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14 vizualizări9 paginiDemo version of the final round tasks

Aug 31, 2019

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Demo version of the final round tasks

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14 vizualizări

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Demo version of the final round tasks

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Exercises 1-7: please present results as in decimal format, rounded up to three significant

digits with physical dimension expressed in SI units (for example: if raw result is 1,2345 cm

– in the “Result” field it must be presented as 0,0123, if the result is 0,2345 ton – in the

“Result” field it must show up as 235) – if other units are not demanded specially.

1. A girl is rotating a hoop with diameter d = 90 cm round waist. The waist size of the girl is l =

75 cm. How many rotations per minute shall do the hoop so that not to fall down? The friction

coefficient equals 0.5, the gravity acceleration g = 10 m/s2.

2. The rubber spherical balloon with mass 4 g is being filled with Helium (molar mass 4 g/mole) at the

temperature 10° С under water at the depth 20 m. The density of rubber equals 1.4 g/cm3, the water

density - 1 g/cm3. The rubber brakes when its thickness decreases down to 10-3 cm. Find please the mass

of gas in the balloon when it will finally brake. Atmospheric pressure p0 = 105 Pa. g = 10 m/s2, The

gas constant R =8,31 J/(mole∙K). Please, express result in grams and write it down rounded up to 3

significant digits.

3. A frog with the mass 30 g rests on the little wooden square float with square 100 cm2 and height 5 cm.

How high shall the frog jump in order to make a float sink into the water completely. The water density is

1000 kg/m3, The wood density is 740 kg/m3. Please present the result in meters, rounded up to 3

significant digits.

4. Bungee jumping: a man falls from the tower H = 200 m height with a rubber tope attached to his feet.

The minimal height down to which the jumper will descend is h′ = 50 m over the ground. After all the

oscillation will stop, the jumper will hang at the height h = 90 m over the ground. What maximal speed

will the jumper reach during this jump? The air resistance may be neglected. g = 10 м/с2. Please,

express result is m/s and write it down rounded up to 3 significant digits.

5. Two metallic balls with radiuses r = 4 cm and a bigger one with R = 8 cm are positioned at big

distance from each other and all connected with a thin wire. One of the smaller balls initially was

charged up to Q = 12 nCl. Two others are surrounded by metallic envelopes with radiuses r1 = 5 cm and

R1 = 9 cm correspondingly. Envelopes are electrically grounded. Find the charge of the first ball after the

charge equilibrium will be reached. Please, express result is nCl and write it down rounded up to 3

significant digits.

6. The nucleus U after a series of α - and β - decays turns into a nucleus

238

92

206

82 Pb . Find please the

ratio of the number of β - and α -decays. Write it down as the result.

7. The molecule of Cl 2 (molar mass µ ( Cl2 ) = 70 g/mole) with velocity v = 300 m/s, absorbs a photon

with the wavelength λ = 380 nm,. As the result the molecule splits into 2 separate atoms. One of them

obtains the velocity v1 = 1000 m/s orthogonal to the initial velocity of the molecule. What was the

binding energy of the molecule? The pulse of the photon may be neglected. Please, express result is

Joules, multiplied by the factor 1019 and write it down rounded up to 3 significant digits. .

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

8. The thin tungsten wire with radius r = 0,1 mm and electrical resistivity=

heated by the current I = 1 А? Which temperature will reach the wire if its heat emission

capability equals to a = 0,1 from that of the absolute black body. The Stephan-Boltzmann

constant equals= σ 5,67 ⋅ 10−8 Wt/(m2 ⋅ К4).

9. The brick wall of a house has the square S = 20 m2 and the thickness d = 37 cm. The room

inside the house is heated with the electrical heater with power P = 1 kWt. Define the distance

from the inner surface of the wall to the plane inside the brick wall where the temperature equals

t0 = 0° С, if the temperature outside is t =−26° С. The heat conductivity of the brick is λ = 0, 4

Wt/(m ⋅ К). Other heat losses shall be neglected. The room temperature is the same all over the

room.

10. An electron is emitted from the surface of the big metallic plane perpendicular to it with

initial velocity v0 , How far from the plane the electron may manage to move in two cases: 1) the

electron moves in the braking electric field E , 2) additionally to the electric field E, there is a

magnetic field B, directed parallel to the surface of the plane.

