0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

0 (de) vizualizări9 paginiDDbase

Sep 03, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

DDbase

© All Rights Reserved

0 (de) vizualizări

DDbase

© All Rights Reserved

- Pushover simplified
- EC8- Modelling and Analysis
- jse57B
- v75-65
- Phase-I
- Ferracuti B., Savoia M., Pinho R., Serpieri Maurizio - 3D Pushover Analysis for Evaluating Torsional Effect of RC Structures
- 2006 Dynamic Analysis Current Science
- 14_08-02-0006
- Metode Bazate Pe Deplasare Curs 2
- Pushover Analysis (Modal) of SAC Buildings
- ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard Handbook
- push 30 2012.pdf
- seismic
- IBC2009E
- Final DNS PhD Work
- comparative study codes seismic design.pdf
- De Stefano and Mariani_Pushover Analysis of Plan Irregular Building Structures
- new rbl
- IRJET-V4I230
- Earth Quake Analysis

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

structures with lead rubber bearings (LRBs)

⁎ ⁎

Kun Ye , Yan Xiao, Liang Hu

School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China

A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T

Keywords: This paper proposes a direct-displacement based design (DDBD) procedure, to make base-isolated building

Direct displacement-based design structure with lead-rubber bearing (LRBs) satisfy the performance objectives prescribed by displacement

Base-isolated building structures thresholds. To this end, the DDBD for regular building structures is incorporated with the two-degree-of-freedom

Lead Rubber Bearings (LRBs) (2DOF) model of base-isolated building structures. Fundamentals of the standard DDBD procedure is briefed at

2DOF model

ﬁrst. The equivalent linearized 2DOF model of a base-isolated building structure is then detailed. Modal analysis

and response spectrum analysis of this 2DOF model has been carried out, which suggests a simplistic and readily-

invertible closed-form relationship from structural characteristics to seismic displacements. Given the dis-

placement requirements, the relationship facilitates the solution of the structural parameters of the base-isolated

building structure. Following the basic steps of DDBD but utilizing this 2DOF model as the substitute for the

original nonlinear structural model, an alternative DDBD procedure is then developed and detailed. This DDBD

procedure is veriﬁed by numerical examples, in which the nonlinear time-history analysis of the designed

structures yields seismic displacement results matching the preset target thresholds well. The design solutions of

the proposed procedure are also compared with those given by an existing one. Numerical results indicate that

the proposed DDBD procedure is reliable, straightforward, and convenient for the seismic design of base-isolated

building structures with LRBs.

Seismic isolation works in extensive civil engineering practical cases

Force-based aseismic design is traditionally utilized to ensure the in the past decades [10], because it can eﬀectively mitigate earthquake

safety of civil engineering structures under earthquake ground motion. damages with the acceptable economic expense. The key idea of seismic

However, the concept of performance-based seismic design has been isolation is to shift the fundamental frequency of a base-isolated

proposed and developed in the last decades of years, aiming at the structure far away from both the fundamental frequency of the corre-

designed structures satisfying with controllable structural performance sponding ﬁxed-base structure and the dominant frequency of ground

objectives under speciﬁed levels of seismic hazard. Since those perfor- motions and enhance the ability of energy dissipation by installing

mance levels are related more closely to displacements than forces or ﬂexible isolation system between the superstructure and foundation

mostly deﬁned in terms of displacements, the performance-based de- [11]. As far as the aseismic design of base-isolated structures is con-

sign has engendered a category of displacement-based design (DBD) cerned, the force-based procedures are mostly used, such as the

methods. In this category, the direct displacement-based design (DDBD) equivalent lateral force (ELF) method and modal response spectrum

procedure [1] is popular, which has been extended to various structural method in the current codes (i.e., ASCE 7 [12,13], AASHTO [14] and

types including RC frame structures [2], RC wall and frame-wall Eurocode 8 [15]).

structures [3], masonry structures [4,5], steel structures [6,7], and Aimed at the performance-based design of seismic isolated struc-

bridges [8,9]. The extensions of DDBD procedure to speciﬁc structural tures, DDBD procedures have also been developed for bridge [16,17]

systems follow the same basic procedure of DDBD but are incorporating and building structures [18] equipped with seismic isolation. The DDBD

with particularly devised detail components. They may have, for ex- procedure in [16] contains an improved equivalent viscous damping

ample, diﬀerent deformation capacities, displaced shape proﬁles, yield ratio for LRBs, whereas Cardone et al. [17,18] developed the DDBD

displacements, and displacement ductility demands, and even the procedure for structures equipped with various types of seismic

⁎

Corresponding authors.

E-mail addresses: kun.ye@hust.edu.cn (K. Ye), lianghu@hust.edu.cn (L. Hu).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109402

Received 29 November 2018; Received in revised form 30 May 2019; Accepted 13 July 2019

0141-0296/ © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

isolation systems. However, similar to the conventional DDBD proce- and the top lateral displacement under the design-based earthquake,

dure, all of the existed DDBD procedures for isolated structures replace which manifests the limits of displacements of each story. Additionally,

the nonlinear MDOF model of the isolated structure with an equivalent a ductility limit on the displacements is also demanded. Starting from

linear SDOF system. It is well known that, rather than the SDOF model, those displacement requirements, the DDBD results in the design of

the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a base-isolated building structural characteristics of the building, which is a typical inverse

structure can be described accurately and conveniently by the two- problem. The key idea of DDBD procedure is that to facilitate the so-

degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) model proposed by Kelly [19]. Conse- lution of such a problem, the substitute structure approach [20] is

quently, herein an alternative DDBD procedure for base-isolated utilized to provide the relationship from structural parameters to dis-

building structures is proposed, in which the conventional DDBD pro- placements of the target building but in a simpliﬁed and readily in-

cedure is integrated with the modal and response analysis theory of vertible form.

