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Commission of the European Communities

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Edited by

G.L. FERRERÒ Κ. MANIATIS A . BUEKENS A.V. BRIDGWATER

PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION

Proceedings of an international conference held in Luxembourg, 23-25 May

1989.

PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION

Commission

Edited by

G. L. FERRERÒ

of the European

Communities,

Brussek,

Belgium

pert to the Commission

K. MANIATIS

of the European

Communities,

Brussels,

Belgium

A. BUEKENS

Vrije Universiteit Brussel,

Belgium

Α. V. BRIDGWATER

University of Aston,

Birmingham,

UK

ELSEVIER APPLIED SCIENCE

LONDON and NEW YORK |

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WITH 202 TABLES AND 238 ILLUSTRATIONS

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1989 ECSC, EEC, EAEC, BRUSSELS AND LUXEMBOURG

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Pyrolysis and gasification. 1. Energy sources: Biomass. Thermochemistry I. Ferrerò, G. L.

662'.6

ISBN 1-85166-449-1

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PREFACE

Thermochemical processing of renewable resources and solid fuels has become a strong contender to partially replace the energy dependance of the European Community on imported hydrocarbon fuels and the Commission is supporting R & D as well as Demonstration projects In this field. Similarly in the US, Canada and the Developing Countries numerous projects have been carried out on fundamental as well as industrial scale projects on Pyrolysis and Gasification. Such technologies are therefore of increasing importance worldwide, not only because they can provide a source of energy but also because they can be utilized to dispose off various industrial wastes in an environmentally acceptable way.

Though interesting results and experiences have certainly been achieved, several problems still remain and their solution will strongly influence the commercialisation of Pyrolysis and Gasification all over the world.

It was the need to critically evaluate the progress achieved in this field and to draw up recommendations for future work which prompted the Directorate General for Energy of the Commission of the European Communities to organise this International Conference with the assistance of the Directorate General for Information, Marketing and Innovation.

While invited speakers from the Commission, EC countries, US, Canada and the World Bank presented overviews on all aspects of Pyrolysis and Gasification processes such as Feedstock Pretreatment and Characterisation, Gasification and Pyrolysis Technologies, Products Upgrading and Utilization as well as Environmental and Economic aspects, researchers and industrialists from 20 countries presented their results and views in oral as well as poster presentations. The Workshops and Panel Discussions gave the opportunity to all participants to express their opinion so that realistic recommendations for future R & D and Demonstration activities could be drawn up.

About 200 participants representing Administrations, Governmental Institutions, Universities and mainly the Industry attended the Conference. This is a fresh proof of the significance in recent years of Pyrolysis and Gasification technologies.

The Editors express their graditute to all the participants for their contributions as well as to the Chairmen and Rapporteurs who assisted in making this a successful Conference and we are confident that the contents of this proceedings will be a valuable tool and source of information to all those working in the field.

G.L. FERRERÒ

Κ. MAN I ATIS

Α. BUEKENS

A.V.BRIDGWATER

PREFACE

SESSION I

vu

CONTENTS

OPENING SESSION AND COUNTRY OVERVIEWS

ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS OF THE COMMISSION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMME IN THE SECTOR OF GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS G.L. FERRERÒ, General Directorate for Energy, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, Belgium

3

COMMUNITY R&D STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF BIOMASS PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION

G.

GRASSI, Directorate General for Science Research and

Development, Commission of the European Communities

7

PROGRESS IN PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS:

AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES

J.

DIEBOLD, D. STEVENS, Solar Energy Research Institute,

Golden, Colorado, USA

14

OVERVIEW OF THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS IN CANADA R.D. HAYES, Bioenergy Research and Development Technology Branch, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada 28

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION I OPENING SESSION AND COUNTRY OVERVIEWS C H . NELS, Federal Office for the Environment, Berlin

40

SESSION II

PRE-TREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION

PRETREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FEEDSTOCKS C.P. MITCHELL, Forestry Department, Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, UK, A.V. BRIDGWATER, Chemical Engineering Department, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

43

PROCESSING OF URBAN WASTE TO PROVIDE FEEDSTOCK FOR FUEL/ENERGY RECOVERY J.R. BARTON, Warren Spring Laboratory, Department of Trade and Industry, UK

57

CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON CONTAINING MATERIALS WITH RESPECT TO PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION H.J. MÜHLEN, W. WANZL, K.H. VAN HEEK, Bergbau-Forschung GmbH, Essen, FRG

72

VIU

KTI ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF BIOMASS PYROLYSIS

L. ANTONELLI, Vice President, Director of Alternative Energies

Department, Kinetics Technology International SPA, Rome, Italy

85

BIOMASS FUELS AND GASIFICATION

J.

CARRE, L. LACROSSE, Y. SCHENKEL, Center for Agronomical

Researches (CRA), Gembloux, Belgium

 

F.

RURIHOSE, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL),

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

93

USAGE OF CARBON BLACK AND ACTIVATED CARBON IN RELATION TO INPUT AND TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF THE PYROLYSIS PROCESS

B.

BILITEWSKI, G. HKRDTLE, K. MAREK, Intecus, Associated

Engineers for Environmental Protection Technologies, Berlin

98

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION II PRE-TREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION

C.

ESNOUF, Cemagref, Antony Cedex, France

106

SESSION III

PYROLYSIS, GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGIES

 

BIOMASS GASIFICATION: PAST EXPERIENCES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES M.S. MENDIS, Industry and Energy Department, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA

111

GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS IN EUROPE A.A.CM. BEENACKERS, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands A.V. BRIDGWATER, Chemical Engineering Department, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

129

A SURVEY OF BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

R.

CAPART, A. ELAMIN, S. AMMAR, M. GELUS,

Department of Chemical Engineering,

 

University

of Technology, Compiègne, France

158

THE GEORGIA TECH ENTRAINED FLOW PYROLYSIS PROCESS R.J. KOVAC, D.J. O'NEIL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

169

PILOT PLANT DEMONSTRATION OF USED TIRES VACUUM PYROLYSIS

C.

ROY, Université Laval, Department of Chemical

Engineering, Quebec, Canada

 

J.

UNSWORTH, Petro-Tire Inc., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

180

FLUIDIZED BED PYROLYSIS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

U.

BELLMANN, A.B. KUMMER, Y. YING, W. KAMINSKY,

Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg, FRG

190

IX

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION III PYROLYSIS GASIFICATION AND LIQUEFACTION TECHNOLOGIES A.V. BRIDGWATER, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

195

SESSION IV

PYROLYSIS CASE STUDIES

 

SUGARS FROM CELLULOSICS BY THE WATERLOO FAST PYROLYSIS PROCESS D.S. SCOTT, J. PISKORZ, D. RADLEIN, S. CZERNIK, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

201

PRODUCTION OF BENZOLES AND ACTIVE CARBON FROM WASTE RUBBER AND PLASTIC MATERIALS BY MEANS OF PYROLYSIS WITH SIMULTANEOUS POST-CRACKING

R.

CYPRES, B. BETTENS, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB),

Brussels, Belgium

209

CHEMICALS FROM ALMOND SHELLS BY PYROLYSIS IN FLUIDIZED BED

R.

FONT, A. MARCELLA, E. VERDU, J. DEVESA, División de

Ingenieria Química, Universidad de Alicante, Spain

230

BIOMASS PYROLYSIS IN MOLTEN SALTS FOR FUEL PRODUCTION J.Κ. MAUND, D.M. EARP, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

238

FLASH PYROLYSIS OF SULCIS COAL

L.

CONTI, G. SCANO, Dipartimento di Chimica,

Università' di Sassari, Sassari, Italy

246

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION IV PYROLYSIS CASE STUDIES D.J. O'NEIL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

250

SESSION V

GASIFICATION CASE STUDIES

 

PERFORMANCE OF A PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIER FUELLED BY RICE HUSKS HARTINIATI, A. SOEMARDJO, M. YOUVIAL, LSDE-BPP Teknologi, Indonesian Energy Research Laboratory, Puspiptek - Serpong, Indonesia

257

ELECTRICAL ENERGY FROM BIOMASS'

F.

FONZI, Italenergie S.p.a., Sulmona AQ, Italy

264

FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION OF WOOD: PERFORMANCE OF A DEMONSTRATION PLANT

K.

MANIATIS, A. BUEKENS, Department of Chemical

Engineering and Industrial Chemistry, Free University of Brussels, Belgium A.V. BRIDGWATER, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

274

A NATIONAL PROGRAM ON IMPLEMENTATION OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION

PROCESS IN INDONESIA. SCENARIO, PROGRESS AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION

H. SUSANTO, S. REKSOWARDOJO, Department of Chemical

Engineering, ITB, Bandung, Indonesia

282

GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS OF STRAW - RESEARCH IN DENMARK

G.

OLSEN, P.H. PEDERSEN, O. HENRIKSEN, E. KOFOED,

Laboratory for Energetics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

290

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE GASIFICATION OF LOW QUALITY COAL WITH OXYGEN ENRICHED AIR IN A FIXED BED GASIFIER A.D. ENGELBRECHT, Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa

296

PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION OF PEAT

E.

KURKELA, P. STAHLBERG, W. MOJTAHEDI, M. NIEMINEN

Technical Research Centre of Finland, Laboratory of Fuel Processing Technology, Espoo, Finland

304

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION V GASIFICATION CASE STUDIES

K.

MANIATIS, Free University of Brussels, Belgium

A.A.CM. BEENACKERS, Groningen University, The Netherlands

312

SESSION VI

UPGRADING, CLEAN OP AND UTILIZATION OF PRODUCTS

 

GAS PURIFICATION: A REVIEW OF THE AVAILABLE METHODS OF GAS CLEANING

P.

GUIGON, J.F. LARGE, Université de

Technologie de Compiègne, France

317

WHAT CAN WE DO WITH PYROLYSIS OILS?

E.

CHURIN, B. DELMON, Université Catholique de Louvain,

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

326

COMPOSITION, PURIFICATION AND USE OF PRODUCER GAS

J.

VAN DER WEIDE, J.J. SEPPEN, TNO Road-Vehicles

Research Institute, Delft, The Netherlands

334

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION VI

UPGRADING, CLEAN UP AND UTILIZATION OF PRODUCTS

J.

DIEBOLD, SERI, Colorado, USA

342

SESSION VII

ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

 

ECONOMIC AND MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR BIOMASS DERIVED FUELS A.V. BRIDGWATER, Energy Research Group, Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

347

XI

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE USE OF BIOMASS FUELS GLOBAL AND LOCAL ASPECTS

P. GIRARD, Centre Technique Forestier Tropical,

Nogent-sur-Marne, France

372

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND PYROLYSIS:

CURRENT SITUATION, TRENDS AND PROSPECTS C H . NELS, Federal Office for the Environment, Berlin

379

RAPPORTEUR'S REPORT ON SESSION VII

ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

R.

FABRY, Commission of the European Communities,

Brussels, Belgium

 

387

WORKSHOPS

WORKSHOP 1 - PRETREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION Chairman: J. BARTON Rapporteur: J. PISKORZ

391

WORKSHOP 2 - PYROLYSIS A.V. BRIDGWATER, Energy Research Group, Chemical

Engineering Department, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

C.

ROY, Université Laval, Département de génie chimique,

Quebec, Canada

 

394

WORKSHOP 3 - GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS

Y.

SOLANTAUSTA, Laboratory of Fuel Processing

Technology, Technical Research Centre of Finland A.A.CM. BEENACKERS, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

396

WORKSHOP 4 - PYROLYSIS AND UTILIZATION

E.

CHURIN, Université Catholique de Louvain,

Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

399

POSTERS PRESENTED

 

SECTION I

PRE-TREATMENT, PRODUCTS AND OTHER ASPECTS

 

FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

IN THE FIELD OF PYROLYSIS, GASIFICATION AND CARBONISATION OF BIOMASS AND WASTE R. FABRY, G.L. FERRERÒ, Directorate General for Energy, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels

K.

MANIATIS, Free

University of Brussels, Belgium

405

THE USE OF WOOD AS FUEL IN MALAYSIA W.K. HOI, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia A.V. BRIDGWATER, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

411

XU

SELECTED ASPECTS, EXPLANATIONS AND STATEMENTS IN ACCORDANCE AND ANALOGY TO THE BIT GRANULATION-TECHNOLOGY J.M. DISS, F.W. HOCHHEIM, Directorate General and General Management of the incorporated company B.I.T. SA, Luxembourg

417

THERMOCHEMICAL DENSIFICATION OF BIOMASS - A KINETIC APPROACH TO PROCESS DEVELOPMENT D.P. KOULLAS, N.S. ABATZOGLOU, E.G. KOUKIOS, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Greece 420

PREPARATION AND USE OF CHARCOAL : WATER SLURRIES

C.

ESNOUF, S. GAUDEMARD, Cemagref, Antony Cedex, France,

G.

ANTONINI, O. FRANCOIS, Université de Technologie

de Compiegne, Compiegne Cedex, France,

C.

MEZERETTE, CTFT, Nogent-sur-Marne, France

425

TREATMENT OF PYROLYSIS OIL WITH COMPRESSED CARBON DIOXIDE

V.

BRANDANI, G. DEL RE, G. DI GIACOMO, D. FLAMMINI

University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry Chemical Engineering and Materials., L'Aquila, Italy

430

ACTIVATED CARBON FROM EUCALYPTUS KRAFT LIGNIN J.J. RODRIGUEZ, T. CORDERO, J. RODRIGUEZ-MIRASOL,

A.

SIMON, A. BATALLER, Departments of Chemical

Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain

435

ACTIVATED CARBONS FROM CHROMIUM-TANNED LEATHER WASTE M.A. MARTINEZ-SANCHEZ, C. ORGILES-BARCELO, Asociación de Investigación de las Industrias del Calzado y Conexas, Alicante, Spain J.M. MARTIN-MARTINEZ, F. RODRIGUEZ-REINOSO, Departamento de Química Inorgánica e Ingenieria Química. Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain

439

MOTOR FUELS FROM PYROLYTIC LIGNINS

J.

PISKORZ, P. MAJERSKI, D. RADLEIN, D.S. SCOTT,

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

444

ROLE OF CHROMIUM OXIDE IN THE TEXTURE OF CARBONS FROM LEATHER J.M. MARTIN-MARTINEZ, F. RODRIGUEZ-REINOSO, Departamento de Química Inorgánica e Ingenieria Química, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain M.A. MARTINEZ-SANCHEZ, C. ORGILES-BARCELO, Asociación de Investigación de las Industrias del Calzado y Conexas, Alicante, Spain

452

INFLUENCE OF THE POROSITY OF CARBON IN Fe/Carbon CATALYSTS J.M. MARTIN-MARTINEZ, Departamento de Química Inorgánica e Ingenieria Química, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain M.A. VANNICE, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA

457

XIII

DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF A SAMPLING LINE FOR WOOD PYROLYSIS EMISSIONS

J. LACHENAL, J.M. TOLEDO, Laboratoire National d'Essai,

Trappes, France

C. MEZERETTE, A.M. VERGNET, Centre Technique

 

Forestier Tropical, Département du CIRAD, Nogent-sur-Marne, France

462

FURNACE FOR BIOFUELS THERMAL UTILIZATION

 

W.

BLASIAK, B. ZETHRAEUS, R. COLLIN, Royal Institute of

Technology, Department of Heat and Furnace Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

 

W.

GAJEWSKI, J. ZAJDEL, Technical University of

Czestochowa, Institute of Heat Machinery, Poland

468

INVESTIGATION OF TOXIC COMPONENTS IN PRODUCTS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE - SEWAGE SLUDGE PYROLYSIS

 

H.

RÖSSLER, U. PRÖSCH, W. KAMINSKY, Institut für

Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, FRG

473

RESEARCH ON TAR CRACKING AND APPLICATION OF TAR

 

G.

