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Index

Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures, “t” indicate tables, and “b” indicate boxes.

A etiology, 1525–1526, 1525f complement dysregulation, 566


AAV, see Adeno-associated virus pathology, 1526–1527, 1526f–1527f drusen, 564
ABCA4, Stargardt disease mutations, 864, 865f, 874 prognosis, 1528–1529 environmental factors, 569
ABCR, see Photoreceptor cell-specific ATP-binding treatment, 1528–1529 genetics, 568
cassette transporter Acute zonal acute outer retinopathy, indocyanine inflammatory response, 566
ACAID, see Anterior chamber-associated immune green angiography, 77–79, 78f–79f membrane formation, 566
deviation Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) stages, 565f
Accutane, age-related macular degeneration autoantibodies, 1386 classification, 1134, 1150, 1151f
management, 1223 clinical features, 1368–1369 clinical trials
ACE, see Angiotensin-converting enzyme course and prognosis, 1369 Age-Related Eye Disease Study, 1605–1606
Acetazolamide differential diagnosis, 1371 CAPT, 1606–1607
central serous chorioretinopathy management, electrophysiology, 1369–1370 laser therapy trials, 1600–1601
1303 epidemiology, 1368 Macular Photocoagulation Study, 1598–1600
retinal adhesion effects, 455f, 457–458 imaging photodynamic therapy trials, 1601–1602
retinal fold induction, 1541–1543 fluorescein angiography, 1369, 1369f radiotherapy trials, 1603–1604
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), neuroprotection, 722 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1369, Submacular Surgery Trials, 1602–1603
Achromatopsia 1369f vascular endothelial growth factor
diagnosis, 899–901, 900f fundus photography, 1368–1369, 1368f, 1370f inhibitor trials
overview, 899–901 optical coherence tomography, 1369, 1370f ABC, 1604
treatment, 901 pathogenesis, 1370 ANCHOR, 1604
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, see Human perimetry, 1369, 1370f CATT, 1605
immunodeficiency virus systemic associations, 1370 FOCUS, 1604
Actinobacter, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021 treatment, 1371 MARINA, 1604
Actinomyces, infectious endophthalmitis, 2022 Adalimumab, sarcoidosis management, 1402 PIER, 1605
Acuity, see Visual acuity tests Adaptive immunity, overview, 579–580 V.I.S.I.O.N., 1604
Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement (AIBSE) Adaptive optics, see Optical coherence tomography; downregulatory immune environment,
clinical features, 1371 Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy 582
course and prognosis, 1371–1372 Adeno-associated virus (AAV), age-related macular early disease
differential diagnosis, 1372 degeneration gene therapy basal laminar deposit, 1156–1159, 1159f
electrophysiology, 1372 angiostatin, 1245 choroidal perfusion
epidemiology, 1371 endostatin, 1245 functional effects, 1173–1174
imaging pigment epithelial-derived factor, 1245 overview, 1172–1174
fluorescein angiography, 1372 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, pathology, 1173
fundus photography, 1371 1220–1221 prognostic value, 1174
indocyanine green angiography, 1372 Adenocarcinoma, ciliary body, 2353 clinical features, 1150, 1156
optical coherence tomography, 1372 Adenoma, ciliary body, 2353 drusen
pathogenesis, 1372 Adherens junction, retinal pigment epithelium, clinicopathologic classification, 1162–1170,
perimetry, 1372, 1372f 403–405, 404f 1163f–1170f
treatment, 1372 Adhesion, see Retinal adhesion grading, 1151, 1151f, 1160
Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) ADNIV, see Autosomal dominant neovascular imaging, 1161
clinical features, 1372 inflammatory vitreoretinopathy pathologic considerations, 1161–1162,
