by Panini for any con-
commentary on the Madhya Kau- sonant excepting a semi-vowel or
mudi named 1%Q5TH. He wrote a a nasal, if followed by any fourth
commentary on the Laghukau- or third consonant out of the class
mudi also. consonants, or if it is at the end of
a grammarian, ( of course a päda; cf. P.VIII. 2.39, VIII.4.
different from the well-known 53.
poet), to whom a small treatise on ? the same as Wffi, which see
grammar by name is above.
attributed» case termination $r^ oi the nom.
(1) author of cTx^^^a commen- plural; cf.P. IV. 1.2.
tary on qifotH^ffiTf written by case termination S^H of the
Vitthala; (2) writer of a commen- nom. plural mentioned as «Rj by
tary named Vädighatamudgara on Pänini in IV. 1.2, but referred to
the Särasvataprakriyä, as 3n% by him; cf. P.IV.1.31 and
^ l a famous Bengalee g VII.1.50.
scholar of Vyäkarana and Nyäya ^fg^^sfl ( fl% ) a composite ex-
who has written a small treatise pression where the constituent
dealing with syntax* 'The treatise ! members give up their individual
is named sense. In compound words such
one of the famous joint as WSIJ^W in the sentence 3I^WT>
authors ( Wttfäft and 3TJR ) of the qq the word ^T^ gives up its
well-known gloss (fT% ) on the sense inasmuch as he? the king,.-
Sutras of Pänini, popularly called is not brought; <ps also gives up
sRf^R?Tff%. As the ^lf^^l|frT is men- I its sense as every man is not
tioned by It-sing, who has also brought. It is of course to be
mentioned Bhartrhari's Väkyär noted that although the sense is

given up by each word, it is not which, according to the gra-

completely given up; cf. ^ ^ r f r mmarians, exists in every object
^TO ^T^-cfTO *r$Tfa; M. Bh. on P. or substance, and hence, it is the
II. 1.1. Vart. 2. For detailed denotation or denoted sense of
explanation see Mahäbhäsya on every substantive or Prätipadika,
P. II. LI. Värt. 2. although on many an occasion
FSlrffö abandonment or giving up vyakti or an individual object is
of properties in the case of a required for daily affairs and is
word included in a fi% or compo- actually referred to in ordinary
site expression; cf. talks. In the Mahäbhäsya a
Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6. learned discussion is held regard-
a short disguisition on ing whether srn% is the denotation
the correctness of the word or Ö^T% is the denotation. The
written by a grammarian named word srrfcT is defined in the Mahä-
Cakrin; cf. i bhäsya as follows :—
t f S t I
born or produced there or then;
one of the senses in which the T «If «ff eft ^TTcf 3v3RT T%f: M. Bh.
tad. affixes, called «TTcttsfe, are on IV. L63. For details see
prescribed by Pänini in the siitra Bhartrhari's Väkyapadiya,
^5{ ^icf: and the following; cf. P. the view that wi%> or genus
IV. 3.25-37. only, is the denotation of every
RTsrff^f?n58f&cSr invalidity of a Ba- word. The view was first advo-
hiranga operation that has al- cated by Väjapyäyana which was
ready taken place by virtue of later on held by many, the Mlmä-
the Antaranga-paribhäsä—3rt§5 rhsakas being the chief supporters
^ f | ^ ^ # — that which is c bahi- of the view. See Mahibhasya
ranga' is regarded as not having on P. L 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari.
taken effect when that which is 40,
'antaranga' is to take effect. For see
details see Par. Sek. Paribhäsä 50. the acute accent for the
cTI^fpriW^cW invalidity of a gra- last vowel of a word ending with
mmatical operation prescribed by =37 of the p*p.p- denoting a genus;
a rule in the srptffi section (P. VI. cf. P. VI. 2.170,
4. 22 upto the end of the fourth c f l ^ t a d . affix «rate in the sense
päda ) which, although it has taken of wm or variety; e, g. qgsnäte:,
place, is to be looked upon as not 355«rrate:; cf. Kag. on P, V* $S9*
having taken place when any other Originally ^icfiq was possibly an
operation in the same section is independent word, but as its use>
to take effect. See especially as a noun, was found
genus; class;universal;thenotion restricted, it came to be looked
of generality which is present in upon as an affix on the analogy
the several individual objects of the of the affixes ^ q , \m} %£fN and
same kind. The biggest or widest others.
notion of the universal or genus is name of a variety of the

rita or circumflex accent; the terminology; cf. 5T it ^

original svarita accent as contra- PrJ.50;IILI3.
sted with the svarita for the grave ^ author of the Siddhantaratna»
which follows upon an acute a commentary on the Särasvata
as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4.67, Sütras,
and which is found in the words t ^ S & reputed Buddhist Gra-
?*£:, fRIT etc. The jätya svarita is mmarian of the eighth century
noticed in the words who wrote a scholarly comment-
etc.; cf. ary on the Käsikävrtti of Jayäditya
and Vämana. The commentary is
called ^\m or 3nTf^T%^W%^n" and
the writer is referred to as r^T^JTC
R. Pr. and com. III. 4. in many later grammar works»
tautologous^ unnecessarily Some scholars identify him with
repeated; the word is defined and ^ ? r f ^ ; t h e writer of the %J*EPC-
illustrated by Yäska f, but this is not possible as
% ^ ^ c R l ^ ^ was a Jain Gramma-
^ ^ W Nir.X.16.2. For rian who flourished much earlier.
other definitions of the word WW mention as fSicJ; cf.
conveying practically the same M.Bh. on 1.1.68 Värt, 7. See
idea, cf. Nir.X. 16. 3 and 4.
^ tad. affix added in the sense nsed in the sense of f«rfW, the
of 'a root' to the words sjjd}. s%, ^ ; tip of the tongue.
5 ^ and others; e. gw *PT*TT5^cf. P. fn^S^rR (l)having the root of the
V.2.24. tongue as the place of its produc-
a conventional term for ^r^R^ tion ;the phonetic element or letter
used in the Jainendra Vyakarana, called fäfFJjffa; (2) name given to
I ) affix marked with the that phonetic element into which
mute letter 5; e. g. srn, *\% ^H. a visarga is changed when follow-
the word fyfä; is not however found ed by 5 or ^ ; cf x 3S %fa fäfPJjfcls
used in this sense; (2) a word V.Pr.VIII.19. The fäfjQtäm letter
supposed to be marked with the is called j%l^ also; see Nyäsa on I.
mute indicatory letter ^„The word 1.9. The Rk. Prätisäkhya looks
is used in this sense by the Vartti- upon % ^ f%f T§^TR, and the gut-
kakara saying that such a word tural letters as ^ifT^^R.
does not denote itself but its syno- ^f^^pqf produced at the root of
nyms; cf. fäq; qsjfq^TqrRsfe ^ r r a ^ the tongue; the same as t^lT^^^TR,
P.I.L68 Vart. 7. In the Sutra ^r^n which see above.
^q^f PJL 4. 25, the word augment sr added to the root cfT
is supposed to be f^j; and before the causal sign fa?^ when
hence it denotes ^ j ^ etc.; but the root means shakingjef.^
not the word ^T^ itself; (3) In the sg^ P. VII. 3.38.
Prätisäkhya works f^[ means the a grammarian of the
first two consonants of each class fourteenth century A. D. who
(«rf); e.g. % % 5, ^. etc. which are revised and rewrote the. grammar
the same as ?®\ letters in Pänini's ^ and the commentary n^me4

on it, which were composed Vyakarana has no Vedic section

by ^»3T^r^ in the thirteenth dealing with Vedic forms or ac-
century. The work of ^ T ^ ? q is cents,but it has added a section on
known as ^flR^FOT. Präkdtajust as the Haima Vyä-
verbal termination ^ substitute karana.
ed for the original f|| of the third ^T^ a supplement to th c
pers. pi in certain cases mentioned Jaumära Vyäkarana written by
mP.III.4.108,109,110,lll,andll2. Goyicandra. See Jt#
the transformation of % into ^ ^ T the revised version by
; the substitution of SJH for ffL Jumüranandin of the original
The term is often used in the grammar treatise in verse called
Mahäbhasya; cf. M. Bh. on I. ^fFRTR written by Kramadlsvarä,
1.57, 1.1. 63, IIL1.43 etc. See $5. The Jaumärasamskaraiia is the
^aff the class of roots headed same as Jaumära Vyakarana, which
by ^ after which the vikaifana sap see above.
is elided and the root is reduplica- a root belonging to the
ted in the four conjugational tenses; or the third conjugation.
third conjugation of roots. name of a commentary on
name oi a grammar Amarasiiiiha's Amarakosa written
work written by Püjyapäda Deva- by Sripati (Chakravartin) in the
nandin, also called Siddhanandin, 14th century.
in the fifth century A.D. The lit.indirect or implicit revealer;
grammar is based on the Asfcädh- a word very commonly used in
yäyi of Paninijthe section on Vedic the sense of an indicatory state-
, accent and the rules of Pätiini exp- ment. The Sütras, especially those
laining Vedic forms being3of course, of Pänini, are very laconic and it is
neglected,. The grammar is called
Jainendra Vyäkarana or Jainendra believed that not a single word in
Sabdänusäsana. The work is avail- the Sütras is devoid of purpose/
able in two versions, one consisting If it is claimed that a particular
of 3000 sutras and the other of 3700 word is without any purpose, the
sütras. It has got many comment- object of it being achieved in
aries, of which the Mahavrtti some other way, the commenta-
written by Abhayanandin is the tors always try to assign some pur-
principal one. For details see pose or the other for the use of the
word in the Sutra. Such a word
; Jainendra Vyakarana, introduction
published by the Bharatiya Jnana- or words or sometimes even the
pitha Väränasl. whole Sutra is called $WW or indi-
cator of a particular thing« The
^ r f name of a com- Paribhäsas or rules of interpreta-
mentary on the Jainendra Vyaka- tion are mostly derived by indica-
rana, written by Abhayanandin in tion (upnpfir?) from a word or words
the nii*th century A. D. see §T*RJ;- in a Sutra which apparently appear
above* to be sajsf or without purpose, and
| ( sm^fv^ ) a treatise on Vya- which are shown as m^ after the
Icarana written by Jumaranandin. particular indication (WH) is
§ t^ above. The Jaumara drawn from them,, The

shown to be constituted of four realized from the

parts, wording; the conclusion drawn
and 3T?WFK3. For the instances of from an indicatory, word in the
Jnäpakas, see Paribhäsendusekhara. form of Paribhäsäs and the like.
Purusottamadeva in his Jnäpaka- Such conclusions are not said to
samuccaya has drawn numerous be universally valid; cf.
conclusions of the type of IJCR Par. Sek. Pari, 110.7.
from the wording of Pänini Sütras. a conclusion or inference,
The word g"FR» and w are drawn from a word or words in a
used many times as synonyms Sutra, with a view to assign a
although ^[^^ sometimes refers to purpose to that or to those words
the conclusions drawn from a which otherwise would have been
wording which is W^ or indica- without a purpose. The word is
tor. For instances of Wffi, cf.M.Bh. sometimes used in the sense of
onMähesvara Sütras 1, 3, 5, P. I.I. sTTC^ and refers to the word or
3, 11,18, 23, 51 etc. The word 3 ^ words supposed to be without any
in the rule 3T5 33S is a wellknown purpose and therefore looked upon
WF5 of the 3RTC|Rft*TraT. The as a reason or | g for the desired
earliest use of the word ITTO in the conclusion to be drawn. The
sense given above, is found in the words T%^cTC3[ ^N^ srqfcRU occur
Paribhäsäsücana of Vyädi. The very frequently in the Mahäbhäsya;
Paribhäsä works on other systems cf, M.Bh. on P. I. 1. 11, 14,19/55,
of grammar such as the Kätantra, 68, I, 2.41 etc. etc,
the Jainendra and others have
concluded or proved by means
drawn similar JSäpakas from the
of a ^Tqsft word or wording; cf. |[%:
wording of the Sütras in their
qctfäsfßjSpsft 3TTä%M 5nft3: M.Bh,. on
systems. Sometimes a Jnapaka is
I I I . 4. 37 Värt. 3.
not regularly constituted of the
four parts given above ;it is a mere a conclusion or formula to be
indicator and is called sft^ instead drawn from a jnapaka word or
of ^rqsf». words; cf. the usual expression
qicfäf fcr^ngqqrfri^irat ^TFl^m stating
ntf^TCJv^RI a work giving a collec-
that only so much, as is absolutely
tion of about 400 Jnäpakas or
necessary, is to be inferred.
indicatory wordings found in the
Sutras of Pänini and the conclu- indicated or suggested; cf.
sions drawn from them. It was g )
written by Parusottamadeva, a ^ p ; etc. M.Bh. on I I . 3.13
* Buddhist scholar of Panini's gram- Värt. 3.
mar in the twelfth century A. D., (1) name of a commentary
who was probably the same as the by Rämacandra possibly belong-
famous great Vaiyäkarana patron- ing to the 18th century on the
ized by Laksmanasena.See ^ Vajasaneyi Prätisäkhya; (2) name
of a commentary on JNagesa's
realizable, or possible to Laghusabdendusekhara by Uda-
be drawn, from a wording in the yamkara Päthaka of Väränasi in
Sutra of Pänini in the manner the 18th century«
shown above. See standing for «rorfe; name of
a class of 30 roots headed by the ^ a short term ( s^TfK) for the
root 5^55 ^fcft and given as ^ 3^q^, fourth ( IT, ¥j, % % and ^ ) of the
«R5 q-Rf^T etc; cf. ^fefcf^€%*^[ <JT: P . class consonants; cf. P.VIIL 2.37,
III. 1.140/ 40.
(1) verb-ending of the 3rd pers.
pi, Parasmaipada, substituted for
the wfiK of the ten lakliras, chang-
^fourth consonant of the palatal ed to spr in the potential and the
class of consonants possessed of the benedictive moods, and optionally
properties 3RT3?ra;H, ^1^ äfcPfTOccr, so in the imperfect and after the
and ^TfTSPRcf; §T at the beginning of sign *r of the aorist; cf.P,III. 4, 82,
an affix in Pänini Sütras is mute; 83,84, 108, 109,110, 111, 112; (2)
e. g. the affixes %, ffetc; cf. l ^ P . a conventional term for STO^R (in-
I. 3.7. declinable) used in the Jainendra
a verbal ending of the 3rd pers. Vyäkarana.
Atm. for 55 ( i.e. *$m ); cf P. Ill A H a term,meaningcbaving ^ as ^
78; for the letter gj, 3ffi[ is substitu- used by the Värttikakara in con-
ted; cf. #RT: P. VIII. 1.3, but ^ in nection with those words in the
the perfect tense; cf. P. III. 4.81 rules of Pänini which themselves
and ^ i n the potential and bene- as well as words referring to their
dictivc moods; cf. P. III. 4.85. special kinds, are liable to under-
wording of the affix f? (see above) go the prescribed operation; cf.
suggested by the Värttikakära to
have the last vowel of <H*zt acute,
by faff: (P.VI.1.163) the property : l M.Bh.on PJ t 1.
f^rcf being transferred from the 68 Värt. 8.
original ?r to 3FcT; cf. Käs. cT4T ^
fe n P.VII. 1.3.
* a short term ( SR^T^TC ) for the nasal (fifth consonant) of the
fourth, thirds second and first con- palatal class of consonants possess-
sonants of the five classes, after ed of the properties ^?5SKH, #*!,
which | is changed into the cog- ^a^|cJc5r, 313WW and 3?I3^TI%SR; (2)
nate of the preceding consonant mute letter, characterized by which
while 5T is changed into ^ option- an affix signifies |i% for the pre-
ally; cf? P. VIII. 4.62,63. ceding vowel; ^ of a taddhita affix,
a short term (SFtffR) for any however, signifies |li; for the first
consonant except semi-vowels^ vowel of the word to which the affix
nasals and \; cf. P. VIIL4.65. is added; (3) a mute letter added
a short term ( STc^UfR) for conso- to a root at the end to signify that
nants excepting semi-vowels and the root takes verb-endings of both
nasals; cf. P.I.2.9, VI.U58,VI.4. the padas.
15, VIL 1,60, VIII. 2.39, and tad. affix 3f; cf. P. IV. 2. 58,106,
VIII.4.53. 107 and IV.4.129.
a short term ( sr^TfTC ) for the a short term ( SRHTSTC ) for the
fourth and the third of the class five nasal consonants ??, ^ , %> %
consonants; cf. P. VIII. 4*53, 54. and ^ .

a mute syllable prefixed to1 a the word TFSJR and STS^PTM com-
root in the Dhatupatha of Pänini' pounds in the sense of 'present
signifying the addition of the there', e.g. q ^ F H , qrftg^R etc.
affix cf (TF) to the root, in the sense cf; PJV.3.58, 59; (3) to the word
of the present time; e.g. fe^T;, wz: ftfj e.g. % 4 ; cf. P. IV.3.84; (4) to
etc.; cf/KSS. on P . I I I . 2.187. the words headed by 2[rr%^J in the
tad, affix f^ added to words sense of 'domicile oP, e.g. 3^1%^;;
headed by 3^ft as also to words cf. P. IV.3.92; (5) to the words
meaning a village in the Vahika ^ t l ^ s f r i i ^ qs etc. in the
country optionally with the affix sense of duty (3$) or scripture
33J" in the Saisika senses ;e.g. ft ( 3?TÜTq ) je. g. ^T^F^q;, 3?TT^^^
^Tl^rq; etc.; cf. P. IV. 3.129;
. The affixes 35 and t*RT are (6) to the word 1|qi% in the sense «the word 3»T$ preceded of'associated with'; e.g. TTli^:
by 3?iq^ as also by some other (3?f!rO;cf.P.IV.4.90;(7) to the words
words; e. gm 3n^PTfefT, STT^Tf^T sR«sffl[ and OTiq|; cf. P. V.l.14; (8)
crraPTfö^T, cTT^Tf^bt etc.; cf. P. IV.2. to the words SFFcF, 3TTTO^ etc.,cf.P.
116,117,118 and Värttika on IV. V.4.23; (9) to the word sffirfir; cf.
2.116. P.-V..4.26; and (10) to the words
n affix marked with the in the sense of qjr(wandering tribes
mute letter si; causing the substi- for earning money), as also to
tution of vrddhi for the» preceding the words meaning pflcf (kinds of
vowel and acute accent for the first tribes) as also to words ending
vowel of the word to which it is with the affix vfi§r under certain
added* buty causing vrddhi for the conditions; cf. P.V.3.I12, 113.
first vowel of the word to which it ^ tad. affix in the sense of ca des-
is added in case the affix is a tad. cendant 5 added to words beginn-
affix; c£. P.VII.2, 115, 116, 117/ ing with STT, ^;, sfi or "ending with %9
(2) ä root marked with the conso- as also to the words #W^5 and
nant sr, taking verb-endings of 3RT3; provided they mean a coun-
both the Parasmaipada and the try and "a Ksatriya too; e.g. € € 4
Ätmanepada kinds; e.g. ^tfif, <pcf,
f j , ^FITßf3 s^FTIcf etc.; cf. IV.L17L
PX3.72, ^ tad. affix q causing | Ä to the
first vowel of the word to which
a root marked with the mute it is added and the addition of ^
syllable {$? prefixed to it, signifying ( wn ) in the sense of feminine
the addition of the affix W* in the gender ? added to words meaning
# present tense. See FT. warrior tribes of the Vähika coun-
f taddhita affix ^ signifying the try but not Brähmanas or Ksatri-
substitution of vrddhi as also yas. e.g. €l3SRt» safe?! etc.; cf. P.
-the acute accent for the first V. 3. 114.
vowel of the word - to which ^ t affix added to the root sf^in
•it* is addedl It is added (1) to Vedic .Literature preceded by the
words headed by spTfä^ in the words ^ » ^ J J ^ g ^ j or %sq, e.g.
four senses termed ^in e.g-SiFjfert^ ^sqf^T^r, 3ÖWT?*!:, I'KRT^s; cf. P.
etc.;.icfJPJV*. 2.80; (?) to I I I .2.65, 66...

1 the samäsänta affix 3? added to

certain specified words at the end
^ the first consonant of the lingual of the tatpurusa and other com-
class ( 33TT) possessed of the pro- pounds, e.g. 3jsi^r:3 <WT^, ^FRttJ,
perties 'grogsr^ra, sr^N, fapffi*^ etc. cf P.V.4.91-112.
and SRWPW. When prefixed or
affixed to an affix as an indica- the class of lingual consonants;
tory letter, it signifies the addition the same as g in Pänini.
of the fern, affix ^ ( i ); cf. P. IV. case ending of the third case
LI5. When added to the conju- OpfcfT) sing, number; cf. P- IV.L2,
gational affixes ( ^K ) it shows shoi t term for affixes beginning
that in the Atmanepada the vowel with si^in P. IV. 1,4 and ending
of the last syllable is changed to with *qf in P. IV. 1.78; cf.
H. cf. P. III. 4.79. When added
to an augment ( z\\Tm ), it shows M. Bh. on I. 2.48 V. 2.
that the augment marked with it feminine affix STT added to mas-
is to be prefixed and not to be culine nouns ending in sr by the
affixed; e. g. gs, gs etc.; cf. P. I. rule srsTMcfgT^ IV. 1.4 excepting
1.46. those nouns where any other affix
2T (1) the consonant £, the vowel prescribed by subsequent rules
3T being added for facility of becomes applicable.
utterance; cF. &ffi[i\ «3J1RHT^ T.
Pr. I. 21; (2) short term, (SR^TIR) the final syllable beginning with
standing for 2^fr or the lingual a vowel; part of a word consisting
class of consonants, found used of the final vowel in a word and
mostly in • the Prätisäkhya the consonants following the final
works; cL RT. 13, V. Pr. L 64, vowel; cf. «H^Fsqrfö fö P. L 1-64.
T, Pr. I. 27; (3) tad. affix ( 3f) (1) tad. affix ^ added to the
added to the word q^JpfT in the words ?*FTT, *rw and sftc^ in the
sense < ^ *TIcT:? e. g. HfiSjpfl, cf. P. sense of c something given as
IV. 3.34, Vart. 2; (4) krt affix wages3 e. g. snf&fäJ; wßr€l; cf, P.
( ST ) added to the root ^ 3$ and IV. 4.67; (2) tad. affix ^F added
f> under certain conditions; e. g. to $fl and ^J§ in the 3TfCf^ senses
, i ( ) , e. g. *teu:, *!%W; cf. P. VJ .25,26.
i: «pfeift; etc.; cf* P. III. marked or characterized by the
mute letter z» For the signifi-
rt affix 3?, not admitting JOT or cance of the addition of s, see s.
to the preceding vowel and
causing ^t^ in the feminine ( by ^ deletion or elision of the finat
P.IV. 1.15), added to the roots J7I", syllable beginning with a vowel,
qT and §^ under certain condi- as prescribed by Pänini in
tions; e. g„ ^WJ;9 §p;N:, qßrfft etc.; certain rules; cf. *wf £$R: VII.
cf. P. IV. 2.8, 52, 53, 54, 55. 1.88,^: P. VL 4.143, i55 ^siftgl
the consonant £, sj>R being P. VI. 4.144 and *($#afca( PP VI.
added for facility of utterance; 4.145.
cf. qqfasR; P. IIL 3.108 Värt. 3; tad. affix $2 added to the
cfÄ also V. Pr. LI7. preposition $m in the sense of
'lowering of the nose' ( of färanV e. g. miwm f^; cf,
^ ) e. g. sTcff^; cf. P. V. 2.31. Käs. on P. IV. 3.142.
(1) mute syllable g prefixed to having g as ?^; roots, that
roots to signify the addition of have .f as ^ or mute3 take the
the affix sjsj^in the sense of ver- affix 3?qxi in the sense of verbal
bal activity; % . g. ^qg:, ^ : ; cf. activity. See 5.
P.III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual
consonants z> 3, s, s and gr; cf
^ P . 1.3.7.
augment 2 added to that in the second consonant of the ling-
connection with which it is pres- ual class possessed of the proper-
cribed; it is prescribed in connec- ties ^sn^si^R, aqsfa, "Rlcf^^^r and
tion with l? and ^ followed by a flflMFI^T. For the syllable 3" at
sibilant, o. g, §TIOT + ^: - grpn^sg:;the beginning of taddhita affixes,
cf. P, VIII. 3.28. the syllable ^ is substituted; if
arrqrqr tad. affix ^uq added to the however the affix {beginning with
w7ord f=fi meaning * a warrior 3" ) follows upon a word ending
tribe not of a Brahmana nor of a in ^g, 3H , ^, ^ 5j and ^ then 3?
Ksatriya caste' in the sense of the is added instead of ^ ; e. g.
word ( ^ ) itself; e. g. # ^ : 5 cf. f » : etc.; cf. &&$:,
P. V- 3.1 J 5 P- VII. 3.50, 51.
tad. affix q, causing ff^forthe Some scholars say that 35 and <g
initial vowel and the additioB of are substituted for ^ by the sütras
the fern, affix %, ^applied to the quoted above; cf. Kas. on VII.
word #FT in the sense of having 3.50.
that as a deity/ e. g. € N 3 (1) tad. affix z; see 5 above for the
Wt ; cf, P. IV. 2.30. substitution of %*$ and ^ for 3".
tad. affix $R to which the aug- Z stands as a common term for
ment ^ is prefixed, making the 3 ^ 3 3^,33[, and 3=g as also for
affix cR, applicable to the words §?*§*3o ^ ^ ' (2) the consonant
<8T3, f&, 3T%, £Rt and indeclinable Z, the vowel ^1 being added for
words in the Saisika or misce- facitity of pronunciation, cf. T.
llaneous senses; e. g. SRcR:, ftfeR: Pr. 1.21.
etc.; cf. P. IV. 3.23, 24. a very common tad. affix ^ ,
or sf> in case it is added to words
tad. affix added in the same ending in ^ , 3 5 , 3, ^ 5 ^ and
way as "Z& above, making only a g; according" to P. VII. 3. 51,
difference in the accent. When causing the substitution of vrddhi
the affix 2g<3 is added, the acute for the first vowel of the word to
accent isngiven to the last vowel which it is added. Z\ is added
of the wordjDreceding the affix. to (1) ^\€\ and other words in the
tad. affix c5, causing vrddhi for sense of descendant ( 3?tRq ) e. g.
the initial vowel of the word to
which it is added and also the g : , cf. P. IV. 1.146-149;
addition of the fem.affix ^applied (2) to the words $re&T,^P3Ri etc.
to the word sjpft in the sense in the sense of *dyed in^ e. g.
156 :