OLSEN, Laboratory for Energetics, Technical

University of Denmark

479

THE FUEL PROPERTIES OF HYDROCARBON LIQUIDS DERIVED FROM PYROLYSIS OF WASTE P.T. WILLIAMS, D.T. TAYLOR, Department of Fuel and Energy, The University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

486

ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF GASIFIER SYSTEMS

 

J.

WILLOCX, Consultant, Londerzeel, Belgium

A BUEKENS, Professor, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

492

CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD CONSTITUENTS BY PYROLYSIS

-

FIELD IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY H.R. SCHULTEN, Fachhochschule Fresenius, Department of Trace Analysis, Wiesbaden, FRG

497

CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD BY PYROLYSIS

-

FIELD IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY

 

H.R. SCHULTEN, Fachhochschule Fresenius, Department of Trace Analysis, Wiesbaden, FRG J.M. HALKET, Department of Chemical Pathology, Queen

Charlotte's and Chelsea

Hospital, London, UK

505

SECTION 2

 

PYROLYSIS TECHNOLOGY

 

PYROLYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE OIL

 

U.

STEFFENSEN, J. FRANCK, R. RAHNENFÜHRER, W. KAMINSKY

Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg, FRG

517

XIV

ENERGAS SEWAGE SLUDGE PYROLYSIS H.F. HINRICHS, H. MULLER, ENERGAS, Gesellschaft zur Energiegewinnung aus Müll und Kohle mbH, FRG

522

COGENERATION PYROLYSIS

 
 

G.

BONINO, Biomass Energies Integrated Systems, Turin, Italy

527

CARBONISATION OF LARGE WOOD PIECES IN A LABORATORY RETORT:

PRODUCT ANALYSIS AND ENERGY ASSSESSMENT

 
 

N.

SHAH, P. GIRARD, Energie Division, CTFT,

 

Nogent­sur­Marne, France

 

R.

CAPART, Departement Genie Chimique, UTC,

 

Compiegne, France

 

530

MILD PYROLYSIS PROCESS IMPROVES STEAM CYCLE EFFICIENCY

 

P.

GRAVERSEN, R.M. HUMMELSHØJ, Κ. JENSLEV, COWIconsult,

Consulting Engineers

and

Planners

AS, Virum, Denmark

536

FLASH PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS FOR LIQUID FUELS S.A. BRIDGE, A.V. BRIDGWATER, Energy Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

541

GASIFICATION OF REFUSE, A PROCESS OF SFW

 
 

H.

HUMMELSIEP, Η. FUNK, Saarberg­Fernwärme GmbH,

 

Saarbrücken, FRG

 

547

A

CATALYTIC GASIFICATION PROCESS OF BIOMASS

 
 

J.

MUNCK, Dansk Termo Industri/I. Krüger AS, Soborg, Denmark

551

AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION

 

C.

ESNOUF, M. HEERAH, Cemagref, Antony Cedex, France

554

PYROLYSIS PROCESS FOR RECYCLING FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES FOR RECUPERATING BIOMASS ENERGY

 

B.

GROUX, R. GUIOL, Ph. POUSAZ, Bio­Alternative, S.A.

Engollon, Switzerland

 

559

PYROLYSIS OF GREEK LIGNITES A.A. LAPPAS, I.A. VASALOS, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

563

DIRECT MASSS SPECTROMETRIC STUDY OF PYROLYSIS BEHAVIOUR OF BIOMASS AND ITS CONSTITUENTS UNDER DIFFERENT IONIZATION CONDITIONS. MS AND MS­MS STUDY OF THE PRIMARY PYROLYSIS MECHANISMS P.L. DESBENE, M. ESSAYEGH, B. DESMAZIERES, C. LANGE, J.J. BASSELIER, Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Structurale, Université" P. et M. Curie, Paris, France

568

A TWIN BED PYROLYSER­COMBUSTOR FLUID BED SYSTEM FOR THERMAL PROCESSING OF URBAN WASTE

H. MASSON, Seghers Engineering, Willebroek, Belgium

A. BUEKENS, Κ. MANIATIS, Free University of Brussels, Belgium,

XV

PMMA PYROLYSIS FUNDAMENTALS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

Α.

BUEKENS, F. DE WOLF, Free University of Brussels, Belgium

 

J.

SCHOETERS, KIH Groep

Τ, Leuven, Belgium

580

PYROLYSIS OF EXHAUSTED OLIVE HUSKS COUPLED WITH TWO­STAGES THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF AQUEOUS OLIVE OIL MILLS EFFLUENTS

G.

DI GIACOMO, G. DEL RE, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila,

Italy, E. BONFITTO, S. IACOBONI, Regione Abruzzo, Avezzano, Italy, Ν. BRUNETTI, E.Ν.E.Α., Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome, Italy

586

SECTION 3

GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

 

STUDY OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION UNDER PRESSURE

 

R.

CAPART, M. GELUS, N. LESGOURGUES, Z. LI,

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Technology, Compiegne Cedex, France

593

GASIFICATION OF CHARCOAL IN MALAYSIA W.K. HOI, Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia A.V. BRIDGWATER, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

598

UPDRAFT GASIFICATION OF WASTE FUELS

P.

STÂHLBERG, E. KURKELA, VTT, Laboratory of Fuel

Processing Technology, Espoo, Finland

H.

FILEN, Κ. SALO, Bioneer Oy, Hämeenlinna, Finland

603

PEAT ΑΜΟΝΙΑ PLANT IN OULU ­ SYNTHESIS GAS PRODUCTION FROM PEAT BY FLUID­BED GASIFICATION

K.

SIPILÄ, C. WILÈN, E. KURKELA, A. MOILANEN, VTT

Laboratory of Fuel Processing Technology, Espoo, Finland

J.

KOLJONEN, Kemira Oy, Oulu, Finland

608

DEVELOPMENT OF A DOWNDRAFT MOVING BED BIOMASS GASIFIER

R.

BILBAO, J. LANA, P. GARCIA, J. ARAUZO,

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

613

STEAM GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS IN FLUIDIZED BED. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF FEEDSTOCK

J.

CORELLA, J. HERGUIDO, J. GONZALEZ­SAIZ, Chemical

Engineering Department (Faculty of Science), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

618

STEAM GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS IN FLUIDIZED BED WITH A SECONDARY CATALYTIC REACTOR ­ I. RESULTS WITH THE SECONDARY REACTOR EMPTY AND WITH SAND

J.

CORELLA, M.P. AZNAR, Ν. CEBRIAN, J.I. IGLESIAS,

M.P. MARTINEZ, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

624

XVI

STEAM GASIFICATION OF BIOMASS IN FLUIDIZED BED WITH A SECONDARY CATALYTIC BED. - II. TAR CRACKING WITH DOLOMITE(S) IN THE SECONDARY REACTOR M.P. AZNAR, J. DELGADO, J. CORELLA, J. LAHOZ, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain

629

FIXED BED GASIFICATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS THE CEMAGREF PROCESS

S.

GAUDEMARD, J.J.

BECKER, Cemagref, Antony Cedex, France

635

STUDY ON MARKED PRODUCTS OF WOOD GASIFICATION MECHANISMS WITH THE AIM OF PRODUCING CLEAN GASES

S.

CASTILLO, S. BENNINI, G. GAS, J.P. TRAVERSE,

Université Paul

Sabatier, Toulouse, France

640

REDUCTION ZONE HEIGHT DETERMINATION IN SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION PROCESS IN A SHAFT FURNACE

J.

WANDRASZ, K. WALECZEK, The Silesian

Technical University, Poland

646

COMPUTER MODELLING OF FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION J.M. DOUBLE, E.L. SMITH, A.V. BRIDGWATER, Energy Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Aston University, Birmingham, UK

651

THREE-PHASE WOOD GASIFIER SYSTEM EASIMOD R H. MICHEL-KIM, Efeu GmbH, Research and Development for Energy and Environment, Schwelm, FRG

656

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

661

INDEX OF AUTHORS

677

SESSION I

OPENING SESSION AND COUNTRY OVERVIEWS

ACTIVITIES AND RESULTS OF THE

COMMISSION DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMME IN THE SECTOR OF

GASIFICATION AND PYROLYSIS

G.L. FERRERÒ

General Directorate for Energy

Coma I ss Ion of the

European Communities

200 rue de la Lol

Β ­ 1049 Brussels ­ Belgium

Summary

The demonstration programme In the "Blomass and energy from waste" sector Is outlined In general, with particular reference to the subject of "Pyrolysls and Gasification".

Comments are made on certain results obtained In the Member States and general trends can be concluded.

The results of finished projects and of measures still In progress Indicate that these technologies, especially pyrolysls, will develop In Mediterranean countries where the conditions of blomass supply lend themselves better to conversion of the blomass In the form of stockable fuels.

The Energy Demonstration Programme Introduced In 1978 by the Directorate­ General for Energy of the Commission of the European Communities provides financial support for demonstration projects of an Innovatory nature and Industrial scale in respect of energy saving, renewable energy sources and substitutes for hydrocarbons.

Demonstrations projects are defined as any project which on a real scale

amounts to the application of an

application of a proven technology and helps to establish the technical and economic feasibility of a process before advancing to commercial exploitât Ion.

new

Innovative technology

or

a

These projects form the link between the research and development phase upstream, possibly backed by a pilot project, and the commercial exploitation phase downstream.

Since 1978 an Invitation to submit proposals for demonstration projects has been published each year In the Official Journal of the European Communities, and each year a certain number of projects considered to be of considerable technological and economic Interest are provided with finance by the Commission to cover part of the technical and economic risks Inherent In the project.

From 1978 to 1988 (Table 1) some 1631 projects have been selected from the huge number put forward In response to the annual Invitation to

submit proposals Issued by the Commission and financial support totalling

841 Mio ECU

which Is the largest In the world, Is accompanied by national programmes In the Member States of the European Community.

(1 007 Mio $) has been awarded. This Community programme,

TABL E

DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS 1978-1988

Total proposals

S 176

Total accepted

projects

1 631

CEC support

841 Mio ECU - 1 007 Mio $

Under the Βiomass and Energy from Waste Sector of this Programme some 191

projects

(Table 2) have

been

awarded

support

totalling 87,4 Mio ECU

(101,6 Mio $ ) .

TAB L E

BIOMASS AND ENERGY FROM WASTE

Total accepted projects

CEC support

Total cost of projects

191

87,4 Mio ECU - 101,6 Mio $

311 Mio ECU - 361,8 Mio $

Some of these projects will be described to you In the course of the Seminar's technical sessions. The projects which have been selected can be divided Into 11 sub-sectors shown In Table 3. For the most part they fall Into one of the two main catagorles, "biological conversion" and "thermochemlcal conversion" of blomass and waste.

TABL E

BIOMASS ANO ENERGY FROM WASTE

SUBSECTORS

PROJECTS

01. Biomass Harvesting

4

02. Energy crops

3

03. Treatment of waste

18

04. Biogas

70

05. Refuse Derived Fuel

14

06. Direct combustion

40

07. Gasification and Pyrolysls

24

08. Compost

7

09. Fuels and chemicals (biol. treat.)

1

10. Fuels and chemicals (thermo-chem. treat.)

9

11.

Proteins

Total

1_

191

Some 90X of biological conversion projects selected, 66 out of 70 projects, concern the production and use of biogas from animal litter, urban waste or effluent from the agro-food Industry. This Is a major sub- sector of the programme.

Some

concerned with direct combustion, 27% with gasification and carbonization, and 16% with the production and use of refuse-derived fuels (RDF).

conversion projects selected are

50X

of

the 87 thermochemlcal

In each sub-sector the projects In progress or completed are designed to establish the technical feasibility of new concepts and to evaluate the economic profitability of the projects, and In each of these sub-sectors projects successfully completed have or will give rise to multiplication, with considerable impact In terms of energy and the environment.

Treatment by gasification and pyrolysls of solid urban waste still seems to present certain problems whereas the pyrolysls and gasification of wood seems set for reasonable success.

In the short term It seems unlikely that these technologies are destined for extensive application, and there is clearly a need for demonstration measures before maximum use of their Interesting potential can be achieved.

The results obtained so far In the demonstration programme, although in no great quantity, nonetheless allow certain basic observations to be made on the technologies of gasification and pyrolysls.

The first point to be made

southern European countries, with Italy to the fore due to the numerous R&D activities tied up with the Leben-Abruzzo project.

is the growing interest In pyrolysls in most

In Germany various gasification of wood and wood waste techniques have had success although marketing of these facilities has not always had equally positive results.

In France some experiments Into the pyrolysls of solid urban waste have encountered technical and economic problems whereas wood gasification and torefactlon projects have demonstrated the reliability of these techniques.

In Belgium, finally, certain ongoing experiments have had problems due mainly, as In other countries elsewhere, to the low cost of oil.

For other Community

conclusions to be drawn.

countries

too

few data

are

available

for

any

The feeling remains, however, that the technologies of gasification and, to a greater degree, pyrolysls are becoming particularly attractive, and the possibilities opened In future by the release of cultivated land for non-food uses may Increase to some extent the use of these processes.

However, there Is still the problem of their profitability.

Studies currently In progress and environmental requirements, which are still difficult to quantify, should provide a better Idea of the economics of these technologies, taking Into account not only the energy value of the products to be treated but also the far more general Impact that the use of blomass for energy purposes can generate.

The demonstration project of the Commission's Directorate-General for Energy will draw to an end In 1989. An Invitation to submit proposals has been published recently in the Official Journal, and projects on the pyrolysls and gasification of biomass and waste in general may still be submitted and accepted. However, regardless of the results of projects still to come. It can already be said that this sector of the demonstration programme has made a solid contribution to the spread of the technologies of gasification and pyrolysls. The projects In process and the results obtained, even though negative In some cases, have shown the way and pinpointed the problems on which greater effort should be concentrated.

We are now starting to reap the benefits of this vast programme, which, complementing measures taken at national level In the individual Member States, has led to technological maturity and process reliability in every respect.

The Directorate-General for Energy is proud to have contributed, and to

continue

not

exclusively an energy one, of Increasingly efficient use of blomass and

waste

context reflecting nature protection, the use of

to

do

so,

to solving

the common

problem, which

is

In an overall

local resources and the conservation of Jobs.

This conference will be different from many others being held elsewhere on this subject through Its mainly demonstration nature of the results obtained and the guidelines that should emerge for future action In Commission programmes.

COMMUNITY RSD STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF BIOMASS PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION

G. GRASSI Directorate General for Science Research and Development, Commission of the European Communities

1. INTRODUCTION

The immense stock of chemical energy, represented by vegetal matter

(biomass) ,

constantly produced

on

the earth

will play

the role

of a

strategic and the only renewable industrial energy resource in the long term future. Its exploitation on a large scale will offer supplementary important benefits such as rural development, environmental land and atmosphere improvement, better climatic stability etc.

The biomass potential in the European Community is estimated at around 600 million ton/year (dry matter) and its likely utilisation is as follows:

Energy utilisation Industrial utilisation Chemicals and organic fertilisers

300 million ton/year

80 million ton/year

220 million ton/year

So, the energy sector should get the largest share of the resource. Of course, the development and speed of penetration of the bio-energy sector will depend largely on the future supply cost of biomass (30/60 ECU/ton (dm) actually in Europe); on the cost of the conversion technology; and (mainly) on the cost of imported oil. Among the several conversion technologies so far developed in the Community (direct combustion, air gasification, advanced gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, catalytic conversion, bio-gasification) pyrolysis today appears very promising and best suited to the implementation of large biomass schemes like the LEBEN - Industrial projects. In fact pyrolysis or synthetic-oil can be competitive on a relatively small scale of production. This may also allow for large-scale biomass exploitation, the adoption of modular conversion units with capacity in the range of 2:10 ton/hr, to match in the most convenient way, the more or less productive and/or dispersed resource available.