2DOF model [19]. The procedure is also numerically veriﬁed in com- The nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) system of the

parison with existing ones. building is ﬁrst replaced with an equivalent linear single-degree-of-

The remaining part of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 freedom (SDOF) system with the equivalent mass me, eﬀective height he

introduces the fundamentals of the traditional DDBD procedure for and target displacement Δd0 (Fig. 1a):

regular non-isolated buildings. In Section 3, the original nonlinear N

model as well as its equivalent 2DOF linearized model of base-isolated ∑i = 1 (mi ·Δi )

me =

buildings are detailed. Based on the dynamic characteristics analysis Δ0d (1)

and seismic response analysis of the 2DOF model, a simplistic structural

N

characteristics-displacement relationship is derived as the substitute ∑i = 1 (mi ·Δi ·hi )

model. Section 4 incorporates the basic DDBD steps with the 2DOF he = N

∑i = 1 (mi ·Δi ) (2)

model to propose a detail DDBD procedure for LRB-isolated building

structures. A numerical example is provided in Section 5, which veriﬁes N

∑i = 1 (mi ·Δi2 )

the proposed procedure and compares it to the existing procedure by Δ0d = N

[18]. Findings and observations are summarized in Section 6. ∑i = 1 (mi ·Δi ) (3)

2. Fundamentals of the DDBD procedure the associated displacement relative to the ground. It is noteworthy

that, under the design-based earthquake, the original MDOF system

A brief introduction of the DDBD is presented in this section by may behave nonlinearly, so that the SDOF system need be equivalently

taking as an example the performance-based seismic design of a regular linearized by the secant or eﬀective stiﬀness ke (Fig. 1b). The eﬀective

multi-story building structure (Fig. 1a). The target performance objec- stiﬀness is the primary structural parameter to be determined by the

tive is to apply constraints on both the lateral inter-story displacements design process. With this simpliﬁed SDOF model, the structural

2

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

parameters can then be obtained readily by the inverted (displacement- elastic stiﬀness kE). Alternatively, an equivalent linearized model

structural properties) relationship by the substitute structure approach. (Fig. 2b) may simplify the bilinear relationship and thus facilitate the

According to the existing ductility-damping diagrams, the eﬀective structural analysis involving LRB isolation system. Under the speciﬁed

viscous damping ratio ξe of the SDOF system is ﬁrst estimated as shown displacement of LRB isolation system Δ and the associated restoring

in Fig. 1c. The eﬀective period Te is then identiﬁed from the curve of force Fm, the eﬀective stiﬀness kIS and damping ratio ξIS of the linear-

design displacement response spectrum under the viscous damping ized system are expressed as:

ratio ξe, as the value corresponding to the target displacement

Δ0d (Fig. 1d). Based on Te and Δ0d , ke is determined as: Q F

kIS = kP + = m

Δ Δ (6)

me

k e = 4π 2

Te2 (4)

2Q (Δ − uY )

ξIS =

Finally, the design base shear of the target structure is calculated as πkIS Δ2 (7)

VB = ke·Δd0 (5) where ξIS is calculated based on the equal energy dissipation principle

and then distributed to each story as a set of lateral forces Fi. It has been proposed by Jacobsen [22].

shown that the regular design of the target building under the loading Based on the eﬀective stiﬀness kIS and by assuming the isolated

VB and Fi, in conjunction with ke and ξe, can assure the performance superstructure as rigid, the eﬀective period of the whole base-isolated

objectives speciﬁed. More details of the standard DDBD procedure may building structure is given by:

be found in references such as [21].

N

mT ∑i = 1 mi + mIS

TIS = 2π = 2π

3. 2DOF model of base-isolated building structures kIS kIS (8)

In this section, the original nonlinear model of the base-isolated where mT is the total mass of the base-isolated building structure, in-

N

building structure with LRBs is ﬁrst introduced. Its equivalent linear- cluding the mass of the isolated superstructure, ∑i = 1 mi (mi is the mass

ized 2DOF model is then detailed, together with its dynamic char- of i-th ﬂoor of isolated superstructure) and the mass at the isolation

acteristics. Seismic response analysis in terms of displacement response level mIS.

spectrum is then utilized to establish a link between structural para-

meters and responses, by jointly taking the equivalence conditions into

3.2. 2DOF model

account.

Kelly [19] has developed a linearized 2DOF model to simplify the

3.1. Original model of base-isolated building structures with LRBs

dynamic analysis of base-isolated building structures. As shown in

Fig. 3, the equivalent displacements of the two DOFs are modeled as

The original base-isolated building structure is shown in Fig. 2a. The

uIS,eq and uS,eq, representing the displacement of the isolation level re-

isolated superstructure is modeled as an MDOF linear-elastic structure

lative to the ground (i.e., the displacements of isolation system) and the

whose parameters include the story mass mi, lateral stiﬀness ki, and

relative displacement of the superstructure with respect to the isolation

damping coeﬃcients ci, i = 1 … N. The linear-elastic assumption is

level, respectively. The equivalent mass, stiﬀness and damping coeﬃ-

reasonable because the base-isolated building structure should comply

cient corresponding to the two DOFs are mIS,eq and mS,eq, kIS,eq and kS,eq,

with an operational performance level under design-based earthquake,

cIS,eq and cS,eq, respectively; computation of those equivalent para-

which corresponds to the maximum inter-story drifts in the range of

meters from the original structural parameters are detailed in Section 4.

only 0.2–0.5%. With those linear-elastic structural parameters, the

Modal analysis of the equivalent 2DOF model of the base-isolated

fundamental period of the isolated superstructure assumed as ﬁxed-

structure gives its ﬁrst and second periods as:

base is computed as TS, and the corresponding modal damping ratio is

ξS. TIS,eq

T1, eq =

In comparison to the superstructure, the LRB isolation system is 1 − μeq εeq

T2, eq =

relationship in terms of the physical parameters (Fig. 2b), i.e., the post- 1 + μeq εeq (9)

yield stiﬀness kP, the characteristic yield strength Q (the force intercept

at zero displacements) and the yield deformation uY (or the initial and the ﬁrst and second order modal damping ratios as:

Fig. 2. Base-isolated building structure (Left) and bilinear force-deformation relationship of LRB.