; cf. P. IV. 2.2; (3) scribed by P. V.l. 19-63>and to the

to the words 3j£? and ^1%!^ in the words 33ft, 3 ^ 3 5 5 , ^ 3n%^ W*g$\9
sense of &5fffir '-made better ', e. g. 5Ro^^? etc. and to the word ir^TQST,
5rfW£, s f l ^ f e ^ ( epr instead of ^ in the prescribed senses; cf. P . V.
substituted for s^ ), cf. P. IV. 2. 2.67,763 V. 3.108,109; while, with-
18, 19; (4) to the words smiT^nt, out making any change in sense
W^ etc.; cf. P. IV. 2. 22, 23; (5) it is added to srjnjföi, föw, m%
to words expressive of inanimate OTR ( sfiqiq^. being the wqrd
objects, to the words iftcf and ^ 3 , formed), atöfttfRl, «F^r^j (cf.^T^ßq^
as also to the words %^j and W<3[ ^>T«n%^)3 ^ 3 f ^ ^ 37^R and others,,
in the sense of * multitude '; cf. P. and to the word =11^ in the sense of
IV. 2. 47, 48; '6) to the words expressed'; cf. P. V. 4.13, 34, 35.
^g, 3*F*T and words ending in ^ , The fern, affix ^{q ( \ ) is added to
3RRJ etc., in the sense ofe students words ending in the affix z \ to
of5 ( 3 c ^ cfe ), cf. P. IV. 2.59, form fern, bases.
60, 63; (7) to the words g«^ and popular name given to the
others as also to 5J$X] as a ^1^f#^ fourth pada of the fourth adhyäya
affix; cf. P. IV. 2.80, 84;^ (8) to of PäninTs Astadhyäyi.The päda be-
the words gypqi, W ^ and gq? in the gins with the rule 5n^cTS^PJV.4.1
Saisika senses; cf. P. IV. 2.102, prescribing the taddhita affix Z^
115, IV. 3.18; (9) to the words in the senses prescribed in rules be-
^cf^rr3 ' a n d others' in the sense ginning with the next rule c eft
' generally present'; cf. P. IV. 3.
^[ö^fcf ^f& vspqfcf f^rclH ' an<^ ending
40; (10) to the words consisting of
with the rule T ^ s spfäC P.IV.4.73.
two syllables, and the words w%
mw\ the sense ofcexplanat0ry . affix ^ or^F (by P.VII.3.51)
literary work5; cf. P . IV.3J2; (11'} with the vowel ST accented acute
to words meaning» c sources of in- applied to (1) nggzi and others as a
come 3 in the sense of c accruing Cäturarthika affix"; cf. P.IV.2.80;
from'; cf. P. IV. 3.75; (12) to (2) to multisyllabic words and
words denoting inanimate things words beginning with 3^ which
excepting words showing time or are proper nouns for persons; cf.
place, in the sense of ' qfrE1 *, cf- P. V.3.78, 80; and (3) to the word
P. IV. 8.96; and (13) to the words T3?PSrR5T in the sense of 5*; cf, P.
|?5 and ^AR in the sense of 'belong- V.3.109. The base, to which z% is
ing to', cf. P. IV. 3.124. The tad. added* retains generally two sylla-
affix 3 ^ is added as a general bles or sometimes three, the rest
termination, excepting in such being elided before the affix 3 ^
cases where other affixes are pre- e. g. \v^:9 sni^:> ft^; tRßssp: etc-
scribed, in specified senses like from the words %%%% '41^®9 ftg-
% etc.; cf» P. V,3,83, 84.
etc.; cf. P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to tad. affix ^ or ^ (by RVII.3.51)
words ip, mi, ^ % 1^»% -^cTOT etc. causing Vrddhi and acute accent
in specified senses, cf. P. IV. 4. 81, for the first vowel of the word to
102. 3^J is also added as a general which it is added» applied (1) to
tad. affix or arf^Rf^flcfSRqq, in ä and mföfi in the
varipu§ specified mxi®£$, us .pre- c l P^ IV.2.35^ 41,

e. g. etc.; (2) to feminine base, applied (1) to the

words and others, word #T and wcrds with two
along with f^fö, e. g. syllables in the sense of 'crossing'
also with f3?5 to words denoting or 'swimming' o w r ; cf. P.IV.4. 7;
villages in the Vähika country e.g. e.g. ^IN^: -«ilfci^T, sngsu: ^Tpi; (2)
2[TF=F»R5-i?:f ^(Ffffe^T; as also to words to the words ^ %^ and f^^ and
ending in 3 forming names of optionally with 15 to STTgsj- in the
countries in all the Saisika senses sense of maintaining ($m ^ 1 % ) ; cf.
cf. P. IV.2.116-120; (3) to com- P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word
pound words having a word show- SlcfasT, words ending with WU1.,
ing direction as their first member, to the word 3H, to words showing
to words denoting time, as also to completion ( ijTOn^I ), to the
the words 3K\, fäsir and s^N" in the words 3 ^ , m*\, z[% ^oq3 qwnH and.
Saisika senses! cf. P. IV.3.6, 7, 11- «IT5 in specified senses; cf. P. IV
15; (4) to the words *{4\ (m Veäic 4.42, 70, V . l . 2 1 , 4 8 , 49, 51, 84,
Literature), and toi^RT and ^ps^ V. 2, 85, and 109; (4) to words
in the Saisika senses; cf. P.IV.3.19™ ending in 3} as also to the words
21; (5) to ^sf^ER, ^TT^liW, words headed by ^tf|, and optionally with
having SRI: as the first member, the affix föo^[ to g?^ and with the
to the word %m preceded by qfö or affix *{ to %^[in the sense of £iciq(pos~
3^3, to multisyllabic words having session); cf. P. V. 2. 115, U 6 , 117
their last vowel accented acute, to and 109.
words denoting sacrifices, to words marked with the mute letter ^.
forming names of sages, to words There is no affix or word marked
ending in ^i and to the word *n>RR with mute 5 (at the end) in Päni-
in the specific senses which are ni's grammar, but to avoid cer-
mentioned; cf. P. IV.3.50, 60, 61, tain technical difficulties, the
67> 68, 69, 78, 79, 97; (6) to the Mahäbhasyakära has proposed
mute 6 instead of ^ i n the 'case of
compound words having a multi- the affix ^ o f the first pers. sing,
syllabic words as their first mem- perf. Ätm. and 3f^j p escribed as
ber, and to the words JJ¥ etc. in Samprasärana substitute by P. VI.
the specified senses;cf.P,,IV,4.6,lT, 4.132 e; g. 41?:, %§m cf. M.Bh.
30, 52, 58, 64, 103/(7) to any word on III.4.79 and VI.4.19.
as a general tad. affix (STI^I^I^CT),
unless any other affix has been
specified in the specified senses
( 1 ) third letter of the lingual
mentioned in the section of sutras class of consonants possessed of the
V. L 18. to 117; (8) to the words properties ^Tf^Tg^Rj W%> ti^ki^a^,
3Tq:3lQ5, ^ ^ 3q?^T, compound words and ;3f(^[5rr^; (2) mute letter ap-
having 133? or TIT as their first mem- plied to affixes by Pänini to show
ber as also tp the words fäs^fiSM the elision of the ft part (cf. P. 1.
and f ^ r ^ ; cf. P.V.2.76, 118,119. 1.64.) of the preceding word viz,
«^ tad. affix ^ or m (according to the penultimate vowel and the
P, VII.3.51), causing the addition consonant or consonants follow-
pf 3ft, a^<J, not %t „for. forming the ing it; cf,

V I A 143. The syllable fir of T%JTcf This class mil\K is a subdivision of

is also elided before an affix rnark- the bigger class called Wi]% and
with the mute letter f . it consists of only five words viz.
(1) kit affix 3T applied to the root ^cRFcf, ^cffiFci", ^T-q, <%*WR a,nd %KK;
Tfj^ preceded by 3T-cF? W&7z\, <%'^ cf P. VII.1.25 and 1.1.27.
etc., as also to the roots iq, and tad. affix 3?f^ aflixed to the
^[^under certain conditions; cf. word 1%^ to show number or
P. 111.2,48,49, 50, 97-101 and to measurement; e.g. ^% ^THölT:, cf.
the root spu to form the word ?PR, P.V.2.4L The words ending with
cf. P. VI. 3.75; (2) tad. affix s? the affix gfcf are termed ^ q r and q^
applied to words ending in ^ R ^ for purposes of declension etc.; cf.
words ending in W[ and the word PJ.1.23,25.
farter in the sense of cmore than' krt affix W added to the root w^
e.g. TajpRSi ^cfn3 u ^ f ^ q , t ^ T % ^ , cf in the sense of instrument' or
P.V.2.45, 46. 'location' e.g. ^T^R:, cf. P. I I I . 3.
samäsanta (sr) added to a Bahu- 125 Värttika.
vrihi compound meaning a nume- affix 3}tf applied to the word
ral e.g. SCRSH: OTT^20T: cf. P.V.4.74. **3ftm%. and others at the end of a
pada i.e. when the word %RT|
tad. affix 3T in the sense of^^
has got theq^En?rr. e. g. ^ T : %^[: i
applied to a numeral to form an
^cf%«TPj; cf.P.IIL2.71Värt.land2.
ordinal numeral; e. g. a^BT^T:,
ta:, cf. P.V.2.48. (1) verb-ending sn^causing elision
of the penultimate vowel as also
tad. affix ST, causing vrddhi and
of the following consonant,
, applied to m ^ and ^ T R ^
substituted for the 3rd pers. sing,
to show the crf^RFl i.e* measure-
affix fcT9"s of the first future; e.g.
ment or extent of a Brahmana ^cir; cf. P.II.4„85; (2) case ending
work; e, g. §TSITfä[ STO^rfä, ^T^JTI%nfä STT substituted in Vedic Literature
cf. P. V. 1.62. for any case affix as noticed in
tad. affix STcFT in the sense of Vedic usages; e.g. mm ^f^qrqj cf.
determination or selection of one P. VII. 1.39.
out of many, applied to the pro- ^ tad. affix an applied to dissylla-
nouns f% q^ and K$1; e,g. SRW:; cf. bic words, used as imitation of
~P.V.3m93,as also to xr^ according to sounds, or used as onomatopoe-
Eastern Grammarians; e.g. trq^Tt tic, when connected with the root
^RTT:; cf. P/V.3.94. fj or *J or W-{. The word to which
^ tad. affix 3Tcf^ in the sense of ^T^ is applied becomes generally
'selection out of two' applied to doubled;; c. gg d ^
the words i%, sjcf and clc^ as also to
the word ti^; e. g. ^ T ^r^T: qg: ; cf. P.V.4.57. The affix
^ is also applied to
cf. P. V. 3.92, q?RÄr ^^I%^f; cf. to compound words formed of a
P. V. 3.94. numeral and the word gor, as also
a class of words headed by to the words m^7 ft^, g^f, f%R etc.
the word ^ which stands for when these words are connected
ScTCFcI i.e. words ending with the with the ^
affix ^<=R; similarly the word
follows «?R stands for etc.jcf* P.V.4- 58 to 67,

^ . affix sn added optionally to tad. affix as a affix

words ending in q^ and to Bahu- applied to the words 5. and
vrlhi compounds ending in sr^to 3CI<F; e.g. f ; cf.P.
show feminine gender, the words IV. 2.87.
remaining as they are when the tad. affix q (1) added in the
optional affix £iq is not applied; sense of e Säma introduced by.'
e.g. 3M, sfaT, gq^f; cf. P. IV. 1.11, ) to the word TOJ^r; e. g.
12, 13. m ; cf P. IV. 2.9; (2)
^ tad* affix 3TT*T5 added to the added to the word sfrcRT optionally
words TfTcj and ft<j in the sense of with ^[ in the sense of c present
'father5; e.g. 5TOffl|:,ftcTFTS:;cf. P. there ' ( m ^ : ) ; e. g. €lc^: 5 cf.
IV, 2.36 Värt. 2. P. IV. 4.113.
possessed of the mute letter ^ tad. affix q added to the words
added for the purpose of the eli- ^ and ^ in the sense of c pre-
sion of ft (last vowel and the conso- sent there 5 ( c^T ^ : ), e. g. qi«q:
nant or consonants after it) of the :; cf, P. IV. 4.111.
preceding word. See 5. tad. affix q added along with
^[ to the same words to which
(1) tad. affix applied to the affix s^r is added as also in the
3 etc. in the sense same sense, the vowel $T of ^c^
(observing); e.g. jcRss^ft, cf. P. V. 1. being ^ I ^ T . See the word §sr
94 Värt 3; (2) applied in the sense above.
of «having as measurement'applied
case affix m seen in Vedic Lite-
to numeral words ending in W[ or
rature e. g. sTäg^n 3=33^5^1; cf. S.
fä the word T%rfcf; e.g. T^föRf
K . o n P. VII. L39.
, ^ l f ^ f ; ; cf. M. Bh. on P.
V. 2.37. kit affix ^ with fern, affix t
added to it, applied to the root
tad, affix ffr applied to the ^ . e.g. # cf. mtqpi mmiz # M.
words SET, ®{\% q^rrq and sra in Bh. on IV. L3.
the Saisika senses; e.g. 3#OT^, snfä:-
tad.affix «fo5, in the four senses,
^qßCT^srfoOTT; cf. M. Bh. on
P.IV.3.23. added to the words ^ and
^TT^; e. g- ^553^, 5M&1? cf. P.
^ case affix %q\ for Inst.sing.seen IV. 2.88.
in Vedic Literature; e.g. §§f*RT»
a root marked with the mute
G ; cf. Käs. on P.VII.1.39.
^ tad affix gq added to the word syllable g (at the beginning) to
^ in the sense of diminutive; e.g. signify the application of the kpt
affix f^r which is invariably follow-
fgq: a small oil-pot ( f^);cf. V.3.
ed by the addition of *r ( *i5[), in
the sense of c achieved by * e. g.
W Unädi affix ^w added to the qfipprs ; p ^ i ; cf. P. I I I . 3.88
root qT to form the word 35; cf. qj% and IV. 4.20.
f^g^Unadi Sütra IV.177.
# tad. affix 3Tcp added to the
tad. affix 3ö5 in the sense of words T%ßf and f^"^ in the tetrad
brother' applied to the word m%; of tad. senses; e.g.
e.g. *TT3ö3:; cf. P» IV. 2.36 Värt 1. cf. P. V. 1.24.

(2) to the words fä^g; and ^ g ;

with the vowel m elided and to
(1) fourth consonant of the lingual the word ^fö5, e. g. T^F%q:3
class of consonants possessed =R-T^%^[;, ^Trf^:, cf. Kas. on P.
of the properties ^TRJ5^H, «fa, IV. 1.133, 134, 142; (3) to the
and ^TW^r; (2) the word ^rf?5 in the sense of Säma,
consonant £ which is elided when to the word srßf in the sense of
followed by ^ and the preceding 'dedicated to a deity' (^I^^cfT)
vowel is lengthened; e. g. *TTST, as also to the words ^ , »j§t
cf. P. VIII. 3.13 and VI. 3.111; «rr^Frat, ^rT^crf and others in the
(3) substitute <| for ^ at the end Saisika senses; e. g. ^fi&q ^ R ,
of a qf^j or, if followed by any 3TT>^:, ^ q ^ ^ f l ^ e t c . cf. Kas. on
consonant excepting a semivowel P. IV. 2.83 33, 97; (4) to the
or a nasal excepting in the cases words cj^T, g^, ^ftr, ^frfö, sEHI and
of roots beginning with ^ or the ^TFo5 in the specified senses; cf.
roots |§, gl etc. as also ^%^ and P. IV. 3.9i, IV. 4.77, V. 1.127,
*n% cf:P. VÜL 2.31, 32, 33, 34; V. 2.2.
(4) ^ at the beginning of a tad.
affix which has got ^ substituted 3[ tad. affix T J ^ applied (1) to
for it; cf. nrsfl:, %#*:; cf. P. V. the word gp55 optionally along
3.102. with ^ and ^, when it is not a
tad. affix ^ (1) applied to the word member of a compound; e. g.
in the sense of cfit for' ( 3^ # W ; » f5q:3 555N:; cf. P/IV. L
;) in Vedic literature;- e. g- 140; (2) to the words %f^[ and
:; cf. IV. 4.106; (2) applied to others in the Saisika senses as also
the word f^M in the sense of %%; to the words'ep5, <JT% and JriST? if
e. g. m$A ^1%; cf. P. V. 3.102; (3) the words fornted with the affix
common term ( 5 ) fort the affixes added, respectively mean dog,
535, ^g and s also, after the sword and ornament; e. g. ^
application of which the affix #15
( I ) is t added in the sense of cf.KSS. on PJV 2.95,96.
feminine* gender; cf. P. IV. 1.15. »' ^ tad. affix tzjq causing Vrddhi
tad. affix trq causing the substitu- substituted for the first vowel of the
tion of vtddhi for the first vowel base and the addition of the fern,
of the word to which iV is added. ^affix ^ (^), applied (!) to words
^ is added ia the sense of 'SfqRq' mea ning' quadrupeds an|d words
(descendant) (I) to words ending in the class of words headed by if&
in feminiAe affixes, to words end- in the sense of wt^; e. g. ^fOT^-
ing; In the;vowel % excepting % of 1^:, ir&i:, H^.% «rfe^f: etc; .cf. P.
the tad. affix UJ» to words of the IV.U35,136; (2) to the word tffc,
class headed by grsr, to words words of the class headed by
**?£$> @^» W^®% \ > . S?2T a ^d tothe words egbff, TfcT, ^ T 3 ^^rt,
words headed by ^qroft which get
CT substituted for its last vowelje.g« C55 , , ^ and
^ar in the various senses mention-
ed in connection with these words;
äci; dfl V. l?419rlJ27;
^ t c , cf. Käs', on P. IV. 2. 1
(1) krt affix ST, added optionally to
20, 80, IV. 3. 42, 56, 57, 94, 159, the roots headed by ^ s and end-
IV.4.104, V.l.10,13,17, V.3.10L ing with ^ ^ in the first conjuga-
t a d affix tion (see ^fMcf above) in the sense
- ^ ^ R applied to the
word STjf&I in the sense of 'stude- of agent, and necessarily to the
nts following the text of* e . g . root i \ roots ending with a?tf and
fef^: in the sense ^fe^IT sftxfT- the roots 33g, ang, öf, ^ with
fcfo%; cf. Käs. on P.IV.3.109. Qt with 3 ^ , 5 with 3?q, TQ5|,
tad. affix IK ( q;^+ * ) applied in and ^*Tj to the roots g andsfr with-
the sense of offspring to the word out any prefix and optionally to
31M and optionally with &$ to e. g. or
words meaning persons having a
bodily defect or a low social status;
e. g. *f$R:, spftrc: ^W:\ sET&fa:, ^ftR:, 3Ff:3 %%t or SIT?:; in the case of the
cf. Käs. on P. IV. 1. 129, 131. root R^the affix or is applied by
^f^4c?I3WT? the word 5ff: meaning
a planet and the word 5fl?:
meaning a crocodile; cf. Kss.
(i) fifth consonant of the lingual on P. I I I . 1.140-143-; (2) krt affix
class of consonants possessed of 3? in the sense of verbal activity
the properties, ^ i g s R R , sjfa, gfcl^- ) applied along with the affix
^^r, 3T5TOFT and sn^TO^R; (2) the to the root z\% with fä; e.g.^T^:
mute letterOT indicating the substi- :; cf. P. III.3.60; (3) krt affix
tution of vrddhi ( cf. P. V I I . 2. or prescribed by the Värttikakära
115-117) when attached to affixes; after the roots cR, sdl?5. *FTO, ^ ^ a n d
(3) the consonant o^at the beginn- ^ ^ w i t h 3TT; cf. P.III. 1.140 v l r t 1^
ing of roots which is changed into and I I I . 2.1 Värt. 7; (4) tad, affix
^ ; the roots, having &T at the begi- 3} in the sense of ^q^f added along
nning changeable to ^ , being call- with 33Ö also, to a word referring to
ed affq^i; (4) OT as a substitute for a female descendant (Tfl^f^l) if the
^following the letters % Sf£, ^ ? and resultant word indicates censure;
$ directly, or with the intervention e . g . ^:*TTf%:; cf. P. IV.1.147,
of consonants of the guttural and 150; (5) tad. affix s? in the sense
labial classes, but occurring in the of aroq added also with the affix
same word. Such a substitution of ftg, to the word <?TOfi?r; (6) tad.
^ for «I is called o]^; cf. P.VIIL4. affix 3{ in the sense of c a game 3
1-39. For ui^cf in Vedic Literature; added to a word meaning 'an
cf. R. Pr.V.20~28, T.Pr.VII.1-12. instrument in the g a p e ' ; e.g.
V.Pr JII.84-88; (5) the consonant * 5TOT, *n*T; cf. P. IV.2.57; (7) tad.
added as an augment to a vowel affix 3} added to the word ^c^
at the beginning of a word when and others in the sense of 'habi-
it follows the consonant ^ at the tuated to' e.g. &&:, m:, ffifez % : ;
end of the previous word; cf. P. cf. P.IV. 4.62; (8) tad. affix 5
V I I I . 3. 32. In the Vedic Prätisa- added to the words s ^
khyas this augment ^ is added to
the preceding qT and looked upon and ^T^RJ in the senses specified
as a part of the previous wor/1. with respect to each; e.g.

root showing the main action,

provided the root to which qg^ is
or SRnftT^, SIT«S.' °r ' ^ M ^ , $ffQ: or added is preceded by an antecedent
QITII or |i%frr^ and 3TR IF: or connected word, such as ^TT|5[
;'); cf. Kä s. on P.IV. 4.85, or 3??qsri or ^m^ or any other given
100, V.L 10, 76, 98, V.2J01 and in Panini's rules; cf. P. IIL4.26 to
IV.2.104 Virttika. III.4.64; e.g. | % K
krt affix s? in the sense of reci-
procal action, added to any root;
the affix G15 is to get necessarily IT, » 5=is: etc.;
the affix 3jsj added to it followed cf. Käs. on P.III.4.26-64. When
by the fern, affix % e.g. «qicN^atftj tqg^ is added to the roots ^ , H ^ l ^
52fl3?RfT; cf. K^s. on PJIL3.43 and and others mentioned in P. I I L 4.
P. V. 4.14. 34 to 45, the same root is repeat-
cerebralization; lingualization; ed to show the principal action.
the substitution of 51 for ^ under The word ending In oigjj has the
certain conditions; cf. P. VII 1.4. acute accent ( ^ x ü on the first
1-39. See or. vowel (cf. P.VLU94) or on the
a popular name given by vowel preceding the affix; cf« P.
grammarians to the fourth pada cf. VL1.193.
Pänini's Astädhyäyi, as the päda be- ^cfcJ^T a term used in connec-
gins with the rule WPRT ^Tf &f: flTFN? tion with the compound of the
and mainly gives rules about qg^xf with its^yq^which precedes;
OM i. e. the substitution of the c. g. swwsp^, g ^ t n ^ i ^ ; cf. P. 11.
consonant JT for ^. 2.203 21.
krt affix &IQ, causing vrddhi personal ending <% substituted for
to the final vowel or to the penul- R( and i%% in (^ or the perfect,
timate 3T, (1) added to any root in and in the case of f^ and # in ^s
the sense of the infinitive in Vedic or the pres. tense optionally; cf. P.
Literature when the connected root 111,4.82,83, 84. The affix ^
is 30^; e. g. 3TT?f I \^i f^^T^ ?TRR32R; on account of being marked by
cf. Käs. on P. III. 4.14; (2) the mute letter ^causes vrddhi to
added to any root to show the preceding vowel; the vrddhi
frequency of a past action, is, however, optional in the case of
when the root form ending with the 1st pers. ( % ; ) cf. P* VIL1.91.
q§5 is repeated to convey the 3ft is substituted for ojss after roots
sense of frequency; e.g« srföt xfe ending in an; cf. P . VII .1.34,
surfer, qr^Hrö ^5Tftf? cf. Käg. on P, IIL
4.22; (3) added to a root showing tad. affix SRJ applied to the
past action and preceded by the word q^in the sense of collection.
word 3$f, SPW or ^ 1 , optionally The original Värttika is <T^ft: ^
along with the krt affix *R3fT; e.g. P. IV. 2- 43 Värt. 3- Some scho-
3TO^i\«f or s& gsRc|T zi^sfä; cf. Käs. lars read 015 in the place of ^r in
on PJII,4.24;(4) added in general the Varttika which is read as
to a root specified in P.III.4.25 to ; by them.
64, showing a subordinate action T common term for f&r^ ( signifying
and haying the same subject as the Ätmanepada) and Pi^; cf» "fr