2. BIOMASS CONVERSION INTO FUELS

The energy content (fixed carbon) of biomass can be exploited by

direct combustion or after conversion (and eventual upgrading) into a more valuable fuel by physical, biological or thermochemical processes. My

presentation today will be limited to

these last conversion methods ; in

particular to the state-of-the-art and the future development of pyrolysis and gasification technologies.

In Table 1, Table 2 and Figure 1 a summary of the main characteristics of thermochemical conversion processes and products is presented (Ref:

A. Bridgwater, Aston University - workshop on LEBEN-PROJECTS/ Feb. 1989, Brussels).

TABLE 1. Thermochemical Conversion Technologies and Products

Technology

Primary Product

Application

Pyrolysis generally

gas

fuel gas

liquid

oil or liquid fuel substitution

solid char

solid fuel or slurry fuel

Flash pyrolysis

liquid mostly

oil or liquid fuel substitution

Slow pyrolysis

solid char mostly

solid fuel or slurry fuel

Liquefaction

liquid

oil or liquid fuel substitution

Gasification

gas

fuel gas

Combustion

heat

heating

TABLE 2. Secondary Products and Sources

Secondary Product

Source

Process

Oxygenate Fuels

Methanol

Gasification

Synthesis

Fuel alcohol

Gasification

Synthesis

Hydrocarbo η Fuels Gasoline

Pyrolysis

Hydrotreating

Pyrolysis

Zeolites

Liquefaction

Hydrotreating

Gasification via methanol

MTG

Diesel

Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Liquefaction Gasification via methanol

Hydrotreating Zeolite + MOGD Hydrotreating MCGD

Fuel oil

Pyrolysis

Stabilisation

Liquefaction

Stabilisation

Power

Power

Pyrolysis

Turbine

Gasification

Engine or turbine

Chemicals Ammonia

Gasification

Speciality chemicals

Pyrolysis

Liquefaction

Synthesis Extraction and/or Conversion

Extraction and/or Conversion

 

••/•/

,

/

CONVERSION I

.V . PRIMARY A '

 

;i PROCESSING

: TECHNOLOGY s

'/,-

PRODUCTS . V

I TECHNOLOGY

••/•/•//• •

 

LIQUEFACTION

MOONQ

Χ\\\ ΎΕΟΟ Ν DARY VS\\' .

-///

PRODUCTS '.-'/Α-';

\

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

f

/

t

V

/

/

S S

\

f

Χ /

Ν \ •••• S \ \

.

Ν S

f

/

Κ Κ

/

.

.

\

S

\

\

ν

\

\

\

Ν

Λ

Ν

Χ

\

/

*

\

\ '

\ S

/

S

S

t

/

Slurry fuel

Fig. 1. Primary and secondary products from thermochemical biomass processing

Primary Products

The primary products can be gas, liquid and/or solid char, depending on the conversion technology employed. Most of the present interest centres on liquid products due to their high energy density and potential for premium liquid fuel substitution. As far as biomass conversion is concerned, I would like to recall here

that:

(a) the basic strategic considerations for the present and future R&D programmes of the Commission suggest the production of two types of liquid "biofuels":

Bio-ethano l from sugar or starch (by advance d technologie s and ne w crops) for the transportation market and which should develop at a significant rate after the year 2000 (presently given low emphasis by the Commission) ;

- Synthetic-oil (pyrolytic-oil) from lignocellulosic material for general thermal application, as a real substitute for the extensive oil import market, which could be conveniently produced (technically and economically) in the medium term (five years).

All other types of biomass fuels can, of course, be regarded as being of interest and deserve consideration, but only as a tactical means to solve local and time limited problems, or due to the particular characteristics of residues (i.e. municipal wastes, manure, sludges, etc.).

10

(b) In the EC the potential displacement by these two types of fuels is very

large and it has been estimated at:

2.2 million barrels imports).

OE/day for Europe

(about

24% of

total oil

(c) Biofuels should then be considered an important element in the

Community's energy mix, whether viewed from the security perspective

socio-economic impact (source of

competitive, intensive manpower activity), rural development contribution,

market dimensions (not saturable demand), environmental improvement (new uses for agricultural and marginal land, no sulphur, CO2, better climatic conditions etc.) or technological (industrial) competitiveness.

(domestic renewable

feedstock),

International collaboration could speed up the progress of pyrolytic biomass conversion technologies for the following reasons :

(a) Within the framework of the general EC-Canada Agreement, DG XII has

proposed a collaborative programme on "pyrolysis and up-grading of pyrolytic fuels". Furthermore, an international industrial consortium has been constituted for the implementation of the first "fast pyrolysis pilot plant" in Spain, the construction being foreseen at the end of 1989. This technology should be able to convert lignocellulosic biomass into 60% oil +

10% charcoal + gas (energy efficiency

> 80%).

(b) DG XII is joining efforts with DG XVII and DG I for a collaboration with

Brazil and other countries in the bio-energy sector.

(c) In parallel , transfer of technologies to and from Europe is now under

consideration and specific negotiation has already been carried out.

Importance of Regional Biomass Schemes

Biomass is a diluted dispersed resource, therefore there is a need to implement large projects, probably on a regional scale, to appreciate the importance and full value of these benefits. There is general consensus that large-scale exploitation of biomass by multi-sectorial, innovative and integrated technologies will constitute a real instrument of rural development. The involvement of regional/national authorities then becomes essential, as a guarantee for large investments as well as their ability to ensure the continuity of supply, the control of the cost of biomass resources in the long term, and to facilitate the market development of this renewable natural resource. At present, several regions in Europe are considering the possibility of implementing major activities in the sector of biomass and of synthetic oil (pyrolytic fuel) production, as well as other kinds of conversion for energy and industry. For these types of project, multi-sectoral integration of large market industrial activities with the bio-energy sector makes them more attractive and profitable in terms of economics.

Pyrolysis

Pyrolytic fuel (synthetic oil) has a strategic value because, as a liquid, its handling, storage, transportation and utilisation are similar to that of bunker-oil; its heating power is fair (above 6 000 kcal/kg) and its

11

it can be used immediately in the

existing utilisation systems, this does not require expensive actions for market promotion and it can be considered as a fuel for general thermal applications (steam and electricity production).

Preliminary research results show the possibility of modern bio-energy technologies reaching promising markets which are:

specific gravity higher (1.2 gr/cm) . As

general thermal applications (heat-steam production); thermal power stations for electricity production ; gas-turbine/steam-turbine electricity plant (combined cycles); conventional refineries.

Through this technology, the penetration and exploitation of biomass for energy production could be accelerated and implemented on a very large scale, by the adoption of modular standardised plants for synthetic liquid fuel production. Furthermore, such a conversion product could also be utilised at a later stage as a raw material for chemicals. Another activity, inspired by the Commission and already considered of interest by important industrial groups (Mannesmann, VEBA, etc.), is the development of mobile pyrolysis plants, mounted on tracks. These plants are aimed at the production of pyrolytic fuels from biomass harvested by small- holders. This could also allow the creation of service companies, which could contribute to a rapid expansion of this activity.

of pyrolysis

Concerning the state-of-the-art and the progress technology, we can confirm that:

This old technology disappeared by and large during the last 40 years.

Up to now only a low level of activity

in Europe (seven years).

However, the general situation in Europe is now improving solely as a

consequence of the RSD programme initiated

Commission. Several experimental activities have been carried out over the past seven years or are now under implementation in several countries (F, I, FRG, B, E, GR) . Large industrial organisations (mainly German, i.e. Mannesmann, Preussag, VEBA, Bayer) are interested.

In some cases European industry has offered a full guarantee of this

technology. As a consequence,

basis an initial techno-economic evaluation for the bio-energy sector of the LEBEN-Projects (see Figure 2) .

It is important to note that advanced pyrolysis technologies also exist outside Europe and in particular in Canada and the USA. These, however, are only at a laboratory stage. European advanced commercial technology can be made available in five to ten years through a continuous R&D effort focussed on conversion efficiency, quality of products and reduction of specific investment. The forecast on conversion investment costs evolution, is as follows:

it was possible to perform on a realistic

and managed by DG XII of the

at present:

7 US$/barrel

OE

in 1993:

4 US$/barrel OE

around 2000:

2 US$/barrel OE

For comparison, specific investment costs for oil exploration (1987)

North Sea:

8-10

Ş/barrel

Middle East:

2 Ş/barrel

5 o

$/BARREL

OF OIL

EQUIVALENT

Fig.

2.

- $5

(Social

and

salaries)

- $1.8 (Exchange)

I I I

+ $8/barrel

for

dssulphurisation

ECU/t

(dm)

to

13

An interesting development concerns pyrolytic oil upgrading, through the adoption of ZSM-5zeolite conversion directly on pyrolysis vapours. A 20% yield of gasoline on wood looks feasible. Assuming a cost for biomass of 35 ECU/t, the gasoline could be produced at a cost of around 175 ECU/t (actual market price: 150 ECU/t), if the phenolic fraction was to be recovered (to obtain phenolic raw material for phenolformaldehyde type of resin) and sold at 335 ECU/t (actual cost 670 ECU/t). Small capacity decentralised gasoline production plants could result from such activity and would be of great interest especially for remote areas in developing countries.

CONCLUSIONS

Biomass for energy has great potential in the Community (around 300 Mt/year); thus biofuel production should be seriously considered a significant element in the Community's energy mix. Large-scale exploitation of biomass presents the following benefits :

(1) potential energy contribution: around 10 % of

primary energy needs ;

(2)

contribution to industrial needs : possibility of covering 100 % of the

(3)

EC deficit, around the year 2000; social impact : 60 0 000 ne w jobs in the Community for the bio-energy

sector alone; (4) large exploitation of biomass could constitute an important instrument for rural development (5) improvement of environment and quality of life; (6) stimulation of industrial competitiveness in this new sector of activity;

Multi-sectoral integration of large market activities improves the economic results of a comprehensive massive exploitation of biomass. Integrated projects on a regional level appear to be the correct dimension for an optimal exploitation of biomass. As far as the bio-energy by-sector is concerned, the production of

synthetic liquid fuels (pyrolysis), as a substitute for oil, for refineries and for general thermal application (heat and electricity production) looks

and medium term in the frame

very promising and better suited in the short of agro-energy-industrial projects (LEBEN).

progress of technology and

development of crops, production of this type of synthetic fuel will, in a relatively short term, become competitive in southern Europe and in five to ten years also in northern Europe.

By means

of integration of markets,

14

PROGRESS IN PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION OF BIOHASS:

AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES

J. DIEBOLD and D. STEVENS Solar Energy Research Institute Golden, CO 80401

Summary

The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) is conducting research to produce liquid transportation fuels from biomass and municipal waste. Research in the thermochemical conversion area includes production of both methanol and gasoline. Methanol is produced by gasifying the biomass feedstock to produce a medium- energy synthesis gas, which then can be cleaned, conditioned, and catalytically converted to methanol. Gasoline is produced by first generating biocrude oils through high or low pressure pyrolytic processes. Catalytic upgrading of the intermediate, biocrude oil product yields hydrocarbon products, which can be used directly as gasoline or as octane enhancers depending upon the catalytic process employed. A summary of the thermochemical program within the U.S. DOE is presented.

1. INTRODUCTION Until the discovery of large quantities of low cost petroleum and natural gas in the early 1900's, wood supplied a significant proportion of the energy requirements for heat and power. Combustion of wood in various sized boilers produced steam to heat buildings, power industrial machinery, and even power transportation vehicles such as ships, trains, and farm machinery. Today, it is estimated that biomass provides about 3 quadrillion BTU's of energy per year in the United States. This corresponds with about 4% of the annual U.S. energy demand. This energy comes primarily from the combustion of wood and other forms of biomass to provide steam and process heat. This contribution is very significant in relation to other energy resources. Nuclear energy generation, for example, provides about 4 to 5 % of the nation's energy supply. With proper resource management and the development of efficient conversion processes, it has been estimated that biomass resources can provide an even greater fraction of this nation's energy supply. (1) Liquid fuels derived from biomass are expected to contribute significantly to this energy potential. As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass can help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy source capable of supplying liquid transportation fuels. Thermochemical conversion processes offer efficient methods for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels through a variety of processes. At present, thermochemical research sponsored by the U.S. DOE is focussed on the production of methanol or gasoline. Thermal conversion processes are well suited to the conversion of wood and crop residues, which account

15

for the vast majority of the biomass resources in the United States. These processes can convert all of the organic materials in the feedstocks to liquid fuel products, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts. In addition, the thermochemical processes and their products are relatively insensitive to variations in the feedstock. Harvested biomass is typically a solid material having a low energy density, as well as a tendency to biodegrade during storage. With the advent of petroleum fuels, society has become very dependent upon fuels which can be conveniently stored in a form having a very high energy density and which can be transported and metered into a combustor as a fluid. For example, the energy contained in a volume of aromatic gasoline is equivalent to that in 4 volumes of solid softwood or 8 volumes of sawdust. Relative to coal, biomass is extremely easy to liquefy or gasify due to its high reactivity. This characteristic makes biomass a prime candidate for the production of liquids or synthesis gases, which may be upgraded to transportation fuels. The diversity of biomass suggests that fairly small conversion plants would be very desirable, which can be quickly developed and constructed. Thus, the conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels would favorably impact local economies by the creation of employment opportunities in rural areas. Although the extent of the world's petroleum resources have been traditionally underestimated, it is generally agreed that petroleum is

a finite resource and the only real question is when, not if, will

alternate sources of liquid transportation fuels be needed. However, most of the world is dependent upon oil fields which are remote from the

consumer and upon long shipping routes and/or pipelines which will prove

to be very difficult to protect. Consequently, the next oil shortage

will most likely be caused by political decisions or by accidents, rather than to depletion of the world's petroleum resources. Biomass resources provide a secure fuel source, which is immune to these types of disruptions.

Biomass also provides a method to help ameliorate carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Recent concerns about the rising levels of

carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, implicate the widespread combustion of fossil fuels. Since the use of biomass as a fuel involves the recycling

of atmospheric carbon rather than the conversion of fossilized carbon to

atmospheric carbon, future methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions should include the increased use of biomass as a source of fuel. This implies the need for the development of technology related to the conversion of biomass to more conventional forms of fuel. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring research on the production of fuels through its Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division. This research includes the development of energy crops and their conversion to fuels using biological or thermochemical processes. The biological processes typically produce plant oils, methane, or ethanol. The thermochemical processes produce: a) methanol from synthesis gases having a medium energy content; or b) biocrude liquids for subsequent refining to a hydrocarbon gasoline, via catalytic cracking or hydrogénation. The potential impact of this research would be a seven-fold increase in the contribution of biomass to the energy consumed in the United States from the current level of about 3% to a little over 20%. (1) For this large a contribution to the energy supply, successful research must be completed in biomass production, as well as in the conversion processes. Actual deployment of the several thousand biomass

16

refineries would require a major industrial investment, which will not take place until the economics are made more feasible through research. This paper is an overview of research and development sponsored by the U.S. DOE in the technology area of the pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and municipal-refuse-derived fuel (RDF). This research includes the upgrading of these intermediate liquids an/or gases to methanol or gasoline. The reader is referred to the proceedings of four recent major symposia (1-4) for additional detail in specific areas discussed in this paper.

2. CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO METHANOL

The conversion of biomass to methanol first involves the gasification of the biomass to a gas which is primarily composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, with very little inert gases such as nitrogen or methane, and virtually no sulfur compounds nor tars. Once these synthesis gases have been generated in the proper proportions, the technology to convert them to methanol is commercially available. Therefore, the development of the conversion of syngases to methanol has been left to industry. The gasification of biomass to produce a clean synthesis fuel gas has been studied extensively over the last eight years with the successful development of four process development units (PDU's) involving quite different reactor designs. Two of these used partial combustion with oxygen to directly supply the heat needed for gasification including: a downdraft fixed bed (SERI/Syngas) and a single fluidized bed (IGT). The other two used heat which was transferred indirectly to the gasification zone from separate combustion processes, including: a dual-fluidized bed (Battelle-Columbus) and a single fluidized bed (University of Missouri-Rolla). To better understand pyrolysis and gasification, DOE is continuing research into the mechanisms involved and the catalytic removal of residual tars. DOE is completing limited work on gasification development.