3

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

uS, eq max

= εeq

uIS, eq max (16)

Taking into account the equivalence between the 2DOF model and

the original base-isolated structure, Eq. (16) may result in a useful re-

presentation of the seismic displacement of the original structure. First,

the equivalent displacement |uIS,eq|max is equal to the displacement of

isolation level in the original structure |uIS|max, whereas |uS,eq|max can

be regarded as the relative displacement of isolated superstructure at

the eﬀective height (Eq. (2)). Second, the equivalent period and

damping ratio of isolated superstructure in the 2DOF model are equal to

those of ﬁrst-order mode of the original ﬁxed-base superstructure:

TS, eq = TS ξS, eq = ξS (17)

Fig. 3. 2DOF model for base-isolated building structure with LRBs.

Moreover, because the equivalent mass of the isolation level and the

equivalent stiﬀness and damping coeﬃcient of the isolation system are

(

ξ1,eq = ξIS, eq 1 − 2 μeq εeq

3

) regarded the same as those of the original structure (i.e., mIS,eq = mIS

ξS , eq + μeq εeq ξIS , eq

and kIS,eq = kIS), it may be derived that:

ξ2,eq = 1 − μeq (1 − 1

μ ε

2 eq eq ) (10) mIS,eq + mS,eq mIS + mS,eq

TIS, eq = 2π = TIS

kIS,eq mT (18)

In Eqs. (9) and (10),

mIS,eq + mS, eq mS, eq Substituting Eqs. (17) and (18) into Eq. (16) then yields:

TIS,eq = 2π , TS, eq = 2π

kIS, eq kS, eq (11) uS, eq max 1 mT

= εeq = ·

uIS, eq max RIS2 mIS + mS,eq (19)

are the equivalent natural periods of the base-isolated structure (i.e., by

assuming as a rigid superstructure) and the isolated superstructure where RIS = TIS/TS denotes the period ratio of the original structure,

(assumed as ﬁxed-base); i.e., the eﬀective period of the entire base-isolated structure (Eq. (8))

cIS, eq cS, eq over the isolated superstructure as ﬁxed-base. It can be observed from

ξIS, eq = , ξS, eq = Eq. (19) that the ratio of the peak displacement of isolation system to

2(mIS, eq + mS, eq) kIS, eq 2 mS, eq kS, eq (12) the relative peak displacement of the isolated superstructure depends

on both the period ratio of the original structure and the equivalent

are the equivalent damping ratios of the base-isolation structure and the

mass of the superstructure of the 2DOF model (also an explicit function

isolated superstructure; consequently, the equivalent dimensionless

of structural parameters). Therefore, a clear and simple link has been

period ratio and mass ratio are deﬁned as

established in Eq. (19) from structural parameters to the seismic dis-

2 placements of a base-isolated structure. On the other hand, if the dis-

TS, eq ⎞ mS, eq

εeq = ⎜⎛ ⎟ , μeq = placements are given, corresponding structural parameters may be

T

⎝ IS, eq ⎠ mS, eq + mIS, eq (13)

solved by inverting the relationship in Eq. (19). This solution process

A detailed description of the dynamic characteristics of this may not be straightforward, but it may be feasible by carefully selecting

equivalent 2DOF model can be found in [19]. unknowns and applying reasonable constraint conditions. Therefore,

the relationship expressed by Eq. (19) resembles the one required by

the standard DDBD procedure, which is utilized to propose the DDBD

3.3. Seismic response of the 2DOF system

procedure for base-isolated building structures in the following section.

high order terms of εeq, the peak values of equivalent displacements 4. DDBD procedure for base-isolated building structures

|uIS,eq|max and |uS,eq|max are expressed as:

As aforementioned, an alternative DDBD procedure is proposed for

uIS,eq max = (1 − μeq εeq ) SD (T1, eq, ξ1, eq) (14) base-isolated buildings with LRBs by incorporating the general proce-

dure for regular buildings and the 2DOF linearized model of base-iso-

uS, eq max = εeq (1 − μeq εeq )[SD2 (T1,eq, ξ1,eq ) + SD2 (T2,eq, ξ2,eq )]1 2

(15) lated buildings. For a base-isolated building structure, design require-

ments are applied by its basic functionality as well as the performance

where SD(T, ξ) is the elastic design displacement spectrum as the objectives in terms of displacement thresholds under a speciﬁed seismic

function of both T and ξ. It should be noted that Eqs. (14) and (15) are intensity. The design procedure aims at the determination of the me-

essentially the same as the formulations for the deformation of isolation chanical characteristics of the LRB isolation system, and the associated

system and drift of superstructure in the Kelly’s 2DOF model [19] by set of lateral forces for the isolated superstructure. Accordingly, the

neglecting the higher-order term of frequency ratio εeq. Aiming at a superstructure can be designed by this set of loading linear-statically as

possible simpliﬁed approximation of those displacements, for a typical a regular structure. The structural design resulted as such will fulﬁll the

base-isolated structure the lateral stiﬀness of its superstructure is design requirements speciﬁed. Overall, the DDBD procedure developed

usually substantially larger than that of the isolation system. In such a in this study consists of the following seven steps, which is also illu-

case, jointly considering that the ﬁrst and second modal periods of the strated by the block diagram in Fig. 5.