P. L 3.67a faftfe VI. 4.51; Atmanepada; cfo 19fi«r P. I. 3.74.

cf. also P, I. 3,36, I. 4.52, II.4.46, They have perfect forms by the
51; I I I . 2.137; V I . 1.31, 48, 54, addition of srn^ with a suitable
VI. 4.90; VII. 2.26, VII. 3.36; form of the perfect tense of the
VII.4.1, VIII. 4.30. • root f>, \ or 3TH placed after 3TT*[»
the word ending with 3 ^ and the
affix ^ causing vrddhi, prescribed verbal form after it being looked
after the root ^ ^ 5 the base end- upon as separate words e. g. ^WÜ
ing in % i. e, qjTfö being called a ^%R ^K^l ^ etc.; cf. P. I I I . 1.35,
root; cf- P. I I I . 1.30, 32. The 40. They have the aorist form,
mute letter ^ signifies that the root with the substitution of the Vika-
^Tfäisto take only theÄtmanepada rana =^ ( s? ) for f^o5 before which
affixes e. g. ^ the root is reduplicated; e. g.
^ affix % causing vrddhi (1) 3räT^5 ST^Wct etc.; cf. P.III. 1.48,
applied to roots of the tenth conju- VL1.11 as also VII.4.93-97.
gation ( ^j{Vi°l ) such as :f\, f^q roots ending in f^; the term
etc. e. g. ^imm, ^iim; cf. P. III. is generally applied to causal bases
1.25; (2) applied to any root to of roots. See
form a causal base from it, e. g.
from g, TFRKT from T ^ ; cf, (1) an affix with the mute con-
=3 P. III. 1.26; (3) applied onant padded to it to signify the
to the words 3 ^ , fö^ etc, in the substitution of vrddhi for the pre-
ceding vowel or for the penulti-
sense of making, doing, practising
mate 3T or for the first vowel of
etc. ( w r ); e. g. got s^fcT gogqfä,
the word if the affix applied is a
sfcRlcf (eats something or avoids it
taddhita affix; cf. P. VII.2.115-
as an observance), 5Ö ilTFcf ^öJ^fcf
117; e. g. 3?OT, or, ^qr, ft etc.; (2) an
etc.; cf. P. I I I . 1.21; (4) applied
affix not actually marked with the
to the words ^ ? , q^r, ^q, cffaT, rj^s,
mute letter cj[ but looked upon as
•^I^j SfaT, oSfrRF, ^ 5 , 3 ^ , 30? and ^oj
such for the purpose of vrddhi;
in the various senses given by the e. g. the Sarvanämasthäna affixes
Värttikakära to form denominative after the words *TT aad srfe, cf. P #
roots ending ia %; e. g. seqrqsfär, VIIJ.90, 92.
qreprfct etc; cf. P. III.1.25; (5)
applied to suitable words in the possession of or as a mute letter
sense of composing, e. g. %$ ^it^r for the purpose of vrddhi. See the
^RT%, etc.; (6) applied to a verbal word ffrfäC.
noun ( *p;7cF) in the sense of 'nar- FT krt affix ^ signifying vrddhi
rating' with the omission of the (1) applied to the roots headed by
krt affix and the käraka of the 5f| ( L e. the roots sf, ^%$3 m etc. )
verbal activity put in a suitable in the sense of an agent; e. g. JTTCL
case; e. g. ^3 sncRTct for the sen- 351*, WT*- cf. P. III.L134; (2)
tence ^fcf^ri^fä or «r# ^?^qi% for applied to the root f^ preceded by
the word *§mi or SIN as m^; e. g.
5 etc.; cf. Käs. on P. IIL |TOrar, #^Tcf(, cf. P. IH.2.51; (3)
1.26. Roots ending in täf^ (f&i«ra) applied to any root preceded by
take the conjugational endings of a substantive as upapada in the
h the Parasmaipad^ and the sense of habit3 or when comp&ri-

son or vow or frequency of action elision of the affix %\ (fä^or 1 ^

is conveyed, or to the root ^ with see above ) before an ardhadhä-
a substantive as 3qq^ e. g. ^ T ^ tuka affix wilhou' the augment \
( Vk ) prefixed to it; cf. aufrffe P.
Vl74.51, and VI.4.52, 53, 51 also.
^ augment or, prefixed to the ini-
cf. P. III.2.78-82; (4) applied to tial vowel when it follows upon
the root ^ preceded by a word the consonant v] at the end of the
referring to the ^l^\ of qT^TCS as also preceding word; e. g. g^iftsT; for
to the root 53; preceded by a word
forming the object ( W^ ) of the JTTC^T a root mentioned in the
root l ^ , the words so formed re- DhatupStha by Pänini as beginn-
ferring to the past tense; e. g. ing with qj which subsecjuentiy is
eHSui Mth fti*NRft, cf. P. Ill 2.855 changed to ^ ( bY p - VI. 1.65)
86; (5) applied to a root when the in all the forms derived from the
word so formed refers to a kind of root; e. g. the roots m> tfi and
necessary activity or to a debtor; others. In the case of these roots
cf. 3?qs<W$", StöSPit, ^ ^ M cf. P. the initial q is again changed into
IIL4. 169-170; (6) tad-affix ^ , o] after a prefix like sr or q^T
causing vrddhi for the first vowel, having the letter ^ in it and
applied to the words WAWi and having a vowel or a consonant of
^tl%^ referring to ancient sages the guttural or labial class inter-
named so, as also to words which vening between the letter X and
are the names of the pupils of the letter q; e. g. SFRIcT, mmw> etc.
q^jfq or of thOTi^Fl, as also to the cf. Käs. on P. VIII. 4.14.
words ?p% qisrc#R etc. in the 1 . 1
sense of * students learning what z popular name given to the
has been traditionally spoken by fourth pad a of the seventh Adhyä-
those sages' e. g. ^^qfq?f:? cfl!%^, ya of Panini's AhtadhyAyi, which
flfcftoi: €HT%3:, snsraftfära: etc.; cf begins with the rule oft W?qWT
P. IV.3, 103-10K 106; (7) applied I « : P. VII. 4.1.
to words forming the names of f tad.affix5Ef (I) applied in the sense
ancient sages who are the speakers of cdescendant'as also in a few other
of ancient Brähmana works in senses^ mentioned in rules from
the sense of c pupils studying IV, L 92 to IV.3.168, applied to
those works5 as also to words form- the words feßr, %lM ^
ing the names of sages who com- and word5 with qf?r as the
posed old Kalpa works in the in a compoundj c. g* %7-f:3 ^T
sense of those spR works; e. g, sfT^fR^etc. clKiLon P. IV. 1 84;
XWm: lqfft spsq; aqWTCTäft (2) applied in the sense of a descen-
q:; cf. Käs. on P. IV. 3,105; («) dant ( sroq) applied to the words
applied to the words qRi^ and I ^ F p , , n£t> M » ^ , ^fcT9 *$ etc., e-g.
f§5^ in the sense of 'students read- ^35q;, TIT4: etc. cf. KM. on P. IV.
ing the Bhiksusütras (of qRRl4) and 1.151; (3) applied in the sense of
the Nata sütras ( of t^^feq )' res- z%q$q or descendant to words end*
pectively; e. g, qRraM Hi I ing in %%to the word 332p? and to
^ i:; cf, K a i on P. words in the sense of artisans* e,g*

any preposition ( OTOT) or a

cf. Käs. on P J V . l . 152; (4) applied substantive as the upapada; e. g.
in the Cätuararthika senses to the 3T5WE, sr^iTf, ^ T O : , feq^T2; cf. Käs.
words &%mt W>]m&{, wmtl etc., e.g. on P.'lII, 2.62, 63, 64.
StfgresHs ^nfa^m etc.; cf. Käs. on kn affix ^ o r zero, seen applied
P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the in Vedic Literature to the root
word qft^ and optionally with ^ p r e c e d e d by %T, to ^H preced-
the affix 35^ to the word %^r in ed by ^m9 to ^i|T preceded by
the specified senses; e. g- 2<5 and to q^ preceded by Wl*
f % e. g. \mi I?i:» *ftv&n qewFi:, 3^T:,
%Ht[ qi; cf. Käs. on P. IV. cf. Käs. on P. I I I . 2.7 1, 72.
44. 45, 101; (6) applied as a tad. ^ krt affix 31^ seen always with
affix called e tadrSja '• to the word the fem. affix ^JT applied to a root
%j% and words beginning with ^ when the sense conveyed is * a
e . g . 4\Wt: ^3P*J:; cf, Kis. on P. turn ' or c a deserving thing ? or
IV. 1.172; f^r:, fäw: etc. are the ' debt 3 or £ occurrence;' e. g.
nom. pi. forms.
krtya affix q which causes
vrddhi and which has the cir- cf Käs. on P. I I I . 3.111.
cumflex accent (1) applied to a U) a V € r y general kft affix
root ending with w or any con- , causing vrddhi and acute
sonant to form the pot. pass.parti- accent to the vowel preceding the
ciple; e. g. 3tf%^ fpsR, mm$l etc. affix, applied to a root optionally
cf. Käs. on P. IV, 1.124; (2) with 5 (i, e. cR ) in the sense of
applied to a root ending in 3 if a an agent e. g. mi^z STCfc; also ^cff,
necessity of the activity is to be ^S; cf, P. IIL 1.433; (2) krt. affix
indicated, e. g. STSRq^sqq^ 3|*req- cR^ applied optionally uith the
m s ^ cf. Käs. on P. IV. 1.125; affix 3 ^ to a root when it refers
(3) tad. affix ^ applied to the word to an action for which another
6PWTO" optionally with q1^ and 33J action is mentioned by the princi-
affixes; e. g. STOR^:, Wre*!:, pal verb; e. g. STI^T ^srfä or ^
% : ; cf. Käs. on P. V. 1.84. cf. Käs. on g g ^ l #
J ^ krt affix ara in the sense of P. III. 3.10; (3) krt
skilled agent ' applied (1) to the affix sp^j, necessarily accompanied
. root ?t to sing. e. g. Ttpq^:, ni^T, by the fern, affix 3TT added to it,
cf. Käs. on P. I l l 1.147, also applied to a root if the sense
3TT^:, vxßm by P. I I I . 1.146; (2) given by the wo;d so formed is
to the root fi (III. P. and III.A. the name of a disease or a proper
also) if c rice ' or c time * be the noun or a narration or a query;
sense conveyed.' e. g. fPFn sft%$:9 e. g. SRTÜ35T, £^T%T, SnSWtfSffiT,
%j^i: ^ ^ R ; : cf. Käs. on P. I I I . ^lOTrf^JT, ^mm> cf. Käs. on "P,
1.148. I I I . 3.108, .09, 110.
krt. affix ^ i. e. zero, causing
vrddhi, applied to the root ^
and to ^ and «R[ in Vedic Lite-
rature if the root is preceded by the first consonant of : the

dental class of consonants which popular use; (6) a technical term

has got the properties ^RrrgsRH, for the past participle affixes (cf) TF
and s^qiiMcc?. When and cl^ ( ^ 3 ) called ftm by
used as a. mute letter by Pänini, ^ Pänini; cf. P. 1*1.26; the term cf is
signifies the Svarita accent of the used for fäUT in the Jainendra Vyä-
vowel of that affix or so, which is kararna.
marked with it; e. g. 3>rcfe^ WWJ
the consonant cX, the vowel 3T
q q ^ c f . P. VI. 1.185- When appi-
and the word ^R being placed af-
ed to a vowel at its end, ^ signifi-
ter it for facitity in understanding;
is only the vowel of that grade
cf. T. Pr. I. 17,21.
only5 possessed by such of its vari-
eties which reguire the same time a class of words headed
for their utterance as the vowel by cWT%^I to which the taddhita
marked wtih q, e. g. 3TT^ stands affix 3} (3F>r) is added in the
for 3?T with any of the three accents sense of ca native place or a domi-
as also pure or nasalised; %N^ does cile'. The word so formed has the
not include 3? or 3? 3 cf- cN^cR^T?^ acute accent on its first vowel;
P. I. 1. 70. The use of the indi- e. g. cTT^"i%^: qraffgKW:; cf. Käs. on
catory mute ^ for the above P. IV. 3.93.
purpose is seen, also in the Prätis
äkhya works; cf. V. Pr, I. 114 (1) a short term used for the nine
R. T. 234. personal endings of the Ätmane-
pada viz. a,3rRTO..«*n^ which are
(1) personal ending of the third themselves termed Ätmanepada;
pers. sing, Atm; cf. P. III. 4. 78, cf. c^Fft an^Rq^^ P. 1.4. 100; (2)
which is changed to cf in the per- the personal-ending cf of the 2nd
fect tense and omitted after the pers. pi. (substituted for?T by III.4
substitute f^[ for fes in the aorist; 101) looked upoa as elf sometimes,
cf. P.VL4.104; (2) personal ending when it is lengthened in the Vedic
substituted for the affix q of the Literature; cf. cff^Tcf «rftsSRfll {%r^q%
Paras. 2nd pers. pL in the im- ^fJl^l mm ^ricT%^r^ Käs. on P.
perative^ imperfect, potential, VI. 3. 133.
benedictive, aorist and condition-
al for which, cTIq(3 effi ^and SR are % the triad of senses %*$[&,
substituted in Vedic Literature, ^ and clcHIg^lft^ possessed by
and also for f^ in case a repetition the agent of an action, in connec-
of an action is meant; cf. P. I I I . tion with which the affixes g ^ ,
4. 85, 101 as also V I L 1. 44, 45 ^ 3 ^ etc. are prescribed (cf P.IIL
and III. 4. 2-5. cf. P. I I I . 4. 85 2-184 etc.) which (affixes) hence
and III. 4. 101; (3) tad. affix a are called cTr^fffö^; cf. ®fä tfs£m~
applied to the words ^ and w^ f^% g ^ M ^ f , M. Bh. on P. I I I .
e. g. *Fci:, 3R*:, cf, P. V. 2. 138; 2.146, e* g. *ficff
(4) tad. affix a* applied to <^q ancient term for &m and
when ^m^ is changed to SET; cf. used by the Värtikakära; cf.
H: cf^r SR5ER1. I S&T ^cT:
Käs. on P. V. , M. Bh. on P. II. 4.51 Värt.
I. 59; (5) general term for the 11; III. 2.8 Värt. 2; IV4-52. Värt.
affix T!> of the past pass. part, in 3.

requiring the same time for compounds as would be covered

utterance as for example one by the definition. He has mention-
mäträ for short vowels, two for ed the term cftj^r in II.1.22 as
long ones and three for protracted Adhikara and on its strength dire-
ones, although those vowels are cted that all compounds mention-
nasalised or pure> or acute, grave ed or prescribed thereafter upto
or circumflex. See the word cW* Sütra IL2.22 be called cf^q. No
definite number of the sub-divi-
occurring or presenting sions of cfcpsr is given;but from the
itself at the same time or simul- nature of compounds included in
taneously. the ?R3^r-3?f^rR, the sub-divisions
name of a commentary on cf. P.II.1.24 to 48,
Rämacandra's Prakriyäkaumudl. cf. P, 11.1,49 to 72
^srtf^ft name of the well-known
commentary on Bhattojl's Sidd- (called by the name «F*P=IT^;
hänta Kaumudi written by his PJ. 2. 42), WTOcg^i (called förjj by
pupil JSänendrasarasvati at Be- P J L 1.52), ST^R^cT^r or T33^T?RT^
nares. Out of the several commne- cf. P.II.2.1-3, sqf^oRfg^T cf. P.
taries on the Siddhäntakaumudi, II 2.5, ^^gm cf. PJI.2.6, ZW-
cf. P.ll.2.19, Enfisig^r cf.
the Tattvabodhinl is looked upon 18 and öjg^g^ cf.P.IL2.20
as the most authoritative and at are found mentioned in the com-
the same time very scholarly. mentary literature on standard
name of a commentary classical works. Besides these, a
on the Käsikävrtti by a gramma- peculiar tatpurusa compound
rian named Upamanyu in the mentioned by*Pänini in II. 1.72, is
beginning of the nineteenth cen- popularly called ^
tury A4 D. Pänini has defined only two out
name of a commentary on of these varieties viz. ftgas ?3*§zn$tt
the Paribhäsendusekhara written feg; P J L 1.23, and «Bforsi "as
by M. M. Vasudev Shastri Abh- cfcpsr: ^ruRriM;^: ^fepRES: P. 1.2.42.
yankar in 1889 A. D. The com- TheMahäbhasyakara has described
mentary is more critical than ex- ^m as ^xOT^l^WT^^f^^:; cf.
planatory, wherein the auothor has M.Bh. onll.1.6, IL1.20, ILL49,
given the purpose and the gist of etc., and as a consequence it
the important Paribhasas and has follows that the gender of the
brought out clearly the differences tatpurusa compound word is that
between the school of Bhattoji and of the last member of the compo-
the school of Nägesa in several und; cf. q^risif g^s^cpsiqT: P. IL4.
important matters. 26; cf. also a^«rift mt
J name of an important kind of
compound words similar to the
compound word ^ 5 ^ i.e. ( c fR,, M. Bh. on II.4.26.
jpsc:), and hence chosen as the Sometimes, the compouud gets a
name of such compounds by anci- gender different from that of the
ent grammarians before Pänini last word; cf. P.IL4.19-3L The
Pänini has not defined the term tatpurusa compound is optional as
with a view to including «such generally all compounds are,

depending as they do upon the is not desirable, as it,

desire of the speaker. Some tat- goes against arriving at the desired
purusa compounds such as the forms* and exceptions deduced
srri^ps 3 q q ^3/^ are called from Pänini's rules are laid down
fSRq and hence their constitutent by the Värttikakära and later gram-
words, with the case affixes appli- marians; cf. Par. Sek. Pari* 16,23,
ed to them, are not noticed sepa- 31; also Mahabhäsya on P.I.1.72.
rately; cf. PJL2.18,19. In some a convention similar to the'
cases 3| as a compound-ending of Panini,laid down by the
) is added; e.g. usigu, Värttikakära laying down that in
; cf. P. V.4.74; in some case an operation is prescribed for
cases 3T^( 3? ) is added; cf. P.V.4. something followed by a single
75 to 87; while in some other
cases 35 t 3? ) is added, the mute letter, that single letter should be
letter £ signifying the addition of taken to mean a word beginning
€}%( t ) in the feminine gender; with that single letter; cf. qi^F^T%-
cf.P.V.4. 9U112. For details see ^^T^T^R^ P.I.1.72 VSrt. 29; Par.
p.p. 270-273 Mahabhäsya Vol.VII Sek. Pari. 33.
published by the D. E. Society, J connection with
Poori a. what is denoted by the constituent
a peculiar feature in the members; the word refers to a
interpretation of the rules of kind of Bahuvrlhi compound
Pänini, laid down by the author where the object denoted by the
of the Sütras himself by virtue of compound includes also what is
which an adjectival word, quali- denoted by the constituent
fying its principal word, does not members of the compound; e. gm
denote itself, but something end- the compound word ^P=ftfä in the
ing with it also; cf. £R 'fäftrccRrcrcq rule tf^Ktfä ^sffiFRTR includes the
P.I.1.72.This feature is principally word m among the words t%^,-3*R
noticed in the case of general and others, which alone form the
words or adhikäras which are put in B^qcrsjsjf or the external thing and
a particular rule, but which occur not merely the external object as
in a large number of subsequent mentioned in Päninfs rule %
rules; for instance, the word srrfct- (P.II. 2. 24); cf. mfa
crf^T^, put in P.IV.hl, is valid in
every rule upto the end of ; SRRFcf I ^
chapter V and the words SRT:, M.Bh. on 1.1.27. For
3<T:, qsr: etc. mean s r e ? ^ , 3^31^, details cf. Mahabhäsya on P.I.1.27
etc. Similarly the words as also Par. Sek. Pari. 77.
f: (P.III.L9I) and s?f^ (P.VI. ^ ^ lit. made subordinated to
4,1 ) occurring in a number of (the principal factor); completely
subsequent rules have the adjecti- included so as to form a portion.
val words to them, which are The wor J is used in connection with
mentioned in subsequent rules, augments which, when added to a
denoting not only those words,but word are completely included in
words ending with them. In a that word, and, in fact; form a
large number of cases this feature part of rtie word; cf.

sr. Sek. Pari. 11. of the taddliita section, may imply

that there were possibly long lists
a term of the ancient pre- of secondary nouns with the senses
grammarians used by of secondary suffixes, and cTT^cT was
just like ^ ^ I T ^ or 3?Ö^ perhaps.the first sense given there.
without giving any specific defini- The number oftaddhita suffixes
tion of it. The term occurs in the mentioned by Pänini is quite
Nirukta of Yäska and the Väja- a large one; there are in fact
saneyi-Prätisäkhya; cf. s?s| % 1110 rules given in the taddhita
section covering almost two
Adhyäyas viz. from P. IV. 1.76
^ w ^T isrir. to the end of the fifth Adhyaya.
also cf. f^^Ttfecf^i^H^THT ; The main sub-divisions of taddhita
Väj. Präti.I. 27. It is to be noted affixes mentioned by commentators
that the word tH%cF is used by the are, Apatyidyarthaka (IV.l.92 to
ancient grammarians in the sense 178), Raktädyarthaka (IV.2.1 to
of a word derived from a substan- 91), Saisika (IV.2. 92 to IV.3.133),
tive ( STricRT^ } by the application Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3 134 to 168},
of suffixes like 3?, W{ etc., and not Prägvahatiya (IV.4.1 to IV.4.74),
in the sense of words derived from Prägghitiya (IV.4.75 to IV.4.109),
roots by affixes like SR, fa etc. which Arhlya (V. 1.1 to 71), Thafiadhikara-
were termed ^TTO{iT, as possibly stha (V. 1.72 to V, 1.114), Bhäva-
contrasted with the word cfrf^cT karmärthaka (V.1.115to V.l. 136),
used by Yäska in II. 5. Pänini has PäScamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93),
used the word cFfer not for words, Matvarthiya (V. 2.94 to V. 2.
but for the suffixes which are add- 140), Vibhaktisampaka (V. 3.1 to
ed to form such words at all V. 3.26) and Svärthika (V. 3.27 to
places (e.g. in 1.1.38, IV.1.17, V. 4.160). The samäsänta affixes
76, VI. 1,61 etc.). In fact, he has (V.4.68 to V.4.160) can be includ-
begun the enumeration oftaddhita ed in the Svärthika affixes.
affixes with the rule cn%ül: (P.IV.1.
76) by putting the term gfesr for a work on the taddhita
affixes such as fcF? *q^, 37qj etc. section Written bySiromani Bhattä-
which are mentioned thereafter. cärya, who has also written
In his rule fräföcIOTrara' and in the
(L4.1 Värt. the essence, also called cf.
41) which are similar to V.Pr.l. 27
quoted above, the word cffer
appears to be actually used for Bh. on P.V.I.119.
words derived from nouns by fcT produced or brought into
secondary affixes, along with the being by some grammatical opera-
word f^ which also means words tion such as the vowel 3TT in ^IT%,
derived from roots, although com- 35R3», 3 ^ # j ; etc. by the substitu*
mentators have explained there tion of |fe, as contrasted with the
the terms f^ and crfTgjr for f^cT and original 3TT in
dfedRT. The term clffeT is evidently etc.; cf„ T
echoed in the Sütra ^ f|^ which,
although it is not the first Sütra M.Blu on I. 1.1.