Gasification research Research into the actual mechanisms involved during the gasification of biomass and pelletized RDF is being carried out at SERI and also at the University of Washington. This research will be valuable to the design and operation of fixed-bed or slow-moving-bed gasifiers. In the SERI research, a single cylindrical particle of biomass or pelleted RDF is instrumented and placed in a preheated reactor, which is swept by a flow of a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. The pellet is heated from all sides. The temperatures of the surface and the center of the particle, the weight, and the energy flux are all measured in real time during the pyrolysis and/or flaming combustion of the single particle. A very thin, visually transparent coating of gold on the glass reactor wall acts as an infrared radiation shield to reduce heat losses to a low level, while allowing the pellet decomposition to be visually observed and photographed. Empirical equations have been derived which predict the time of pyrolysis (or flaming combustion), the heat required for pyrolysis, and the ash content as a function of temperature, initial moisture content, oxygen in the carrier gas, and relative amounts of plastics, metals, and newspaper in RDF pellets. A mathematical model based on scientific principles was shown to predict the temperatures and weight loss of the pellet quite well. (5-7)

In complimentary research at the University of Washington, a single pellet of biomass or RDF is radiantly heated from only one surface to result in a one-dimensional heat flux. The surface and several internal temperatures of the pellet are monitored during the test, and the

17

pyrolysïs products collected. Empirical equations have been derived showing the interactions of the process variables for both softwood pellets of varying density and for RDF pellets. Mathematical models, based on scientific principles, are in progress involving heat transfer considerations and global chemical kinetics. (8,9)

Gasification development U.S. DOE is completing research on one of the promising pyrolysis reactor designs, a fluidized bed. A major technical area, which has been addressed with the past gasification research is how to transfer the necessary heat into the bed that is required to pyrolyze the biomass. In addition to oxygen-blown gasifiers, DOE has examined indirect methods of providing heat. Indirect heating of the fluidized bed through heat-exchange surfaces immersed in the bed has the potential of operational simplicity and possibly a smaller reactor size.

Research into the heat transfer between heat-exchange tubes immersed in a fluidized-bed gasifier at the University of Missouri-Rolla showed that the factor limiting the heat transfer to the bed was the heat transfer between the inside of the tube and the hot combustion gases. Recent research by MTCI, Inc. has been directed toward the improvement of this limiting heat transfer. Rather than merely increasing the hot gas velocities to increase the heat transfer rates (which requires more input of mechanical energy to the blower on the combustor) , MTCI

replaced the conventional pressurized combustor with a pulsed combustor. The pulsed combustor concept is over 50 years old, but some of the benefits are only now being realized. The pulsed combustor consists of

a combustion chamber fitted with a long exhaust pipe which is sized to

produce a resonating, traveling pressure wave. Valves open when the combustor pressure is low to allow a fresh charge of fuel and air to enter without the need for a mechanical blower. In the MTCI design, the mechanical valves are replaced by aerodynamically sized inlet and outlet ports. In the resonance tube, the combustion gases experience very high velocities because the forward and backward velocities of the resonating gases are superimposed upon the net gas velocity. This resonating gas flow resulted in an increase in transfer of heat to a fluidized-bed gasifier by a multiple of between four and five times greater. Data in the literature suggest that an order of magnitude increase in heat

transfer over that attained with conventional turbulent flow can be attained through the use of resonating gaseous heat transfer. (10) With the use of calcium carbonate as the fluidized-bed material, relatively high hydrogen and low tar yields were obtained, apparently due to catalytic effects of the calcium. With funding from the Office of Industrial Programs in DOE, this system has also been used to gasify black liquor from the Kraft pulping process in steam. This resulted in

gases containing very high levels of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and low levels of tars and carbon monoxide, apparently due to catalytic effects

of the sodium present in the black liquor and in the sodium carbonate bed

material. (11)

Catalytic reduction of tars in gasification The use of synthesis

gases in conventional methanol synthesis systems requires that the levels of pyrolytic tars be very low. Research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has investigated the use of catalysts to reduce tars.

A primary fluidized gasifier was operated, followed by a secondary

fluidized bed in which the catalysts were placed. The catalysts appear to function by reacting with the tars to form coke and then to promote the oxidation of that coke to form gases. Inputs to this secondary bed

18

were steam-gasification vapor products and enough air to prevent catalyst deactivation by oxidizing the coke deposits as they formed. The oxidation very specifically gasified the coke on the catalysts to result in greatly increased the gas yields. Even with 0.4 g of air added to the secondary reactor per g of wood feed, the nitrogen composition in the gaseous products did not change significantly from the original value in the dirty gases. The remaining hydrocarbons in the gases were primarily volatile aromatic compounds, which were not be expected to be troublesome for most applications. (12) Using the MB/MS, SERI will soon be initiating a study to screen different catalysts for the reduction of residual pyrolytic tars.

3. CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO GASOLINE The U.S. DOE is also sponsoring research to convert biomass to gasoline hydrocarbons. This research is focussed on first converting the biomass to a biocrude oil or vapor and then upgrading the intermediate to gasoline. Gasoline is completely compatible with the existing distribution and vehicle systems; it naturally produces low aldehyde emissions; and it has a greater energy content. With the modern computer-controlled automobile engines coupled with catalytic mufflers, hydrocarbon gasolines would be expected to produce very low levels of pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, aldehydes, and unburned hydrocarbons. These considerations have led to the development of processes to convert biomass to gasoline. Three process routes have been investigated to make gasoline intermediates from biomass: a) liquefaction in a pressurized solvent to produce a biocrude oil having a low oxygen

content; b) liquefaction of biomass at low pressures with slow pyrolysis; and c) fast pyrolysis of biomass at low pressure to form a biocrude oil

Two upgrading processes have been

having a high oxygen content.

investigated: a) catalytic deoxygenation of the biocrude oils with pressurized hydrogen; and b) cracking and deoxygenating the biocrude vapors with zeolite catalysts at atmospheric pressures.

Liquefaction of biomass in pressurized solvents The liquefaction of biomass in pressurized solvents was demonstrated at Albany, OR in the late 1970's. This process was operated at 20.8 MPa pressure, 20 minutes residence time, and with a sodium carbonate catalyst. Since the early 1980's, research in this area was shifted to the University of Arizona and has focussed on improving the solids content of the slurry of biomass solids fed into the high pressure reactor. Higher contents of biomass in the feed, allow a smaller, more economical reactor vessel to be used for a given throughput. Mixtures containing as much as 60% wood flour in product oil have been pumped into pressurized containers, using a modified extruder originally designed to extrude plastics. With this technique, early liquefaction experiments at the University of Arizona were conducted at 375 to 400 C, 5.5 to 21 MPa pressure, 40 % wood flour in Albany oil with a residence time of between one and four hours, and both with and without carbon monoxide and sodium bicarbonate catalyst. Recent experimentation was directed toward the recycling of the product oil containing approximately 40% fresh wood flour, along with water and carbon monoxide to result in a carrier oil composed primarily of material made at the University of Arizona. The fluid product distilled from the carrier oil had a heating value of 37 MJ/kg (16,000 BTU/lb), a residual oxygen content of 7 to 10%. The oil yield was close to that theoretically attainable. (13)

19

Liquefaction of biomass at low pressures with slow pyrolvsis The product slates from the slow heating of loose mixtures of RDF materials at atmospheric pressures in a retort swept with helium has been researched at Argonne National Laboratory. Final temperatures of 475 C were used. Sample sizes were varied between 1 and 50 g. The yields of tar and solid residue from newsprint were reported to be 25 to 30% and 21 to 26% respectively at heating rates of 5 C/m. The effect of heating rates between 5 and 30 C/m were found to be negligible. The influence of polyethylene in the feed was seen only in the tars collected after the first of a series of condensers, as deduced through the use of IR spectral analysis. The presence of polyethylene in a kraft paper feed decreased the low viscosity of the tars by a third. (14) The yields of condensates are consistent with those reported for RDF components previously reported by the New York University with similar sample sizes and slow heating rates of between 12 and 136 C/m. (15) It appears that slow heating rates of around 136 C/m and slower in a retort produce lower yields of organic condensates from RDF compared to other processes which use faster heating rates.

Liquefaction of biomass at low pressure with fast pyrolvsis Fast pyrolysis processes can be used for biomass liquefaction at atmospheric pressures, vapor residence times of less than a second, and intermediate temperatures of around 500 C. The fast pyrolysis condensates have about the same oxygen content and energy per unit weight as the feedstock. However, when produced with only the water of pyrolysis present, they are very fluid at room temperature and have a specific gravity of about 1.25. Due its relatively low projected cost, fast pyrolysis is currently thought by the International Energy Agency's Liquefaction Activity to be advantageous depending upon the end use of the product. (16) Basic research into the pyrolysis of biomass and RDF has been recently studied at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) using the molecular beam mass spectrometer (MB/MS) to study the pyrolysis vapors and gases in real time as they evolve from the pyrolyzing particles. Over 50 different samples of biomass and RDF were pyrolyzed and analyzed by the MB/MS scanning over the mass ranges of 10 to 250. Multivariate analysis of this very extensive data set was used to determine that there were 13 factors that explained over 90% of the variance in the data. Interpretation of the data resulted in the identification of six major chemical compound classes to explain the 13 factors. To determine the effect of process variables, a statistically designed set of experiments was conducted to look at the effects on the six compound classes identified in the feedstock screening tests. Empirical equations were fitted to the data and used to generate parametric plots showing the effect of different variables. In addition, a set of 50 different pyrolysis oils, most of which were part of the IEA set of pyrolysis and gasification oils, were analyzed on the MB/MS. Multivariate analysis was also used to reduce this data set to a similar set of six major chemical compound classes. An empirical equation was fit to the data which predicted the size of the distillable fraction based on the relative amounts of the various compound classes. (17,18)

Applied research in fast pyrolysis at the Georgia Tech Research Institute has used an entrained-flow reactor. In this system, powdered wood (0.30 to 0.42 mm) is entrained in a straight tube by a flow of stoichiometrically combusted flue gases. The heat for pyrolysis is supplied by these carrier gases. If the carrier gases are too hot,

20

significant losses from the first-formed vapors take place to result in higher overall gas yields. Consequently, fairly large amounts of tempered carrier gases at 745 C were used at a carrier-gas-to-biomass weight ratio of about 8 to supply the heat of pyrolysis to maximize the yield of pyrolysis oils. The diameter of the entrained-flow reactor is currently 15 cm and the length is 4.4 m, which results in a residence time of one to two seconds. This residence time is a compromise between the length of time needed to pyrolyze the size of particles fed on a once-through basis and the need to minimize the time which the pyrolysis vapors spend in the reactor. Feeding rates are typically about 15 kg/hr and have resulted in reported yields of 58% organic condensates (moisture free) and 12% char (maf feed) with a total mass closure of 101% (including the large amount of carrier gases). The pyrolyzate is recovered along with the water formed in the combustion used to directly heat the carrier gases, as well as any water formed during pyrolysis, or which was present as moisture in the feed, resulting in condensates containing about half water. (19,20) A different type of entrained-flow reactor has been developed at SERI specifically for the fast pyrolysis of biomass. In this reactor, the feed is entrained at very high velocities (calculated to be about 400 m/s) in a tube having an inside diameter of 1 cm into a vortex reactor having a diameter of 13 cm and a length of 0.69 m. The feed particles are forced to slide on the hot cylindrical wall in a helical path as they pass through the reactor. The sliding contact of the particles on the wall results in very high heat transfer to the particle so that ablative pyrolysis is thought to take place. Partially pyrolyzed particles exit the reactor tangentially, are mixed with fresh feed, and are recycled back to the carrier gas ejector, where they are re-accelerated by the supersonic carrier gas. The recycle loop decouples the residence times of the solids and the vapors, which allows the vortex reactor to be insensitive to the particle size of the feed. The small amount of char which is formed is also recycled until it is attrited to a fine powder (-50 micrometer). (21) A mathematical model based on first principles suggests that the typical 2-mm thick feed particle will make about 30 passes during a total residence time of 1 to 2 seconds through the reactor before it is completely pyrolyzed. Operation of this small reactor is typically at 13 to 20 kg/hr of dry sawdust (-3 mm) with a carrier-gas-to-biomass weight ratio of 1 to 1.5. Yields on a dry feed basis have been 67% condensates (55% moisture-free organic liquids), 13% char, 14% net pyrolysis gases, and 12% water of pyrolysis for a mass closure of 94% of the feed (a 98% mass closure, if the nitrogen carrier gas is included in the calculations) . (22) This reactor has recently been modified to allow it to pyrolyze RDF, which contains tramp metals and other inert solids. Preliminary operation with RDF indicates that the plastic derived condensates interact with the lignocellulosic derived condensates to form an asphalt appearing material. (23,24) The asphalt nature of these condensates contrasts with the low viscosity reported as a result of slow pyrolysis. (17)

An alternate approach to effect the sliding contact between a hot surface and the biomass to be rapidly pyrolyzed has been under development at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The CSM reactor uses two specially grooved disks made of copper, which are stacked one on top of the other. The biomass or RDF is centrally fed between the heated disks. As the bottom disk is rotated at 4 to 80 rpm, the feed particles make their way to the circumference of the disks in a spiral path and are allowed to fall to a cooler zone. The vapors and gases pass between the

21

heated disks and also exit at the circumference of the disks and pass out of the reactor to the condensers. The disks had a diameter of 6.4 cm. Feeding rates were 13 to 210 g/h. Maximum reported liquid yields from sawdust were 54% (including moisture) at disk temperatures of 600 C, a flow of nitrogen purge gas of 0.5 g N2 per g of sawdust, and a feeding rate of 13 g/h. (25,26) If the developmental challenges can be met, the CSM pyrolysis reactor offers a greater decoupling of the purge or carrier gas flow rates than is possible with other fast pyrolysis reactors, e.g. entrained flow, vortex, or fluidized bed reactors.

Characterization of organic condensates formed by thermochemical processes The pyrolysis and gasification processes mentioned above produce condensates which vary in their characteristics depending upon the nature of the process. In particular, time spent at high temperatures increases gas formation, but also changes the nature of the surviving organic condensates. A recent study by PNL of condensates made with short residence times at temperatures from 450 to 900 C revealed that the primary pyrolysis condensates which form at 450-500 C do not contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and are not carcinogenic to mice. However, as the pyrolysis temperatures are raised, the amount of PAH's increases along with the carcinogenicity to mice. In fact, the tars formed above 800 C appeared to be slightly more carcinogenic to the mice than was the reference material, benzo(a)pyrene. (27) The nature of the oxygenated oils and tars formed by the various pyrolysis processes is such that they are not equivalent to a petroleum crude oil and they require different refining techniques to be developed. The oils formed in pressurized solvents have tended to have a high phenolic content, whereas, the oils formed by fast pyrolysis have a very high oxygen content. These biocrude oils could be used as boiler or turbine fuels without refining. However, neither of the biocrude oils can distilled into usable gasoline or diesel fractions, rather both of them must be deoxygenated to be converted hydrocarbons and usable transportation fuels. Two such deoxygenation processes have been under development: a) hydrogénation with cobalt-molybdenum catalysts at high pressures, and b) cracking with zeolite catalysts with no added hydrogen at atmospheric pressures.