2DOF system are approximately reciprocally-proportional to the root- Step 1: Preliminary design of the isolated superstructure. Start from

of-square of the stiﬀness of both the isolation system and the super- the requirements by the functionality of the building, a draft structural

structure, T1,eq ≫ T2,eq may be yielded. Consequently, the conclusion conﬁguration of the isolated superstructure is empirically determined,

SD(T1,eq, ξ1,eq) ≫ SD(T2,eq, ξ2,eq) could be obtained [23]. Thus, based on which includes ﬂoor masses, inter-story heights, span lengths, beam/

Eqs. (14) and (15), the following simple approximate relationship is column sections, etc. It is assumed that the stiﬀness and mass of the

yielded: superstructure are distributed uniformly along with the height. With

4

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

5

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

∑i = 1 (mi ·Di ·hi )

shear-type structure (Fig. 4a), where mi, ki, ci and hi, (i = 1, 2, …, N) are hS, eq = N

∑i = 1 (mi ·Di ) (25)

the mass, lateral stiﬀness, damping coeﬃcient and height of i-th story,

respectively. The fundamental period of the ﬁxed-base superstructure It is noted that the design displacement DS,eq is essentially equal to

TS is then calculated accordingly. |uS,eq|max deﬁned in the previous section. Substituting Eq. (21) into Eqs.

Step 2: Determining of performance objectives of base-isolated (23) and (24), the design displacement DS,eq and eﬀective mass mS,eq

building structures. Usually, the operational performance level [24] is can be reformulated as:

required for the isolated superstructure under the design basis earth-

N 2

quake (DBE), or more strictly under the maximum considered earth- θS0 h1 ∑i = 1 mi Φi

DS,eq =

quake (MCE). To preclude the damage of non-structural components as N

Φ1 ∑ mi Φi

i=1 (26)

demanded by this performance requirement, the maximum inter-story

drift of the isolated superstructure should not exceed the allowable N 2

limit θS0 of 0.2–0.5% suggested by SEAOC in Vision 2000 [24]. Below (∑i = 1 mi Φi )

mS, eq = N

this displacement limit, the superstructure would be regarded as linear- ∑i = 1 mi Φi2 (27)

elastic. Because the total weight of isolated superstructure known in the

previous step is directly supported by LRB isolation system, the di- Step 5: Solving the period ratio. In the equivalent 2DOF model, the

mension of LRBs can be determined based on the allowable compressive period ratio RIS may be computed by the explicit relationship derived in

0

Eq. (19) with the speciﬁed target displacement threshold (i.e., DIS and

stress upon based on the vertical design load known in the previous

θS0 ):

step, which in turn are closely related to the horizontal deformation

capacity of LRBs. Thus, the performance level also imposes the hor- 0

Φ1DIS mT · ∑i = 1 mi Φi2

N

izontal displacement of the LRB isolation system, i.e., the design dis- RIS2 =

0

0

θS h1 [mIS · ∑N mi Φi2 + (∑N mi Φi )2] (28)

placement DIS of the LRBs, which should not exceed the deformation i=1 i=1

capacity of the LRB isolation system. In summary, the performance

0 which is derived by substituting Eqs. (26) and (27) into (19), and re-

objective is represented by two displacement limits: DIS and θS0 0

garding DIS and DS,eq as |uIS,eq|max and |uS,eq|max in Eq. (19). Further-

Step 3: Computing the target displacement proﬁle of the super-

0 more, it is noted that the right-hand side of Eq. (28) is implicitly a

structure. From the limits DIS and θS0 , the target displacement proﬁle

nonlinear equation of RIS because the normalized proﬁle Φi deﬁned in

(displacement threshold of each ﬂoor) can be calculated. As shown in

Eq. (22) depends on RIS. Therefore, RIS should be solved iteratively, i.e.,

Fig. 4a, the target proﬁle of the base-isolated structure Δi is the sum-

by selecting an initial value of RIS in Step 3 and repeating Steps 3–5

mation of the rigid translation resulted from the LRB isolation system

0

DIS and the deformation of the isolated superstructure Di: until the solution of RIS converges.

Step 6: Estimating the eﬀective stiﬀness and damping ratio of the

0

Δi = DIS + Di (20) LRB system. Having the period ratio RIS been solved, the equivalent

stiﬀness of LRB isolation system is computed by:

where Di is further expressed as

mT

kIS = 4π 2

Φi (RIS TS )2 (29)

Di = θS0 ·h1·

Φ1 (21)

Determination of the eﬀective damping ratio ξIS includes three sub-

where D1 = θS0 h1 denotes the inter-story lateral displacement of the ﬁrst steps. First, based on Eq. (9), the ﬁrst modal period T1 of the equivalent

story, at which the inter-story drift maximizes along with the height of 2DOF model is obtained by:

the isolated superstructure; Φ denotes the normalized proﬁle function

mIS + mS,eq

taking the concave shape for base-isolated structures as: [11,18] T1, eq = 2π

kIS (1 − μeq εeq ) (30)

1 h π 1 π

Φi = cos ⎡ ⎛ ⎞·⎛1 − i ⎞· ⎤ − cos ⎡ ⎛ ⎞· ⎤

⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟

where the frequency ratio εeq and mass ratio μeq are deﬁned in Eq. (13).

⎢ ⎝ RIS ⎠ ⎝ H ⎠ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ RIS ⎠ 2 ⎥ (22)

⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦

Next, the ﬁrst modal damping ratio of the equivalent 2DOF model ξ1,eq

where H is the total height of the superstructure; RIS = TIS/TS denotes is found out as the damping ratio honoring both T1,eq and the dis-

0

the period ratio; TS is the fundamental period of the ﬁxed-base super- placement DIS concurrently in the design displacement response spectra

structure calculated in Step 2. It should be noted that Eq. (22) re- SD:

presents the proﬁle function of the displacement for an inelastic con- 0

DIS = (1 − μeq εeq ) SD (T1, eq, ξ1, eq) (31)

tinuous shear building and the maximum inter-story drift located at the

ﬁrst story. Consequently, the proposed design procedure is targeted to where the ﬁrst modal damping ratio ξ1,eq is deﬁned as

the multi-story building with uniform mass and stiﬀness distribution

over the height of the building. 3

ξ1,eq = ξIS ⎛1 − μeq εeq ⎞

Step 4: Establishing the equivalent 2DOF model. The equivalent ⎝ 2 ⎠ (32)