cT5[T3r the taddhita affixes ^ ^ used always in the neuter gender

<R?3 as also 55 , ^, sgs, U3, ^°¥T and like W H j cf. cN" cf^H%T: M. Bh.
q>r given in the rules of Pänini IV, on P. L 2.33, II. 2.34, ^ pg.
U68474 and V.3. 112-119. They soSP^on P. I. 2.39, IIL3.38, III,
are called cTIl*T as they are applied 4.21,1 V.l.92 etc. The word is also
to such words as mean both the explained in the sense of fi impor-
country and the warrior race or tant '.
clan ( safä*? ); cf. äirsOTWOT: cKR: name of the learned com-
3. K. on P. IV.i.168. The pecu- mentary written by ^qtf&cT, a
liar feature of these tadräja affixes famous Buddhist grammarian of
is that they are omitted when the the 12th century A. D. on the
word to which they have been app- ^f^#sR<W%srEtfr ( mw ) of Jinen-
lied is used in the plural number; drabuddhi. The work is available
e. g. tissra:, ' ^ T # ? 5WJ5T:; simi- at present only in a manuscript
larly f ^ T T ^ ; cf. P.II.4.62. form, and that too in fragments.
(I) as above,similarly;the words Many later scholars have copious-
1& cfi3; (the rest as above) are fre- ly quoted from this work. The
quently seen used by commenta- name of the work viz. cP^T^fq is
tors; (2) the tad, affix W[ in the rarely mentioned; but the name
sense of possession and not in the of the author is mentioned as ^SfcT,
sense of measure etc. cf. cfSfif clß&T i&m or even ^^l%cT. There are
3 V.Pr.V.8. two commentaries on the
named 3^frOTWj and
treatment of something as
that which is not that e. g. the a class of roots headed by the
treatment of affixes not marked root cffio which is popularly call-
with mute n or n as marked with ed as the eighth conjugation to
n even though they are not actual- which the conjügational sign 3
ly marked that way, cf. P. I. 2.1- is added; e. g. cRffä, ^ 1 % , <p£f; cf.
4; also cf. cI5S^if^ßf5ras: P. I. P. I I . 4.79; III. 1.79.
2.1 Värt 4. l f ^ a class of words which is
cffif (1) personal ending for 3 of the the same as ?RTfö; cf. P. VI. 4.37.
second pers. pL Parasmaipada in See
the imperative in Vedic Litera- W the tad. affix ^"JT prescrib-
ture; e. g. g§g?f for *W cL Käs. ed by the rule sTflT^ ^T^frngtfi-
on P. VII. 1;45; (2) tad, affixes «TCRniiffiTO P. IV- 1.113; cf. M.
eg and sg<3 i.e. S R which, with the Bh. o n P , IV. LI 14.
augment q;, in effect becomes ^ (1) tad. affix cf added to the
<R. e. g. 58TOR, fafeR, etc.; cf. P. words q^5j and m?[ to form the
IV. 3.23. words qfej and m^:; cf- P. V,
personal ending for cf of the 2.122 Värt. 10; (2) personal end-
second pers.. pi. e. g. 3BRR for ing in Vedic Literature substitut-
TO. cf. Kas. on P. VII. 1.45. See ed for cT of the impera. sec. pers.
cR. pi. e, g. ^i}Rf %\W\: cf. Käs. on
a word frequently used in the P. VII. 1.45.
Mahäbhäsya in the sense of tf in- addition of the mute letter
tended ' or fäfäfäcT. The word is after a vowel to signify the in-

elusion of only such varieties of - affix cR. See ?R,

the vowel as take the same time
tad. affix cT (1) added in the
for their utterance as the vowel
sense of collection ( Wig,) to the
marked with q; cf. P. I . 1.70.
words JTPPT, SR, «Ff and gfjpj and
^si also, e. g. swcif, «Rcrr etc.; (2)
personal ending ^ substituted added in the sense of f the nature
for ^ in the imp era. irnperf. of a thing 5 ( *rp=[ } along with the
potential, benedictive, aorist and affix ^r optionally-, as also option-
conditional; cf. P. I I I . 4.85, 101. ally along with the affixes ^Fiq, ^ 5
common term for the tad. affixes etc. given in P. V. 1.122 to 136;
and cWJ. e. g.
^ tad. affix m added optionally
with the affix 52 (3T ) to fer%? ; etc., cf. Kas.
f%3B( etc., as also to words ending on P. V. 1.119 to 136. Words end-
with them, in the sense of sgn ing with the affix ^5 are always
(completion), and necessarily (f5^l) declined in the feminine gender
to the words SRT, ^ , srf>, ^atcf etc. with the fern, affix 3TT ( H|^ ) add-
e. g. T^HSTOcW; q ; ^ ^ ; , m ^ T : , ed to then,; < i. a ^ ; (51^;. f%RT^ ),
f^;> SElcw;, «srfäcw;, T M , f M etc.; Lingänusasana 17.
cf. Käs. on V. 2.56-58.
the class of dental consonants
tad. affix cW added without a viz. ^ % Z, 5 and q; cf.
change of sense, i, e. in the sense M P.I 3.4 Värt. 1.
of the base itself to noun'bases
possessing the sense of excellence, ^ krt affix ^ for the infinitive
as also to verbal forms showing affix gft in Vedic Literature; e.g.
excellence; e. g. c^qcR:, ^SRfNcTO, i cf. P.III 4.9.
vmm9 ^fmmi^ cf. Käs. on P. v . krt affix <& for the infinitive affix
3.55-56. The affix ^qcj is termed in Vedic Literature; e.g. w&[9
*Talso; cf. P . I . 1.22. ^%; cf. P.III. 4.9.
7 tad. affix cPPT^ applied to a nu- cl% (1) krt affix c& for the infinitive
meral ( #[sqj ) in the sense of affix gJ^ in Vedic Literature. The
amfäq; or < possessed of parts'; affix ?i% has a peculiarity of accent,
e. g. m 3?W?T 3?^q q w ^ , 3£IcRR,, namely that the word ending i n #
^ä^fi; cf. Käs, on P. V. 2.42. S R has got both the initial and end-
is substituted for ^? optionally ing vowels accented acute ( ^ r a ) ;
after the numerals t% and fä and e- g. SrfafösCR qraft, ^ ^ ] ^ n " ^ ; cf.
necessarily after ^ q ; cf. P V P J I I . 4 . 9 ; and VI. 1.200; (2)
2.43-44. krtya affix in Vedic Literature,
tad. affix gq. See <sq. e. g. qfericrl for qf^rRWn; cf. Käs.
tad. affix ^ added to Uses on P. I I I . 4.14.
showing excellence (srßRrPH ) l krtya affix applied to a root to
when the excellence shown Is form the pot.pass. part. c.g.^Jsro;
between two persons; e. g. Bq^f%: cf„ Käs. on P.III. 1.96.
Sfsrarc: gi^r^KT, TOfiRRpi; cf! krtya affix cfsq applied to a
Käs. %,
«.-*• on« *.
P. V.3.57.
v . j . ^ / . The affix cRg is
m e amx root to form the pot. pass, part.;
galled HJ just Hkq ^ f PI
galled sy just Hkq ^ ; c€ P J . L22. the affix ^ q ^ h a s the circumflex

accent on the last syllable; e.g.

f.K?s.onP.III. i. 96. ft]% M. Bh. on P. 1.1.29; similarly
) personal ending of the third 3?fi3iRwrcr; for ^ W S T I R q^ift M.Bh.
pers. dual Parasmaipada substitu- on P.I. 1.30 or ^fTOf^ 5}m mw.
ted technically for 05 (w$K); cf P. M. Bh. onP.I. 2.43; (2) use of a
111,4.78; (2) tadB affix cfH ( cOT or word for that word of which there
. See c!T% and is the vicinity; cf.
(1) tad. affix cfH showing direction
by means of a thing e.g. fSTHyS^:, 03; M. Bh. on P. 1.2.27 where
HflSRT:; cf. Käs. on P JV.3.114, i 15; the letter 3 is taken in the sense
(2) tad. affix cf^ applied in the sense of time required for its utterance,
of the abl. case and substituted for the reason being that sound and
the abl. case affix; e g, STO: sn?T- time go together;cf. also M.Bh. on
^1%, %<cff]^5ffcr;sometimes the affix P.I.2. 70, IV. 3.48, V. 2. 79; (3)
is applied instead of the instrumen- use of a word for that which resi-
tal or the genitive case also. e. g. des there; cf. cff^^ra^^^f srf^tfcf
M.Bh. on V, 4.50 Värt. 3. At all
, for <#;^ the above places, the use of one
Käs, on P.V.4.44-49. word for another is by Laksanä,
^ tad, affix cf^ added to pio- f^iRS^E prescribed in the sense of
nouns from *$ upto 'fira to the 'habituated*; a term used in con-
pronoun fä^and after qft and 3?f5j; nection with all affixes prescribed
e,g- <pn; ^cf:5 ftcHj srr^cD; cf. Käs.on in the triad of senses viz. cTF^^Tj
P.V.3. 7 to 9. cTR!^3 cft^Tg^f^" in Sütras from P.
a class of taddhita affixes III.2. 134 to 180; cf. cTi^if^g
headed by the affix elf ( <IT%^ ) as ^i^qp-lN^fe P. III.2.146 Värt. 3,
given by Pänini in his sütras from Par. Sek. Pari. 67.
P. V, 3, 7. upto seRFTPff: (1) the same as rTIcff substituted
V.3.17; cf. P. for g and f| of the imperative sec»
VI.3.35. The words ending with and third sing. Parasmaipada; cf,
the affixes from c!T%^ in P.V.3.7 P. VII. 1.35; (2) substitute ^ for
upto qr$Tq in P.V.3.47 (excluding a of the imperative 2nd pi. in
TTOT) become indeclinables; cf. Vedic Literature; e.g. ^TFPFWigjrl
KäsBon P.LL38. f. Käs, on P. VII. 1.44.
<TF (1) a technical term for the genitive the affix See TO; (1).
case affix used in the Jainendra
Vyäkarana; (2) the tad. affix a s ^ tad. affix cfifct in the very
which is popularly called cTT as sense of the word to which it is
the nouns ending in ^ i . e, a are applied occurring in Vedic Litera-
declined in the fern, gender with ture after the words ^ and ^3, as
the fem. affix STT added to them, also after to, ^ and atfte in the
(1) use of a word for that sense ofc bringing about9 and in
word (of which the sense has been ths sense of m% (presence) after
conveyed); the expression ^TR^fr- the same words ftr?r, W{ and stf^g;
xfT^s^is often used by gramma- e.g. ^cTTTcT:, ^cflfct:,ftRRTTßf;etc. cf.
|ian& just like a Paribhasa; cf* PJVA142-144.

;i% s M. Bh. on IV. 1.48 Värt. 3.

(1) repetition of action; cf. j
^ .. restoration to, or resumption of
cn^:3?q^n%^T Käs.on III. j
2.81 also cTRq#Ri%3T \ %& «qnft:3 the same form by the lule of
(2)foremost considera- Sthänivadbhäva, prescribed in P.I.
tion; cf. g^ 1.56, called ^qn^^l as contrasted
«fa*nflat vrffa Käs. on P.YII.2.59; with ^tfcfef; cf- *^5 ^^fffT^rf^^
(3) purport (of a sentence), signi- M. Bh. on VI. 1.85 Värt, 26.
ficance, intention* cf. a-klI#TOR^ one uniform accent or tone,
firfci 3^1?!%, Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3. ij^fcij as observed at the time of
name given to the grave sacrifices in the case of the recital
vowel which is 3Tq3T| i.e. of the hymns; cf. cTRcSSOT^ ^ W | -
which occurs at the end of the %P$fa[ V. Pr, 1.130; cf also P. I.
first member of a compound and 2.34.
which is placed between two acute a root of the tanädi class
vowels i.e. is preceded by and of roots (8th conjugation).
followed by an acute vowel; e.g.
cf. S^RIT =W- personal ending substituted for
5 V.Pr.I.I20. The täth- cf^ of the 3rd pers. dual in the
äbhävya vowel is recited as a imperative, imperfect, potential,
karnpa ( ^*q) ; cf. ^ I benedictive, aorist and condi-
tional; cf. P. III.4.85, 101.
(1) elevated, high; a place for
^ Some Vedic the production of words; cf. T.Pr.
scholars hold the view that the XVII. 11; (2) recital in a high
vowel is not a grave tone which is recommended in
) vowel, but it is a kind of the evening time; cf. git 3 fcföT^Ff
or circumflex vowel. Strictly <pp*3 H^TCci ^r ^^J W ^ ; com. on
according to Pänini "an anudätta T. Pr. XXIII. 12.
following upon an udätta becomes
a class of words headed by
Svarita"; cf. P.VIII. 4 66, V.Pr.
the word cflW and containing
IV. 1.138; cf. also R.Pr.III. 16.
prominently the words 3% *ira^
(1) the nature of being meant Sfss» WF> cß5sr» 5 W , ^l and
for another ; cf. ^tfff^srft cTRM many others numbering more than
^4tiV-4i<tH, t ^J^TFT ^R M* Bh. on P, ninety, to which the taddhita affix
II.3.13; (2) meant for another; cf. 1? (W%) is added in the sense of
^containing5. As this class, called
cTT^TR, is looked upon as snffcFTO,
cf. Käs. on P. V. 4.24; (3) being nouns with ^ added at their end,
possessed of the same sense; cf. are supposed to be included in it;
ft See cf. P. V. 2.36.
possession of the same nature; R called cj^T^qfcT; a Bengali
cf. ^ ^ modern Sanskrit scholar and gra-
äs. onP.II, 1.2. mmarian of the nineteenth century
being possessed of the same who has written a commentary
property; cf. ^ called Saralä on the Siddhänta
Kaumudi. He has edited many

important Sanskrit works consist- f f ^ a class of compound

ing of many kosas. words headed by the dvandva
RSq lit. produced from 3Tg the compound fiföf^ra1 in which the
part below the tongue; the vowel taddhita affixes added to the con«
I, =33*1, 3 and ^ are called w^sq9 stitutnt members of the com-
palatal letters; cf. fWHWoff V.Pr. pound are dropped when the
I. 66. These letters are formed dvandva eompound is to be used
upon the palate by the middle in the plural number; fr^FFR^ %cf-
part of the tongue; cf. R,Pr. L42, 3FFRST ffofääflT:; cf. Käs. on P. II.
RJPr. 11.36. 4.68.
a small class of eight words to ; tad. affix f^j added to the
which the affix 3? ( a^rj is added word £rc£ in the sense of the word
in the sense of 'a product' or 'a itself ( ?k$ ) e. g. gix^T cf.; P. V.
part5 e.g. cflö «rg:, 3#iq;, etc.; 4.39.
cf. Käs, on P. IV. 3. 152. a class of words headed by
palate; cf. the words fcT^, 1%^T, W and others
to which the taddhita affix srRft
cf. T. Pr. II. 22. (ftvsr) causing the substitution of
conjugational sign or Vikarana vrddhi is added in the sense of
) added to a root in the first * a descendant'; e. g. frwqfär, %cl-
future before the personal endings :; cf. Käs. on P. IV.1.154.
which become accented grave ^ (1) a brief term (5R2H5R) for the 18
(3135R0; cf. P.VI. 1.186; it has the personal endings. Out of these
augment % prefixed, if the root, to eighteen personal endings, which
which it is added, is %2. cf. P. VI. are common for all tenses and
4. 62, moods, the first nine icf^, cTH etc.
all called Parasmaipada, while
the Vikarana ^T^. See cTRJ.
the other nine cT, ^IW^ etc. are
(I) personal ending fcflj of the 3rd named Ätmanepada and elf also;
pers. sing.; (2) common term for cf. cT^r^Nlc^q^; (2) a verbal form
the kit affixes M ^ and frfj^ as called also SJK^TCT^; cf. Hff *sg
also for the unädi affix fif; see a^FlRRiT WAT I q^rfcT q^T% |V.Pr.1.27.
iw^ and fef; (3) fem. affix ft ??cT (1) a word ending in fff; a
added to the word g ^ e. g. verb; (2) a popular name given
3^f: cf. P. IV. 1.77; (4) tad. affix to the section which deals with
ftf as found in the words qflRfr and verbs in books on grammar as
ffofit cf. Käs. on P.V.I.59; (5) tad. contrasted with the term g*^
affix added to the word qg in the which is used for the section deal-
sense of 'a root/ and to the words ing with nouns.
35^ and 30^ In the sense of posses-
sion (SRCR ); e.g. q^r%:, ^prf:, $JT%:, % a work dealing with
cf. KSS. on P. V.2.25, 138; (6) a verbal forms written by
technical term for the term ^fcT in
Päninrs grammar, cf. SWHTt fä*n- senses possessed by the person-
$ti; ^fcT^ P. 1.4.59, 60. The term al endings of verbs, viz. «PT^F ( 3KTI
# for *rfä is used in the Jainendra or 5R ) tWti and OT$. For details
Yyakarana. see Vaiyakaranabhüsanasära..
vowel as opposed to the
the grave accent for the
utterance which is called ^ when
whole word ( SFtftRTcT ) generally
the circumflex, called T^f^T, is
possessed by a verbal form when it i
pronounced; cf*
is preceded by a word form which
is not a verb; cf. fä^fäs: P* VIII.
^ an affix to which the mute Uvvata on V. Pr. I. 125.
indicatory letter ^ is added signi-
fying the circumflex accent of tad. affix sft:*) in the sense of
that affix; e. g. the affixes qej, ^ ü tjjai added to the words He and fä
etc.; cf. P. VI. 1.185. before which T% is changed into
the circumflex accent possess- g. e, g. HsfN:, g?ik: cf. P. V.
ed by an affix marked with the 2.54, 55; the tad. affix 3R( ( ^ ) is
mute letter g;. See fcTc^- added to the words ending in cTR
to mean a section e. g. ^
the augment fcl^ added to the cf. Käs. on P. V. 3.48.
words *T|, <jq, *FT and m when
they are followed by the tad. extreme sharpness of the
affix 3? ( s ) e . g . *r|fcR:; cf. P. nasalization at the time of pro-
V. 2.52. nouncing the anusvära and the
the personal ending of the 3rd fifth letters recommended by Sai-
pers. sing, substituted for $5 (^>R) tyäyana. e. g. ^JfR^g^:, ^
in the Parasmaipada, For sub- ^ . cf. T. Pr. XVII. 1.
stitutes for i%q in special cases, see j$ (1) short term ( 5T^nfR) for the
P. VI. 1 68, III. 4.82, 83, 84. dental consonants ^ q, ^ ^r and
a southern grammarian who %cf. P. I. 1.69; (2) personatend-
wrote a short treatise on the ing substituted for fcf in the 2nd
pratyähäras like 3T^3 ^ etc. in pers. imper. sing. Parasmaipada
the grammar of Pänini. cf. P. III. 4.86; (3) tad. affix g
a southern writer of the in the sense of possession added
commentary named g ^ r ^ r on in Vedic Literature to ^ and
the Siddhänta Kaumudi of Bhat- 5R,e. g- ^f»'» ^ ? S : cf. P. V. 2.138;
toji Diksita. (4) unädi affix § ( < p j prescribed
by the rule t ^ ^ ^
tad, affix % added in Vedic f
Literature to the word f3? when ( Unadi Sütra L69), before
superior quality is meant, e g which the augment^ is not added
" : cf. P. V. 4.41. e. g. %3: W{§ etc. cf. P. VII.
compound words headed 2.9.
by the word fcjlg- which are augment g; added (1) to the root
termed as avyayibhäva com- f^[ in the form i%q, the pot. pass,
pounds and treated as indeclin- part, of ft cf. P. III. 1.132; (2) to
ables; e. g. fißg, c^|, S^JJ^ ™pj the short vowel at the end of a
e t c . ; c f . K ä ä . o n P . I L 1.17. root before a krt affix marked
with the mute letter ^ e. g. 9 % i ^ ,
utterance with a sharp tone sifsq cf. P. VI. 1.71; (3) to a short
characterizing the pronunciation vowel before ^ if there be close
of the Abhinihita kind of circum- proximity (#fefr) between the

two e. g. f W , rpsafä; cf. P. VI. when the root refers to an

1.73; (4) to the indeclinables 3TT action for the purpose of which
and *n as also to a long vowel another action is mentioned by the
before % e. g. ^r3^3f%, PT^T^TSRT principal verb ; e.g. #qg mfc or
cf. P. VI. 1.74, 75; (5) to a long ^ R t l mft; cf. Käs. on P . I I L 3 J 1 ;
vowel optionally, if it is at the (2) added to a root connected with
end of a word, e. g. ^ f l ^ W , another root in the sense of desire
c5$teT% cf- P. VI. 1.76; (7) to the provided both have the same sub-
letter ^ at the end of a word ject; e.g.. fs^ft ¥ftqgn ; cf. P. HI.
before 51, e.g. sj^rps^cf, cf* P. VIII. 3.158; (3) added to a root connec-
3.31. ted with the words ^T^, OTq oriföST;
a rule prescribing the addi- e.g. ^ 1 " ^Rä^etc. c.f. P.IIL3.167;
tion of the augment c^ ; e. g. ^drq: (4) added to any root which is
? ffir P. VIII. 2. 2 connected with the roots m, ^
or its synonym, as also with
roots such as the root g^ and
or its synonym ; e.g. %
the like, which have their vowel
of the reduplicative syllable leng-
thened as seen mostly in Vedic
;;cf. Kasfon P. Ilf. 4.'
65, 66. "
Literature; e. g. cjgsrffi:, *n*T5H:,
etc.; cf. Käs. on P. VI.1.7. similar in articulation; savarna;
augment ^ (1) added to the affix cf. R, T. 168.
R substituted for the 3 of Eg and 59TP=rarc°T having got the same sub-
^ e. g. fä^R:, SFftTC:, cf. P. stratum; denoting ultimately the
IV. 3.23; (2) added to the tad. same object; expressed in the same
affix fsf? (3^) applied to the word case; the same as samänädhikaratia
in the Saisika senses; e.g* 3jf3- in the grammnr of Pänini. cf,
f. P. IV. 3 15. Kät. II.5.5.
a class of roots headed by the (1) substitute prescribed for the
root gsr which take the conjuga- last vowel of the word 3#%soas
tional sign 3? ( 3J) and which are to make it declinable like words
popularly called roots of the sixth marked with the mute letter m\
conjugation; cf. P. 111,1.77.
(2) common term for the krt
gq; unädi affix §, added -to the roots affixes gq and ^\ prescribed in the
% c ^ , W{ etc. See g (4). sense of the agent of a verbal
Sp^lF* a very small class. of words activity; the tad. affixes iffli, and
headed by the word g ^ to which ^ are seen placed after words
the taddhita affix ^5 (%®\) is ending in g in Vedic Literature
added in the sense of possession before which the affix g is elided;
( *T£SR ). The affix f^> is optional e. g. qsftg:, ^ w l " ; cf. Käs. on P.
and the other affixes ? ^ , ^J and V. 3.59.
W[ are also added; e.g. gi tad. affix g, taking the fem.
gf^: 3 g^cfj^; similarly affix < ( * ! £ ) , (1) added to
* etc.; cf. Käs. onP,V.2.117. a root optionally with Wfi ( "g^ )
^ r t affix §;q;of the infinitive (1) in the sense of the agent of a
added to a root optionally with verbal activity, the word so form-

ed having the last vowel acute; > r , ;; cf. Käs.

e. g. ^icfr W3F*.; 53T 51*35:; cf. P. III. on P. 11.3.19,23; (3) optionally
1.133; (2) prescribed in the sense with the ablative after nouns
of 'deserving one9 optionally along meaning quality, and optionally
with the pot. pass. part, affixes; e.g. with the genitive after pronouns
f % in the sense of %J, when the word
| is i actually used e. g. qtf&g^R
Käs. on P. I I I . 3.169. ^ 1$R or
a word ending in the affix 5^ it is observed by the
and hence getting the guija vowel Värttikakära that when the word
(i. e. 3? ) substituted for the final 1§ or its synonym is used in a sen-
vowel 5j5 before the Sarvanä- tence, a pronoun is put in any
masthäna (i. e. the first five) case case in apposition to that word
affixes; cf. <j5Ri 3TT33IT *tf¥^Tcf, M. i.e. | g or its synonym e. g. ^R
Bh. on VII. 1.96. ftftxS f% F i f ^ ^ e t c ; cf. Käs. on
^Hgrf^f treatment of a word as P. II. 3. 25, 21; (4) optionally
ending with the affix <J£T although, after* nouns connected with the
in fact, it does not so end; e. g. words 52^5, T^Tj ^T^after the words
the word sfitg 1 cf. g^^rg:, P. VII. mV%> ^^T5 as also after fC, f
1.95 ; cf. also ^^T^^T^T^T; ^RtJT and their synonyms; e.g.
etc. ^ 5 , ^ ;
g M.Bh, on VII, 1.95 Värt. cf. Käs.on P.II.3. 32, 33,35, 44; (5)
optionally with the locative case
a class of words to which the after nouns meaning constellation
taddhita affix 3T is added in the when the tad. affix after them has
four senses given in P. IV. 2.67 to been elided; e.g. J^Pf ÖR^tl^T WT
70; e. g.ftm*<,^§2&:, qoRi: etc.; cf. cprcFtcT: Mahäbhärata; cf. P.II.3.45;
i on P. IV. 3.80. (6) optionally with the genitive
the third consonants out of case after words connected with
the class consonants; q%cffa; viz. or its
5> 5» I> 5 a n d 5; cf- W 5^F{T^i^ ; cf. P.II.3.72.
qw*rr ^^l$m^ii M. Bh. on P. I. called also g^cf^
1.9. as prescribed by P. II. L 30-35;
the third case; affixes of the e.g. qpfiqreraw P.I. 1-30 and the
third case ( instrumental case or Mahäbhäsya thereon.
gcftarfä*rfrir) which are placed (1) (1) krt affix cj with the acute
after nouns in the sense of an ins- accent on the first vowel of the
trument or an agent provided the word formed by its application,
agent is not expressed by the applied to any root in the sense of
personal-ending of the root; e. g. 'an agent' provided the agent is
% ^ H fcTJ,; qrcgqj f^%; cf. p. JJL habituated to do a thing, or has his
3.18; (2) after nouns connected nature to do it, or does it well; e.g<
with g^, nouns meaning defective
limbs, nouns forming the object of ^SpR, ^; c£. Käs. on
KT with ^ as also nouns meaning P. II1.2.135; words ending with
| g or a thing capable of produc- cR^ govern the noun 'connected
ing a result; e. g. j# with them in the accusative case;
(2) the term 5^ ? used as a short the avagraha is called t ;
term ( SRqTfTC) standing for krt cf. 3 ^ ^ f f ä ^ : V, Pr. I. 118,
affixes beginning with those pres- 9^I3SRJ«T a kind of svarita or circum-
cribed by the rule ®z: SJcRlFRl"«» flex-accented vowel which follows
(P.III.2.124) and ending with the an acute-accented vowel, with the
affix q^(ra P.III.3.69); cf. KU. on intervention of a consonant
PJII.4.69. between the acute accented vowel
and the circumflex vowel which
called also (vowel) originally was grave, e, g.
and hence representing i&9 *%, f s \ spT^j; here the vowel
possibly all the different branches H is ll^igR^fef; cf.
or Säkhäs of the f^Rll^, which is
:, V. Pr. I. 117.
not attributed definitely to a parti-
cular author but is supposed to tad. affix fte applied in the
have been revised from time to sense of oil to a word meaning the
time and taught by various äcäryas substance from which oil is extra-
who weref the followers of the cted; e. g. fäösffä ^qlssq;; cf.
TaittirTya Säkhä»The work is divid- ^ l , Käs. on P. V. 2. 29.
ed into two main parts, each of a southern grammarian
which is further divided into twelve who has written a gloss called
sections called adhyäyas, and £TO3I on the Siddhantakaumudi
discusses the various topics such as of Bhattoji Diksita.
letters and their properties, accen- krt affix # ^ in the sense of
ts, euphonic changes and the like, the infinitive ( gq;) seen in Vedie
just as the other Pratisäkhya Literature; e. g. ^tfä^ftat:. The
works. It is believed that Vararuci, word ending with ^tg^ becomes
Mähiseya and Ätreya wrote Bhäs- an indeclinable.
yas on the Taittiriya Prätisäkhya, ^ a root belonging to the g^jfä
but at pjresent,only two important class of roots ( sixth conjugation )
commentary works on it are avai- which take the vikarana 3T ( 5T)
lable- (a) the 'Tribhäsyaratna', causing no gu^a or vrddhi substi
based upon the three Bhäsyas tute for the vowel of the root*
mentioned above as the title shows^
^ a class of words headed
written by Somayärya and (b) the
' Vaidikäbharatja * written by by the word ^fefö, the taddhita
Gopalayajvan, For details see affix in the sense of 3 ^ ( grand-
Introduction to ' Taittiriya child ) placed after which is not
Prätisäkhya' ed. Govt Oriental elided by P, II. 4. 60; e. g. tfterffc:
Library Series, Mysore. fqcTT- ^ R S R R : 3^:; cf. Käs. on P J L
a kind of ^fer, or a vowel tad. affix ^ added - to the words
with a circumflex accent which T%"{, ^ and q^rft showing time, as
follows an acute-accented vowel also to the word SPT in Vedic
characterized by avagraha u e. Literature; -e. g. f^^l^, TO^WC,,
coming at the end o{" the first TOftcsp^ XR*P3[. ( where *T is elided );
member of a compound; c. g % - cf. Kaä. on P. IV. 3. 23.
arftfit flrsqtr qgqfoftrfit mstä. Here tadB affix ^ , added to the word
the vowel ^ofq following upon f optionally with the affixes