Upgrading of pyrolysis products by hydrogénation The upgrading of pyrolysis oils, formed at both high and low pressures, through catalytic hydrogénation has been under investigation at PNL. Early work used oils formed at high pressures in the Albany (PERC) process with a sulfided cobalt-molybdenum catalyst at 13.8 MPa hydrogen pressure, 350 to 450 C, and a liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.1 volume of oil per volume of catalyst per hour to produce a hydrocarbon product boiling primarily in the gasoline range. (28) More recently, this work has been expanded to oils formed by the fast pyrolysis of biomass at atmospheric pressures made at Georgia Tech, SERI, as well as those from Canada and peat derived oils from Finland. The fast pyrolysis oils must first be stabilized by deoxygenation in the presence of hydrogen at low temperatures to avoid polymerizing the feedstock. After stabilization, the fast-pyrolysis oils are partially deoxygenated and have many properties in common with the oils formed at high pressure. The stabilized pyrolysis oils can then be hydrodeoxygenated at higher temperatures to form a gasoline product similar to that made from the high pressure oils. Originally, this two-step process was conducted separately at a pressure of 13.8 MPa hydrogen, temperatures of 275 and

22

350 C, and liquid hourly space velocities of 0.6 and 0.1 in the first and second reactors, respectively. Yields on a dry wood basis from pyrolysis oils made by Georgia Tech were about 25 wt% of hydrocarbon product

containing only 1.3 wt % oxygen. More recently, this two-step process was combined into a single, non-isothermal reactor at 13.8 MPa, which maintained the inlet temperature at around 260 C and the outlet temperature at around 375 C. With a LHSV of 0.1 volume of oil per volume

of catalyst per hour, the fast, pyrolysis oil from SERI was converted into

a product which contained only 1.3 wt % oxygen, a hydrogen-to-carbon ratio

of 1.68, and 73 vol% boiling in the gasoline range (C5 to 225 C). Liquid

product yields of about 20 wt% were reported based on the dry wood feed. The cause for the difference in yields has not been addressed. (29) Octane tests of the gasoline products, combined from several preliminary

hydrogénation experiments of the Albany oils, indicated a research octane

of 77. (29,30) Based on the fairly high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and the

medium octane value, it is highly probable that the octane level could be raised by optimizing the process or by removing some of the hydrogen in a subsequent reforming step to increase the aromatic content, as is commonly done in a typical petroleum refinery, i.e. with "Platforming".

Zeolite upgrading of pyrolysis oil vapors at low pressures An alternate method to the high pressure upgrading of the pyrolysis oil is with the use of zeolite catalysts at atmospheric pressures without added hydrogen. These catalysts were introduced to the petroleum industry about 30 years ago and have found widespread use in the catalytic cracking of heavy petroleum fractions to increase the yield of gasoline. More recently, Mobil has developed zeolite catalysts which have pore sizes small enough to allow production of toluene and similar gasoline compounds. This H-ZSM-5 catalyst is now in commercial use in New Zealand to convert methanol to gasoline. Although the molecular weight of the condensed pyrolysis oils has been found to be typically between 500 and 2000, researchers at SERI determined that the pyrolysis vapors had much lower molecular weights of typically less than 200. The molecular size and shape of most of the identified compounds were small enough to enter the H-ZSM-5 pore. Preliminary experiments with H-ZSM-5 catalyst furnished by Mobil confirmed that a small amount of catalyst was sufficient to change the product slate from the oxygenated pyrolysis vapors to a highly aromatic gasoline product. This process has been studied extensively using the MB/MS which allowed the product slate to be examined in real time as the catalyst aged in a fixed bed of 10 g of H-ZSM-5 catalyst. A process variable study was conducted to identify

optimum operating conditions, which were found to be quite different from those used to convert methanol to gasoline. Empirical equations were fit to the data to result in parametric contour plots illustrating the effects of the process variables on the yields. (31,32,33) Concurrently, research has been conducted with a larger fixed-bed reactor having 100

g of catalyst and fed a small slipstream of fresh pyrolysis vapors

directly from the vortex reactor at SERI. (34,35) Hydrocarbon product yields, including olefins, have been around 15 wt% of the dry feed, when using steam as the carrier gas and a weight hourly space velocity of between 1 and 4 g wood per g catalyst per hour at 525 C. Recent research has been directed toward recovery of the gaseous olefins as part of the gasoline product. The gasoline produced consists primarily of alkylated benzenes, e.g. toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, and isopropyl benzene (eumene). These compounds are present in today's commercial gasolines and their effect is to raise the octane value. (36,37) Similar impure

23

streams (mixed xylenes) in a petroleum refinery are typically worth one and a half times the value of unleaded gasoline. The upgrading of fast- pyrolysis oils with zeolites has also been studied at Georgia Tech Research Institute, but detailed results have not yet been released.

(19,20)

Technoeconomic assessments (38) Technoeconomic assessments were recently made by Science Applications, Inc. (SAI) to compare two methods of upgrading fast pyrolysis products to gasoline. Each of the two processes were evaluated at their present stage of development, as well as, at the expected future stage of mature development. In the process being studied at PNL, the condensed fast pyrolysis oils, made by an entrained-flow process similar to that of Georgia Tech, are fed to a high pressure reactor where in the present case the oils are first deoxygenated in the presence of hydrogen at relatively low temperatures to stabilize the oils to prevent polymerization reactions. The stabilized oil is then treated with hydrogen at higher temperatures to complete the hydrodeoxygenation process. Hydrogen is made by steam reforming and shifting of the byproduct gases. This hydrogénation process is relatively complex and capital intensive, but is said to have the potential of very high hydrocarbon yields of about 32% by weight of the dry feed. Liquid hourly space velocities of 1.0 and 0.1 were assumed for the "current" two-step hydrogénation process. A LHSV of 0.5 was assumed for the "future" non-isothermal hydrogénation process in a single reactor.

The other process, which is being studied by SERI, is based on the immediate conversion of the hot organic vapors, formed by fast pyrolysis in the vortex reactor, before they are allowed to cool and condense. In this process at atmospheric pressures, the hot carrier steam, pyrolysis gases, and vapors are passed through a catalytic cracking reactor loaded with H-ZSM-5 catalyst. With a gas residence time of a few seconds, an equivalent LHSV of 2.5 was assumed to give complete conversion of the oxygenated organic pyrolysis vapors to the hydrocarbon products, water, and oxides of carbon. The process stream was then condensed and the olefinic gases adsorbed from the off-gases and recycled. This process is thought to have lower potential gasoline yields of 24% of the dry biomass feed, but is less capital intensive per unit weight of biomass fed than high pressure hydrogénation. The present technoeconomics of both processes were examined in light of the state-of-the-art as it existed at the time of the beginning of the study: a 15 wt% yield for hydrogénation; and 10% yields for zeolite cracking. The annual cost assumed for the capital was equivalent to a simple amortization over 20 years of the total capital investment at 15% annual interest without any subsidies or tax considerations. The assumed cost of the feedstock was $27.50 per dry tonne. As expected, the research on these processes is only partially completed and established research goals have not yet been reached. For this reason, projected production costs in a plant fed 908 tonnes of dry biomass per day were not economically attractive at $2.64 per gallon via hydrogénation and $2.92 per gallon via catalytic cracking. Incorporation of more recent yields and process information would result in lower predicted production costs for both processes. If future research and development are successful, the economics improve substantially. The future hydrogénation process is projected to require a capital investment of $74.4 M to result in a cost of $0.96 per gallon of medium octane gasoline. The future zeolite cracking process

24

was projected to require a capital investment of $47.8 M to result in a cost of $1.05 per gallon of high octane gasoline blending stock. These projected production costs are very sensitive to the relative success of research and development to achieve the gasoline yields assumed. Within the accuracy of the study, the projected production costs are equivalent for the two different gasolines.

4. COMMERCIALIZATION OF DOE DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGY

There are several private firms which are involved with the commercialization of biomass gasification in the United States. Most of this work has involved air blown, low-energy gasifiers for fuel purposes. Approximately 20 gasifiers are currently in operation including, for example, a unit which provides boiler fuel for a hospital in Rome, Georgia. Other units are being planned. Technology based on a downdraft gasifier developed by the DOE program at SERI is being used by Syngas, Inc. to develop gasification systems to produce electricity in New York. Another gasifier, based on the vortex reactor is being planned by Pyrotech to operate in California.

There currently are no firms with commercial gasifiers to produce a medium-energy gas, which could be utilized as a synthesis gas. To encourage such a development and to facilitate the commercialization of a process to make methanol from biomass, the U.S. DOE has recently announced that it is looking for an industrial partner to share the cost of the scale-up of a gasifier system to produce a medium-energy gas. This would be at the 15 to 25 tonne per day size. A formal request for proposal is soon to be issued to those U.S. companies indicating an interest to share at least 50% of the cost of the project. The U.S. DOE funding for this project is projected to be about $5M over the life of the development. (42)

5. FUTURE TRENDS IN THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION IN THE U.S.

The DOE funding available for thermochemical conversion has steadily declined in recent years. Cutbacks in the research program during the current fiscal year resulted in the cancellation of all thermochemical programs, except those at SERI. The research and development of the zeolite upgrading of the pyrolysis oils to improve yields at lower cost and the pyrolysis of RDF in the vortex reactor to optimize organic vapor yields will continue at SERI, but at reduced levels compared to prior years.

This funding decline is at a time when the world is looking for methods to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide through the curtailment of the use of fossil fuels. Since the use of biomass as a fuel recycles carbon dioxide over the course of a few years, it will not be a net contributor to the "greenhouse" effect. In future years, the funding for alternate sources of methanol and gasoline may be more optimistic.

6. CONCLUSIONS

The U.S. DOE has successfully transferred the technology for gasification to produce low-energy gases and commercialization of this technology is underway. Gasification of biomass to produce medium-energy gases for methanol synthesis is still being researched at a low level of effort and a pilot plant demonstration project is planned, in which the U.S. DOE will share the cost of development with a private firm. Most thermochemical research in the last few years has been directed toward the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, i.e. gasoline. Using pyrolysis oils formed during the fast pyrolysis of biomass, two promising

25

processes to make gasoline have been researched concurrently. This work will also examine the use of RDF feedstocks to produce gasoline.

REFERENCES

(1) SCHIEFELBEIN, G., ed. (1988) Thermochemical Conversion Propram Annual Meeting. June 21-22. 1988. Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO 80228, SERI/CP 231-3355, DE 88001187. (2) BRIDGWATER, A.V., and KUESTER, J.L., eds. (1988) Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. Proceedings of the IEA Conference held in Phoenix, AZ in May 2-6, 1988, Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York. (3) SOLTES, E.J. and MILNE, T.A., eds. (1988) Pvrolvsis oils from Biomass. Producing. Analyzing, and Upgrading. Proceedings of the symposium held in Denver, CO on April 5-10, 1987, ACS Symposium Series 376, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.

(4) KLASS, D., ed. (1989) Proceedings of the symposium on "Energy from Biomass and Solid Wastes XII", held in New Orleans, LA February 13-17, 1989, Institute of Gas Technology (in press). (5) LEVIE, B.E. (1988) Pvrolvsis of Refuse Derived Fuel Pellets. Ph.D thesis, University of Colorado. (6) LEVIE, B.E. and DIEBOLD, J.P. (1988) "Pyrolysis of single pellets of refuse derived fuel" in Ref. (1), pp. 259-269. (7) LEVIE, B.E., DIEBOLD, J.P., and WEST, R. (1988) "Pyrolysis of single pellets of refuse derived fuel" in Ref. (2), pp 312-327. (8) LAI, W. and KRIEGER-BROCKETT, B.B. (1988) "Single Particle RDF Pyrolysis Properties and Products-Initial Results" in Ref. (1),

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(10)

enhanced biomass gasifier for production of medium-BTU gas" in Ref. (1), pp. 77-86. (11) DURAI-SWAMY, K. , WARREN, D.W., AGHAMOHAMMADI, B. , and MANSOUR, M.N. (1989) "Pulse-assisted gasification of black liquor and organic wastes for medium-BTU gas" in Ref. (4).

(12) MUDGE, L.K., GERBER, M.A., and WILCOX, W.A. (1988) "Improved gasification by catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases" in Ref. (1), pp. 87-100.

(13)

DURAI-SWANY, K. , WARREN, D.W., and CHE, S.C. (1988) "Pulse-

WHITE, D.H. and WOLF, D. (1988)

"Advances in direct biomass

liquefaction by the extruder-feeder method" in Ref. (1), pp. 57- 66 and Ref. (2), pp. 827-853.

(14) HELDT, J.E. and MALLYA, N. (1988) "Experiments on basic mechanisms of pyrolysis" in Ref. (1), pp. 221-236. (15) KAISER, E.R. and FRIEDMAN, S.B. (1968) "The pyrolysis of refuse components", Combustion. May, pp. 31-36. (16) ELLIOTT, D.C , BAKER, E.G., BECKMAN, D., SOLANTAUSTA, Y., TULENHEIMO, V., OSTMAN, Α., GEVERT, S.B., HORNELL, C , and KJELLSTROM, B. (1989) "A technical and economic analysis of direct biomass liquefaction" in Ref. (4).

(17)

(1988) "Mass

EVANS, R.J.,

spectrometric studies of municipal solid waste pyrolysis" in Ref. (1), pp.209-219.

MILNE, T.A.,

and

FILLEY,

J.

26

(18) EVANS, R.J., and MILNE, T.A. (1988) "Mass spectromctric studies of the relationship of pyrolysis oil composition to formation mechanisms and feedstock composition" in Ref. (2), pp. 264-279. (19) KOVAC, R. (1988) "Production and upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils" in Ref. (1), pp. 5-20. (20) KOVAC, R. (1989) "Liquid biofuels production by an entrained pyrolysis process" in Ref. (4). (21) DIEBOLD, J.P. and SCAHILL, J.W. (1988) "Production of primary oils in a vortex reactor" in Ref. (3), pp. 31-40. (22) DIEBOLD, J.P. and POWER, A.J. (1988) "Engineering aspects of the vortex reactor to produce primary pyrolysis oil vapors for use in

resins

and adhesives" in Ref. (2), pp. 609-628.

(23)

SCAHILL, J.W. and DIEBOLD, J.P. (1988) "Adaptation of the SERI

(24)

vortex reactor for RDF pyrolysis" in Ref. (1), pp. 237-246. DIEBOLD, J.P., EVANS, R.J., and SCAHILL, J.W. (1989) "Fast pyrolysis of RDF to produce fuel oils, char, and a metal-rich by- product" in Ref. (4).

(25) REED, T.B. (1988) "Principles and operation of a novel "pyrolysis mill" in Ref. (1), pp.247-258. (26) REED, T.B. (1988) "Contact pyrolysis in a pyrolysis mill" in Ref. (2), pp. 192-202. (27) ELLIOTT, D.C. (1988) "Relation of reaction time and temperature to chemical composition of pyrolysis oils" in Ref. (3), pp. 55-65. (28) BAKER, E.G. and ELLIOTT, D.C. (1988) "Catalytic hydrogénation of

biomass-derived oils" in

Ref. (3), pp. 228-240.

(29) BAKER, E.G. and ELLIOTT, D.C. (1988) "Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils" in Ref. (2), pp. 883-895. (30) ELLIOTT, D.C. and BAKER, E.G. (1988) "Catalytic hydrotreating processes for upgrading biocrude oils" in Ref. (1), pp. 45-56. (31) EVANS, R.J. and MILNE, T.A. (1988) "Molecular-beam mass- spectrometric studies of wood vapor and model compounds over an H- ZSM-5 catalyst" in Ref. (3), pp. 311-327. (32) EVANS, R.J., FILLEY, J., and MILNE, T.A. (1988) "Molecular beam mass spectrometric studies of H-ZSM-5 activity during wood pyrolysis product conversion" in Ref. (1), pp. 33-43. (33) MILNE, T.A., EVANS, R.J., and FILLEY, J. (1988) "Molecular beam mass spectrometric studies of H-ZSM-5 activity during wood pyrolysis product conversion" in Ref. (3), pp. 910-926.