2DOF model for the base-isolated building structure is illustrated in

This searching process may be carried out by using the graph of

Fig. 4b, which as aforementioned comprises two equivalent SDOF sys-

curves of SD associated with various damping ratios or by a numerical

tems modeling the isolated superstructure and the LRB isolation system,

interpolation procedure. Finally, the eﬀective damping ratio of LRB

respectively. The design displacement DS,eq, eﬀective mass mS,eq and

isolation system ξIS can be calculated as follows:

eﬀective height of the isolated superstructure hS,eq are derived based on

the target displacement proﬁles deﬁned in Step 3: ξ1, eq mIS + mS, eq

ξIS = ·

N 1 − 3μeq εeq 2 mT

∑i = 1 (mi ·Di2 )

DS, eq = N

∑i = 1 (mi ·Di ) (23) Step 7: Design the LRBs and the base-isolated structure. In this study,

the yield deformation uY of LRB isolation system is ﬁxed as 10 mm

N [25–27], so that only the parameters kP and Q are obtained based on the

∑i = 1 (mi ·Di )

mS, eq = eﬀective stiﬀness kIS and damping ratio ξIS, the mechanical parameters

DS (24)

of isolators:

6

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

0 )2

πk IS ξIS (DIS Table 1

Q= 0 −u )

2(DIS Y DDBD results of example buildings by using the proposed procedure existing

kP = kIS −

Q procedure.

0

DIS (34)

Case Study Procedure proposed Cardone’s procedure

by taking into account Eqs. (6) and (7). Moreover, the isolated super-

structure is designed through a regular aseismic design procedure but 3 Story 5 Story 7 Story 3 Story 5 Story 7 Story

under the seismic design loading in terms of the base shear VB: RIS 3.659 3.929 4.060 3.616 3.684 3.763

0 TIS (s) 1.333 2.240 3.151 1.318 2.098 2.916

VB = kIS·DIS (35)

kIS (kN/mm) 8.877 4.723 3.182 9.091 5.381 3.772

which is then distributed along with the height of superstructure in ξIS (%) 21.6 27.3 26.5 21.6 19.4 19.3

kP (kN/mm) 5.654 2.616 1.816 5.786 3.673 2.595

relation to the story masses mi and associated target displacements: Q (kN) 483.5 526.7 477.9 495.7 427.0 412.0

mi ·Δi VB (kN) 1331.6 1180.7 1113.7 1363.7 1345.3 1320.2

Fi = VB N

∑i = 0 (mi ·Δi ) (36)

Applying this set of lateral forces to the superstructure, a linear isolated buildings, respectively. The DBD-adapted displacement re-

static analysis is carried out to obtain the member forces and other sponse spectrum is adopted as the seismic design loading, which is

responses. Results of the analysis together with aseismic codes/speci- provided by Eurocode 8 for soil type C with the design acceleration of

ﬁcations ﬁnally enable the design of structural members of the isolated 0.35 g and the importance factor of 1.4 [28] but with the period TD

superstructure. modiﬁed to 4 s. At this juncture, the DDBD design problem in this ex-

0

ample is reiterated as: based on the displacement requirements DIS and

0

5. Numerical veriﬁcation θIS under the speciﬁed seismic response spectrum, determining the

parameters of LRB isolation systems (i.e., kP and Q) and the design base

A numerical example is included in this section to demonstrate and shear VB associated with a set of lateral force. The detailed design of

verify the proposed DDBD procedure. The design problem of this nu- superstructures based on the set of lateral force is not explored in this

merical example is ﬁrst stated in terms of three example base-isolated example because it follows the conventional force-based design proce-

structures. The proposed procedure is then carried out, and the design dure.

solutions are assessed by using the nonlinear time history analysis

(NTHA). The results given by the proposed procedure are also com- 5.2. Veriﬁcation

pared with those resulted by an existing procedure proposed by

Cardone [18]. It is noteworthy that the example structures as well as In order to verify the DDBD procedure developed in this study, the

many design parameters are taken the same as those in [18], to facil- design solutions of the example building structures are obtained by the

itate the comparative study. procedure shown in Fig. 5 and programmed by using the Matlab pro-

gram. Nonlinear time-history analysis (NTHA) is then carried out by the

5.1. Example design problem nonlinear ﬁnite element model of the designed base-isolated structures.

The proposed procedure is then assessed by checking whether the

In this numerical example, the design of three multi-story (3, 5, and performance objectives have been achieved, i.e., by comparing the

7 stories) base-isolated buildings is considered as shown in Fig. 6 For all target displacement thresholds with the ones given by the NTHA under

the building structures, it is assumed that the story height, ﬂoor mass the speciﬁc seismic loading. Table 1 lists the design solution of the

(seismic weight) and lateral inter-story stiﬀness are distributed uni- example design problem of the three base-isolated building structures,

formly over all the stories, with the values of 3.0 m, 100 × 103 kg and in which the left half is the results yielded by the proposed DDBD

150 × 103 kN/m selected in the initial design step, respectively. The procedure. Based on those parameters of mechanical properties, the

fundamental periods of the superstructures as ﬁxed-based are calcu- types and parameters of LRB bearings in the isolation system may be

lated as 0.39, 0.57 and 0.81 s. further determined and selected from the pool of LRB products. The

The performance objectives of the design in this section, including period ratio RIS is the critical parameter which should be determined

0 through an iteration process in the DDBD procedure. Table 2 gives an

the design displacement of the LRB isolation system (DIS ) and the

maximum allowable inter-story drift of the isolated superstructure (θIS0

), example of such iteration, which indicates the ﬁnal result of RIS (bold

0

are speciﬁed as follows: θIS = 0.25% for all the three structures, text) converges after only a couple of iterative steps and thus is com-

0

DIS = 150 mm, 250 mm, and 350 mm for the 3, 5, and 7-story base- putationally eﬃcient.