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

1. Answer: 1,24

The hoop is effected by the gravity force, as well as by the normal reaction and friction forces at the

point where the hoop is currently touching the girl’s waist:

= , N mω 2 ( R − r ) ,

mg Fтр=

=mg kmω 2 ( R − r ) ,

N – the normal reaction force, k - friction coefficient. Out of this set of equations the angular velocity

and the frequency of rotations per second can be easily found:

ω 1 g

=

n = = 1, 24 r/s

2π 2π k ( R − r)

2. Answer. 7,33

We write the equation of state for gas in a ball under water at a depth h :

m

( p0 + ρ gh )V = RT .

m

The volume of a ball equals

4

V = π R3 .

3

The radius of a ball can be expressed via its mass:

m1

4π R 2d ρ1 = m1 ⇒ R=

4π d ρ1

Thus we can find the mass:

(=

p0 + ρ gh ) m 4p m1

3/ 2

=m 7,33 g

RT 3 4p d ρ1

3. Answer. 0,329

Till frog is resting – the system is in equilibrium:

m л g + mп g = ρ в g (b − h ) S

here b - is the thickness of the raft, h- is the height of the raft surface over the water level, b-h – is the

raft’s depth. The pulse in the system frog+raft must be conserved:

mЛVЛ 0 = mПVП 0

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

Now we consider the energy of raft. As the repulsing Archimedes force is depending on the depth of the

raft – the work performed by this force shall be found by means of integrating. The energy conservation

law for the raft gives us the following:

h

mПVП20

=

2 ∫(F

0

A − mП g ) dx

гhere FA = ρ в gSx (axis x is directed perpendicular to the water surface). The energy conservation law

mЛVЛ20

= mgH

2

here FA – Archimedes force, mЛ – the frog’s mass, mП – the raft mass, VЛ 0 – velocity of a frog at the

moment of jump, VП 0 – initial velocity of the raft, H – the height of the frog’s jump. Considering the

m + mП

h=

b− Л =

0, 01 m

ρв S

mП ρ=

= 2

дa h 0,37 kg

ρв a 2 h 2 ρд ba mЛ2

4

( )

mП 2 2

=H Л

m h + = вρ − ρ д b= − 0,329 m

mЛ2 2 2mЛ 2ρв a4

4. Answer: 46,1

The maximal speed will be reached in the point 1 at the

height h . This is the equilibrium point where the gravity

forced is compensated by the elastic force. After some

oscillations the jumper will stop exactly at this point. If l0 –

compressed)

The energy conservation law for the points 0 and 1

(at height h) gives:

1 1

mgH= mgh + k ( H − h − l0 ) 2 + mv 2 ;

2 2

(1)

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

For the points 0 and 2 (at the height h′ ) we obtain:

1

mgH= mgh '+ k ( H − h′ − l0 ) 2 . (2)

2

Equilibrium condition at the point 1:

mg= k ( H − h − l0 ) (3)

We have 4 unknown quantities: k, l 0 , m, v. Coefficient k can be found from (3). Substituting it into (2)

we obtain

Substituting k into (1), we may additionally find the maximal velocity of the jumper.

=v l0 ) 46,1 м / c

g ( H − h +=

5. Answer. 0,5

The initial charge will be redistributed between all three balls: x + y + z =q

Here z - is the new charge of the initially charged ball, x -the charge of another small one and y - of

the bigger one. All connected balls will acquire equal potentials. The grounded envelopes will acquire

charges equal to charges of their central balls, but opposite in sign ( -x and –y respectively, as we may

neglect the interaction with other balls st big distance). The potentials of the balls may be expressed via

their charges:

kx kx kxd

x-ball: ϕ= − = , (here d= r1 − r . ) z-ball: kz / r , and y-ball

r r1 rr1

ky ky kyd

ϕ= − = .

R R1 RR1

zr1 zRR1

All three potentials are equal. From this equalities we obtain: x= ( d= R1 − R ) and y =

d dr

qrd

=

Finally z = 0,5 nC (exactly).

rd + rr1 + RR1

6. Answer: 0,75

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

After each α -decay the mass number of a product nucleus is reduced by 4. After β -decay it

does not change. The reduction of the mass number from 238 down to 206 can be caused only by с α -

decays. The number of them equals 8: N α =

(238 − 206) / 4 =

8.