course and prognosis, 1372–1373 ADRD, see Autosomal dominant radial drusen 1162f
differential diagnosis, 1374 Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform pattern outcome, 1170–1171, 1171f
electrophysiology, 1373 dystrophy, clinical features, 877 histochemistry, 1171–1172
epidemiology, 1372 Adult stem cells, see also Stem cell therapy incipient atrophy, 1172, 1172f–1173f
imaging endothelial progenitor cells, 677–679 management, 1178–1180, 1178t–1179t
fluorescein angiography, 1373 neovascularization risks, 679 membranous debris
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1373 neurotrophic rescue in retinal degeneration, apex of retinal pigment epithelium,
fundus photography, 1372, 1373f 680–682, 681f–682f 1158–1159
indocyanine green angiography, 1372 sources, 670–671 external to retinal pigment epithelium
optical coherence tomography, 1373, 1373f vasculotrophic rescue, 679–680, 680f basement membrane, 1157f, 1158
pathogenesis, 1373–1374 Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) internal to retinal pigment epithelium
perimetry, 1373 angiogenesis regulation, 572 basement membrane, 1157, 1158f
systemic associations, 1373 diabetic retinopathy, 519, 928 endoplasmic reticulum stress, 534–535
treatment, 1374 inhibitors, 525 epidemiology studies
Acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy retinal pigment epithelium oxidative injury, age dependence, 1135, 1177–1178
(AMPPE), indocyanine green angiography, 77 520 alcohol consumption, 1137–1138
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment ADVIRC, see Autosomal dominant body mass index, 1138
epitheliopathy (APMPPE) vitreoretinochoroidopathy cardiovascular disease, 1138
clinical features, 1341–1342 Aflibercept cataract, 1136
course and prognosis, 1342 age-related macular degeneration, wet type cup-to-disc ratio, 1136
differential diagnosis, 1345, 1352t management, 1241–1242 diabetes, 1139
electrophysiology, 1344 branch retinal vein occlusion management, dietary factors, 1137, 1216
epidemiology, 1341–1342 1036–1037 dyslipidemia, 1139
imaging Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), 723, hyperopia, 1136
fluorescein angiography, 1332f, 1342–1343, 1605–1606 hypertension, 1138–1139
1342f Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) incidence, 1135
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1344, antioxidant studies of neuroprotection, 723–724 iris color, 1136
1344f ARMS2 polymorphisms, 522 medications, 1138, 1216
fundus photography, 1342, 1342f–1343f Bruch’s membrane overview, 2010
indocyanine green angiography, 1343–1344, hydraulic conductivity, 471f prevalence, 1134–1135
1343f lesions race/ethnicity effects, 1136
optical coherence tomography, 1344, 1344f basal laminar deposit, 475–476 sex differences, 1135
pathogenesis, 1345 basal linear deposit, 475 sex hormones, 1139–1140
systemic associations, 1345 drusen, 474–475, 475f smoking, 1136–1137
treatment, 1345 overview, 474–476, 474f socioeconomic status impact, 1136
Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome subretinal drusenoid debris, 476 sunlight exposure, 1138, 1216
clinical features, 1523–1525, 1523f–1524f neovascular disease, 477, 564–566 systemic risk factors, 1216–1217
definition, 1523–1525 response-to-retention hypothesis, 476–477 epigenetics, 647
diagnosis, 1527t central serous chorioretinopathy differential fundus autofluorescence imaging
differential diagnosis, 1527–1528 diagnosis, 1298 early disease, 115–129, 116f
epidemiology, 1525 choroidal neovascularization geographic atrophy, 115, 117–118, 117f–119f
genetic susceptibility, 1140–1141, 1213–1216, overview, 2010–2011 risk factors, 1183
1214t, 1215f peroperative course, 2012 RNA interference of vascular endothelial
geographic atrophy, see also Geographic atrophy prospects, 2015–2016 growth factor, 1237f, 1243