7

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

Table 2 Therefore, the proposed DDBD procedure is veriﬁed because the design

Iterative process for determining the period ratio RIS of the 3-story structure. solutions yielded can satisfy the preset performance objectives with

Number of 3-story base-isolated structure: DIS = 150 mm, θS = 0.25% excellent accuracy.

iterations

Assumed RIS DS,eq (mm) mS,eq Calculated RIS 5.3. Comparison with an existing procedure

(103 kg)

1 1.000 12.680 279.904 3.529 An alternative DDBD procedure has already been proposed by [18]

2 3.529 11.663 284.380 3.658 for buildings equipped with various seismic isolation systems, not ex-

3 3.658 11.658 284.403 3.659 clusively for the LRBs. In Cardone’s procedure, the base-isolated

4 3.659 11.658 284.403 3.659 structure is modeled by two reference SDOF models rather than the

conventional 2DOF model, thus a critical assumption is needed for the

relationship of the displacements of the two SDOF models. The critical

parameter is the acceleration-displacement response spectra, in com-

parison with the period ratio in the proposed procedure. A closed-form

expression of that critical parameter is ﬁrst derived in terms of the

structural parameters as well as the target displacement thresholds, and

then solved iteratively. Because the associated acceleration-displace-

ment response spectra are required to establish the structural para-

meters–displacement relationship, Cardone’s procedure is more general

but not as straightforward and convenient as the procedure proposed in

this study. The one proposed in this paper is user-friendly and can be

readily implemented.

In the following, the design solutions of the two procedures are

compared for the example problem. Both Tables 1 and 3 list the results

of Cardone’s procedure as the sub-tables in the right half. It is apparent

from Table 1 that there are signiﬁcant diﬀerences in the design results

from diﬀerent DDBD procedures even with the same performance ob-

Fig. 7. Elastic (5% damped) acceleration (left) and displacement (right) spectra jectives, particularly for the 5- and 7-story structures. However, such

of the accelerograms used for NLTH analysis, compatible with the EC design

disparate design solutions ﬁnally lead to a similar degree of satisfying

spectrum.

the same design performance objectives, as suggested by observing the

NHTA results in Table 3. For all the example structures, as for as the

Table 3 relative error to the target objectives is concerned, the proposed pro-

Comparison between NTHA results and design targets. cedure is slightly better than the procedure by Cardone. Overall, the

Case Study Procedure proposed in this study Cardone’s procedure predictions of both procedures are similar to achieve the performance

objectives. Given the fact that is it true only with the set of accel-

3 Story 5 Story 7 Story 3 Story 5 Story 7 Story erograms used in this study, solid comparative study considering the

0 150.0 250.0 350.0 150.0 250.0 350.0

record-to-record variability will be conducted in the future. Moreover,

DIS (mm)

0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250

both procedures can yield feasible but diﬀerent design solutions (i.e.,

θS0 (%)

VB (kN) 1331.6 1180.7 1113.7 1363.7 1345.3 1320.2

the combination of post-yielded stiﬀness kP and characteristic yield

DNTHA (mm) 147.4 240.6 342.3 147.1 271.8 368.8 strength Q): this design is a multiple-solution problem with the current

θNTHA (%) 0.251 0.253 0.241 0.267 0.264 0.257 constraint conditions. As far as the optimal global combination of kP

VNTHA (kN) 1346.0 1171.5 1122.0 1347.0 1425.5 1369.2 and Q is concerned, probabilistic performance-based earthquake en-

0

DNTHA/DIS 0.983 0.962 1.011 0.981 1.087 1.054

gineering analysis is necessary, which is beyond the scope of this study

θNTHA/θS0 0.962 1.012 0.992 1.068 1.056 1.028

but of interests for the future.

VNTHA/VB 0.978 0.964 1.007 0.988 1.060 1.037

6. Conclusions

Moreover, to carry out the NTHA, an ensemble of 15 artiﬁcial

In this paper, a DDBD procedure for base-isolated building struc-

sample accelerograms compatible with the design spectrum is gener-

tures equipped with LRB isolation system has been proposed. In the

ated. Fig. 7 indicates the ensemble-averaged response spectrum of the

proposed procedure, the equivalent linear 2DOF system is used as the

generated accelerograms matches well the design response spectrum.

substitution of the nonlinear MDOF model of base-isolated building

Inﬂuence of the minor deviation in the time period range of 2–3 s on the

structures. By using the structural parameters-displacements relation-

responses is avoided in the NTHA by scaling the peak acceleration [18].

ship derived in terms of the 2DOF model, the procedure enables readily

Using these sample accelerograms as inputs, the NTHA is carried out in

determination of the parameters of the LRB isolation system as well as

SAP2000 [29]. The left half of Table 3 compares the results of NTHA

the seismic design loading for the isolated superstructure, given the

(DNHTA, θNHTA and VNHTA) with the expected performance objectives

0

(DIS 0

, θIS and VB). The NTHA results are the ensemble averaging of the preset thresholds of the displacement of the isolation level and the

maximum seismic responses to the 15 ground motions. As observed in inter-story drift of the superstructure. The implementation steps (totally

Table 3, for all the three example base-isolated structures, the NTHA 7) of the proposed procedure are detailed with a ﬂowchart to facilitate

results match the corresponding targets well (with errors lower than its practical applications.