and ?& before which ^ is changed ^ tadB affix termed Vibhakti added
to ^ ; e . g. 3 ^ , 3 ^ , ^ R ^ ; cf. to pronouns excepting ß[ and
P. V. 4, 30 Vart.6. others, and to the words 3g andfi^
(1) tad, affix FT standing for <q*jj when they end with the loc« case
and ?qq which see below; (2) termination; e.g. %% ?&9 ^ | ^ etc.;
a technical term Jbr JR^pj ( a cf. Kas. on P.V. 1.10, 14.
suffix or a termination ) in the WI tad. affix m in the sense of some-
Jainendra Vyakarana. thing donated, as also to the
^ tad. affix ?q added in the words % 3 SFp^ q^q,p and ^ end-
Saisika senses to the words ing in the accusative or the loca-
a n d 5 ^ ; e. g . ^ r f ^ , , tive case; ea g. STUGISTT wXifa, ^\m
, ^ f e q i t ^ T cf. P . I V 2 . 9 8 . mtä; cf. Kas. on P. V.4.55,56.
^ tad. affix ?m added to the There is avagraha before the tad.
words cjq and sjfä in the senses affix m. ^m^^smicL V.Pr. V.9.
'near' and 'above' respectively; 1% (1) krt affix #5[, always having the
cf. & ^ tad. affix ^ ( 5? ) added to it,
cf. Käs. on P. V. 2.34. applied to the roots marked with
? a term used for the class of the mute syllable | prefixed to
pronouns headed by <qg- which them in the Dhätupätha; e. g.
are eight viz. ^\9^ ^ , ^ , SRtf, fT^PTO;, qi^ro;; (2) a term signify-
and ft; cf.P.I.1.74,i.2.72, ing the plural number; cf. ^TT ^f[
0, VII. 2. 102. 5t V& fta^S V.Pr.IL3.
a specific operation pres- lit. triad; a term used in the
cribed for the pronouns bearded Mahabhäsya in connection with
y ^ gg. the substitution of the Vibhakti affixes i.e. case end-
for the final letter; cf. ings and personal endings which
5T%?R^ M. Bh. on P. LI. 27 are in groups of three; cf. fä^
Värt 6. g ^ T % ^ M J B h . on R.I.1,38; cf.
\ tad. affix ?q (1) added to a few also ^q"R^r T%¥^ ^sre^rr 9nq M.
specified indeclinables in the Saisi- Bh. on P.L4J01; cf. also M. Bh.
ka senses; e. g. 3TFrT^:5i^cq: etc.; cf. on II.2.23, V.1.52, V.1.58.
Kas. on IV. 2. 104; (2) added to name of a commentary on
the indeclinables^^ ^ a n ( j ^H the Paribhäsendusekhara written
optionally along with sg and &(\ by Räghavendracärya Gajendra-
e. g. ^ ^ ^ , ^PRRCT, ^iMfe^; cf. gadkar3 a resident of Sätärä and a
K«. on P. IV. 2. 105. pupil of Nilakanthasästri Thatte«
a common term for the krt affixes He lived in the second half of the
s^ and ^ (P.III. 2. 181-186) in eighteenth and first half of the
case the vowel % of ^sr is look- nineteenth century and wrote com«
ed upon as equivalent to an aug- entaries on important grammar
ment, as also for the uuädi affix S^ worksm
and the tad. affixes ^r and ^ (P. made up of a collection of three
IV. 2,51 and V.3.10);the tad. affix padas or words; the word is used
^ is added in the sense of ^rqg or in connection with a Ek or a por-
collection to the word Tft> e.g. tion of the kramapätha; cf. ^Tß
#TTJ cf. Käs. on PJV.2.51. ^ f ^ f ä TJPr.1.61. Thewor^

is found used in connection with a called

bahuvrlhi compound made up of a scholar of grammar who
three words; cf. the term i%fq^- has written a small work named
on the uses of indeclin-
a term usually used in conne- ables.
ction with the last three Pädas (ch, pupil of Vardhamäna who
VIII. 25 VIII. 3 and VIII. 4> of wrote a gloss called e qfs^^rfä \
Pänini's Astädhyäyl, the rules in on the Kätantra— vrtti
which are not valid by convention ^ name of a commentary on
to rules in the first seven chapters the Paribhäsendusekhara written
and a quarter? as also a later rule by Laksminrsimha in the 18th
in which (the Tripädi) is not valid century*
to an earlier one; cf. J^fTI&^P-
all the three times^ past, pre-
VIII.2J; (2) name of a critical
treatise on Panini's grammar ("The sent and future; cf. ?R:
Tripädi35) written by Dr. H. E.
Buiskool recently. «q^Uvvatabhäsya on V. Pr.
I. 15.
name of a commentary on
the Taittiriya Pratisäkhya written a rule or an operation pres-
by Somayärya. The commentary cribed by Pänini in the last three
is said to have been based on the quarters of his Astädhyäyl. See
three Bhäsya works attributed to above.
the three ancient Vedic scholars— a collection of three words
Vararucij Mahiseya and Ätreya. (to express the same sense); cf:
consisting of three moras or
mäträs. The protracted or M. Bh. on I I I . 1.44;
vowels are said to consist of three cf. also M. Bh. on P. I. 4,74, IV.
mäträs as contrasted with the 1. 88, IV. 2.60 etc.
short and long vowels which " (1) use of the three accents
respectively consist of one and two acute, grave and circumflex at the
mäträs; cf- Käs. on P.I.2.27. time of the recital of the Veda;
(1) the famous three ancient t*Wi; cf. ^[gi^f^^f
grammarians Pänini (the author of I % ^ H ^ , %m^ Käs,
the Sütras), Kätyäyana (the author on P. V. 1. 124. cf. also
of the Värttikas), and Pata^jali
(the author of the Mahäbhäsya;) 1 M. Bh. on P. I. 2 4 1 .
(2) the grammar of Pänini, called (a word) having three vowels
so, being the contribution of the or syllables in it; =5^ or ^ F F ; cf.
reputed triad of Grammarians. sra^ra^«i ?ßr w^wi cf. M.. Bh-
repeated thrice, occurring on VIII 4.6.
thrice; a term used in the Prati- a grammarian of the nine-
säkhya works in respect of a word teenth century, who resided at
which is repeated in the krama Wai in Sätärä District and wrote
and other artificial recitations. a commentary on the ParibhSsen-
pra&RK^tSI son of Vaidyanätha who dusekhara which is named ^ t
. ^rt)te a srn^ll treatise on kärakas after tfre writer./ , ,

a commentary on the Pari- added to'the roots I^ 3 ^ 1 , *ff etc.;

bhäsendusekhae by *q*3R>: see e. g, %m, fa, zftv: etc. cf. unädi
sütra II. "2: (5) unadi affix (m)
added to the roots ^r, $R> *\1 and
tad. affix ^ in the sense of duty, 3F. efl g. ^T§?3 ^Tg^T etc. c€ unädi
nature or essence, prescribed sütra II. 4; (6) a "technical term
optionally with the affix tf& ( ell ); for the term 3f&m or the redu-
e. g. 3TSSR3^ *T(&Rj W3ffi9 flfcIT; cf. plicated wording of Pänini ( cf.
^ ^ P. V. 1.119, also cf. ^ s r ^ c R ) P. VI. 1. 5, used in
P. VI. 3. 35 Vart.lo. the Jainendra Vyäkarana.
krt affix & in the sense of the
potential pass« part, in Vedic i krt affix ^F added to the root
Literature; e„ g. 3nf %fä: \ ^ ^ ^ ; ^ to sing,5 in the sense of agent
also cf. Käs. on P.IIL 4.14;cf.also provided he is skilled; e. g.
R. V. IX. 47.2. cf. P, III. 1.146.
[ tad. affix ^ before which there ^ tad. affix added to numerals
is observed the caesura or ava- ending in n Vedic Literature;
graha in the recital of the Pada- e. g. f
patha. el g. ^qc=ff^% ^FS?^ | cf. ; cf. P. V. 2.50.
V.*Pr. V. 9. personal-ending ^q substituted
for cf of the 2nd pers. pi, of the
imperative Parasmaipada in Vedii '
Literature, e. g. qf^f for ^rf^^n;
cf. Käs. on P. VII. 1.45.
$X (l) second consonant of the dental
class of consonants possessed of tad. affix §Tsr in the sense of
the properties *^FTgsfäH3 3Jsjfa> fäfef- (manner) added to the pro-
and ??f!5flaM; (2) augment nouns ^?r, and f^qr, the words
( 53* ) added to the words
ending in «j*T becoming indeclina-
bles; e. g. jj^9 ^q^; cf. P. V.
? fitW and ^ § ^ before the
Pürana affix §<£. e. g. ^n\\ ^u\i qrg:5
3.24, 25.
3tfW, ^ 4 : ; cf. Kas. on.P. V. personal ending ^ substituted
2.51; (3) substitute for the con- for "feq of the 2nd persB sing. Paras-
sonant |^ of 3^1^ before any con- maipada in the perfect tense as
sonant except a nasal, and a also in the present tense in speci-
semivowel as also for the conso- fic cases; cf. P. III. 4.82, 83,84.
nant ^ of mt preceded by the personal ending of the 2iid,
preposition 33:; cf. P, VIII. 2.35, pers. dual Parasmaipada, whicli
VIII. 4.61. is substituted for 3 of the lakära
«T (1) personal-ending of the 2nd affixes; cf. P. Ill 4? 78.
; pers. p i Parasmaipada3substituted (1) tad. affix SIT in the sense' of
• for the ^ of the ten lakära affixes; question or reason ( ^g ) added to
(2) substitute (sjss) for the 2nd the pronoun T ^ i n Vedic Litera-
pers. sing, personal ending f%q^in- ture; e.g. spir ^n orrery; cf. Käg.
the perfect tense; (3) unädi affix on P.V.3.26; (2)_tad. affix m ( ^
( ^) added to the roots % cf, g^ according to Pänini) which gets
etc. e. g. qj«r;, ^fi^:, etc.; cf. unädi caesura or avagraha after VRq,'.^
II, 7; (4) unädi affix (

g ^ ^ t c ; cf. Vaj. Pr.V.12; personal ending of the third

(3) tad. affix snss in the sense of pers. sing.; e. g. ; cf.
^cf added to the words £^T; gt, FP^J P. VIII. 3.93-
and ^T in Vedic Literature, e.g. (1) the consonant ^, the vowel sr
ä S^TO 15*TT fäwrcT; cf. Käs. on P. being added for facility of utter-
V.3.111; (4) tad. affix ^ in the ance or use; (2) a technical term
sense of mannar { WR) added to used in the Jainendra Vyäkarana
1%^, pronouns excepting those for the term snss^FR in the gram-
headed by ü;, and the word *rg; mar of PaninL
faT, cf. PV.3.23. a fault of pronunciation where
, affix «Tfg. See «n, the letters are uttered indistinct
^ personal ending of the 2nd ( sRqa ).
pers. sing. Atmanepada, substitut- T tad. affix ^prescribed optiona-
ed for ^ of the lakära affixes. lly with %m and m^ in the sense
(THIEME, PAUL) a sound of measure ( 5TRT&I ), with #[^f ( % )
scholar of the present day, well to be adde.i further to form the
versed in Sanskrit Grammar and fern, base, e. g. ^g^Tjr, «H35?W^j
Vedic Literature, who has written ^Tjg^T^^, ^TS^rft? cf. P. V. 2.37 and
a critical treatise named "Pänini 1V.L15; ^3=^ is added optionally
and the Veda." along with OT as also with
(1) augment ^ added to the and wm to the words 33s and
words qsr, cftf^ ^fäqq and =^g^; see e.g. *gmm% trr 5?
s? above; (2) augment \ added to cf. P. V. 2.38.
the root 3T^r of the fourth conjugati- one of the eight artificial Vediß
on Paras, before the affixes of the recitations.
aorist. e.g. sn*^; cf. P.VIL4.17. a class of words headed by
tad. affix cq in the sense of the word ^ to which the taddhita
'favourable for5 ( cR*f f|?R ) added' affix % is added in the sense of
to the words SRT ands?f%; e.g. 'deserving'; cf. ^Rffä 3 ? ^ : Käs.
3*si«qT gßß | 3?r^T I cf. Käs. on P. on P. V. 1.66
V.1.8. ^ a class of compound
words headed by the word ^jqq^
which are not compounded as
which ends in the neuter
third consonant of the dental class gender and singular number; e.g«
of consonants possessed of the pro- Sfäwfr, % # P ^ \ ^T?TOt etc.; cf,
perties ^KT3?RH, sfa, ^lcl^^5^ and Käs. on P J L 4.14.
consonant ^substituted place where the utterance of
for the final letter of nouns ending dental letters originates;cf. 3gj^HT
with the affix ^ as also for the final : S. K. on P. I. 1.9.
letter of ^r, *4H and 3 R | | provided
the final letter is at the end of the letters ^ \% w and ^
a pada; e.g. H ^ ^ g ; etc.; cf. Käs. c£ ^=rf^T^ä <mm*\: R. Pr. I. 19#
on P, VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant ^ The Rk. Prätisakhya calls \ ( ^ )
substituted for the final ^ of roots also as ^?cl^5tq.
.excepting, the root 3^ ? before ^ or

dentolabial letter 3; cf. word also means student? reading

the work c£l^; cf. M
^ ^OTFfei: Com. onT.Pr.IL ä. on P. IV.2.65.
43. (1) a section of grammatical
produced at the teeth, dental; treatises dealing with the ten
formed at the teeth by the tip of conjugations of roots, e.g. the
the tongue; e.g. the letters ^ 5, first section of the second pait
and cm; cf. $&$m <?% V.Pr .1.69, ( 3xRp| ) of the Siddhänta Kau-
According to Panini's grammar mudl; (2) name of the dhätupatha
3£ (long) does not exist. Accord- of Pänini which gives ten classes
ing to Taittirlya Prätisäkhya ^ of roots; cf. "^^qt &
is partly dental and partly lingual; Nyäsa on 1,3.1.
cf. T.Pr.IL41, while ^ is partly the ten classes or conjuga-
dental and partly labial; cf. T.Pr. tions of roots; g^ was a term for
11.43; cf, ^m f^fm^oTT: V. Pr.I. *H3 (root) in some ancient gram-
76; cf. mar works.
P. VII. 3-73. a short treatise on the
^ a brilliant Vedic roots belonging to more than one
scholar of the nineteenth century conjugation; the name of the
belonging to North India who author is not given,
established on a sound footing the tad. affix named 'vibhakti* app-
study of the Vedas and Vyäkarana lied to the words *Hf, 133», 8 ^ •(%,
and encouraged the study of ^,cfcj; and «[5^ in the locative case;
Kasikävrtti. He has written many e.g. ^NCT, ^ S I , ^ ; T ; cf. Käs. on
books on Vedic studies. P. V. 3.15,19,20,21.
a Jain writer who wrote a SgrPTO name, by which sqif^, the
treatise named author of the grammar work
a Jain scholar who has written is referred to. The word
a grammar treatise on the Säras- indicates that «qrflf was a
vata Grammar called descendant of g^r, and, as Pänini
is called ^T^Tj^r, critics say
writer of a commentary on that Panini and Vyädi were
the Mugdhabodha Vyäkarana relatives; cf. ^[Jt^RT ^I§ ^j^n^W?
of Bopadeva. ^rarp^R ^1 ^mw\ fjfci: M. Bh. on P,
name of a commentary on II.3.66.
Kondabhatta's Vaiyäkaranabhü§a-
nasära^ written by a grammarian lit. son of a female descen-
named Harivallabha. dant of ^ ; name given to Pänini
who was the son of ^gt a female
f name of a commentary on the descendant of ^f; cf. 3}^: ^[n^tF
Sabdakaustubha, written by 5rr^I^ft|^l^ #q% Pan. Sik. 56; cf.
Mannudeva or Mantudeva of the also ? ^
nineteenth century. M.Bh. on P. I. 1.20; VIL1.27.
name given to the treatise on a Jain grammarian, who
grammar written by sqiSWR which wrote a small grammar treatise
consisted of 10 chapters; cf. ^p$ named
^ T m £ m K ä . on Pf V. 1.58. The tad. affix called förffc, applied

to 9^ and 5 ^ in the sense of the to q*m} e. g.

locative case. e.g. cRI*ftj[j I^HT^; wk f^^^TWRj; M.Bh. on IV. 3.60.
cf. P. V.3.18,19. a class of roots of the fourth
a class of words headed by conjugation, headed by the root
the word 3FTR to which the tadd- f^r ( sftsqfä ), called also ^KRqrft
hita affix ® is added without any c f P. L 2.27.
change of sense; e . g ^ a technical term in the Jainendra
cf. Käs. on P. V, 3.116. Vyäkarana for ^M (long vowel)
explained by the commentators in Panini's grammar.
on the Prätisäkhya works as ZGffi a commentary on cTTWOTTi
(firmness) or qfts^m (hardness,) and by ^KT^.
given as a characteristic of the acute explained as ^M or throbbing
or 33JxT tone; cf. in utterance. Out of the seven
t T. Pr. XXII.9, svaras or yamas ^g, spw, itcfH
quoted in the Mahäbhäsya on P J .
2.29, where ^i^oq is explained as qtfto, ^a^j, ^ a-^d ^n?tern, the
throbbing |( ^im ) of the latter
\ and latter tone leads to the per-
a class of words headed ception of the former and former
by the word one; cf. ctöt ^TMTCösf&j: T.-Pr.
they are tatpurusa compounds, XXIII. 15.
retain the accents of the first long; a term used in connec-
member of the compound; cf. P. tion with the lengthened tone of
VI.2.42. a vowel described to be dvitnatra
a technical term in the Jainen- as contrasted with f ^r having one
dra Vyäkarana for the term ^ mäträ and tgcT having three mä-
used by Pänini. tras; cf. M H ^ : V. P*. I. 35,
a word denoting a direction V. Pr, I. 57, also ^ ^
such as 5§, ^xR and the like, used P. 1.2-27.
as a substantive, e. g. <£5JT sn*nq;, or a grammatical operation
showing the direction of another where a short vowel is turned
thing being its adjective, e. g. into a long one; a rule of gram-
^ T ; cf. Käs. on P. II.3.29. mar prescribing the lengthening
the bahuvrihi compound of a short vowel,
prescribed by the rule ß s ^ ^ a technical term In the Jainendra
eg. ^TTCT (north-east) or Vyäkarana for the term | ^ which
(north-west); cf. förewsr: is used in Pänini's grammar and
mm:, Käs. on PX 1.28. which is defined by Pänini in the
fi^Tffcf a class of words headed by rule t^
the word f^fr to which the tad. affix ^ a word, or words whose case
z[ ( qq;) is added in the sense of affixes can be syntactically con-
'produced therein* ( m *R: ), e.g. nected only with some difficulty;
ltl& ^ fe^3 similarly q^n, wm
etc.; cf. Käs. on P.IV.3.54.
tad. affix added to the word
% before which. nffl is changed i on E V. 4.113.
g produced by an incomplete fef T% name of a ggrammar work
contact of the <wi; the term is d which
explainihg words h i h are difficult
applied to the phonetic element to derive according to rules of
öS which is due to the incomplete Pänini. The work is written in
contact of the organ at the pro- the style of a running commen-
duction of the letter^; cf. g:*SS- tary on select sütras of Panini,
%m; Pän. Siksä 5. devoted mainly to explain difficult
the famous commentator of formations. The author of it,
the Kätantra sütras, whose Vrtti Saranadeva, was an eastern gra-
on the sütras is the most popular mmarian who, as is evident from
one« It is called <=EM^^riT% or the number of quotations in his
^CI^CTIITT or ^T^TRf^tlfrT also. A work, was a great scholar of the
work on Paribhäsäs named qf^RWr- 12th or the 13 th century.
ff%, in which Paribhäsäs are ex- ^ f T^ x R
^ ^P
^ ^ a ggrammar work
plained and established as based on the formation i off difficult
oa the Kätantra Vyäkarana words attributed to ^T%cT or
sütras, is attributed to Durga-
simha. It is doubtful whether
this commentator Durgasimha is racr name of a commentaryy byy
the same as Durgäcärya3 the Kesavadatta-Sarman on the gra-
famous commentator of Yäska's mmar work named ^rf'EIR.
Nirukta. There is a legend that ^ I ^ T ^ a grammarian who wrote
Durgasimha was the brother of a treatise on grammar ^^Ra^TF^^j
Vikramäditya, the founder of the named after him. Besides this
Vikrama Era. Besides the gloss treatise, he has written commen-
on the Kätantra sütras, some gra- taries on Nägesa's Laghumaüjüsä
mmar works such as a gloss on and Paribhäsendusckhara.
the unädi sütras, a gloss ( tfrf ) on see
Kälapa-Vyäkarana Sutras, a com-
Fi[3£ name erf a commentary,
mentary on Kärakas named $&R- on the Paribhäsendusekhara of
l^s^y Nämahngänusäsana and Nagesa, believed to have been
Paribhäsavrtti are ascribed to written by Gopälac^iya Karhädkar,
Durgasimha. Some scholars be- a grammarian of the 19th century
lieve that the term 3W^r§ was and attributed to Bhlmäcärya.
only a title given to Durgasimha This commentary, which was
for his profound scholarship, and written to criticize the comment-
it was Durgasimha who was the ary written by Visnusastrl Bhat,
author of the well-known work was again criticized in reply by
Amarakosa. Visnusastrl Bhat in his Giccandrika
^Tl^Ttf a grammarian who wrote ). See
(a) a gloss on Bopadeva's Mug- fault, objection; the word
dhabodha, (b) a gloss named qrg- is used in connection with a fault
^ff^T on Kavikalpadruma and found with, or objection raised
(c) Sabdarnavakosa. against an argument advanced by,
a grammarian who wrote a writer, by his opponent or by
a work on genders called f&gig- the writer himself who replies it to
and also a commentary on it. make his argument well establis-

hed; cf.fä^R? ^ word ending in the dual number,

Mahä.Prad. on P.l/l.44 VartJ6. and (b) that both the words retain
tad. affix prescribed after the their original accents, e. g. ^sujrfy
word srfä in the sense of railk(|^) ^HTJW, 3T3ft^fapatf, ft^RW-RTCIj for
along with the affixes SI3 and ?Rfa changes, cf. P. VI.3.25-31; for
accent, cf. ^
optionally, by the Värtükakära;
e. g ^ H% sftfa V. Pr. 11.48, 49; cf. also
cf. Käs. on M. Bh. IV. 2, 36. i-xf P. VI. 2.141.
a class of words headed by
to which the tad, affix ^ ( ^ called also g^jcrr? or "jpFTR-
believed to have lived in
or ^tfi^ ( Vfä% ) *s added in the
sense of namre ( sflcf); ^ and ^ the fifth century A. D. and written
( cfT ) can5 of course, be added the treatise on grammar, of course
optionally; e. g. ^jm^ 5f%*TT based on Pänini Sutras, which is
SScIT.See also WFW %3I, 3?fa*J known as %R?£-oqTWf or !£[?£-
qTF5^, *?M etc.; cf. Käs. on ST^ItPI^- The writer of this gram-
P. V. 1. 123. mar is possibly mentioned as §R?£
S seen in use in Vedic Literature, in the usually quoted verse of
or Classical Literature, or in the Bopadeva :-
talk of cultured people; said in
connection with words which a was a great Jain saint
grammarian tries to explain; cf. and scholar who wrote many
fSTgfäfäa^ßr *Rfr Vyädi Pari. works on Jain Ägamas of which
Pätha 68. ffo the commentary on the
, is well-known.
p taking p
place of an opera-
a class of words headed by
tion, or application of a rule of
the w o r d ^ W , the affix ^q applied
grammar in accordance with the
to which in the sense of a statue,
words seen in use. See £S.
or applied for the formation of a
PcT similar mstance,generally quot-
proper noun, is dropped \^m,
ed to explain effectively some rules
igqsj:, to:, ^ 3 : etc«; cf.Kas. on P.
or conventions laid down; cf. qg V. 3.100.
M.Bh. a grammarian who has writ-
on P.I. 1.7. ten a disquisition on the philoso-
SFjtf^p; discrepant, characterized phy of Vyäkarana in verse, and
by discrepancy; cf. q^fq1 gi^pt added a commentary of his own
on it which he has named as
^ ; M.Bh.
on P. 1. 3. 19. a Jain grammarian of the
3<nSF5 a compound word called eighth century who is believed to
g?5 whose members are names of have written a grammar work,
deities; the peculiarities of this called fe«1£l^^^^-^«<^l^.iI<ER. It is
Dvandva compound are (a) that likely that ^qffif^sc is the same as
generally there are changes at the p and the grammar
end of the first member, by virtue work is the same as %^
of which it appears similar to a for which see

^ a popular name given to r name of a system of grammar or

the third päda of the seventh a work on grammar the peculi-
adhyäya of Pänini's Astädhyayi as arity of which is the omission of
the päda begins with the Sütra the 03OT topic; cf. 3T%^N %$ **TRI>
^ ^ ^ ^ P.VII TT^ a root belonging to the
3.1. fourth conjugation of roots (
a modern grammarian of the ); cf. ^Tg cFT^T 1% l ü t l
19th century who has written a JTfof, H tfrrf^*?, Käs. on P. I I
gloss on the Astädhyayi of Pänini. 3.56.
a Jain grammarian of the 13th name given to a work on
century who has written a com- grammar, presumably the same as
mentary named oSg^H on the ^ written by
of Hemacandra. He
has written many works on the (1) a fault of pronunciation; cf.
Jain Agamas, of which a commen-
tary on the Uttarädhyanasütra can M.Bh. on I. 1.1 Värt.18; (2) defect
be specially mentioned. He is shown in connection with an ex-
called ^r£§1\ also. pression or explanation.
lit place; (1) original place of name of a commentary on
articulation; cf. 3^|[ m cf=gH oqs^- Nägesa's Paribhasendusekhara wri-
zm, R. Pr. XIV. 5; (2) place of tten by *Fjjp& of the eighteenth
origin; 3^TCPR3?H; (3) place of century.
inferential establishment of a
name of a commentary, on
Paribhäsä etc. qf^Prresr: S^tf Par.
Sek, pari. 2,3; (4) passage of the Nägesa's Laghusabd endusekhara
Samhita text, cf,.T. Pr. I. 59. written by 3R|T% of the eighteenth
^ tad. affix ^Sm in the sense tad, affix % applid to I ^ i n the
of slightly less, or almost similar, sense of £ a day *, when %$v^ is
optionally prescribed with the changed into sr ( sna ); e. g. aqg,
affixes ^$q and ^ e. g, ^ J g ^ : , cf. P.V. 3.22 Värt. 5.
R; cf.Kis. onP.V.3B67.
tad. affix SRT, applied to the
(1) tad. affix in the sense of
word ^TfTR when ^m is changed
almost similar; see ^sJfq^ above;
into € ; e.g. gsi:a cf.^^f: qR59TO%H: P.
(2) (words) current in popular use
V.3.22; cf. also WTRW ^SRltl ^«TT5ft
or language, although not sanction-
P . V . 3.22. Värt. 1
ed by rules of grammar; cf. %^T:
% % % M.Bh. on P. V. a technical term in the Jainendra
3.55; c ^ $m feM, Vyäkarana for the term ^ ^ 3 ; (the
Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably latter or the second member of-a
Kaiyata had a difficulty in ex» compound word) which is used in
plaining the word %^ in the old Pänini's grammar.
way meaning e current in use*, as a class of roots headed by
many words called bad words, the root g^j;, the aorist sign t^?5
introduced from other languages after which gets ( sj ) s ^ substi-
were current at his time wnich he tuted for it; e.g. 3 ? ^ , srf^cRj;; cf.
was reluctant to term as KM. on P. 111.1,55. and 1.3.91.

tad. affix jpjET applied to the word and the word goq is used by old
in the sense of a day; e.g. grammarians as synonymous with'
| j : cf. R V. 3.22 Värt. 7.
cf. Käs on P."
indicative, suggestive; not I. 4.57; cf. S..K. also on P. 1.4.57.
directly capable of expressing the (2)The word gsq is also found used
sense by denotation; the nipätas in the sense of an individual
and upasargas are sd:d to be cdyo* object, as opposed to the genus or
taka' and not fvacaka? by stand- generic notion ( ^T^fcT ); cf. Sö^Tfä-
ard grammarians headed by the ^TR osfrft:? M. Bh. on P. I. 2. 64.
Värttikakara; cf. ftqT^H^^TN Värt. 45. (3)The word &? is found
mfcrcfö^PJ.2.4-5 Värttika 12; cf. used in the sense of Sädhana or
Kaiyata also on the above; cf. also means in Tait. Präti. cf. cl^f %p^-
^ % Väk-
yapadiya II. 194; Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.
( ^n^Tat: ) ^ ,
ft^ T33 com. on Väkyapadiya II. a grammarian who main-
190; cf. q ^ f i g # r R ^i^iwk*F<r: tains that 'dravya* or individual
Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; cf. also ^ object5 is the sense of words; cf.

