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# VI.

## Results and Discussion

On station 0-1, the horizontal distance is 25, with the reading south 120° east and the remark
is Bagtikan. On station 0-2, the horizontal distance is 40, with the reading north 40° east and
the remark is Bagtikan. On station 2-3, the horizontal distance is 31, with reading west 330°
north and the remark is Anubing. On station 3-4, the horizontal distance is 15, with the
reading north 320° west and the remark is Kamagong. On station 4-5, the horizontal distance
is 50, with the reading Due 90° east and the remark is Palm Tree. On station 5-6, the
horizontal distance is 26, with the reading south 200° west and the remark is Niog-Niogan.
On station 6-7, the horizontal distance is 19, with the reading south 190° west and the
remark is Sinaligan. On station 7-8, the horizontal distance is 20, with the reading south 220°
west and the remark is Anubing. On station 8-9, the horizontal distance is 21, with the
reading south 255° west and the remark is Puso-Puso. On station 9-10, the horizontal
distance is 13, with the reading north 280° west and the remark is Bagtikan.

In the data being gathered from the area that was surveyed shows a multiple times of
occurent remarks of the Bagtikan which is on station 0-1, 1-2 and 9-10. It simple tells that the
area has a lot of Bagtikan that was planted or maybe grows naturally in that area. In the data,
there are few trees that has been recorded such as, Anubing, Kamagong, Palm Tree, Niog-
Niogan, Sinaligan and Puso-Puso.

## 1. What are the sources of errors? Explain each.

In general, the distance measurement obtained in the field will be in error. Errors in the
distance measurement can arise from a number of sources:

1. Instrument errors:

## - A tape may be faulty due to a defect in its manufacturing or from kinking.

2. Natural errors.

-The actual horizontal distance between the ends of the tape can vary due to the effects of
temperature, elongation due to tension and sagging.

3. Personal errors.

-Errors will arise from carelessness by the survey crew: poor alignment, tape not horizontal,
improper plumbing and faulty reading of the tape.

VIII. Conclusion:

Chaining is the simplest method of surveying. In this survey only measurements are taken in
the field, and the rest work, such as plotting calculation etc. are done in the office or
classroom. This is most suitable adapted to small plane areas with very few details. If
carefully done, it gives quite accurate results but sometimes errors in the data occurs, also
because the surveyors also do mistake in taking the data and as well as the measurement.
IX. References

http://ecoursesonline.iasri.res.in/mod/page/view.php?id=1289