10%). In addition, the NTHA sample and ensemble averaged peak lat- In the numerical example, the proposed DDBD procedure has been

eral displacements of each story and inter-story drifts of the 7-storey applied to the design of three example base isolated building structures.

superstructure are shown in Fig. 8, together with their targets in the By carrying out the NLTH analysis with an ensemble of 15 response

DDBD procedure. It can be noted that the averaged peak values from spectrum-compatible accelerograms, it is observed that the maximum

NTHA are close to those speciﬁed performance objectives, which is also peak seismic responses of the designed building structures match the

true for the results for other example buildings (not shown for brevity). corresponding target values accurate enough (i.e., with errors less than

10%). In consideration that the performance objectives have been

8

K. Ye, et al. Engineering Structures 197 (2019) 109402

Fig. 8. Design displacement proﬁles and inter-story drift limit with the results of non-linear time-history analyses for the 7-storey base-isolated building structure.

achieved by the design solution of example base-isolated buildings, the [8] Kappos AJ, Gkatzogias KI, Gidaris IG. Extension of direct displacement-based design

proposed DDBD procedure is thus veriﬁed. Finally, the results given by methodology for bridges to account for higher mode eﬀects. Earthquake Eng Struct

Dyn 2013;42(4):581–602.

the proposed procedure has been compared with those from the DDBD [9] Kowalsky MJ. A displacement-based approach for the seismic design of continuous

procedure by [18], which suggests that, although further studies may concrete bridges. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn 2002;31(3):719–47.

be required, the proposed DDBD procedure appears to be able to reach [10] Martelli A, Clemente P, De Stefano A, et al. Recent development and application of

seismic isolation and energy dissipation and conditions for their correct use.

the performance objectives more closely and in a more straightforward Geotech Geolog Earthquake Eng 2014:449–88.

way. It is expected that the proposed DDBD procedure may also be [11] Skinner RI, Robinson WH, McVerry GH. An introduction to seismic isolation.

extended to the seismic design of base-isolated building structures with Chichester (West Sussex, UK): John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 1993.

[12] American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Minimum design loads for buildings

other types of isolators in the future. and other structures. Reston (VA): ASCE 7-05; 2005.

[13] American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Minimum design loads for buildings

Acknowledgments and other structures. Reston (VA): ASCE 7-05; 2010.

[14] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Oﬃcials (AASHTO).

Guide speciﬁcations for seismic isolation design. Washington, DC; 2010.

The authors wish to acknowledge the support given to them by [15] Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance Part 2: Bridges. BS EN

National Key R&D Program of China (Grant Number: 1998-2. Brussels; 2005.

2017YFC0703600) and National Natural Science Foundation of China [16] Jara M, Casas JR. A direct displacement-based method for the seismic design of

bridges on bi-linear isolation devices. Eng Struct 2006;28(6):869–79.

(Grant Number: 51838006) and Basic research projects funded by [17] Cardone D, Dolce M, Palermo G. Direct displacement-based design of seismically

Central Universities (Grant Number: 2016YXMS091). isolated bridges. Bull Earthq Eng 2009;7(2):391–410.

[18] Cardone D, Palermo G, Dolce M. Direct displacement-based design of buildings with

diﬀerent seismic isolation systems. J Earthquake Eng 2010;14(2):163–91.

Appendix A. Supplementary material [19] Kelly JM. Earthquake-resistant design with rubber. London: Springer; 1997.

[20] Gulkan P, Sozen MA. Inelastic responses of reinforced concrete structures to

Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https:// earthquake motions. J Am Concr Inst 1974;71(12):604–10.

[21] Calvi GM, Priestley MJN, Kowalsky MJ. Displacement based seismic design of

doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109402. structures. Pavia (Italy): IUSS Press; 2007.

[22] Jaobsen LS. Steady forced vibrations as inﬂuenced by damping. ASME Trans

References 1930;52(15):169–81.

[23] Vassiliou MF, Tsiavos A, Stojadinović B. Dynamics of inelastic base-isolated struc-

tures subjected to analytical pulse ground motions. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn

[1] Priestley MJN, Kowalsky MJ. Direct displacement-based seismic design of concrete 2013;42(14):2043–60.

buildings. Bull N Zeal Soc Earthquake Eng 2000;33(4):421–41. [24] SEAOC. Vision 2000: a framework for performance-based earthquake resistive de-

[2] Pettinga JD, Priestley MJN. Dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete frames de- sign. Structural Engineers Association of California; 1995.

signed with direct displacement-based design. J Earthquake Eng [25] Ryan K, Chopra A. Estimation of seismic demands on isolators based on nonlinear

2005;9(sup2):309–30. analysis. J Struct Eng 2004;130(3):392–402.

[3] Sullivan TJ, Priestley MJN, Calvi GM. Development of an innovative seismic design [26] Naeim F, Kelly JM. Design of seismic isolated structures: from theory to practice.

procedure for frame-wall structures. J Earthquake Eng 2005;9(sup2):279–307. New York: Wiley; 1999.

[4] Whitney R, Agrawal AK. Direct displacement based seismic design for timber ﬂex- [27] Makris N, Chang S-P. Eﬀect of viscous, viscoplastic and friction damping on the

ible diaphragms in masonry shear wall buildings. Eng Struct 2016;123:263–74. response of seismic isolated structures. Earthquake Eng Struct Dyn

[5] Parisi F. Seismic design of box-type unreinforced masonry buildings through direct 2000;29(1):85–107.

displacement-based approach. Open Constr Build Technol J 2016;10:293–311. [28] Standardisation C-ECf. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

[6] Nievas CI, Sullivan TJ. Applicability of the direct displacement-based design Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. Brussels; 2005.

method to steel moment resisting frames with setbacks. Bull Earthq Eng [29] CSI. SAP2000 v10 integrated ﬁnite element analysis and design of structures [DB/

2015;13(12):3841–70. OL]; 2016.

[7] O'Reilly GJ, Sullivan TJ. Direct displacement-based seismic design of eccentrically

braced steel frames. J Earthquake Eng 2016;20(2):243–78.