Bhäsa Vr.onPJ.L37.The Karma- q^jfsj^q snfrfcR q^pq: ! M. Bh. on

pravacaniyas are definitely laid 1.2.64 Värt. 53. See 5*q.
down as dyotaka, cf. ^ ^ expressive of substance as
ot substance
their sense as opposed to
^SRq g ^ F : Väkyapadiya II.206; cf. 31TO^T ^ SWT^: ^ ^
the case affixes are said to be M. Bh. on P. V.l.119.
any way, VIcaka' or cdyotaka>; cf. o^fcf^'T'Sr behaviour like a dravya as
noticed in the case of the bhäva or
Väkyapadiya II. 165. kriyä found in a root after a krt
conveyance of sense indirectly affix is added to it; cf. f^firi|cft
or by suggestion, and not directly. ^ 5»sR?^[fe- M. Bh. on IL2.19,
See #RPfr above. IIL1.67 etc.
(sense) conveyed by suggestion S^TTI^WW denotation of $&j or indi-
indirectly and not directly ex- vidual object as the sense of words
pressed, as in the case of karma- as opposed to sTff^ft^H i« e.
pravacamyas, the kit affixes and denotation of the general form
the tad. affixes; cf. srg^o^f ^j9[ possessed by objects of the same
RrKS on class; of SsqnrßWFi 5qn%: P. 1.2.64
P. I. 4.84. Värt. 45. See $<&{„
substance, as opposed to gar pro- lit rapid; the vice of rapidity in
perty and fäsjT action which exist utterance ;a fault of speech especi-
on dravya. The word 6 ^ is used ally in connection with the uttera-
by Yäska, Pänini and other gram- nce of vowels in Vedic recital when
marians in a very general sense on account of haste the utterance
as something in completed forma- of letters becomes indistinct, pf.
tion or existence as opposed to
'fei#* jkriyä or verbal activity, - I M. Bh. Äbnika 1 Värt. 18,

name of a treatise on gram- |

mar written for beginners by \: I! Sr. Pr. I I . The gender of
Bharatasena or Bharatamalla of a word in the S^g^fflTH is that of the
Bengal in the sixteenth century. last word in the case of the ^cfcl-
*§?§;> while it is the neuter gender
one of the three Vrttis or styles
in the case of the Wfl^Kgrg.
of utterance mentioned in the
Prätisäkhya works and quoted in ^ tad. affix s?qs, in the sense of
the Mahäbhäsya; cf.T%#[ f ^ f measure, prescribed optionally
along with the affixes 3;?? and ^TT^;
cf. 3v^; W ^ g^5*RJ^; Käs,, on P.
t f q k ep% Ffö5T^cfH 1 R. Pr. V. 2.37; fern, ^ ^ ^ cf.P.IV.1.15.
XIII. 18, 19; cf. ^ f| | a class of words headed by
the word W}\ which get the aug-
M. Bh. ment ^ (i.e. ^ or 3?T ) placed
on P. 1.1.70, Värt. 4. The utte- before the letter q or ^ in them,
rance of a letter takes | rd time instead of the substitution of
more in the 5F3fflfT% than in the vrddhi, when a taddhita affix mark-
gcf|T%, while in the f%ö5i^|I% it ed with the mute letter 5J5 oy or =5
takes | rd more than in the is added to them; e. g. ^ i f ^ P :
3FsWfl%. In short, the utterance of ^ 1 % ^ . % ^ t ^ , ^ R ^ e t c ; cf. Käs,
the same letter takes in the on P. VII .3.4.
three vrttis., Druta, Vilambita and a term used for the dual number
Madhyama the quantity of time in the Prätisäkhya works; cf. ^T RT
in the proportion of 9:12:16 res- % * R 5 mi&§ V. Pr. I I . 3 where
Uvvata has explained the words
a kind of the position of the 1%5 fk and TJjs as ^l^^f, f&rQfi and
tongue at ihe time of pronounc- 1x^=3^ respectively.
ing the letter 5. *. doubled; the term is used in
name of a compound, formed o r connection with reduplication in
two or more words used in the the Kätantra and Haima gram-
same case, showing their collection mars cf. Hem. IV.1.1, Kat.1118.
together; cf. ^m •&%: P. II.2.29. 10.
Out of the four meanings of the doubling, putting a word or
indeclinable =3, viz. ^m» word element twice ;the words "fecf
SFcjR^ ^cfcR%rr and OTT5R, the and H«N3 are used in the same
dvai.dva compound is sanctioned sense.
in the last two senses only called
(as in ^SrFWsfi etc.) and *^J! a word used many times
(as in ^TFF^r^
^ etc.)) respec-
p synonymously with g:^g; the
tively. For details see Mahäbhäsya letters g5,e5J|» an dupadhmanlya(üq^)
on II.2.29. The dvandva compo- are termed "fer^js or ^:^?g.
und takes place only when the a term used In connection
speaker intends mentioning the with roots governing two objects
several objects together i.e. when or two words in the accusative
there is, in short5 case, e.g. in :; the
term 3$ according to the strict
definition of the term ^ karmadharaya compound, having
or 3TR ^ applies to one of the a word denoting a direction or a
two, which is called the WPTW or numeral as its first member, (a)
the direct object, the other one, has a tad. affix added to it e. g.
which, in fact, is related to the ver- qsx^qrs: (jfteTO), or (b) has got a
bal activity by relation of any other word placed after it in a com-
karaka or instrument is taken as pound e. g. <T1W<W: or (c) has a
karmakäraka and hence put in collective sense e. g. q^göST; cf. cTT%-
the accusative case. For details ^ ? % ^ W T ^ K 3 ( P. II. 1.51 ) also
see Mahäbhäsya and Käsikä on cf. KM. and S. K. on P.IL1.51,52.
PJ.4.51. Some roots in their 5 a
popular name given by
causal formation govern two grammarians to the fourth quar-
objects out of which one object is ter of the second Adhyäya of
the actual one while the other is Pänini's Astädhyäyi which begins
the subject of the primitive root. with the sütra fejp^p^q^ H . 4.1,
the second consonant in the
; cf. Käs. on P.I.4.52. See for
five groups of consonants, "surd
details Mahäbhäsya on P. I. 4.52.
aspirate, cf. T..Pr. I. 11; V. Pr. I,
simultaneous occurrence of 54, R. Pr. VI. 15; it is called
two grammatical operations result- also.
ing into a conflict and creating a
doubt as to which of the two the reduplication of a
should take place first; cf.H^TFRPTt root beginning with a vowel
ft Mcfaw: MJBh. on PJ.1.3 Värt. prescribed by the rule
6; 1.1.12; etc. The term ^ P. VI, 1.2.
occurring in the rule the second case; the accusa-
^qq, P. 1.4.2 is evidently defined tive case, mainly prescribed for a
in this way by the word word which is related as a karma-
in the Mahäbhäsya,. käraka to the activity in the sen-
tence; cf. P. II. 3.2 to 5,
a compound expression or doubling, reduplication pres-
word separated into two by ava- cribed for (1) a root in the per-
graha in the Padapätha; the word fect tense excepting the cases
is misstated as <|W^ by some where the affix SIT^ is added to
Vedic reciters. the root before the personal end-
J name of a compound with a ing; e. g. W^, =^R3 BT^FT etc.
numeral as the first member. The cf. P. VI, 1.1, 2; (2) a root before
compound is looked upon as a the Vikarana affixes € ^ , ^ , *g
subdivision of the Tatpurusa com- and ^ e. g. g^rf^f, %f#RcT, =3^%?
pound. The dvigu compound, Sltfcf, sNil 1 ^ etc. cf. P. VL 1.9-
having collection as its general 11; (3) a word ending in 3 ^ -
sense, is declined in the neuter ( °T2f5 ) in the sense of repetition,
gender and singular number; e. g. mi mt # » , ^ ^ ^ ^srlcf cf.
when it ends in 3? the fern, affix vim?A k mw P. V i l l . 1.12 Värt.
4t is added generally, e. g. qgqpp^, 7; (4) any word (a) in the sense of
ftRPffify q^Jf. The Dvigu com- constant or frequent action, (b) in
pound ateto takes place when a thq sense of repetition,; (c) showing

reproach, or scorn, or quality in g a c a s e affix of the dual num-

the sense of its incomplete possess- ber; dual number; a word in the
ion, or (d) in the vocative case at dual number; cf. M. Bh. on I.
the beginning of a sentence in some 1.11,1. 4.21 etc.; cf. a W S & ^ t
specified senses; reduplication is s. on P, V. 3.57.
also prescribed for the prepositions a word in the dual number;
tö, si, SJJC, 3% 3%, 3qft, srfßT, a m cf. mzft® f^raT^Wsr: R. Pr. I. 28
in some specified senses cf. where tlie word f s ^ g is explain-
P. VIII. LI to 15. A letter ex- ed as f^^Rrfii^n^: by Uvvata.
cepting i[and ^ 5 is also repeated, a syllable consisting of two
if so desired, when (a) it occurs consonants; cf. R. T. 245.
after the letter ^ or ^ which is pre-
ceded by a vowel e. g. siwb arafc. (1) a repeated consonant; cf.
etc. cf. VIII. 4.46; or when (b) it ^ ^ V. Pr. IV. 144; (2J
is preceded by a vowel and follow- doubling, repetition; cf.
ed by a consonant e. g. s&n^, ^ r f ^ T . Pr. IX. 18; cf. also
*&m cf. P. VIII. 4.47. - For T. Pr. XIV. 1. R. Pr. IX. 18.
details see Käs. on VIII. 4.46-52. double, reduplicated; the word
The word fi^T is sometimes used is frequently used in connection
in the sense of the dual number; with doubling of consonants or
cf. Käs. on P. 1.2.51. The words words in the Prätisäkhya Litera-
fe^> W&R and fi^Tfi are generally ture as also in the Kätantra,
used as synonyms. Pänini generally Säkatäyana and Haima grammars
uses the word £. For ft?=I in Vedic cf. R. Pr. VI. 1, XV. 5, V. Pr.
Literature cf. R. Pr. VI. 1.4; T. IV. 101, R. T. 264; cf. also Kat.
Pr. XIV. 1-8 V. Pr. IV. 10i-118. III. 8.10, Säk, IV. 1.43; Hem.
IV. 1.1.
a class of words, which
a kind offöf{%or interval of
are headed by the word
and which are all bahuvrtihi com- time in the pronunciation of two
pounds, to which the affix ? is consecutive vowels, which as a
found added as a Samäsänta affix result of two euphonic changes
e. g. Hsfts:, %%fe, etc.; cf. Käs. on has a vowel preceded by a vowel
P. V. 4.128. and followed also by a vowel;
- g- S T ^ T 3 3Rfr, R. Pr. II. 44.
repetition of a word, or of a possessed of two vowels, dis-
letter or of a root. See fequ syllabic; cf. ^ q% ft^-ft fä^ T.
phonemic utterance a Pr. XVI. 17.
second time; see a term used for an
phonemically repeated; see upadhmänlya letter or a phonetic
element resulting from a visarga
repetition, reduplication. See followed by the letter ^ or 5,
See 3TORffa. The word is also used
see T5?=r and 1i$fä>; the word sometimes for the pronunciation B
is very frequently used in the of ff, and oc^ of ^ See §Kgg. **
Mahabhisya instead of H^r. cf, possessed of two ^consecutive
M. Bh. on I. 1. Ähnika 1, I. L7 consonants; cf.cRHTf| &g$:9 P. VII
10, 57, 59. etc. etc. 4. 71; cf. also M. Bh. on VI. 1.68".

^ used adverbially for name of the author of a short

in the sense of 'optionally5 or c in metrical treatise on roots named
two ways'; cf. |w ^ H T ^ F H % -
M. Bh. on P. I. 1. 44 Värt. 15. tad, affix optionally substitu-
% group of two words; an express- ted in the place of the tad. affix sfl"
ion consisting of two words; cf. 51 after the words fl[ and fr; e. g.
m m §*RT tssra R. Pr. VIII. 2. ; cf. P. V, 3.45.
10; X. 3 ; XL 37 etc. a grammarian of the six-
a word possessed of two teenth century at the court of
vowels in it; dissyllabic words; the Udayasimha who wrote a commen-
word is frequently used in Pänini's tary on the sütras of Pänini which
Astädhyayi and Pataäjali's Mahä- was named t^T^Rtfl^fer as also a
bhasya, Käsikä Vrtti and other commentary on the Siksä of Pänini,
works on Pänini's grammar. defined as sFfttfsrecR, the tradi-
tional practices laid down by the
a class of pronouns headed
sages for posterity; c f , % ^
by the pronoun % to which the
taddhita affixes called fäsrfxp, as
prescribed by the rules of Pänini Bh. I. 1. Ähnika 1; cf. also
in the rule q^qRcTO^ and the in trq ^ ^c[i ^fer^ W$3% Mm Bh,
following ones, are not added, cf. on P. I. 2. 64, as also ^frgsfiPRT: in
P. V. 3. 2.
^ M. Bh. on L
name of a Samdhi made up 1.47; (2; religious merit, cf.
of two spirants, or resulting in the
presence of two spirants or Usman M. Bh. on P. VI. 1. 84, cf also
letters e. g. fäf^RT;, zmfti; cf. R. ¥Ft «r£ 5% %Tr«nsrif: M. Bh. I. 1.
Pr. XL 22. Ähnika 1; < 3) property possessed
by a thing or a letter or a word.
e. g. w $ ; cf. Käs. on P,
L 2.29; cf. also Käs. on P. IL 1,
(1) fourth letter of the dental 55, II. 3.33, VIII. 1. 4. cf. also
class(cfcpr) possessed of the proper- R. Pr. III. 8, 13 XIV. 1 etc.;
ties ^T3J3#3[H, % , ^FOTf^ and ( 4 ) the characteristic of being
T|PTP»l; (2) substitute g; for the | of in a substance; in the phrase ^4
^ before a ' j h a l ' consonant or sf£: the dharrna viz.^Rc^ is predica-
at the end of a word e. g. 3RPJ,, ted of this (\^0 or, in other words
mW[> cf. P. VIII. 2. 34; (3) the designation pot ( m m i ) is the
substitute ^ for the letters ^ and *j predication; the explanation in
placed after a fourth letter, e. g. short, can be given as sps^RH S$-
^ p ; , %^r etc cf.P, VIII. 2. 40. §: or *&(&&: •%&%&:
a technical term in the Jainen- a Jain scholar called by
dra Vyäkaräna for the term ^rq- the name sptfä also, who was the
^T^^R of Pänini used for the first author of WTäS^rcfeffiT and ^qT^cfR
five case affixes §> ^ , ^ ^ , sfl a well-known treatise on roots;
and ? (nom# and ace. pi. neuter cf. #H^^5Tturr|5r^ ^ J C T ^ H : I ^f^r
gender); cf.P. I. 1.42,43. He is believed
193 «ig
to have been the first grammarian the application of the affix q^ or
who arranged the sütras of Pänini from nouns like ^r,%^5 qRT, 5 ^ , ^ ,
according to the subject matter. etc. by the application of the
N (l)a thing possessed of proper- affix fFpcj. Besides these, there are
ties, gsq: cf. WO^l «nff *F% Käs. a few roots formed by the applica-
on PJII.3.77;cf, also the common tion of the affix %tt% and j& (I3f )•
expression ; Par. Sek. All these roots can further be
on Pari. 55, 66, 79, 82; (2) the classified into Parasmaipadin or
same as dharma in rare cases Parasmaibhäsa, Ätmanepadin or
according to the dictum Ätmanebhäsa and Ubhayapadin,
ÄRcfcerrc e. g. qviia sot, J Roots possessed of a mute grave
cf. Durghata Vr. on P, II. 1. 49. ( 3?5^1TI ) vowel or of the mute
tad.affix (1) applied to a numeral consonant ^ added to the root in
in the sense of a kind ( SISR ) or a the Dhätupatha or ending in the
division of time, e.g.xas^fT, fl^T, f^TCT affixes ^ , qq& etc. as also roots
etc.;cf. P.V.3.42, 43; (2) applied in the passive voice are termed
to Wg to show divisions of a short Ätmanepadin; while roots ending
time;e.g. «igen KTO^ ;gf% and srfstf with the affix f^ as also" roots
*mi& "gf%; cf. Käs. on P.V.4.20. possessed of a mute circumflex
3 a root; the basic word of a vowel or a mute consonant o? appl-
verbal form,defined by the Bhasya- ied to them are termed Ubhaya-
kära as f^jR^T *=TT3: or even padin. All the rest are termed
as ^rp^sF^T *=TT3*> a word denoting Parasmaipadin« There are some
a verbal activity. Pänini has other mute letters or syllables
not defined the term as such, applied by Pänini to the roots in
but he has given a long list of his Dhätupatha for specific purpo-
roots under ten groups, named ses; e.g. (T at the end to signify
dasagani, which includes about prohibition of vrddhi to the penu-
2200 roots which can be called ltimate 3? in the aorist, e.g. 3 ? ^ ^
primary roots as contrasted with cf. P.VIL2.5; %<Jo signify the
secondary roots. The secondary optional substitution of sr or 3 ^
roots can be divided into for the affix FS5 of the aorist, e.g.
two main groups ( 1 ) roots arfäRat arSKafc; cf. P.III.1.57; 3
derived from roots ( ^Tg^I^; ) to signify the optional application
and (2) roots derived from nouns of the augment I ( ^ ) before W&tt
( ^FOTO^r: ). The roots derived, e.g. *srfä?CT, ^T?^T; cf. P.VII. 2. 56;
from roots can further be classified ^ to signify the optional applica-
into three main subdivisions : (a) tion of the augment % ( ^s ) e.g*
causative roots or fteRT, (b) desi- %(T, %facH, cf. P.VIL2.44;V s?T to
derative roots or wra, (c) inten- signify the prohibition of the aug-
sive roots or ^zft and sj^grra; ment ^5 in the case of the past
while roots derived from nouns or pass. part. e.g. T%iwn, 1^5r:? cf. P.
denominative roots can further be VII.2,16; % to signify the addition
divided into SRSFTT, WISRT, sjq^tr, of a nasal after the last vowel e. g.
«RSRT, f&i^r, Hv^ncT and the misce- U^p from HT\ cf. P. VII.1.58; sp
llaneous ones ( spftSi ) as derived to signify the prohibition of ^ to
from nouns like ^ng ( mogfä ) by the penultimate long vowel before

fäs;, e. g. 3RKTO3;, cf. P.VIL 4.2 ; Bopadeva by Ramalarhkara; (2)

to^ signify the substitution f name of a commentary on the
for f^5 in the aorist, e.g. STTRC^ cf. Kavikalpadruma by Durgädäsa
P. III. 1.55;# to signify the sub- who wrote a commentary on
stitution of ^forcj of the past the Mugdhabodha also.
pass.part. e.g. &JT:, STNfa:, cp:, | 3 : (1) name given in general to
etc.; cf. P. VIII. 2.45. Besides the several collections of roots
thesejthe mute syllables 1%, g andf given generally with their mean-
are prefixed for specific purposes; ings by grammarians belonging
cf. P. III.2.187, IIL3.89 and III, to the various different schools of
3.88. The term *[Tg is a suffici- grammar. These collections are
ently old one which is taken by given as necessary appendices
Pänini from ancient grammarians named T%5 to their grammars by
and which is found used in the the well known grammarians of
Nirukta and the Prätisäkhya Sanskrit such as 'Pänini, Säkata*
works, signifying the 'elemental yana, and others; (2) a small trea-
(radical)base' for nouns which are tise on roots written by Bhlmasena
all derivable from roots according of the 14th century.
to the writers of the Nirukta works
a commentary on the
and the grammarian Säkatäyanaj
Dhatupätha by Nägesa.
cf. TO ^ 3TTä5WT5 ft^% 3ffiR3| SF&m
=3 afa^ M. Bh. on P.III.3.1. Some a grammatical treatise
scholars have divided roots into dealing with roots written as a su
six categories; cf. 33" ^FcS^: H\&\ pplementary work by Jumaranan-
(a) qßqßcTr: ^jiT^:, (b) srqftqi%cTT din to his grammar work called
(c) qftqftcnflWfScTr: Rasavati,which itself was a thorou-
Tf: ) ^ ^ ^ ^ R q : 5 (d) ghly revised and enlarged edition
: ^RRRTI:, (e) of theOTqcfra commentary written
(f) 5PPRRmcR[: by Kramadisvara on his own gram-
mar named tl^fTOR- Jumaranandin
j ; cf. Sringära Prak. I. For is believed to have been a Jain
details see JVLBh. on PJ.3.1 as writer who lived in the fifteenth
also pp 255, 256 Vol. VII Vyä- century A.D.
karana-Mahäbhäsya published by
the D.E. Society, Poona. a work dealing with roots
written as a supplementary work
3 T a short treatise on the by Balaräma-Pancänana to his
roots of the different conjugations own grammar named Prabodha-
written by a grammarian named Prakä^a.
a work dealing with
5 a grammatical work in verbal forms written by Dharma»
verse written by Varadaraja, the kirii, a Jain grammarian of the
pupil of Bhattoji Dlksita who lived eighth century.
in the 17th century. Besides ^ a work dealing with verbal
Karikavall, Varadaräja wrote forms written by Maitreya Rak-
t and 5R-^\5^f also. sita, a Buddhist writer and a
(1) name of a comment- famous grammarian belonging to
ary on the Kavlkalpadruma of the eastern part of India who

