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A

PROJECT REPORT

ON

WAN (CCNA)

(USING NETWORKING)

NAME: AMANDEEP

ROLL NO: BTC/10/014

COURSE: B.TECH (C.S.E)

Under the guidance of:

(NETWORK BULLS)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thankfully acknowledge the encouragement and guidance by Mr. PANKAJ SHARMA


without whose help report could not have achieved its present form. His continual
attention and encouragement helped keep me going. I am highly indebted to BRICS and
NETWORK BULLS for providing excellent support for the project
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction
2. OSI Model
3. Tcp Model
4. LAN
5. Objective
6. Frame-Relay
7. V-lan
8. Inter-Vlan
9. Nat
10. Routing protocols
11. Rip
12. Eigrp
13. Ospf
14. Redistribution
15. Conclusion
16. Future enhancement
17. Bibliography
INTRODUCTION

A network is a group of connected, communicating devices. An internet is two or more


networks that can communicate with each other. The most notable internet is called the
Internet. Millions of people are users. Yet this extraordinary communication system only
came into being in 1969.
In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing
devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of
computer hardware and computer software.

Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approach defines the type of
network according to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks (LANs), for
example, typically span a single home, school, or small office building, whereas wide
area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet
is the world's largest public WAN.

Network Protocols

protocols: which is synonymous with “rule.

Communication languages used by computer devices are called network protocol. Yet
another way to classify computer networks is by the set of protocols they support.
Networks often implement multiple protocols with each supporting specific applications.
Popular protocols include TCP/IP, the most common protocol found on the Internet and
in home networks.
The OSI Model and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

• Understand the architecture of the OSI model


• Understand the layers of the OSI model and their functions
• Understand the architecture of the TCP/IP Protocol Suite
• Differentiate between the OSI model and the TCP/IP Suite
• Differentiate between the three types of Internet addresses

OSI MODEL
TCP/IP PROTOCOL MODEL
The TCP/IP protocol suite is made of five layers: physical, data link, network, transport,
and application. The first four layers provide physical standards, network interface,
internetworking, and transport functions that correspond to the first four layers of the OSI
model. The three topmost layers in the OSI model, however, are represented in TCP/IP
by a single layer called the application layer.
LAN
A local area network (LAN) is a data communication system that allows a number of
independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic area
such as a single department, a single building, or a campus. A large organization may
need several connected LANs.The most popular LANs are Ethernet and wireless LANs.
We briefly review these technologies in this section.
A second type of network we encounter in the Internet is the point-to-point wide area
network. A point-to-point WAN connects two remote devices using a line available from
a public network such as a telephone network. We discuss the physical and data link
layers of these technologies here..

DEVICES USED :
Ethernet wire : It is a standardized wire according to IEEE standards used to connect pc
to router , pc to switch etc

Switch : It is a layer 2 device which is used in LAN in order to connect different


computer . It is used when we are having large no of P.C and used to control collision
domain

Disadvantage : There is problem in broadcast domain if we are connecting p.c directly to


switch but it can be solve if we make VLAN’S

Advantage : It help in preventing i.e reducing collision domain. Earlier when we use
Hubs it has only 1 collision domain i.e half duplex
Objective :

 Connecting Six Different Location With:-

 CISCO ROUTERs & SWITCHES


 FRAME-RELAY (FR)
 VLAN’S & INTERVLAN’S and NAT
 Routing Protocols ( RIP, EIGRP & OSPF)
 Redistribution Between R Protocols
Connecting Six Different Location With:-

 CISCO ROUTERs & SWITCHES

 FRAME-RELAY (FR)

 VLAN’S & INTERVLAN’S and NAT

 Routing Protocols ( RIP, EIGRP & OSPF)

 Redistribution Between R Protocols

FRAME-RELAY

 FR ( FRAME RELAY) is Packet Switching Technology

 Its Encapsulation Technique

 Used between LANs Over WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK)

FR configuration Between CENNAI and BANGLORE

Configuration Commands
VLAN (Virtual LAN)

 is a Logical LAN or a Logical subnet


 It defines a Broadcast Domain
 VLAN’S provides Security
 VLAN membership can be assigned either statically by port

Creates VLANS at Patiala Location

Configuration Commands
INTERVLAN Communication

 VLAN Provides Security Between Different VLANs


 Different Broadcast Communicate Only with INTERVLAN

Requirements

1. Layer 3 Devices Like Routers or MLS (MULTILAYER SWITCH)


2. Creates Sub Interfaces on Routers
3. VLANS should have different Subnet

Configuration Commands
NAT (Network Address Translation)

 It is used for Translation


 Private Address into Public and Vice Versa
 Private Address:- Only Travels in LANS
 Public Address:- These Addresses Can Travel LANS & WAN
 Three Types of NAT

o STATIC

o DYNAMIC

o PAT

 Nat is Enabled at BANGLORE Routers

Configuration Commands
Routing

Routing is of three types.

• Static

• Dynamic and

• Default

When the destination is known, static and dynamic routing is done. For unknown
destinations, default routing is employed.

In dynamic routing, the path is fixed by the protocol. Always the shortest path is
preferred. Static routing is done by the users. These paths are stored in the routing table.

Classification Of Routing Protocols

 Distance Vector

 Hybrid Routing

 Link State

Distance Vector: RIP & IGRP

Hybrid Routing: EIGRP

Link State : OSPF.


RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

Note:

• Maximum 6 paths (Default 4).

• “Hop count metric” selects the path

• Route updates are broadcast for every 30 seconds.

RIP CONFIGURATIONS

Router(config)# router rip

Router(config-router)# network (network ip)

Router# sh ip protocol (shows the current routing protocol)

Router# sh ip route
EIGRP

• EIGRP is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol.

• Advance distance vector protocol.

• Supports IP using both classless and class-based IP addresses.

• Supports IP, IPX and Appletalk.

• Supports classless interdomain routing (CIDR) and variable-length subnet


mask (VLSM).

• Uses the DUAL algorithm, the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL), for fast
convergence.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

 OSPF is link-state routing protocol

◦ RIP, IGRP and EIGRP are distance-vector (routing by rumor) routing


protocols, susceptible to routing loops, split-horizon, and other issues.

 OSPF has fast convergence

◦ RIP and IGRP hold-down timers can cause slow convergence.

 OSPF supports VLSM and CIDR

◦ RIPv1 and IGRP do not


REDISTRIBUTION

 Communication between Different Routing Protocols

 Configuration of Redistribution Always on ABR


At BANGLORE ROUTER

At CHENNAI
At DELHI
CONCLUSION

The “WAN Project” basicall y tells about how networking is done in real
scenario . It basically tell about the concept of internet work and how we
are accessing it across the world. So in this project I have just tried to
give a small demo of networking and its function. I have used all m y
concept of CCNA to make this project . So all together this proje ct gives
you a brief idea of CCNA.
FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

The proposed project is purely an Wide Area Network , This project can be used in real
world scenario also in order to connect to Lan office for example connecting Amity
manesar with Amity Noida

I will also be preparing for my CCNA and CCNP exam. That’s why I have made this
simple project using my CCNA concept so that I can prepare for it and I will be giving
CCNA exam in coming December.
Bibliography

 ICND 1 (by Cisco)


 ICND 2 (by Cisco)
 CCNA by Todd Lammle
 Stanford university video
 Newboston.org
 Ciscopress.com
 9tut.com
 Examcollection.com