After 8 α - decays the charge of nucleus product has to be reduced by 16. De facto it has

reduced only by 10 (92-82=10). That can be achieved with 6 additional β -decays, each of which

increases the nucleus charge by 1. Thus the total reaction equation may look like:

82 Pb + 8 2 Не + 6 −1 е .

U → 206

238 4 0

92

7. Answer: 4,60

After the dissociation one Cl-atom moves perpendicular to the initial molecule velocity with new

r r r r r

velocity v1 while another one Cl-atom moves with velocity v2= vP + v⊥ . Here vP and v⊥ - are the

r

components of the second atom velocity, parallel and perpendicular to v . The pulse conservation law

provides:

m m m

mv = vP, v1 = v⊥ ;

2 2 2

Or, as a consequence, =vP 2=

v, v⊥ v1 , (*)

Here m – is the mass oh Cl 2 molecule. The energy conservation law provides

mv 2 hc ( m / 2)v12 ( m / 2) 2

2

+

λ

−

= Eb

2

+

2

( vP + v⊥2 ) .

here Eb - binding energy of atoms in a chlorine molecule. Using (*), we may obtain

hc m ( v + v1 )

2 2

mv 2 ( m / 2)v12 ( m / 2)

Eb = +

λ

hc

2

−

2

−

2

( 4v + v1 ) = λ − 2 ,

2 2

m m/=

Substituting the mass of a molecule= N A 11,6 ⋅ 10−23 g ( N A - Avogadro number), we obtain

Eb 4,60 ⋅ 10−19 J

=

8. Energy conservation law provides that the power, consumed from the power supply unit is all

completely spent on the heat radiation. The Joule-Lentz law provides:

=

P I=

2

R I 2rl / π r2 ,

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

here l – is the length of a wire, r – it’s radius, R – is the conductor’s electric resistance. The flux of

heat radiation equals Фe = М е ⋅ 2π r ⋅ l .

0

the heat radiation coefficient; M - the energy luminosity of an absolute black body. The Stephan-

0

e

a σ T 4 ⋅ 2π r ⋅ l .

Фe =⋅

And I 2 r l / π r 2 =⋅

a σ T 4 ⋅ 2π r ⋅ l ,

I 2r

Т= 4

2a σ ⋅ π 2 r 3 .

9. Energy conservation law provides that the heat, transported through the wall in a unit of time equals

to the heater’s power. Using additionally the Fourier’s Law we may obtain:

λ∆TS

= P,

d

here ∆T - is the difference between temperatures inside and outside of the room, P – the power of

heater, d – the thickness of the wall. From this we may calculate the temperature difference

Tin 20,3° С.

The same heat flux flows through the isothermal t0 = 0° С surface inside the wall. Applying the Fourier’s

λ∆T λTin Tin

= ⇒ x= d = 0,16 м.

d x ∆T

here x - is the coordinate of the isothermal t0 = 0° С surface inside the wall (relative to it’s internal

surface).

10. Electric field is “breaking” the electron motion, while the magnetic field turns the direction of this

motion. .

The 1st case (only electric field). All the initial kinetic energy of electron will be spent on the

mechanical work against the electric field:

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

mv02 mv02

= eE l1 , -> l1 = ,

2 2eE

Here e – is the electron charge, l1 - the maximal distance to which the electron may travel from the

The 2nd t case (electric field + magnetic field). When electron reaches the most remote point (at

some distance l2 –from the plate) - its velocity v must be directed parallel to the plate due to the effect

of magnetic field, which makes electron turn. The energy conservation law requires

mv02 mv 2

− =

eE l2 , (*)

2 2

If OX-axis is directed perpendicular to the plate and OY – parallel to it, the 2nd Newton’s law as

dv y dx

projected upon the axis OY will look like : m = eB

dt dt

Integrating this equation of motion by time, we obtain:

v l2

eBl2

m∫ =

dv y eB ∫ dx ⇒ =v

0 0

m

As at the most remote point the velocity of electron equals its own OY-projection, the energy

conservation law provides:

mv02 m ( eBl2 / m )

2

− =

eEl2

2 2

This only physically meaningful root l2 of this quadratic equation is:

2

mE mv0 mE

l2= 2 + − 2

eB eB eB

DEMO VERSION OF THE FINAL ROUND TASKS

Answers 1-7

1. 1,24

2. 7,33

3. 0,329

4. 46,1

5. 0,5

6. 0,75

7. 4,60

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