(34)

DIEBOLD, J.P. and SCAHILL, J.W. (1988) "Biomass to gasoline:

(35)

upgrading pyrolysis vapors to aromatic gasoline with zeolite catalysts at atmospheric pressure" in Ref. (3), pp. 264-276. DIEBOLD, J.P. and SCAHILL, J.W. (1988) "Conversion of wood to aromatic gasoline with zeolite catalysts", Energy Propress. Vol. 8, No.l, 59-65.

(36) SCAHILL, J.W., DIEBOLD, J.P., and POWER, A.J. (1988) "Engineering aspects of upgrading pyrolysis oil using zeolites" in Ref.(2), pp.

927-940.

(37) DIEBOLD, J.P. and SCAHILL, J.W. (1988) "Zeolite catalysts for producing hydrocarbon fuels from biomass" in Ref. (1), pp. 21-32.

(38)

producing liquid transportation fuels from biomass" in Ref. (1) , pp. 111-121. (39) GRABOSKI, M.S. (1989) Private communication with J.P. Diebold on April 21. (40) AYRES, W. (1987) "Commercial application of wood derived oil", Enerpv Propress. Vol.7, No. 2, 77-79.

WAN, E.I. and FRASER, M.D.

(1988) "Economic assessment of

27

(41) AYRES, W. (1989) Private communication with J.P. Diebold on April

21.

(42) ANON,(1989) Commerce Business Daily. Jan. 6.

28

OVERVIEW OF THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS IN CANADA

R.D. HAYES Bioenergy Research and Development Technology Branch Energy, Mines and Resources Canada Ottawa, Canada K1A 0E4

Summa ry

Thermochemical conversion of biomass in Canada has undergone a considerable transformation in approach and expectations over the last ten years. A decade ago, the promise of early commercialization quickly evaporated and was replaced by a more realistic assessment that the potential would likely not materialize except over the longer term. More recently this outlook has been modified slightly in the wake of unanticipated research progress and the surfacing of some special near term market applications.

1. INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY

During the late 1970's and early 80's there was a short-lived perception of panic in energy security accompanied by exaggerated claims of technical readiness of thermochemical conversion applications. Several premature commercial demonstrations in the U.S.A. of pyrolysis and gasification failed technically and financially. Governments and investors became understandably cautious therefore when further approached by technology vendors. American communities that once considered gasification and pyrolysis of municipal solid wastes as environmentally attractive alternatives to relieve pressure on decreased availability of landfill sites for urban refuse, turned their attention to mass incineration and refuse derived fuel (RDF) combustion applications. Though environmentally less attractive in terms of emissions, combustion offered less technical and financial risk than did the more exotic thermochemical conversion options.

Canada was somewhat behind the U.S.A., having felt less apparent impact from the energy supply disruptions of 1973 and 1979. In those days

also there was less pressure to find alternatives to landfilling of wastes than there was in many U.S. cities, or, as there is in some Canadian cities today. Canadian thermochemical conversion research, then in its infancy, therefore focussed its effort on the long term. It assumed a lengthy timeframe to mature innovative process developments. In theory, this new breed of technologies would presumably become technically ready

for the 1990's or 21 st century, in a world eager to embrace

bioenergy,

particularly from wood, as a sustainable and environmentally attractive energy resource.

29

The ultimate vision of some researchers was to refine biomass in a manner analogous to petroleum that would eventually lead to alternative transportation fuels, preferably high quality gasoline, plus a host of high value byproduct specialty chemicals. As the bubble burst on high world oil prices, the sense of urgency to accelerate RSD diminished. Admittedly, severe federal budget reductions for energy RSD also had its predictable effect on the "sense of urgency". Except for one major project, gasification research in Canada all but disappeared by 1984. The pyrolysis/liquefaction research community collectively agreed to back off from upgrading studies, and concentrated instead on perfecting their processes for primary oil production.

Over the past decade, the science has become better understood and technical advances have actually surpassed earlier expectations. Some laboratories have begun to re-activate their upgrading research. Scientists and engineers have broadened the scope of experimental conditions and gained a much deeper understanding of the chemical transformations of complex feedstocks to multiple products.

A new vision of conversion and product opportunities has begun to reshape our view of the timeframe for commercialization. The long term perspective remains paramount, and perhaps even more so since the global call for environmentally sustainable economic development by the Brundtland Commission report, "Our Common Future"l·

In addition to the long-term vision, technical progress in the identification of several high valued specialty chemicale in wood pyrolysis oil may be the market hook (albeit a small market) required to help finance the high costs of staged scale-up from laboratory, process development unit, pilot plant, small commercial demonstration and eventually to full-scale commercial reality.

Several other near term opportunities

have

also

surfaced.

Environmental pressures have influenced the trial experimentation of biomass pyrolysis liquefaction technologies on non-woody feedstocks such as used tires, petroleum sludges, sewage sludge, and, once again, municipal solid wastes. Impending environmental regulatory controls on waste incineration and increasing costs for landfilling may create a climate more ideal for fully contained emission-free thermochemical processes.

Researchers, industry and government have all become more creative in building a diversified, yet comprehensive, portfolio of thermochemical conversion opportunities for the commercial world. Though nothing thoroughly new has emerged, the past ten years have seen an evolution from a subject of technical curiosity to one of concerted effort toward cost effective products for the marketplace, some sooner than others.

2. PROSPECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY (PAT)

A broader diversified portfolio, as referred to above, presents a major challenge to the RSD planner. Added to this challenge is the ever- present restraints in government RSD funding. This challenge has necessitated a major overhaul in organizing RSD priorities in the context of assessing a balance in both near and long term commercialization and environmental opportunities and needs.

30

The commercialization process for a new technology as defined within the Energy Diversity Division of Energy Mines & Resources Canada includes everything germane including opportunity identification, the actual research, development, technical evaluation, and demonstration as well as the determination of current and projected economic feasibilities, current and future market, expected timeframes for commercialization, standards development, and many other factors affecting market introduction and pene­ tration. Once these elements have been assessed and analyzed for the various feedstock/conversion' technology pathways, priorities could be estab­ lished with respect to activities that government can, should, or must, do and those that government should not, or cannot afford, to support.

The first step in the process is to organize the four basic elements of a technology by resource (eg. biomass, wastes, peat etc.), process(es), product(s), and market application. The particular feedstock combined with specific conversion processes and a particular market application of products result in what we define as a Prospective Application of Technology or PAT. The picture can become rather complex especially when considering combinations of thermochemical, biochemical and fractionation technologies that might be otherwise overlooked during conventional analysis. In order to illustrate many of the various combinations pictorially, we have constructed a 'PAT map.'

Figure 1 is a simplified version of a 'PAT map' for thermochemical technologies. One can visualize perhaps one hundred or more probable combinations of resources, processes, products, and market applications. The product possibilities alone include a vast array of oils, gases, chars, carbon black, sugars, fermentation products, high value specialty chemicals, medium value commodity chemicals, olefins, gasoline and gasoline components, diesel fuel, and other materials. Figure 2 is a more general PAT map encompasing most bioenergy technologies.

FIGURE I

Prospective Applications of Technology

< Thermochemical)

Thermochemical

Processes;

pyrolysis

hydrotreating

catalytic

solvent pressurized

partial oxidation

oxygen gasification

soivoiyss

hydrothermolysis

product separation

etc.

oletins

" *

Thermochemieal

and/or

biochemical

Processes

BTX

CMA

acetic acid

IzBüfffla.·,!!

ition

" Τ ­

χ y Ian s

Τ attractive*/

lionln

votatile«

TvTvl

Various combinations of thermochemical, biochemical, ex tract lon/fractJona tion and derlvatlzatlon processes

diesel /urt

phenolic denVaoVes

 

synthesis gas

gaso/ine components aahe¡áve¡¡lb¡nders

lm, mol.

m

lignns

carbon

'llavourslaromas

 

black

charcoal

PROSPECTIVE

THERMOCHEMICAL

COMBUSTION

GASIFICATION

PYROLYSIS

CATALYSIS

HYDROTHERMOLYSIS

31

Figure

II

APPLICATIONS

OF

TECHNOLOGY

| MATERIALS

PREPARATION]

JPRETREATMENT

FRACTIONATION

|

EXTRACTIVES

SOLVOLVSIS.

ETC

 

VARIOUS

COMBINATIONS

OF

BIOCHEMICAL

THERMOCHEMICAL.

FRACTIONATION,

EXTRACTION

 

AND

DERIVATIZATION

PROCESSES

 

|

THERMOCHEM-UPGRAOING

|

 

FUEL OIL GAS

CMA

ACETIC

ACID

RESINS

FIBERS

SUGAR

ENZYMES

OLEFINS

BTX

METHANE

CARBON

BLACK

GASOLINE

ADDITIVES

OLIGOMERS

FURFURAL

DIESEL

FUEL

SYNTHESIS

GAS

HEAT ALCOHOLS

ADHESIVES'BINDERS

 

PHENOLIC

DERIVATIVES

CHARCOAL

GASOLINE

FLAVOURS/AROMAS

LOW

MOL

WT.

LIGNINS

MANY

FERMENTATION

PRODUCTS

ETC.

RESIDENTIAL.

COMMERCIAL

INSTITUTIONAL

AND

INDUSTRIAL

BLOGS

PULP

AND

PAPER

, AGRICULTURE

&

FISHERIES.

UTILITIES.

FOOD

AND

BEVERAGE.

FOREST

PRODUCTS

INDUSTRY.

NORTHERN

COMMUNITIES

TRANSPORTATION.

INTERNATIONAL

AID

AND

EXPORT.

REFINERIES

HEAVY

INDUSTRY.

BRICK.

LIME

AND

CEMENT

ETC.

Our view of the world of thermochemical conversion of biomass is no longer limited to merely the pyrolysis or gasification of wood to heating oil and gas. Thermochemical conversion is not treated in isolation from biochemical, fractionation or derivatization processes. Even considering a single process technology, the variation in process conditions, catalysts, reactants, or feedstocks can impact the range and output of possible product combinations.

The second step will be to select a handful of promising PAT■s, and perform an analysis of expected technical progress, economic feasibility, market penetration, and timeframe for commercialization. In theory, this should provide government (and industry) with a rationale for desirable government (and industry) activities in those PAT's such as research, development, demonstration, detailed engineering, market studies, economic and financial analysis, information dissemination, standards formulation, etc.

Some of the so-called 'thermochemical PAT■s' that are not typically represented at thermochemical conversion of biomass conferences, but which are included or planned for in Energy, Mines and Resources' Bioenergy R&D program planning include the following:

thermochemical treatment of plant oils (oilseed, tall oil) to produce high cetane diesel fuel. biochemical and thermochemical derived lignin that is thermally or thermochemically treated with or without catalysts to produce gasoline and other chemicals.

32

c product derivation of thermochemical and biochemical lignins (eg. resins, adhesives, cement dispersants).

° thermochemical treatment of the steam fractionated cellulose component of biomass.

° direct steam (thermal) production of adhesives with a fibre byproduct suitable for molding, pelletizing, or thermochemical or biochemical processing. 0 calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) production a3 a road de-icer from aqueous effluents (ie. dilute acetic acid) of pyrolysis and biochemical processes.

° investigation of wheat chaff as a thermo- or biochemical conversion feedstock.

° methanation of pyrolysis aqueous effluents.

° separation of short and long fibers of hardwoods where pulp would be processed from the long fibers and fuels processed biochemically or thermochemically from the lower value short fibers.

° source separated and/or prescreened, or raw, municipal wastes that undergo thermochemical or biochemical conversion with or without pretreatment/fractionation.

3. EMR's BIOENERRY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Table 1 shows the historical trend in Canadian federal government spending on bioenergy RSD including biomass production and conversion. Table 2 is a breakdown of thermochemical R&D expenditures relative to other conversion technology areas.

3.1 BRIEF REVIEW OF NON-THERMOC.HEMICAL R&D

The following

is a cursory

view

of Canadian

R&D

activities

in

technical areas other than thermochemical.

The combustion area's main focus of effort is the evaluation and improvement of industrial and residential combusto! performance and emissions. Also included has been support to Environment Canada's National Incinerator Test and Evaluation Program (NITEP) and the development of standards for performance, safety and emissions of residential wood burning appliances.

The biomass handling/preparation area includes research in biomass materials handling, storage, drying, beneficiation, and preparation. This research is seen to provide necessary infrastructural support for all biomass conversion processes, but more importantly, to improve biomass fuel quality with objectives to improve biomass combustion performance and to reduce emissions. Examples of developments include a bin, silo and non-consolidating feeder system that regulates the controlled and non-disrupted feeding of hog fuel and chips to burners, a device to exclude frozen lumps of hog fuel and chips to burners, a continuous moisture sensor to provide improved combustion control of biomass of varying water content, and a low energy grinder to powder wood suitable for suspension-fired boilers.

The biochemical area receives the largest allocation of funds, in part due to increasing industrial leverage provided by cost-shared R&D. Much of the impetus for this area comes from mid-term (1990's) competitive potential to enter the transportation fuel market with biomass derived

S/MILUONS

25

33

Table

I

Federal Bioenergy R&D Funding

20

ÏS-

IO-

r™™^

,

m

^

BPsTţjs man

i

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

 

Tabl e

I I

1988/89 Bioenergy R&D Expenditure Forecast

35.4%

Combustion

Biomass

Thermo­

Bio­

Handling/

chemical

chemical

Preparation

Infor­

mation

Tech/

Transfer

34

ethanol based blends and oxygenates and the longer term potential of neat ethanol fuel along with value added byproducts. The program is divided into a number of areas including enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosics, steam and extrusion pretreatment and biomass fractionation, novel fermentation engineering, biotechnology of enzymes and microorganisms, anaerobic digestion, characterization and derivatization of lignin, and the development of non-ethanol byproduct streams, among others. The rate of achievements in this area over the past four years rivals that in the thermochemical area. The lure and promise of biotechnology and the recent accelerated progress are likely the major factors in attracting industry participation in an area that was viewed by our program as very long term as of only five or six years ago.

3.2 CANADA'S MAINSTREAM BIOMASS THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION RSD

An approach has evolved in Canada whereby, unlike earlier efforts, a whole range of products and reactants are now considered. Products include gases and oils of varying quality, sugar solutions in high yield, chemicals (olefins, phenolics, as well as high value specialty chemicals), gasoline or diesel fuel, and higher value carbon products. Diversification of reactants include whole biomass, fractionated biomass components, peat, and muncipal solid waste, including source-separated wastes such as used tires. Another area of research is the treatment, and especially, the conversion, of waste aqueous effluents from thermochemical conversions into value-added co-products. Left unprocessed, these effluents would otherwise incur a cost for waste treatment.

3.2.1 GASIFICATION

Canadian developments in biomass gasification for the production of low, medium and high energy gases have enjoyed world technical acclaim over the past decade, but there has been a disappointing uptake by Canadian industry. The cautious attitude of our industry appears to have been due largely to premature and unsuccessful attempts in the US to commercialize immature technologies during the latter '70s and early '80s. A possible revival of interest in gasification technology applications appears to be for replacing industrial boilers that use oil and for municipal energy from waste projects. The work to complete ongoing projects will continue, although at a reduced level, and any impetus for an expanded government program will likely wait for stronger industry confidence, interest, and cost share. Application of Canadian technology in developing countries may hold some promise.

Large scale (10 tonnes/hour) gasification technology, developed through the Biosyn project offers a world leading technology in pressurized, air or oxygen fed, fluidized-bed gasification that can be adapted to the production of synthesis gas for methanol production or low energy gas for other applications such as space heating, gas turbines or industrial diesel engine operation.