i2 choroidal neovascularization association, 1177 retinal pigment epithelium reconstruction submacular surgery, 1208
clinical significance, 1176 rationale, 2011, 2011t subretinal hemorrhage, 1185
drusen-related atrophy transplantation of full-thickness from vascular endothelial growth factor in
choroidal atrophy, 1175 midperiphery, 2011 pathophysiology
pathology, 1175 vitreomacular traction angiogenesis, 1217, 1218f
pigment epithelial detachment, 1166f, optical coherence tomography, 1981, 1983f isoforms, 1218f
Index

1174–1175 vitrectomy, 1986 overview, 1217–1218, 1217f


drusen-unrelated atrophy, 1174 wet type receptors, 1219–1220
imaging aflibercept therapy, 1241–1242 vascular permeability, 1218–1219
fluorescein angiography, 1175 algorithms for management, 1187f, 1195f vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1175 angiopoietin in pathophysiology, 1221 gene therapy, 1220–1221
optical coherence tomography, 1175–1176, bevacizumab therapy, 1206, 1225–1227 vitreous hemorrhage, 1185
1176f choroidal neovascularization AGEs, see Advanced glycation end products
prognosis, 1176 associated factors, 1197 Aging
indocyanine green angiography, 54–61 early identification, 1207 age-related macular edema and hypoxia, 442f,
inflammation histopathology, 1196–1197, 1197f 443
anti-inflammatory therapy, 557 prevention, 1207 eye changes
genetics, 557 Comparison of Age-Related Macular clinical findings, 1152
microglia role, 556 Degeneration Treatments Trial, 1206–1207, hydraulic conductivity, 1155
overview, 523t, 555, 555f, 1140 1230–1241, 1233t, 1234f, 1235t morphologic changes, 1152–1155
pathways, 556–557 differential diagnosis retinal cell loss, 541–542
macular translocation surgery outcomes choroidal neovascularization, 1197–1198 vitreous degeneration, synchysis
neovascular disease, 2000–2004, 2002t, vitreous hemorrhage, 1198, 1198f morphology, 496, 497f
2003f–2004f disciform scar, 1155f, 1185 pathogenesis, 496
non-neovascular disease, 2004–2005 fellow-eye monitoring, 1207–1208 AHFVP, see Anterior hyaloid fibrovascular
management fibroblast growth factor-2 in pathophysiology, proliferation
Age-Related Eye Disease Study of 1220–1221 AIBSE, see Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement
supplements, 1222–1223, 1222f fluorescein angiography AIDS, see Human immunodeficiency virus
angiostatin therapy, 1245 classic choroidal neovascularization, AIR, see Autoimmune retinopathies
combination therapy, 1249–1250 1186–1187, 1188f, 1193f–1194f Airlie House classification, modified, 971, 972f
complement inhibitor therapy, 1244–1245 disciform scar, 1195–1196 Alcohol consumption
complement modulation therapy, 1223–1224, fading choroidal neovascularization, age-related macular degeneration risk studies,
1224f 1192–1194, 1196f 1137–1138
corticosteroid therapy, 1247 feeder vessels, 1194 diabetic retinopathy studies, 918
endostatin therapy, 1245 loculated fluid, 1195 Aldose reductase, diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis,
extracellular matrix modulator therapy occult choroidal neovascularization, 928
integrin antagonists, 1246 1187–1188, 1189f–1191f, 1193f Alkylphosphocholines (APCs), proliferative
matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, 1243f, overview, 1185–1186 vitreoretinopathy management, 2096
1246 retinal lesion anastomosis, 1194 Amacrine cell
pigment epithelial-derived factor therapy, 1245 retinal pigment epithelial detachment, AII cell, 381–382, 382f
rapamycin therapy, 1247–1248 1190–1192, 1192f classification, 364–392, 364t
signaling blocker therapy retinal pigment epithelial tear, 1195 dopaminergic cells, 382f, 384–385
platelet-derived growth factor, 1243–1244 speckled hyperfluorescence, 1192, 1195f functional overview, 380–386