lived in the middle of the twelfth p a grammar dealing with

century. He is believed to have verbs believed to have been written
written many scholarly works in by Vangasena.
connection with Pänini's grammar g^ra^HRI? conventional namegiven
out of which the Tantrapradlpa is to the fourth päda of Pänini's
the most important one. The Astädhyayl which begins with the
work Dhatupradlpa is quoted by Sütra snpr^% 5RW: P. I I I 4 1
Sarai?adeva3 who was a contem-
porary of Maitreya Raksita, in his RU^^ enumeration or recital of
Durghatavrtti on P. II. 4. 52. roots in the Dhätupätha ;cf.
g f t called also «ngp^ attribut-
ed to a grammarian named Käsi- M. Bh. on P. III. L 1.
nätha. lit. meaning of a root, the
g a work on roots in verse- verbal activity, named f^^T or *JH;
form attributed to a grammarian cf. *ra& ft^T; M. BhB on III.2.
named Isvaraksnta. 84, 111.2,115. The verbal activity
g^ffl^CT a treatise dealing with is described generally to be made
roots believed to have been written up of a series of continuous sub-
by Rämasüihavarman, ordinate activities carried on by
a work dealing with roots the different kärakas or agents
believed to have been written by and instruments of verbal activity
Näräyana who was given the title helping the process of the main
cpsi. He lived in the seventeenth activity. When the process of the
century; a work named *TRT3fo5- verbal activity is complete, the
32?rWT is also believed to have been completed activity is looked upon
written by him. as a substantive or dravya and a
5 a short list of the impor- word denoting it, such as 31%or qFT
J does not get conjugational affixes,
tant roots from the Dhätupätha of but it is regularly declined like a
Pänini, given in verse by =3lfRPT a noun. Just as ^ l 4 , £«3, föf,
grammarian of the 17th century. and z$Wfi are given as
Q an elision of a portion of a in the same manner f^qj,
root; cf. 3 WTä^lq 3Tr<r3Tcr%, P.I.I 4. WOfl or ^ ^ T , and ^i^}> are given as
a general term applied to a ^ITc^ as they are shown by la
treatise discussing roots, but speci- verbal form, although strictly
fically used in connection with the speaking verbal activity (T%3flor W%)
scholarly commentary written by alone is the sense of a root, as
Mädhaväcärya, the reputed scholar stated in the Mahäbhasya. FQJ?
and politician at the court of the details see Vaiyak.Bh.Sira, where
Vijayänagara kings in the four- it is said that fruit (<?*5) and effort
teenth century, on the Dhätupätha ( «31NTC ) are expressed by a root,
of Pänini. The work is generally cf. <?^^rTR#RTg;. The five senses
referred to as ^rrW^r-^rglfrT to given above are in fact conveyed
distinguish it from ordinary com- not by a root, but by a verb or
mentary works called also «rnnfrf or ft
written by grammarians like
yijayänanda and others. a popular name given to the

second päda of the fifth adhyäya sonants excepting semi-vowels and

of Pänini's Astädhyäyi possibly nasals; cf. gea* §fä Kät. III.6.51.
because the päda begins with the The term is used in the Katantia
Sutra srpirci ^ %> ^ 3 , P. V.2.1. Vyäkarana. It corresponds to the
(1) suppression of a consonant5 term fR of Pänini.
out of two successive consonants tad. affix called Vibhakti tad.
which is looked upon as a affix, applied to the word %^
fault of recital; e.g. f^lft when when ? ^ i s changed into sr; cf.
recited as cRTfä; ef. •wrog^f^r: %^R: zR^mm §^T ^ 5R2R: Käs. on P,
Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6; (2) repe- V. 3.17.
tition of a consonant which is also a short term for ^TH or root.See |"2#
a fault; e.g.
g ^iTcT^f^^ for a class of words headed by
f U
cf. Uvvata onXIV.6;cf. the word ^T to which the tad.affix
etc. explained by Uvvata as sfö ( 3^L) is added in the miscella-
neous (ttfap ) senses; e. g. ^mm:
f where
^tT^^: etc.; cf Käs. on P.IV.2.127.
means 'lengthening* or'prolonging*
cf, R.Pr. on XIV.23; (3) the pecu- or HcWSR a kind of original
liar position of the mouth ( g ^ - grave vowel turned into a circum-
^TTOTH.) by which a double conso- flex one which is called w$ft unless
nant is recited as a single one, cf. followed by another acute or
circumflex vowel. The Taittirlya
) ;
Prätisäkhya has mentioned seven
e.g. s q r ^ , ^Ff2:»cf. V.Pr. IV. 144.
varieties of this cpracaya* out of
TM (l)a technical term used for sonant which ^sreq or r<p is one. For
consonants in the Prätisäkhya and details see Bhäsya on ^T: sp^pq:
old grammar works; cf. fa tt^ V. Ä ? ^ , T.Pr.XVIII.3.
Pr.1.53, explained by Uvvata as
^Wr sw^re: w ^ m ^ r fir: V.Pr. tad, affix ^& applied to the words
1.53; the term fir corresponds to y f q and ^m in the same sense
^ of Pänini; (2) personal ending as those words possess je.g.^n^i^C s
fä substituted for f| of the impera. cf. Käs. on P. V.4-25.
2nd sing. e.g. ^|T%, T%F5, f3#%, name of a fault in the pronun-
fl%> mi^r etc.; cf. P.V.4.101-103. ciation of a vowel when on
31 a technical term in the Jainendra account of fullness of breath it
Vyäkarana for ^cT (a root) which appears as uttered long ( ^R),
is used freely by the ancient gra- although really it is short; cf.
mmarians and Pänini.
Kaiyata on I. 1. Ahnika "l. Värt.
51^(l)the augment ^prefixed to the
consonant *r following upon the
consonant ^ or ^ occurring at the tad. affix ^gsj substituted for
end of a word; e.g. ^f^6FI, WT optionally after the word ^
*T?FOT2f etc.; cf. P. VIII.3.29; (2) e. g. Ü 3 ^ J H , TTCP^T; cf. P. V. 3.44.
technical short term for srrg (root); kit affix ^ seen in Vedic Lite-
the technical term is | ^ , but the rature, substituted for *fl option-
notnu sing, used is §<£; (3) a ally; e, g. mz% ^n; cf. P. VI.
term standing for con- 3.113.

(1) fixedjStationary, as contrasted

with moving (ip) which is termed
SRRR and hence put in the abla- fifth consonant of the dental class
tive case; cf. g^TOOTcCT^ P. I. of consonants which is possessed
4.24; (2) repeated sound ( 3K ) of the properties 3ra, ^KTgsRR,
of a third or a fourth consonant ^ and STTS^Tfef^. In
of the class consonants when it Pänini's grammar the nasal conso-
occurs at the end of the first nant ^ (a) added as an augment
word of a split up compound prescribed' or gq which
word; cf. R. Pr, VI. 11 and originally i as ^, but after-
XI. 24. wards cl =Td into 3qg*qTC or
as ro red, as for example
fixed; of a stationary nature; in qsnrcr, =WII|V f^Rrftr, sp^fcr etc.;
cf. P. VII. 1.58-73, VIL 1.79-
P. III. 4.76. 83; VIII. 3.24; (b) is changed
(1) sound; cf. f into <n when it directly follows
f^ 3.R[ ^T 35F?T: M. Bh. I.I. upon W, or ^ or even
Ähnika 1; cf. also Väk. Pad. L intervened by a vowel, a
77; cf. also w s : ^ : , ^ft: sp^T:, semivowel except s , a guttural
M.Bh. on I. 1.70 Värt. 5. ^ft or consonant, a labial consonant
sound is said to be the indicator or an anusvära; cf. P. VIII.
(*F3^ or 3qs3^) of # E the eternal 4.1.1-31. (c) is substituted for the
sound* final ^ of a root, e. g. 5RJF5, SRTT^
cf. P. VIII. 2.64, 65.
suggested, as opposed to (1) the consonant q (see ^ above)
expressed; the word is found fre- with the vowel added to it for
quently used in the Paribhasen- facility of utterance, cf. T. Pr.
dusekhara and other works in 1.21; (2) tad. affix ^ added to
connection with such dictums as words headed by <iw^ in the sense
are not actually made, but indi- of possession; e. g. qFffi:, ^ q ; etc.,
cated in the Mahäbhäsya.
cf. P. V, 2.100; (3) tad. affix * as
personal-ending of the sec. found in the word s%^TT derived
pers. pi. Atmanepada, substituted from c%^ ? cf P. V. 2.114; (4)
for 3 of the 10 u^ädi affix ^ as found in the
personal-ending in Vedic word *%*:; cf. Käs. on P. VI. 4.19;
Literature, substituted for vq^ of (5) the krt affix «^ as also ^
the sec. pers. pi. Atmanepada; prescribed after the roots qsr, qr^,
e. g. sfTW^ for 5UWTO cf. P. , ^ 5 ^ and ^ , e g. q^:,
VII. 1.42. : etc., cf. P. III. 3.90, 91;
the second out of the seven (6) the negative particle ^ given
positions of voice in the Veda by Pänini as ?j^ and referred to in
recital which are—tstrfg the same way? which (i.e. ^) when
and compounded with a following
word, is changed into sr or 3ffi;or
personal-ending of the sec. pers. retained in rare cases as for in-
pL Atmanepada in the present stance in TOTS , qrcraft, qftpm etc.
d perfect tenses. cffP,VI.3.73-75;(7) tad.affix q (f

applied to the words m\ and 'ig; (1) a class of words headed by

in senses given from P. IV. 1.92 to the word ^ to which the tad. affix
V. 2.1 e. g. ^OT, % R cf. IV. 1.87. 3TR=T ( SP^ ) is added in the sense
the consonant ?f to which the of TJl^ ( grandchild and further
vowel 3T and the affix ^K are descendants); e. g, q^PRr, «gRRq:;
added for facility of utterance; cf. Kis. on P. I V . l . 99; (2) a class
e. g. %?tt ?mi 3afr ?pf»ft R. Pr. of words headed by ^ to which
IV, *;cf. V, Pr. I. 17, 21. the affix i%{ (^) is added, together
krt affix ^ applied to the roots with the augment ^ placed after
^» m% W[ and others in the sense the word and before the affix, in
of verbal activity; e. g, SRJ; qpsn, the four senses prescribed in P.
^\: etc. cf. P. I I I . 3.90. 91. See IV.2. 67-70; e.g. ^tfran, WT$m;
cf. Kos. on P. IV. 2. 91-
krt. affix *fäj applied to the «T5T cerebralized* changed into OT.
roots ^ , gs and 'f>Un the sense The change of the consonant ^
of 'habituated' e.g. mwt *|wpB; into oj is called qfcf in the old
see Käs. on f. III. 2.172. " Prätisäkhya works; cf.
the negative particle ( ^ ) . Pr. IV- 11.
which possesses the six senses lit. inclination, bending down ;the
which are sketched as word is used generally in the tec-
hnical sense of 'cerebralization' but
'«12 wffcfcfl": and which are res- applied to the change of ^ into ijr
pectively illustrated by the as also that of ^ into g; cf, %r&£q
examples # qTqT%^:3 V. Pr.L 42. The root
^ is used in the sense of c cere-
: and 3 ^ : ^jq: i See ^ (6). bralizing 3 or ' being cerebraliz-
l compound with q as its ed ? very frequently in the Prätisä-
first member which is changed into khya works; e. g. the word ^xq%
3T or 3R^, or remains unchanged3 is used in the sense of * is cerebra-
the indeclinable JT (^5 ) possessing lized '; ^f^ in the sense of
any one of the six senses given 'cerebralizes9 and ?nf^ in the
above under ^ (6); e . g ^?nff(Ji;5 sense ofc causing cerebralization ';
3WSP, ^3T%: etc.; cf. P. VI. 3. cf. ^»TCPäpft ^ [ ^fJr^T: ^cftT;, ^ f
73-77. ^ R. Pr. I. 27.
a compound with ^ ( ?joT ) technical term applied in Panini's
as its first member; the term is grammar to words in the feminine
found used in the Mahäbhäsya gender ending in % and g? excep-
for both the ?Fcigw as well as the ting a few like ^fiyefl,^and others;
ri^g^i% compounds; cf. JVLBh. on it is optionally applied to words
P.I.4.1 Vart, 19, also on P . I I J . i . ending in % and 3", of course in
the superiority,
py, or the fem. gender, before case affix-
strength of the accent caused by es of the dative, ablative, genitive
^ETfTO which sets . aside the and locative sing. The term was
accent caused by the case affix; probably in use before'Panini and
cf. t^flT&aflSf^T ^Stqi^ ?• VI, was taken from the fern, word ^
?.158 Väyt. was taken as a model* Very

probably there was a long list of the Divine Bull of God Siva. See
words like ^ ( ^ZZ) % ( 3R? ) . The treatise is also named
etc. which were given as ending
in ^ and to which the affix % (#^) called also
was added for forming the femi- a gloss written
nine base;the first word ^i\ so
by Upamanyu on
formed, was taken as a model and
all words in the list and similar
others were called ?Rt; cf. P* I. f^ name given to the class
4. 3-6. of roots beginning with the root
q?5, which includes the roots
a fanlt of pronunciation when a
letter, although distinctly prono-
in the Ga^apätha.These roots have
unced inside the mouth, does not
the affix ^ i.e. vft added to them
become audible^ being held up
in the sense of agent, e.g.
( ^5 ) by the lips or the like. The
fault is similar to srtfgKi; cf. sft :, , , ,
? : etc.; cf. P.III.1.134.
a class of words headed by ^ t , ^ra lit. a word which is neither in
?rCr and other fern, nouns to which the masculine nor in the feminine
the taddhita affix xr$ ($%) is added gender; a word in the neuter
in the miscellaneous ( €[%fi ) senses- gender; cf. R.Pr.XIII.7, V, Pr. I I .
e.g. sfl^Wk ^fl^R» ^TftFRteR, **T3^TO, 32; III.138; cf P. VI.3.75, on
etc.; cf. Käs. on P.IV.2.97. which the Siddhanta Kaumudi
; krt affix ^ applied to the root ^ observes * ^T S P R ^ - ^ I
to show verbal activity; e.g. ^TJT; the special accent viz. the
cf.P.III.3.91. acute accent for the first vowel
one that causes cerebralization; for nouns in the neuter gender
cf. <J^T ^RH ^T%5 ^ 5 ^ . RJ?r*L27, excepting those that end in f JT, as
See ^fä. prescribed by ^
a Jain grammarian who Phitsütra 11; cf. ^ ^
wrote a gloss (sfä^i) on the f M;Bh. on P.VII.1.77.
capable of being cerebralized.
an ancient grammarian who See
has written a short work in verses X person; personal ending; the term
on grammar in general, which is is used in connection with (the
named sri^^BTR^T^gr. There is affixes of) the three persons vm*i,
a scholarly commentary upon it qpa&Fr, and ^x(?r which are promisc-
written by g w g . uously seen sometimes in the
a short treatise of 28 Vedic Literaturej cf. gfäfqsfig-
stanzas, attributed to an ancient feU^OT -* sqcqq^F^]% ### M. Bh.
grammarian ^ f ^ W , which gives on III.1.85.
a philosophical interpretation of rS^R! an old grammarian believed
the fourteen sütras attributed to to have been the original writer of
God Siva. The authorship of the the Särasvata Vyäkarana, on the
treatise is assigned traditionally to strength of references to him in
the commentary on the Sarasvata given to an anustup
Vyäkarana written by M^?A. as also verse which has nine, ten and
references in the commentary on eleven syllables respectively for the
the Prakriyakaumudl by Vittha- first, second and third feet; e.g.
lesa. He is believed to have lived
in the tenth century A;D. R.Pr. XVI. 29. The verse has got
l the same as ^ ? £ ^ . See 32 syllables, but it has only three
feet instead of four.
elision of ^ , which in Panini's (1) tad. affix sn as also ^r^ pres-
grammar is sometimes taken as cribed respectively after % f and
valid for certain grammatical ^ö£ (negative particle ^ ) in the
operations,and otherwise for other sense of separation; e. g. fcRr,
operations; cf. # fä$ ^Hll (2) case ending qr substituted
P.VIIL2.2. for the ins. sing, affix ET (called
also snf in ancient grammars) in
a term used in connection the masculine gender after words
with the first nine ganas or conju- called fä i. e. words ending in % or
gations given by Pänini in his g excepting such as are called ^Rf.
Dhätupätha, the tenth conjuga-
tion being looked upon as a secon-' the most reputed modern
dary conjugation. scholar of Pänini's grammar^ who
UfiNff name given to the first nine was well-versed in other Sastras
Ähnikas or lessons of the Mahä- also, who lived in Benares in the
bhäsya which are written in expla- latter half of the seventeenth and
nation of only the first päda of the the first half of the eighteenth
first Adhyäya of Pänini's Astädhyäyl century. He wrote many master-
and which contain almost all the ly commentaries known by the
important theories, statements and words ^ R . and 3^RF on the
problems newly introduced by authoritative old works in the
PataSjali. different Sästras, the total list of
his small and big works together
a term used for the differen- well nigh exceeding a hundred.
tiation in views and explanations He was a bright pupil of Hari
held by the comparatively new Dlksita, the grandson of Bhattoji
school of Bhattoji Dlksita, as con- Dlksita. He was a renowned
trasted with those held by Käsikä- teacher also, and many of the
kära and Kaiyata; the term is famous scholars of grammar in
sometimes applied to the differ- Benares and outside at present
ences of opinion expressed by are his spiritual descendants. He
Nagesabhatta in contrast with was a Maharästriya Brähmana of
Bhattoji Diksita. For details see Täsgaon in Sätärä District, who
p.p.* 23-24 Vol.VII of the Pätafi- received his education in Benares.
jala Mahäbhäsya ed. D.E. Society, For some years he stayed under
Poona. the patronage of Räma, the king
•TK elided or dropped; a term used of Sringibera at his time. He was
as a synonym of f lupta'in some very clever in leading debates in
commentaries. the various Sästras and won the

title of Sabhäpati. Out of his different words as opposed

numerous works, the Uddyota on to ^fTRqs; o r a single word;cf.V.Pr«
Kaiyata's Mahäbhäsyapradipa, the III. 80; T.Pr. XXIV. 3, XX. 3.
Laghusabdendusekhara on the
Siddhänta Kaunaudi and the Pari- absolutely necessary; being,
bhasendusekhara are quite well- in a way, inseparable; cf.
known and studied by every one
^ M. Bh. on P. III.
who wishes to get proficiency in
Pänini's grammar. For details 3.18 on which Kaiyata observes
see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, Vol.
VII of the Pätanjala Mahäbhä-
sya ed. D. E. Society, Poona.
see m. ^ the same as ^ * ^ W °r neuter
^ tad. affix ?ns applied to the gender; cf. ^[3^* ^ I T T T ^ I 1$&R
prefix sjcf optionally with the ^ ^ H ^ M . Bh. on IV. 1.3.
affixes SEFJ and '$&%; e. g. 3TCRTCT3 { the genitive affix Sft^ together
sr^raq;, ^T^H^; cf. Käs. on P. V. with the augment ^prefixed to
2.31. it; cf. ?nfa P. VI. 4. 3.
(1) voice; resonance; tone; the a word or noun derived from
sound caused by the vibration of a noun, as opposed to ^ 3 ? a word
the vocal chords in the ope a derived from a root.
glottis when the air passes through a denominative root; the
them; cf, ^ r ^ q ^ ^ i q r sjg^i^q; term §5^T§ is also used for ^RWTcT;
3T^: ^K: Uddyota on M. Bh. on cf. gasng^tjr^ig^i^t Nyäsa on P.
P. I. 1.9; cf. also w^ ^o^ m SJGQ VI. 1.3. See the word «rig.
l%^t *r uz$$t -qjfa T. Pr. II. 4; (2)
sound, articulate sound generally noun, substantive; one of the
without sense, which is momen- four categories of words given in
tary; (3) the highest sound. See q*r. the Nirukta and other ancient
^njST^p! having voice ( 3 T O as grammer works; cf. =^Tft ^RTrft
their main cause; a term used in ^WI^Rl ^iTO^qrcfT^, Nir, I.I. The
connection with vowels and so- word is defined as ^ w ^ r f t ^m\Pi
nant consonants which are caused by standard grammarians; cf.
by ^ cf, W Nir. I. L; cf. also ^nrn^Frö ^R,
R. Pr. XIII.8; V. Pr. VIII. 49
com. on T. Pr. II. 8. and com. thereon. Pät)ini divides
words into two categories only,
(a root) beginning with ^ in in viz. g^^rf and feilet and includes
the Dhätupatha as contrasted with = ü ^ , OT^and ßtqra under §«RU
one beginning with ^ ( qrjjf^ ) The Smgaraprakasa defines
whose ^ is, of course, changed into as follows—3p^cTOdj^xftfi[
^ when conjugational and other I cfTH W
forms are arrived at; cf. § ^ jrf5| ^ , The
word sjmq; at the end of a sasthi-
M.Bh. on VL L65. tatpurusa compound signifies a
possessed of sonorous, name or Sarhjää e. g. wfcmn, f^f-
resonant,-See ^ cf. also. Bhast.

vrttl on !ä P. n . 4 . 20 T^ and anusvära get a tinge of

^ q t i | P. III. 2.46 where nasalization while passing through
the author" of the work explains it. The yama letters e.g. the nasal
the word ^ R T as ^Tfe". The word % %> ^ % Set nasalization in the
is used in the sense of fa collection utterance of the words qfepFR;,
of words5 in the Nirukta, cf. s :, «STPCT; cf. ^j ^•\^
t %^: S.K. on P. VIII.
etc. 2. l. cf. also q*ng^TW^RHf ?ura%
in which V. Pr. I. 74, R. T. 12.
words with their genders are given. letters or phonetic elements
The term is usually used in con- produced in the nose; cf. ^ftpfiPTF
nection with the great dictionary ; R. T. 12. See x
by spFrcRSf which is called
or (1) personal ending substituted for
^ (vowels) which cause cere- ft (ft^) of the 1st pers. sing, in the
bralization; the ten vowels % M, imperative; (2) a technical term
%, t , ^, &> K> ^r, §» s?r; cf. ^ r a v in the Jainendra Vyäkarana for
c$t 331 3T£R: ^Rl: R. Pr- 1-27. cf. the term fäq-^ of Pänini.
also R.T. 94. See .the word n ot possessed of any number-
The word *HT^ is used for sense ; the term is used in connec*
in the Väjasaneyi Prätis'äkhya; cf» tion with indeclinables; cf.
, Pr» L 46; cf. also
. I.5.12. 133 Kas. on P.I. 4.21.
(1) name of a grammarian ^f:%% deprived of Sarhdhi; without
who wrote a commentary on the any euphonic combination or eu-
Mahäbhäsya-Pradipa; (2) a gram- phonic change.
marian who is said to have
augment fä as seen in the re-
written a gloss named Sabda-
duplicated syllable 35fä of the
bhusana on the Sütras of Pänini
aorist form ^jfasfi^ of the root
as also some minor works named
cf. %^1 ^T^T
ft ^tctf^WT;» etc.
a grammarian of the Käs. on P.VII.4.65.
seventeenth century who wrote a
a statement in the Vedic
treatise on grammar named Särä-
passage; a Vedic passage; sacred
vali, and a treatise on roots named
tradition or Vedic Literature in
general; cf. the frequent expression
necessary intervention; cf. ^qft fSprqr Wfä where ftq^ means
*a vedic word, given as an
a statement which is looked upon instance'; if also means ; Veda'; cf.
as a general statement of the £ P R r& qm ?qig; I M. Bh. on
nature of Paribhäsä occurring V I I . 2. 64. Durgäcärya says that
in the Mahäbhäsya on P. VII. 2.3. the word it also used in the sense
elision, the word is used in of 'meaning';cf. cRf # 5 ^cT^l fälHT
grammar as a synonym of 'lopa.' ^ R f Nir. III-9. Durgäcärya has
%^f?^TR a place ia the nose where j also explained the word as *T*Rßct
a nasal letter such as s?9 ^ a], ^ or I ^ frFW.% those

that make the hidden meaning of

the Mantras very clear. an affix possessed of the mute
a kind of sound which appa- indicatory letter ^, the word cha-
rently is made up of a combina- racterized by which has the acute
tion of three phonetic elements accent on the vowel of the first
| , ^and qift^q. It is a peculiar syllable; e. g. n\A-} «TT^.% cf. Käs.
sound through both the mouth and onP,VI.1.197.
the nose, although no specific (1) eternal, as applied to word
place of production is assigned to or sabda in contrast with sound
It; c£ 3?föti5[^n^ ä^T^Fnfi i §^rc- or dhvani which is evanescent
^ err ftrö R.T.I 1. (^I§ ), The sound with meaning or
g a name given to a collection without meaningjmade by men and
of words which are mainly Vedic. animals is impermanent; but the
In ancient times such collections sense or idea awakened in the mind
were possibly very general and by the evanescent audible words
numerous and the works or trea- on reaching the mind is of a per-
tises on derivation such as the manent or eternal nature; cf. ^£. 1
Nirukta of Yäska were based upon Fftg^FIcf; cf. also
them; cf. ft^i^: ^tnq; l Nir J . I ; (2) cons-
tant; not liable to be set aside by
another; cfw %
:I m ^I
T.Pr.1.59, IV. 14; (3) original as
(Nir.Ll) where the word is deri- constrasted with one introduced
ved from Ti^or fjq or %. The word anew such as an augment; cf. T.
is taken as synonymous with Pr. VI. 14; (4) permanently func-
by Durgäcärya. tioning, as opposed to tentatively
toning down; the grave accent; doing so; cf. ft^T%% flpTPpj; R.
the root fä^ in its various forms is T.37; (5) unchangeable, perma-
used in the sense of toning down nent, imperishable; cf. 3?4 ft^o^t-
the voice and the word f^Mcf is i ^ r ^^^f¥^iTi%5 ^Tt§ ^ M.Bh.
used in the sense of the grave on P. VIII. 1,4; (6) always or
accent (3l3?ra^) in the Vyäkarana invariably applying, as opposed
and Prätisäkhya works; cf. also to optional; the word in this
the words ^fam> tfföpflRr, etc.; cf. sense is used in connection with
& : P. VIII. rules or* operations that do not
1.18 Värt. 5. optionally apply ; c£ ^qqssffimr
^ frT; M. Bh,
f substitute ft for the last letter of
the word *mi at the end of a on P.IL2.19; (7) constant^as appli-
Bahuvrlhi compound; cf. gq^Tft:, ed to a rule which applies if
W f t : Käs. on P.V. 4.134. another simultaneously applying
rule were to have taken effect, as
less by one syllable; the word well as when that other rule does
is used as an adjective to the not take effect; cf. s^^cTTfcITOI^-
name of a Vedic metre which has %oTTfq ftzm Par. Sek. Pari 46.
got one syllable less than the The operations which are nitya
pormal; <£ $ % according to this Paribbäsa take

effect in preference to others which and T; cf.