- Pushover simplifiedÎncărcat deErin Compton
- EC8- Modelling and AnalysisÎncărcat dedmardetk
- jse57BÎncărcat deFides Fuentes Umemura
- v75-65Încărcat dekvsamath
- Phase-IÎncărcat deHilary Watson
- Ferracuti B., Savoia M., Pinho R., Serpieri Maurizio - 3D Pushover Analysis for Evaluating Torsional Effect of RC StructuresÎncărcat deIng. Maurizio Serpieri
- 2006 Dynamic Analysis Current ScienceÎncărcat debipinsh01
- 14_08-02-0006Încărcat deHumberto Guerrero Rojo
- Metode Bazate Pe Deplasare Curs 2Încărcat demarin_s
- Pushover Analysis (Modal) of SAC BuildingsÎncărcat deCHarlesghylon
- ASCE7-05 Seismic Wizard HandbookÎncărcat dephuongkq832
- push 30 2012.pdfÎncărcat deАвирмэдийн Гэрэлболд
- seismicÎncărcat defina_ong6259
- IBC2009EÎncărcat demr.Kram
- Final DNS PhD WorkÎncărcat deUsha Harshvadan Patel
- comparative study codes seismic design.pdfÎncărcat deAlexis Vargas
- De Stefano and Mariani_Pushover Analysis of Plan Irregular Building StructuresÎncărcat deramirinho9
- new rblÎncărcat dePar Naw
- IRJET-V4I230Încărcat deSoumyadeep Sengupta
- Earth Quake AnalysisÎncărcat dejannatul900s
- SeismoBuild 2018 User ManualÎncărcat deStelios Antoniou
- EncyclopediaLagaros EtalÎncărcat deamela0809
- 058_VelazquezOrtizO_EEDM.pdfÎncărcat deNicolas Enrique Bastias Tejos
- Paper N° 0942-R1Încărcat deJorge Henrique
- Siesmic AnalysisÎncărcat denadaf2
- 54101_unit3Încărcat demongkol_1001
- kunnathÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- understanding_dynamic_analysis_v8.pdfÎncărcat desumit_fm77
- ttÎncărcat deAnonymous nbozs80lyg
- Seismic AnalysisÎncărcat deSashi Booshan

- FEMA P695 - Quantification of Building Seismic Performance FactorsÎncărcat deGiapVap
- Experimental Investigation of Tri-Axial Self-centering Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Through Shaking Table TestsÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Seismic Responses of Reinforced Concrete Structures Considering Strain Rate EffectÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Drawing Guide 210 EnuÎncărcat debogdanipl
- Bs8666 ShapesÎncărcat deMahaveer Janapala
- TCC101 DetailingÎncărcat deMario Sajulga Dela Cuadra
- TCC61 Basement WallÎncărcat deMario Sajulga Dela Cuadra
- DlubalÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- CM Buildings_Dr.Vaibhav singhal.pdfÎncărcat deAngel Girón
- 20112.pdfÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Nd GsÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- User Guide Version 3.pdfÎncărcat deQUOCTRAN
- user guide version 4.pdfÎncărcat deadelalwaily
- RCC11 Element Design.xlsÎncărcat deCioabla Bogdan
- Seismic-Resistant_Precast_Apr_ 2018Încărcat deAbdul Hafeez
- Doc1Încărcat deIon Sococol
- PlanningÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Description.txtÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- AISC Steel Construction Manual, 13th Edition, Second PrintingÎncărcat deLuis Gonzales Salazar
- DescriptionÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Robot 2010 Training Manual MetricÎncărcat deanhkiem1980
- Greutatea Specifica La Otel BetonÎncărcat deIon Sococol
- Plagiarism Detector LogÎncărcat deIon Sococol

- Electric Force & Electric FieldsÎncărcat deDesejo Sozinando
- 10.1016@j.jphotobiol.2017.04.031Încărcat deCurieThamer
- the theory of hopping conductivityÎncărcat deVahagn Mkhitaryan
- Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis - TESEÎncărcat deOdivan Zanella
- 15. s-blockElements.pdfÎncărcat dechingy
- Immediate Settlement Settle3DÎncărcat deGeoteco
- Deep Cryogenic Treatment of a D2 Cold-work Tool Steel.pdfÎncărcat deBinh Thanh Le
- E45 Lab 6 Heat Treatment of SteelÎncărcat deAlisha Power
- Chemical EquationsÎncărcat deSanchay Saxena
- Power Systems QuestionsÎncărcat desamg27
- 19840017959.pdfÎncărcat deUma Tamil
- Sewage Treatment: Priliminary Treatment UnitsÎncărcat deDr. Akepati Sivarami Reddy
- SpecialRelativity2.12Încărcat desuccessmentor
- Beasr Treatment Using SIS Proton Beam TherapyÎncărcat deReza Khalili
- Steady state theory.pptxÎncărcat deKateAlbero
- Ionic BondingÎncărcat deKingson_786
- Effects of Metallic Ions on the Flotation of Spodumene and BerylÎncărcat dejoseroldan7
- Mechanical and Rheometric Properties of Gilsonite Carbon Black n 2016 PolymeÎncărcat deSebastian Diaz
- AM Tower Height by FrequencyÎncărcat deJustin Michael
- FORCE ANALYSIS (Autosaved).docxÎncărcat deHairi Hang
- philips-lighting.pdfÎncărcat dekanu13
- Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission and Distribution Lines – Electrical Engineer ResourcesÎncărcat deSara Ramli
- Bosch Placement PaperÎncărcat deAlagappan Murugu
- Mordanting the Textiles for Natural DyeingÎncărcat deHëss Emmanuel
- Rotary Kiln Surya Engineering CoÎncărcat deboson k12
- HSE report rr400Încărcat denanlingjigong
- Magnetic Fields IllustrationÎncărcat deMuhammad Mosa
- 2016 Specimen Data Booklet ChemistryÎncărcat deAhmed Naser
- CHAPTER-1 summaryÎncărcat deRaven John Yecyec Rufino
- PPSC Physics lecturer Test Past Papers Solved By Muneer Hayat,.pdfÎncărcat delog man

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.