Another portion of the gasification research funds is directed to the development of a small scale gasifier that is designed to use wet wood and produce a clean gas. The Heuristic gasifier is a two-stage reactor that, in principle, operates similarly to a downdraft design. The first stage is an updraft gasifier where producer gas and condensible vapours (tars)

35

are routed through a hot char bed below. The tars are to be cracked in

the second stage.

optimize the operating parameters, and enhance cracking in the second stage.

The project now underway is to modify the gasifier,

3.2.2 LIOUEFAC.TION/PYROLYSIS

In 1985, research in the direct liquefaction of biomass was expected to wind down because the rapid commercialization that was expected to occur in the early '8 0s did not materialize. The plan was to conclude as much of the work as possible, revert to lower cost basic research, and pursue a strategy of chemicals from liquefaction. Then in 1986 there appeared to be a turnaround in commercial interest. Unprecedented technical achievements started to renew aspirations and industry interest in exploiting selected market niches for pyrolysis products. The following is a brief review of current projects.

McGill University

Over the past several years researchers W.J.M. Douglas and D.G. Cooper at McGill University have been studying an interesting

thermochemical approach to wood liquefaction using aqueous hydrogen iodide

conditions of pressure and temperature (125°C) . Still far

from certain is the exact nature of the liquid products and the techno-economic practicality of hydrogen iodide recovery and recycle. On the positive side, in addition to the low severity conditions of reaction, the process removes about 80% of the oxygen in the wood, and the char yield is low.

at fairly mild

University of Toronto

D.G.B. Boocock and co-workers at the University of Toronto have undertaken the investigation of steam pyrolysis or hydrothermolysis of wood. Based on their earlier work, they recently designed and constructed a laboratory scale cascade autoclave which can accommodate up to 100 g of wood chips or 170 g of a single larger piece (3.8 cm reactor I.D., 600ml volume). It is rated at 24.1 MPa (3500 psi.) at 350°C allowing for 7.6 MPa (1100 psi) gas overpressure above the vapour pressure of water at that temperature. Replicated results indicate that oil yield increases with increased chip size. Dry product oil yields are high (up to 50%) with no solids contamination, and the oil is easily separable from the aqueous phase. Coupled with an upgrading process, this technology may someday lend itself well to commercialization.

In addition to their process development work, Professor Boocock's group has contributed greatly to the basic understanding of biomass liquefaction, especially through their scanning electron microscopic studies. The group at the University of Toronto is also performing upgrading studies through the catalytic hydrotreatment of model compounds. Of potential interest too is their discovery in 1984 that a particular clone of hybrid poplar yielded 6% phenol. This discovery raises the prospect of matching processes more closely with specific feedstocks in the interest of optimizing a particular product slate. Efforts are now beginning to genetically engineer trees that are designed for specific process/product applications.

36

Université de Sherbrooke

E. Chornet, R.P. Overend and co-workers at the Université de Sherbrooke have been working on a liquefaction process in pressurized solvent for some years. Their approach involves an overall integration of biomass pretreatment, fractionation, acid processing, thermochemical and biochemical treatment.

Funding for research at Sherbrooke in the areas of peat and wood conversion is provided by a number of sources, including Energy, Mines & Resources. The program there involves a comprehensive variety of fundamental studies, product engineering and technology development at laboratory and pilot plant levels. Examples of approaches under investigation include a thermo-mechanical-chemical treatment to fractionate and liquefy biomass including steam treatment, thermocatalytic conversion of fractionated products such as lignin to monomers, ethylene glycol solvolysis/liquefaction, acid/thermal/shear treatment of biomass and cellulose, and a variety of biochemical investigations in combination with thermochemical techniques. In association with other laboratories, the chemical engineering laboratory of Professor Chornet is especially well equipped for analytical characterization of products derived from their various reaction systems.

University of Waterloo

D.S. Scott, J. Piskorz, D. Radlein and co-workers at the University of Waterloo are well known for their fluidized bed flash pyrolysis development, also known as the WFPP (Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis Process). A number of companies and the European Economic Community have indicated their interest in collaborating with the Waterloo group. The WFPP actually includes five process options as follows :

1. Direct thermal processing at 450-550°C, atmospheric pressure, and about 500 ms vapour residence time. They report high liquid yield (80% including water, based on input wood) that is a suitable fuel for conventional boilers.

2. By varying the process conditions and adopting a mild sulphuric acid pretreatment of wood followed by fluidized bed thermopyrolysis, the WFPP produces a high yield and concentration of anhydro-sugars rather than oil products. Their reproducible yields of sugars from pure cellulose are about 80% of theoretical in a concentrated form. One can easily speculate whether this development could challenge some of the equally exciting biochemical conversion methode of converting lignocellulosics to fermentable sugars.

3. Waterloo's hydrogasification work has been technically highly successful, resulting in 75% conversion of wood carbon to methane via pyrolysis over a nickel-alumina catalyst with hydrogen at about 550°C and 440 ms vapour residence time.

4. Under current investigation is a fourth process option of producing polyolefins from wood in a catalyzed reaction. Apart from the use of catalysts, the process equipment and operating conditions are very similar for all of the above process options.

5. The Waterloo

37

group is also performing

upgrading research

by

catalyticly hydrotreating pyrolysis oil fractions, especially lignin, in a continuous pressurized reactor.

University of Western Ontario

Although not currently funded by Energy, Mines & Resources, M. Bergougnou, R. Graham and co-workers have developed an Ultra-Rapid Pyrolysis or Ultrapyrolysis process at the University of Western Ontario. Although there are similarities in this work and the research at the University of Waterloo, there are important differences. Whereas the Waterloo process utilizes fluidized-bed heat transfer. Professor Bergougnou employees a very rapid (30ms) mixing and heat transfer in a vortical contactor or vortactor followed by a plug-flow entrained-bed down flow reactor (50-900ms) and quenching (30ms) with cryogenic nitrogen in a cryovortactor. Dissimilar to the Waterloo process are the process conditions (650-1000°C, 50-900 ms residence time), and the main product at these temperatures is gas rather than liquid. Since pyrolytic fuel gas production has not been of high priority in Canada's bioenergy RSD strategy, the current objective, in collaboration with Ensyn Engineering, (see below) is the production of chemicals and, in particular olefins.

It is interesting to note here that the Universities of Waterloo and Western Ontario conducted an extensive data comparison from each of their reactor systems. Using selected data from both groups at around 500 ms residence time, liquid and gas production data were plotted vs temperature. The temperature ranges were as follows: Waterloo at 400°-750°C, and Western Ontario at 650°-900°C. With combined data for each of the gas yield vs temperature and liquid yield vs temperature respectively there was remarkable agreement of data in overlapping regions. A simple first order kinetic model is able to describe the oil yield over the temperature range of both experiments.

Ensyn Engineering

Ensyn Engineering is a recently formed company whose principal investigator, R. Graham has scaled up the University of Western Ontario Ultrapyrolysis reactor by a factor of 20 to a 5-10 kg/hr capacity RTP (Rapid Thermal Processor). The reactor is designed to accept any carbonaceous feed (solid, liquid, or gas) by injecting it into a turbulent cloud of hot solids. The mixed feed plus solids is carried through a tubular transport reactor to an inerţial separator where vapour products are removed. This project is co-sponsored by the private sector.

Work planned for 1989 involves thermal cracking and catalytic treatment of pyrolysis oils and various lignin preparations including steam exploded biomass derived lignin.

Laval University

Multi-stage vacuum pyrolysis was developed by C. Roy and co-workers, initially at the Université de Sherbrooke and, currently, at the Université Laval. The technology consists of a 40 kg/hr multiple hearth vacuum pyrolysis process development unit located near the Université Laval. There is aleo an industrial cost-shared pilot demonstration of a

38

single-stage process at St-Amable, Quebec. The unit has a capacity of 200 kg/hr and is designed for used tires.

Although the multiple hearth concept suffers from low heat transfer relative to other pyrolysis processes, and, at first glance, is capital cost intensive, it has a number of redeeming features that show commercial promise as follows:

1. A high yield of pyrolysis oil (50% based on wood).

2. The production of co-product carboxylic acids and high value chemicals.

3. Reactive charcoal at 25% of input wood.

4. The aqueous phase is recovered separately as vapour or liquid as an integral part of the process leaving a low water content water-free pyrolysis oil ready for upgrading.

5. The multiple hearth performs a product fractionation function that could reduce extraction costs of high value chemicals.

Centralized Analysis

One final work of interest in Canada is a Centralized Analysis project at B.C. Research. In 1984, a trial project was set-up whereby different Canadian bio-oils could be compared in a standard manner. The project embraced a three-pronged approach. Under the guidance of J. Howard and J. McKinley, B.C. Research performed and/or coordinated the centralized analyses of optimized oils produced by each researcher. Individual researchers also did some of their own analyses to obtain immediate experimental feedback.

The

second prong of the approach was that

all researchers

were

provided with a standard wood sample, Populus deltoides, by Forintek Canada Corp. The idea was that when each process development became somewhat optimized, the researcher would submit oil from the standard wood sample to the centralized analysis team.

The third prong was a computer communications network link called CoSy, through the University of Guelph, to provide fast communication of analytical data. It was also used to encourage multilateral and bilateral collaboration and problem solving.

The centralized analysis project has entered Phase II. Learning from the successes and pitfalls of the first two and one half years, the scope of this project has changed somewhat. Phase II has two major tasks.

Task 1 is a set of analytical techniques along the same lines as the initial project except the methods that were considered to be less interesting to the entire group are not included. The basic analyses of task 1 include the following:

- Elemental Analysis Water Content Density Carboxylic Acids Gas Liquid Chromatography Carbon-13 NMR Gel Permeation Chromatography

39

Task 2 consists largely of special analytical projects to meet the special needs of individual researchers, Energy, Mines and Resources Bioenergy Development Program or groups of thermochemical conversion researchers that may arise over the next two years.

4. INTERNATIONAL VIEW - IEA

Under the International Energy Agency, eleven countries signed a three year Bioenergy Agreement on Cooperative R&D, effective January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1988. This Agreement has since been extended by another three years. Canada, USA, Sweden and Finland agreed to collaborate on a project entitled Direct Biomass Liquefaction (DBL). A Working Group of engineers and other specialists are preparing a detailed technical-economic assessment (TEA) at commercial size scale-up and operation of the most promising high and low pressure pyrolysis/liquefaction processes. Both primary oil production and upgrading are considered in the TEA. The upgrading work on Canadian atmospheric and vacuum pyrolysis oils has been conducted by D. Elliot at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Yields of products in the gasoline boiling range have so far reached 35% of primary oil by hydrotreating. The Working Group is attempting two types of analyses, one based on current state of the art and the second based on projected improvements and developments in the technologies.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author wishes to acknowledge the various researchers in North America without whose ideas, open discussion, and dedication to research in thermochemical conversion of biomass, this paper would not have been possible. Each has contributed to this paper, either directly or indirectly. The following list is not complete, but includes the principal investigators in Canadian laboratories and other notable international collaborators. In alphabetical order, many thanks to Narendra Bakhshi, Dave Beckman, Dave Boocock, Jean Bouchard, Maurice Bergougnou, Michel Bertrand, Esteban Chornet, Maurice Charron, Helena Chum, Jim Diebold, Allan Dolenko, Murray Douglas, Guy Drouin, Dick Eager, Doug Elliot, Bob Graham, guy Gravel, Michele Heitz, Ed Hogan, John Howard, Serge Kaliaguine, Björn Kjellstrom, Bill Lowe, Tom Milne, Hugh Menard, Jim McKinley, Ralph Overend, Hooshang Pakdel, Jim Pepper, Jan Piskorz, Desmond Radlein, Tom Reed, Joe Robert, Christian Roy, Tom Tidwell, Don Scott, and their many colleagues, staff, and students.

REFERENCES

This paper contains technical contributions including progress reports from all the Canadian and other workers mentioned here. The reader is referred to these individuals or their published papers as primary references.

1. Brundtland, Gro Harlem. 1987 "Our Common Future". World Commission on Environment and Development.

40

RAPPORTEURS REPORT ON SESSION

I

OPENING SESSION AND COUNTRY

OVERVIEWS

C.H. NELS Federal Office for the Environment, Berlin

The following report covers the first session of the conference. The papers delivered during this session dealt mainly with :

Activities and results of the demonstration program of the Commission in the areas of gasification and pyrolysis as well as European activities planned for the future. International research and development in this area presented by the United States, Canada and Japan.

Because of time constraints follow-up discussion was limited to the EC papers. Topics included details for the forthcoming planned EC research program, how technologies already proven in laboratory and bench scale could be transferred/tested in the field, how many test plants currently exist in the EC and when results will be ready for general use. Special interest was given to problems of developing countries. Issues included how demands of developing countries could be taken into consideration in future RSD programs and whether direct or indirect help could be given by the EC to strengthen their own efforts in this area. Environmentally related issues were also discussed dealing with critical emissions caused by extended agricultural production of biomass, its thermal or chemical conversion and finally the question of its potential for use as a fuel or raw material. The papers as well as the subsequent discussion led to the following conclusions :

Any future research commitment should have long term orientation. Since funding resources are limited research should be directed toward those types of biomass "crops" which are most widely applicable. Alongside biomass research there should always be an environmental impact assessment. Because of the global nature of the problem there are numerous biomass research programs underway internationally. To avoid duplication and enhance information transfer more conferences such as this one should be organized to coordinate international efforts. Efforts in international cooperation should begin at the earliest stage while planning research programs such as that currently underway in the EC. Such exchanges also provide the missing link to developing countries giving them vital information; the importance of such exchanges should be recognized.

SESSION II

PRE-TREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION

43

PRETREATMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FEEDSTOCKS

C Ρ MITCHELL and A V BRIDGWATER

Forestry Department Aberdeen University Aberdeen AB9 2UD UK

Chemical Engineering Department Aston University Birmingham B4 7ET UK

SUMMARY Feedstocks generally considered for thermochemical conversion are wood and wood waste, energy crops, agricultural waste and refuse. The main technical criteria for suitability for thermochemical processing is low moisture content, and ash content and characteristics. The main economic criteria are cost which includes production, collection and transport, and quantity which includes availability. Wood will be available from processing residues, unmanaged woodlands, conventional forestry and short rotation forest biomass plantations. Harvesting, processing and transport systems for delivering wood fuel either already exist or are under development. Delivered fuel costs will be between £28 - £36/dt from conventional forestry and in the order of £41/dt from short rotation.

Agricultural wastes, such as cereal straw, can be delivered to the end-user for £22/dryt. Domestic and commercial refuse is widely available and can attract disposal credits of £10 - £20/wet t which has a significant effect on the conversion economics.

1 INTRODUCTION Feedstocks generally considered for thermochemical conversion are wood and wood waste, energy crops such as short rotation forestry and sweet sorghum, agricultural waste and refuse (1). The main technical criteria for suitability for thermochemical processing are low moisture content, and ash content and characteristics. The main economic criteria are cost which includes production, collection and transport, and quantity which includes availability. There is also the question of competing uses such as pulp and board manufacture, combustion, recycling or material recovery rather than energy recovery.

2 FEEDSTOCKS

2.1 Wood Wood will be potentially available as a feedstock from residues generated within the wood processing industries, presently unmanaged woodland, conventional forestry and from plantations specifically grown to produce raw material for the biomass industries. Processing Residues Residues are generated within the forest products industry itself. Processing residues are produced primarily in sawmills; these consist of slabs and blocks of wood, chips and sawdust. However, with the increasing demand for raw material in the pulp and board mills much of these residues go to these industries and are therefore unlikely to be available in large quantities to the energy industry. Unmanaged Woodland

There are several million hectares of woodland within Europe which is currently not managed and which could be brought into production for biomass. In France and Italy alone there are some 5 million hectares of overmature coppice. The maquis systems in the mediterranean region and several other categories of natural vegetation offer good prospects to be brought into management for biomass production (2). In the UK, the potential for production of fuelwood from presently unmanaged woodlands is around 0.15 million wet t/y

(3).