are not 'nitya', although they may I
even be f para'; cf. < sift ^•^M]: \ Nir. I. 4.
Par. Sek. Pari. 42. The Nipatäs are looked upon as
possession of greater possessed of no sense; cf. fcro:
force; the word is used in connec- qRgjoi: R. Pr- X I I . 8, V, Pr. VIIL
tion with rules that are called ft^r. 50, ( com. by Uvvata ). Pänini has
See ft?q (7). - not given any definition of the
an invariably effective .word föq"Rr,but he has enumerated
compound; the term is explained them as forming a class with ^ at
as 5q^PT^f%5Ttr fä^^TO; i. e. a com- their head in the rule ^ % O T £ J
pound whose dissolution cannot where the word sflER^ conveys an,
be shown by its component words impression that they possess no
as such; e. g. the dissolution of sense, the sense being of two
: cannot be shown as f^ kinds 6xc[ and ^T^T, and the Nipätäs
:, but it must be «hown as f M not possesssing any one of the two.
T: I The upapadasamasa, the The impression is made rather
gatisamäsa and the dative tat- firm by the statement of the
purusa with the word *%% are Varttikakara-
examples of fä P . I . 2. 45 Värt. 12.
Thus, the question whether the
a scholar of Sanskrit Nipätas possess any sense by them-
Grammar who wrote glosses on selves or not, becomes a difficult
the Mahäbhäsyapradipa, on the one to be answered. Although the
Laghusabdendusekhara and on Rkprätisäkhya in XII.8 lays down
the Paribhäsendusekhara. He that the Nipätas are expletive, still
was a resident of Benares where in the next verse it says that some
he coached many pupils in Sanskrit of them do possess sense; cf„
Grammar. He lived in the first
half of the nineteenth century. which Uvvata remarks
^ illustration; cf. qqfcTf sfay: gösras: ^im\:9 % ^ $mw: I The remark
rc M.Bh. on I. 4. 23 of Uvvata appears to be a sound
Värt. 15; cf. also %® one as based on actual observa-
R. Pr. I. 22. tion, and the conflicting views have
a particle which possesses no to be reconciled. This is done by
gender and number, and the case Bhartrhari who lays down that
termination after which is dropped Nipätas never directly convey the
or elided. Nipäta is given as one sense but they indicate the sense;
of the four categories of words viz Regarding the sense indicated by^
^RT^, 3TH3TO, 3TO*I and fäTO by all the Nipätas, it is said that the sense
the ancient writers of Prätisäkhya, is never Sattva or Dravya or sub-
•Vyäkaratia and «Nirukta works; cf. stance as remarked by Pänini; it ii
Nir. I. 4, M.Bh. on I. 1. Ähnika a certain kind of relation and that^
1, R. Pr, XII. 8 etc. The word is too, is not directly expressed by
derived from the root qq; with fä them but it is indicated, Bhoja in
by Yäska who has mentioned three his Srngäraprakäsa gives a very
subdivisions of Nipatag comprehensive definition of Nipät^

as i Nipatana word is expressed in the

Sutra, which is said to prevail over
the accent which ordinarily should
He gives six varieties of them, viz. be possessed by the word; cf.

f^^ft^WI^ and arfäftfä^TFi, and M.Bh. on P.I.1.56 Värt. 23-cf.

mentions more than a thousand of also M.Bh. on 1.3.3, VI.1.123 etc.
them. For details see Bhartrhari's |i 4 the view prominently py
Väkyapadiya II. 189-206. k h
expressed by the Värttikakära that
vWcRltcF^Je^r the view that the nipätas do not possess any sense,
nipätas and the upasargas too, which was modified by Bhartrhari
as contrasted with nouns,pronouns who stated that they do possess
and other indeclinables, only sense which, of course, is indicated
indicate the sense and do not de- and not expressed. See FflTfcL
note it; this view, as grammarians ^ f r l ' a short treatise"
say, was implied in the Mahabha- explaining and illustrating the use
sya and was prominently given in of indeclinables, written by a
the Väkyapadiya by Bhartrhari grammarian named fcT^F who
which was followed by almost all probably lived in Kasmlra.
later grammarians. See ^ a mode of utterance of words at
a word given, as it appears, the performance of a sacrifice«
without trying for its derivation,in Seven such modes are given in the
authoritative works of ancient gra- Taittiriya Prätisäkhya;cf. t
mmarians especially Pänini;cf.3jf^-
^ P. VI.4.174, as also 5.
g V.4.77 etc. etc. The (1) the formal cause of a gra-
phrasefäTERTfiogi^is very frequen- mmatical operation; cf. fäfäTTFTl^
tly used by Patanjali to show that ^för^^^TOFT; given as a Pari-
some technical difficulties in the bhäsä by many grammarians like
formation of a word are not some- Vyädi, Siradeva and others; cf.
times to be taken into considera- also Sf^jqqtWlSRI fJfftrS SM% f^Ä^f
tion, the word given by Pänini M.Bh. on III. 1.1 Värt. 2; (2)
being the correct one; cf. M.Bh.on distinguishing sign ^ ^
1.1.4, IILL22 etc. etc.; cf. also
the usual expression ^ i ^ r ^ r ftqicf- M.Bh. on LI.26 Vart.5.
sfflft. The derivation of the word locative case, used in the
from q^; with ft causal, is suggest- sense of a cause as prescribed by
ed in the Rk Prätisäkhya where it ftffirn^ft^t, P. 11.3 36 Värt. 6
is stated that Nipätas are laid down and illustrated by the usually
or presented as such in manifold quoted verse h% ^
senses; cf. R. Pr.XII.9; cf. also
^ \ f 3
M.Bh.on II.3.36 Värt. 6, also cf.
Bh. Pradipa on P# V.1.114; cf.also Käs. on P. 1.1.57.
M. Bh. on II.L27. I^TfNPT^^Wr a popular name
given by grammarians to the
the-accent, with which the maxim fäfä^ ^ ^ ^

thing, which is brought into exist- or a part of it, liable to become

ence by a cause, disappears on superfluous if the restriction has
the disappearance of the cause. not been laid down; cfB M.Bh. on
The maxim is not, of course, I. 1. 3, Käs. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.11;
universally applicable. For details cf. also the frequently quoted
see Par. Sek. Pari. 56, Sira. Pari. dictum z]p\m •pFFffiTfitft qfonsT; (2)
99. limitation as contrasted with
or WF3R; cf.
tf; an affix or an augment or a
substitute taking place on account
?%; M. Bh. on I I . 2. 34 Värt 2;
of certain formal causes or nimi-
(3) a regulating rule; a restrictive
ttas; cf. f
rule3 corresponding to the Parisam-
khyä statement of the Mlmärhsakas»
M. Bh. on I I I . ] . 1
e. g. the rule Sfg^Rfirr ^fl^^q^
Värt. 2. P» 1.3.12; the grammarians gene-
Rf (l)regulated in size or number; rally take a rule as a positive in-
definitely fixed; the word fcrcfl is junction avoiding a restrictive sense
used in grammar in connection with as far as possible; cf, the dictum
the nimitta or nimittin in a gram- T^^RTO^f fäfster s q r ^ P a r ' Sek,
matical operation prescribed by a Pari. 100; the commentators have
rule, which, or a part of which, is given various kinds of restrictions,
shown to be superfluous unless such as ^ f t f ^ ^ ^ ' ^ i
there is laid down a regulation; cf.
(4) grave accent or anudätta; cf.
5 ftq^ R. Pr. I I I . 9 ; see
M.Bh. on 1.3.12 Värt. 6; (2) The r (2).
grave accent; cf, ^TTTJ5 f^Rcf..#
r RPr.IIL9. i; limiting; limitative; cf. g:
( l ) a n affix whose accent is M. Bh, on II. 4.83; cf. also
definitely given by an indicatory
mute letter applied to it; cf. M.Bh. T Par. Sek. Pari. 56.
on 1.1.3; (2) the grave accent; a
syllable with a grave accent; grave an obligatory order or
vowel; cf. f^Rcf^RT^ R.Pr.XI.25; command, such as that of a pre-
(3) name of a Samdhi when a ceptor, as contrasted with
visarga is changed into \<fi and cf OT: TO Sp^TS^öSJJ cfT
then omitted and the preceding
vowel is lengthened; cf. f^JFJTFT- g etc. M, Bh. on P.
fiTOTOTTfäriTR.Pr. IV.9; cf. also I I I . 4.67 Värt. 8 where Kaiyata
P. V I I U . 1 4 and V I / U 1 1 . explainsfäajfJTas ^
• (1) restriction; regulation; bind- pure, unnasalized, as
ing; the term is very frequently opposed to HT3^ITT&^ nasalized, cf.
used by grammarians in connec-
tion with a restriction laid down M.Bh. on I. 1. Ahnika 1.
with reference to the applica- possessed of no mute
tion of a grammatical rule gene- indicatory letter; not possessed of
oa the steengfch of that rule. any mute ipd|catory l^ttefj ff* ^

(3?Ff»R:) p this kind in ancient times as

MJBh. on I. L14. shown by references to the writers
of these viz. Upatnanyu, Sakatäy-
g R a short term used ana,Sakapür>i?Säkapürti and others,
for the maxim fä^|^WTI% 3 but, out of them only one work
Par. Sek. Pari. 81. composed by Yäska has survived;
possessed of no scope of, or the word, hence has been applied
occasion for, application; the word by scholars to the Nirukta of
SW^ISI is also used in this sense. Yäska which is believed to have
The niravakäsa rules always set been written in the seventh or the
aside the general rules which are eighth century B. G. i. e. a century
always present wherever they i. e, or two before Pänini. The Nirukta
the niravakasa rules are possible to works were looked upon as subsidi-
be applied. Niravakäsatva is looked ary to the study of the Vedas
upon as one of the two criteria for along with works on phonetics
*m or sublation, the other one ), rituals ( ^ q ), grammar
being em^%tf<TOT£F as illustrated prosody (^^5^) and astro*
by the usual maxim, known as qn%si)and a mention of them
a^FTflS^F^PT. See ciWFF§^?^^,' cf. is found made in the Chändogyo-
also SRSffiRrr f| f^qj- panisad. As many of the derivati-
Par. Sek. on Pari, 64. ons in the Nirukta appear to be
a fault of pronunciation when forced and fanciful, it is doubtful
a vowel is harshly pronounced whether the Nirukta works could
and hence is not properly audible; be called scientific treatises. The
cf. ßrc^t fäg^Pradipa on M.Bh. I. work of Yäska, however, has got
1. Ahn* I. The fault occurs when its own importance and place
the place and the means of utter- among works subsidiary to the
ance are pressed and drawn in;cf. Veda? being a very old work of
R. Pr. x i v . % that kind and quoted by later
(1) set aside; answered; the commentators. There were some
word is frequently used in connec- glosses and commentary works
tion with faults which are stated written upon Yäska's Nirukta out
to occur or present themselves if of which the one by Durgäcärya is
a particular explanation is given; a scholarly is doubtful whe-
(2) prevailed over by another; cf, ther Durgäcärya is the same as
s^r H ws 35*#r f^RTfKR; R. Pr. XI. Durgasirhha, "who wrote a Vrtti
30, where Uvvata paraphrases or gloss on the Kätantra Vyäkar-
p as fä ana. The word f^cfr is 'found in
name of a class of works which the Prätisäkhya works in tfee sense
were composed to explain the of 'explained'and not im. the sense
collections of Vedic words by of derived; cf. R. Pr. XV ß; Y.Pr
means of proposing derivations of IV. 19, 195.
those words'from roots as would a ggloss on Yaska's Nirukta
suit the sense. The Nirukta works written by a modern scholar of
are looked upon as supplementary grammar named Ugräcarya in tfac
to grammar works and there must eighteenth century A. D.
have been a good many works of ^ a class of compound words

headed by the word ffo^E which V. Kas. on P. II.2.10

have their last vowel accented as also onll.3.41; (2) determined
acute; e. g ft^R,, $m®^ f ^ T % ^ or definite sense to the exclusion
etc.; cf. Käs. on P. VI. 2- 184. of another, generally on the
^ S W T C potentiality of implica- strength of the indeclinable 133
tion which gives the meaning of a which is expressed or understood.
word which is based upon implica- The word fMfc&T is used for :
tion; e. g. ^4t T»3rfct. in this sense; cf.
l^tpsf a word, the penultimate
^ a maxim used as a Paribhäsä
vowel in which is picked up and
by some grammarians; cf. also
taken back, as for instance the
^ Käs. oh P. VI.
penultimate ^ of ^ in the word
cf. SRffciar *%%?
Nir. IV. 25. separated,dissociated, disconne-
cted; ^cf. -?i ftt^T ^ f ^ M
a short form for the
which : Nir. 1.3.
maxim föfew^^ a name for the Samhitäpätha;
means 'substitutes take the place
of that or its part which has been cf, f^-g^t ^f^rr^Rgsqct R. Pr.I. 3,
actually stated or enunciated in ^ name of a commentary on
the rule (of grammar)' Par, Sek, the Prakriyä-KaumudL
Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. ^ 5 name of a grammarian who is
Pari. 12. believed to have written a gloss
exhibited, enunciated; cf. ( f!% ) on the Sütras of Panini on
ftfää «rfe P.I.1.66; V.Pr.I. the strength of a reference to him
134. in the Nyäsa of Jinendrabuddhi;
a popular name of the cf. fi%: qm^fiw^t ft^ife^flft^-
Paribhäsä dlflföfä fäftl ^ f e ! cf. ITftproTtcn^ Nyäsa on 1.1.1.
I Pari. R interpretation by means of
Bhäskara Pari. 97. etymology as found in the Nirukta
f$T mention, actual statement; the works; the act of fully uttering the
word is often used in the Mahäbh- meaning hidden in words that are
äsya in sentences like ^ cT«rr ft%* partially or wholly unintelligible
w*?:5 fä^Ö fW etc.; cf. also V.Pr. in respect of their derivation, by
1. 36; cf. also the maxim crfS&fäffcT separating a word into its compo-
ft¥& S#I P. LI.166 and V. Pr. I. nent letters; cf. f^f^q fcfiff ft^N^
134; cf. also SfSRq Wf%tW*I ^R- Durgavrtti on Nir. II. l.For details
fäSF$F\ fä%: ^ s q : M.Bh. on P. I. see Nirukta ILL
2. 39 Värt. L Sometimes the men- (1) productive, as opposed to
tion or exhibition made by a word expressive; cf. % ^ fM& I
shows the particular type of word;
cf. Durghata Vrtti on P. L 2. 6
and VII. 4. ^73 as also Käs. on M.Bh. on P.L1.50 Värt. I; (2)
P. IV, 3. 11 andV. 2. 20. productive of activity; cf. Ü
(1 Selection of one or some out
of m a n y ; cf. fe^^ J^ Bh.onIA23.
one of the many kinds of kar-

man or object governed by a anuvrtti cf; ^ mm

transitive verb or root, which has ^ Hlf% ^fTI% M. Bh. on P. 1.1.44
got the nature of being produced Värt, 8. cf. also ^%^faT%HT ^
or brought into existence or into a cir 5iff%: e i ^T ftffcr: Kät. Par- Vr.
new shape; cf. fäfä'4 ^ fMM färö Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal;
cf. ^ ^ ft^
The word is explained^ as
M. Bh. on
Sr. Prakäsa; cf. I. 1.1. Värt. 7; cf. also M. Bh. oh
also Väkyapadiya III.7.78; cf.also I. 1. 3 e t c ; cf. also the usual
word ft
<T°l^FCR*Tfä3 f^RTcT I M. Bh. on places where the sub-
1.4.49, For details see the word stitutes QOT and ffe do not appjy;
; also see M.Bh. on 1.4.49. weak terminations; kit or nit
production of the effect; pro- affixes in Pänini's grammar; cf.
duction of the activity by the
agents or instruments of activity I Nir. II. 1. The word
called Kürakas; cf. ^"psffi ft T^fT is also used in this sense by
•R^fcRIcf cTHiTO^Ti T^HTS M.Bh. on ancient grammarians.
II. 2.19 Värt. 2. negation; prohibition; cf fäV
a fault of pronunciation by ^qs^fsrsfpq %m]Vi\ Bhäsävrtti on P.
which a letter is uttered harsh or II. 2^.18; cf. fJftsrisr ^ms: Par.
rude; cf. fäi^T^: Kaiyata on M. Sek. Pari. 112. The word srf^tw
BhJ.l. Ähnika 1. is used frequently in this sense in
(1) abridgment, diminution; old grammar works such as the
i R|fte: srq^: Mahäbhasya, the word f&q be-
I Kaiyata on M.Bh. on ing comparatively a modern one.
IV.3.100; (2) being turned into a a class of words headed by
short (vowel); cf. ^TOFcf^TfSf^sff the word i^ra to which the affix
R.Pr.IV.39. f$ ( 33?) is added, provided these
lit. expeller, excluding other words are not members of a
forms which are otherwise, that is, compound; e. g. Irf^r^, <nf§^J£,
incorrect; cf OTH ^F? ^JIWP^cI: tc.; cf. Käs. on P. V.1,20,,
M.Bh. on l separated; taken out from a
LI. &va Sütra 2. thing; existing only in concep-
that which should not proceed tion or idea; cf. f| ^
to the next rule; cf. cT^iq^ PRK^H
M.Bh. on IIL2.68, V.1.16, etc.
See the word Pfjfti. Kaiy. on P, I I . 2. 8.
sometimes used for T^r^r or the affixes xfr and in
the grave accent,, Pänini's Grammar; cf. ;
(1) cessation of recurrence of P . I . 1.26.
a word or words from a rule to a also H:fs^ completed, accom-
subsequent rule or rules; non-appli- plished; used in connection with
cation of a rule consequent upon a grammatically formed word by
the cessation of recurrence or applying affixes to the bases; cf.

fff ^f Siradeva augment \ (I) affixed to the

Pari. 94, where Siradeva has words 3T?cr% and qfcNq; before the
explained the word fäi§3" as feminine affix #tq e. g. 3Ri%fr,
m^% cf. P. IV. L32; (2) affixed
struck down in tone, grave, to the root osr before the causal
possessed of a grave accent; cf. affix $[%, e. g. ftoSftarfct, cf. P.
V. Pr. IV. 138. V I I . 3.39; (3) affixed to the re-
duplicative syllable of roots end-
separated with the interven- ing in a nasal consonant and
tion of a consonant. The word is having the penultimate 3? as also
used in connection with the de- of the roots ^ , snj, ^ , c^j, ^ 5 ,
tached first part of a compound ^ , and q^ in the intensive;
word not followed immediately e. ^ ^ ^ t
by a vowel; cf. sflftfta ^ ^ t | c f ^
Uvvata on V. Pr. V. 30. cf. P. VII 4.85, 86, 87.
augment sft affixed to the re-
duplicative syllables of the roots augment ^ prefixed (1) to the
gen. pi. ending in 3TH, after a'crude
in the intensive; e. g. base ending in a short vowel, or in
q#rs2Rj etc. cf. P. VII. 4.65 I or g? of feminine bases termed
and 84. nadi, or in STT of the feminine affix
a term used for the grave ( ^35 ^1 or ^ ) ; e. g.
accent or for the vowel, accented I
grave; cf* sftcRt&äj q^f etc.; cf. P. V I I . 1.54; (2) to the
T. Pr. XIX. 1. 35fft *{ ^ affix STT^ after numerals term-
R. T. 54, 55 cf. also V. Pr. I. 111. ed ^? s and the numeral ^fgj^as also
constituting the grave after the words $fr, JTPRoiV and ij\ in
accent, features of the grave Vedic Literature^ e. g.
accent; cf. aF^rcmt TRSl^cTT ^t^i 5 f5 g S
% KTO M.Bh. on I. 2.30. ; cf. P. VII.1.55, 56, 57; (3)
author of %qFR3#£RR^ a to the part of a root possessed of
commentary on the Siddhänta two consonants, as also of the
Kaumudi of Bhattoji Dlksita. root 3T3J of the fifth conjugation
^ ^ 3 4 l % c T a famous grammarian after the reduplicative syllable
of the seventeenth century who ending in $n, which is substituted
wrote an independent work on for 3?; e.g. 3TRa, 5*IH^; cf.P.VII.4.
the Paribhäsäs in Vyäkarana 71,72; (4) to the affix 3Tcjq after a
named Paribhäsävrtti. This Vrtti base ending in 3?^ as also to the
is referred to in the ParibhSsen- affixes cf^ and cl?rq after a base
dusekhara by Nägesabhatta and ending in ^ in Vedic Literature,
the views expressed in it are e.g. Jj^Nät, sra^rf:, gqrfär^R: etc.;cf.
severely criticised in the com. P. V I I I . 2.16, 17; (5) to the initial
vowel of the second membfcr of a
nephew of Appaya compound having 31 of ^ as the
Dlksita who has written a com- first member; e. g. $RSC, cf. P.VI.
mentary on Kaiyata's Mahäbha- 3.74; (6) to any vowel after ^
syapradipa. which is preceded by a short vowel

and which is at the end of a word 55S partly touched, half touched;
e.g. %frm, cf. P. V I I I . 3.32. semi-contacted; a term used for
augment ^ inserted after the last sibilants and hissing sounds.
vowel (1) of a root given in the ^ multisyllabic,possessed of many
Dhätupatha as ending with mute syllables, as contrasted with t23>r^.
f; e.g. H^%, SFSCfir, f^^cOTcF, 1%^T% ( ) belonging to the Veda,Vedic
etc.; cf.P VII. 1.58; (2).of roots§=^ as opposed to otf^S or snfiffi; cf.
and others before theconjugational ^ ^ ^ l Nir.I. 20; (2)
sign 3T (sr); e. g. *$ßj% g^fä; cf. name given to Kändas 4, 5 and 6
P, VII.1.59; (3) of the roots m% of the Nirukta of Yäska; cf.
^T, ^ , 5 ^ and $5^ under certain 5p5 ^ ß%
specified conditions, e.g.^f^RSTT, ^fST, Durga Vr. on Nir IV. 1.
*?SRT%, *F*prfcr, 35**raTct, SHQSTWI: etc. ^ mentioned as secondary; lit«
cf.P.VII. 1.60-69; (4) of declin- T>FgW% 3&IRlfä q^TFT; the term is
able bases marked with the mute applied to the first three Kändas
indicatory letter ^, ^ or ^ as also or sections of the Nirukta.
of the declinable wording 3js=g accessory; accidental;
from the root s ? ^ a n d Jjsr, e . g . ^ R ,
SRT^, ^ , 3 ^ , cf.lCäs. on P. VII. 1.
70, 71; (5) of the declinable base
effect; one that is caused; cf.
in the neuter gender, ending with
tö StftPa^^n^WI^: a Pari-
a vowel or with any consonant bhäsa given by Vyadi^ Siradeva
excepting a semivowel or a nasal, and others.
before a case-ending termed Sar- (1) obtained by derivation, ety-
vanamasthana; e.g. «poTf%» 3TClfa, mological; (2) etymologist, writer
^gft etc., cf. Käs. on VII. 1.72; (6) of a Nirukta work.
of the declinable base in the neuter matter of communication;
gender, ending with ^3 ^ *sp or ^ statement made for communica-
before a case-ending beginning tion. Uddyota explains the word
with a vowel; e.g. *?§>, gfäSf etc., as fä%i: sffa; spftsrcroq ^iitl^: I cf.
cf. Käs. o n P . VII.1.73;(7) of the
affix ^3 (3[q of the pres. part.) M. Bh. on
under certain conditions ^^T W&l P. 1.1.67.
<^Rfr, m*w€\, cf. UVIL78-8 ; (8) tad. affixes ^ and others
of the word £Rg|^before the nom. added in the sense ofc cR3f "Rcfra": y
and voc. sing, affix §;e.g» 3ffif5F^, (P. IV. 2. 69), as in words like €*r
I 3&&FI, cf. P. VII. 1. 82; (9) of meaning the place of residence of
the words ^ , ^qn and ^cT^H the Sibis.
before the nom. and voc.sing.affix
v a technical term in the Jainen-
g in Vedic Literature, e. g.
dra Vyäkarana for the term OT^rsfo
, cf. P.VII. 1.83.
defined by Pänini in the rules
augment ^ inserted after the a n d T£?ß~
last vowel of a root or a noun-base P.I.2.43, 44.
in specified cases. See gn.
a kind of f^T metre in
name of the second Yama which* the second foot has twelve
letter, syll^blesa wl^ile the rest have

eight syllables each; cf. or rules of interpretation many of

R.Pr.XVI.32. which were based upon popular
^ a class of words headed by maxims as stated in the word
the word ^ j g , which are formed ;^cpqj;qj%;g; by Nägesa. Hernacan-
by means oi the substitution of a dra has used the word ^m for
guttural consonant in the place of Paribhäsa-vacana. The word is also
a consonant of any other class used in the sense of a general rule
belonging to the root from which which has got some exceptions,
these words are formed; e. g. c £ -^R^T^^r^T^ ScffaTci; R. Pr.

*%> W* e t c -; cf- K § s , on P. which lays down the direction

53. that 'one should interpret the rule
laying down an exception along
\ lower5 subordinate, the
with the general rule'.
word is used in the sense of upa-
sarjana as a technical term in the ^ a work dealing with
Jainendra V\akarar>a, cf. Vyakarana Paribhäs^s or maxims
Jain. VyJ.1.93. as found in Hemacandra's system
of grammar, written bv Hema-
also «fNisncif, the vowel at the hamsaganinj a pupil of Ratna-
f or end of ths first member sekhara, in 1451. The author has
of a compound word which has written a commentary also on the
got a grave accent; e. g. the vowel work, named Nyäsa.
^ of ^ in cf^<%; cf. 3 ^ F 3
V. Pr. I. 120. See a work enumerating the
Paribhäsas in Hemacandra's gram-
mar, numbering 140 nyäyas out
name given to ST-gcTO or the of which 57 nyäyas are said to
grave tone; cf. *m\ ?Wtf<%^Tg£r have been given by Hemacandra
aqrfe: STOft R. Pr. III. 17 where
himself at theend of his comment
Uvvata explains -q^RT as ^g^xKRT.
H^JI% o n his Sabdänusäsana. The
maxim, a familiar or patent work is written by I^I^Tifaj who
instance qnoted to explain simi- has added a commentary to it
lar cases;; cf. the words called Nyäyärthamanjüsa by him,
Ma Bh. on P. II 2.24, which is also known by the name
M. Bh. on P. I. 3. 9, which see above*
q M