44

Conventional Forestry Conventional forestry practice gives several opportunities for harvesting wood for fuel. Firstly, under current harvesting practice only the merchantable stemwood is removed from the forest. The tops and branches, roots and stumps are left in the forest. The roots and stumps can be harvested but it is a costly operation and there are potentially severe environmental problems which limit their use. However, the tops and branches, so-called forest residues are available for harvest. Secondly, early thinnings can be harvested using whole tree harvesting techniques. A third opportunity lies in adapting harvesting systems to remove both the stemwood and the "energy component" at the same time. These integrated harvesting systems are attracting a great deal of interest world-wide because the overall harvesting system costs are reduced. Modified conventional forestry management systems involve planting trees closer together initially, taking heavy early thinnings using whole tree harvesting techniques, and using integrated harvesting systems for later thinnings and clearfell. For the UK alone by the year 2020 the total annual sustainable production of fuelwood from conventional forestry could amount to some 4.8 million wet tonnes. In the longer term modified conventional forestry could provide an additional 8 million wet tonnes per year (4). Short Rotation Forest Biomass Plantations Woody biomass can be purpose grown for energy in short rotation coppice biomass plantations. These are intensively cultivated plantations using fast growing broadleaved trees which coppice readily and are harvested every 3 to 5 years. The main species used are from the genera Eucalyptus, Populus (Poplars) and Salix (Willows). Growth rates are high giving productivities of around 10 to 15 dry tonnes per hectare and year (dt/ha/y) in commercial operations. Coppice crops need to be grown on good fertile soils. Within Europe the agricultural surpluses problem coupled with the revision of the CAP is leading to land being set aside from agricultural production. Such land is well placed for coppice plantations. Of the 40 million hectares of land coming out of production in the CEC some 5 million hectares has been conjectured to be available for energy plantations (2). In the UK, it has been estimated that if 0.82 million hectares of land currently in agricultural production were to change to short rotation forestry then this would give an annual production of some 2.72 million wet tonnes

(4).

2.1.1 Harvesting of Wood Fuel Conventional Forestry The actual harvesting system chosen for conventional forestry is heavily dependent on the crop, species, size, terrain and the requirements of the end-user. Most current harvesting systems operating in Europe are designed to supply raw material to the pulp, board industries and sawmills. Harvesting systems can be categorised into one and two pass systems. One pass systems are applicable to whole tree operations in either integrated or whole tree comminution, and two pass systems to residue collection and comminution following conventional methods for harvesting the stem wood. The harvesting options available are shown in Figure 1. Two pass residue harvesting systems are perhaps those that are the most appropriate with short wood harvesting systems. The residues can either be chipped in the stand with mobile machines (terrain chipping) or the residues are collected and extracted to a central point for chipping (landing chipping). Terrain chipping is appropriate to the dryer load bearing mineral soils and landing chipping to the wetter organic soils. Yields of fuel chips from terrain chipping will reflect the predominance of pine species and are likely to be in the lower end of the range 50-10 0 wet tonnes per hectare (wt/ha). Production costs for terrain chipping are in the range of £10 - £15/wet L Yields of fuel chips from landing chipping systems reflect the higher potential of spruce crops and are likely to be in the lower half of a range from 100 - 200 wet tonnes per hectare. Production costs for extraction of residues to landing are estimated to be in the region of £3.00/ wet t and chipping costs in the region of £7.00/wet t Whole tree comminution systems are appropriate to smaller tree sizes, either in early thinnings or premature clearfell situations where the tree stem size is insufficient to warrant

45

conventional utilization or in clearance or cleaning operations in hardwoods. Chipping can take place either at landing or at the stump (terrain chipping) and the choice of systems will be a factor primarily of the suitability of the terrain and extraction distance. In landing chipping systems the whole trees are extracted to landing. In the smaller tree sizes appropriate to whole tree chipping, the use of forwarder extraction of whole trees or tree sections, is favoured to reduce extraction costs. Whole tree chipping at landing requires the use of larger chippers with infeeds capable of handling and feeding the whole tree by grapple. Terrain chipping can be used where the ground conditions permit. Small scale equipment such as small tractor mounted chippers can be used. A self propelled chipper and an infeed at the front fed by a grapple crane can be used in line thinning operations with the chips blown over the chipper into a chip bin at the rear. Yields of fuel chips from whole tree comminution systems has been found to be in the region of an additional 50 -100% expressed as a percentage of stem wood. Production costs for fuel chips from whole tree comminution systems will vary on the scale of the operation, and as for integrated systems, on the tree size and the terrain. Landing chipping costs will be around £4.80/ wet t and £5.60/ wet t for terrain chipping. In integrated harvesting systems the whole tree is extracted to landing for processing and product separation. Landing processing, involving delimbing and crosscutting, can be a manual system with the use of chain saws, or be partly or fully mechanised, the availability of equipment and landing size being the factors taken into consideration when deciding the method to be adopted. The residue material on the landing can be chipped in a continuous (hot) system closely following the processing, or, can be allowed to accumulate on the landing for chipping in a separate process (a cold system). The chipping equipment used will be primarily decided by the scale of operation, the use of hand fed tractor mounted chippers will be appropriate to only the smaller operations. Given a sufficient scale of operation, the use of trailer mounted chippers feeding with a grapple crane will give higher outputs, particularly in working a cold system where there are no limiting factors in the processing line. The chipped material can be accumulated on the landing for later loading on to road transport, or, more commonly the chips can be blown directly into containers or lorry trailers for road transport. Yield of fuel chips from integrated harvesting systems has been found to be in the region of an additional 30% expressed as a percentage of stem wood. Production costs for fuel chips from integrated harvesting operations vary considerably with tree size, terrain and the harvesting system used. On the assumption that integrated systems can produce the traditional assortments as efficiently as comparable shortwood systems, the cost of fuel chips will reflect the "free ride" that they get to landing. The cost of production then amounts to the chipping element which can be as low as £5.10/wet tonne. Short rotation forestry Current harvesting technology for short rotation crops is limited. The two coppice harvesters currently working are both prototypes; there are no machines commercially available. The principle on which these machines work is for the coppice to be severed by circular saw(s) and the cut coppice rods tied together in bundles before being ejected from the machine. The Loughry coppice harvester produces 300 kg (wet) bundles, the Swedish machine 2.5 wet tonne bundles. The rationale for this approach is to produce bundles which can be left in the field to dry. Coppice willows and poplars are around 55% moisture content (wet basis) at harvest. By stacking the bundles of cut material in the open or with a tarpaulin cover there will be some natural drying. Once stored for 3 months or so the moisture content will drop to around 40% and the bundles are then chipped.

2.1.2 Transport of Wood Fuel The transport system of the raw material to the conversion plant is of utmost importance. In many respects it is no different from any other wood delivery system to the pulp and board industries which are designed to handle chips. In addition, delivery and reception systems have been developed in Sweden for handling wood fuels to the mill and district heating plants (5). Converted pulp wagons, containers, tippers and curtainsiders can all be used for transporting wood fuel. Converted pulp wagons show the most potential for use in the present UK situation ie with a small wood fuel market and existing road transport legislation. These

46

allow self loading and unloading, a wide range of available loads and the ability to revert to conventional pulp haulage. Container systems are used in the UK for several commercial operations. Tippers and curtainsiders showed potential for use in the future when demand for industrial fuelwood will be high allowing full utilisation of independent loaders. It is not feasible to use lorry transport of whole trees and forest residues over long distances without compaction equipment. Transport costs amount to some £0.07/wet tonne/km.

2.1.3 Storage of Wood Fuel

Storage of wood fuel will be necessary to bridge the gap between supply and demand with due allowance made for the time required for drying and pretreatment. The storage can be done in the open, under cover to protect it from rain or an enclosed space such as silos and live bottomed bins which have to be linked to the gasifier feeding system. The type of storage is strongly influenced by scale of operation and climatic factors. The most common type of wood fuel is chipped wood.

If storage is required then it has to be carefully considered. Whole tree chips, due to their high moisture content and foliage content, decompose rapidly (1 - 5% per month) during storage. Such materials also present a fire risk because of heating during decomposition. A further problem associated with the storage of wood fuels in enclosed spaces is the development of microfungi the spores of which represent a serious health hazard (6). From experimental experience, drying during storage will give a moisture change from a delivered 55% to an outgoing 40%. Costs of storage have been calculated to be of the order of £5/wet tonne (7) (Table 1).

2.1.4 Drying of Wood Fuel

Flash pyrolysis requires a feedstock at <5% moisture content and gasification <15% but there is an optimisation to be carried out between moisture content and conversion efficiency. The actual moisture content required for the conversion process will therefore vary somewhat between conversion facilities. Biomass as received will have a moisture content typically in the range 50 - 60% (wet basis). Passive drying during summer storage can reduce this to perhaps 30%. Active silo drying can reduce the moisture content down to 12% (8). Drying can be accomplished either by very simple means such as near ambient/solar drying or by waste heat flows or by specifically designed dryers operating on solid or hydrocarbon fuels. The selection of the most appropriate system depends on the location, climate, level of sophistication required and scale of operations. Commercial dryers are available in many forms and sizes but the most common are the rotary kilns and shallow fluidized bed dryers.

2.1.5 Costs of Supply of Wood Fuel

The costs of supply of wood for fuel have been examined for UK conditions (3, 9). Short rotation coppice crops biomass can be grown on a four year cutting cycle, harvested, stored, chipped and delivered to the end-user at a cost of £40.83/ dry t (Table 1) for a farmer operated system. In such a system the farmer carries out all the operations to do with growing and tending the crop and uses contractors to carry out the harvesting and chipping operations much as he may use contractors for other specialist farming operations.

Calculation of the costs of harvesting wood for fuel from conventional forestry is not so simple as there are are conventional forest products produced along with the fuelwood assortment. The costs of supply of wood fuel from forestry and the contribution of the elements in the chain are illustrated for a number of options in Figure 1 and for the optimal systems in Table 1. Delivered costs of wood fuel at 40% moisture content range from £28.17/ dry t for integrated harvesting systems in clearfell to £36.33/ dry t for a whole tree chipping operation in an early thinning. Forest residue chips can be delivered for £34.33/ dry L

47

SHORT

ROTATION

FORESTRY

Stumpage

(3.60 )

FELL/BUNDL E

ÏXTRACT

(6.70)

(2.10)

RESIDUES

Stumpage

(1.00)

COLLECT

EXTRACT

(3.30 )

CHIP

(10.30)

WHOLE

TREE

CHIPPING

Stumpage

(6.00 )

FELL/BUNC H

EXTRACT

(1.60)

(4.30)

TERRAIN

\

CHIP

(6.60)

INTEGRATED

(THINNING )

Stumpage

-

residue»

(1.00)

FELL

EXTRACT _

(1.20)

(3.30 )

INTEGRATED

(CLEARFELL)

Stumpage

-

realduea

(1.00)

FELL

EXTRACT

(0.10)

(1.10)

CHIP

TRANSPORT

STORAGE

(2.60] ~*

(4.70)

-

(6.00 )

CHIP

TRANSPORT

STORAGE

(6.30)

(4.70)

(6.30 )

TRANSPORT

STORAGE

(4.70)

(6.40 )

CHIP

TRANSPORT

STORAGE

(4.80 )

(4.70)

(6.60 )

TRANSPORT

STORAGE

(4.70)

(6.00 )

PROCESS ^

ROUNDWOOD

CHIP

TRANSPOR1 _

STORAGE

(6.10)

(4.70)

(6.30 )

PROCESS ^

ROUNDWOOD

CHIP

TRANSPORT.

STORAGE

(6.10)

(4.70)

(4.90 )

Figure 1

Harvesting supply options and costs

(£/wt).

SYSTEM

COST

24.5 0

21.4 0

20.6 0

16.9 0

Table 1

48

Total Cost of Wood Fuel,

 

ŞRF

Residues

Whole

Integrated

 

tree chip

clearfell

 

£/wett

£/wett

£/wett

£/wett

Stumpage*

3.50

1.00

5.00

1.00

Felling

6.70

1.50

0.10

Extraction

2.10

1.10

Comminution

2.50

10.30

5.60

5.10

Transport

4.70

4.70

4.70

4.70

Storage

5.00

5.30

5.00

4.90

Total £/wet t

24.50

20.60

21.80

16.90

£/dryt * raw material cost at stump

40.83

34.33

36.33

28.17

Assumptions:

1

Moisture content of 55% (wet basis)

2.

Transport distance of 70 km one-•way

3

4

Covered storage at end user, moisture content reduction to 40%

Integrated systems costed on the residue component only.

5

Particle size of chips 5-35 mm.

3 AGRICULTURAL WASTE Considerable quantities of agricultural waste, such as straw, bagasse, corn cobs, and rice hulls, arise in agriculturally based economies where there may be no ready market for solid fuels. In many cases this material is free and may even have a credit or negative cost of up to £-20/t because of the cost of disposal if it cannot be used. Particular features of agricultural waste are that is is often already collected at one site and has often been subjected to extensive pretreatment such as size reduction and drying. There will also usually be some storage and material handling facilities. In addition such waste often creates a disposal problem with an asociated cost. For all these reasons, agricultural waste can be a very attractive feedstock for conversion and upgrading, since the costs are low or even negative, i.e. attract a disposal credit, and disposal problems can be solved. A summary of a variety of waste arisings in several countries in Europe in given in Table 2. In the UK, about 7 million t/y of surplus straw arise for which no ready market is available, out of a total arising of about 14 million t/y. Comparable figures pertain to Europe. Prices vary by location from £5 to £50/t, but representative costs have been estimated at about £17/t on-site or £22/t delivered [10]. The wide variety of materials suitable for processing precludes consideration of each individually, and the range is indicated in Table 3.

4

REFUSE

4.1

Resources

Considerable quantities of domestic and commercial refuse are produced from any society which require disposal at a significant cost. Processes that utilise this waste, therefore, can often justify a credit from the disposal authority, as a result of saving the disposal cost. Raw waste attracts the highest credit but requires the most preparation. There is again the advantage of "free" collection as with agricultural wastes. The largest arisings of waste that also attract the greatest disposal credit often occur close to the potential market for the energy products. Estimated arisings for Europe are shown in Table 4.

49

Table 2

Estimated overall national arisings of potential energy from principal agricultural residues, 1979 (11)

(millions of GJ/year unless otherwise stated)

 

Cereal.

Livestock

Green Plant

Total

Total in

Maize & Rice

Wastes

Matter

Mtoe

Residues

fa)

ibi

Belgium & Luxemburg

27.1

27.3

12.3

66.7

1.52

Denmark

98.7

29.2

6.4

134.3

3.05

France

556.6

171.2

59.3

787.1

17.89

Italy

233.7

81.7

37.3

352.7

8.02

Holland

16.4

45.6

17.7

79.7

1.81

Ireland

21.9

38.1

3.3

63.3

1.44

UK

191.4

99.2

20.7

311.3

7.08

West Germany

327.1

129.7

40.0

496.8

11.29

1 472.9

662.0

197.0

2 291.9

52.10

Notes

(a)

Presented as biogas available from pig, cattle and poultry by anaerobic digestion, not as gross energy, animal bedding excluded.

(b)

Presented as biogas availabe by anaerobic digestion: other conversion routes are

available.

No data are available for Greece, Spain and Portugal.

Table 3

Agricultural

Wastes

that

have

been

Thermochemically

Processed

Alfalfa straw

Almond shells

Bagasse

Bamboo

Barley straw

Bark

Brazil nut husks

 

Cocoa husks

Coconut husk

Coconut shells

Coffee grounds

Cotton gin trash

Cotton gin stalks

Flax

Ground nut shells

Maize cobs

Olive pits

Paper

Peach pits

Prune pits

Rice hulls

Safflower straw

Straw

Sunflower husks

Tobacco dust

Vegetable fibre

Walnut shells