protein kinase C, 1244 terminology, 1190 gap junctions, 378, 379f
tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, 1244 fundus photography, 1183f–1184f histogenesis, 333–335, 334f
squalamine therapy, 1247 indocyanine green angiography, 1208–1209 morphology, 380f
visual cycle inhibitor therapy, 1223 KH902 therapy, 1242 ON cone bipolar cell coupling, 379f
mitochondial DNA laser photocoagulation therapy S1 cell, 382–384, 382f–384f
damage, 640 complications, 1201–1202 S2 cell, 382–384, 382f–383f
haplogroups, 638 follow-up evaluation, 1201 starburst cholinergic cells, 361–362, 385–386, 386f
neuroprotection, 546–547 Macular Photocoagulation Study, 1200–1201 Amaurosis fugax, ocular ischemic syndrome, 1092
omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, 523–524 patient preparation, 1199–1201 Amblyopia, regressed retinopathy of prematurity,
optical coherence tomography well-defined lesions, 1199–1202 1109–1111
dry type, 90–94, 90f–91f matrix metalloproteinases in pathophysiology, AMD, see Age-related macular degeneration
geographic atrophy, 92, 93f 1221 Aminoglycosides, infectious endophthalmitis
wet type, 94, 94f, 98f natural history management, 2028–2029
oxidative stress, 517–518, 518t, 522t extrafoveal and juxtafoveal choroidal AMN, see Acute macular neuroretinopathy
perimetry, 317–318, 318f–319f neovascularization, 1198–1199, 1200f Amniotic fluid embolism, features, 1574
photocoagulation therapy, 756 retinal pigment epithelial tear, 1199 A-mode ultrasound, see Ultrasonography
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy differential subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, 1199 AMPPE, see Acute multifocal placoid pigment
diagnosis, 1288 subretinal hemorrhage, 1199 epitheliopathy
quality of life, 1135 patient education and rehabilitation, 1209–1210 Amsler grid, visual field testing, 309, 309f, 317f
retinal cell loss, 543–544, 543f pegaptanib therapy, 1203, 1243 Anesthesia
retinal detachment, 1630–1631, 1630f photodynamic therapy choroidal melanoma exoresection, 2302
serous retinal detachment, 621 follow-up evaluation, 1203 intraocular gas exchange considerations, 1740
severity grading, 1160–1161 overview, 1202–1203 pneumatic retinopexy, 1723
stem cell therapy prospects, 2015–2016 patient preparation, 1202–1203 proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery, 1811
structural changes sensitizer structures and pharmacology, scleral buckle surgery, 1672
Bruch’s membrane, 1145–1146, 1154–1155, 1247f, 1248 Aneurysm, fluorescein angiography, 33f
1155f, 1160 verteporfin, 1248–1249 Angiogenesis, see also Neovascularization;
choroid, 1145, 1155, 1160 pigment epithelial-derived factor in specific diseases
outer retina, 1148 pathophysiology, 1217, 1220–1221 forms in disease, 563f
photoreceptors, 1154, 1159 platelet-derived growth factor in hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, 562, 564f
retinal pigment epithelium, 1146–1148, 1152, pathophysiology, 1220–1221 metastatic cascade, 2184–2185
1153f, 1154, 1159 radiation therapy, 1209 regulation
surgical management ranibizumab therapy advanced glycation end products, 572
cleavage plane between sclera and choroid, efficacy, 1227–1230, 1228f–1229f, 1231t–1233t angiopoietins, 571
2012 follow-up, 1204f, 1207 angiostatin, 572
dry disease, 2015 minimally classic lesion efficacy, 1205 endostatin, 572
exudative disease outcomes, 2013–2014, photodynamic therapy comparison, fibroblast growth factor-2, 570–571
2013f–2014f 1204–1205 insulin-like growth factor-I, 570
flapover approach, 2013, 2013f safety, 1205–1206 matrix metalloproteinases, 571–572
graft positioning under fovea, 2013 retinal pigment epithelial detachment, 1184f, pigment epithelium-derived factor, 571
instruments, 2013 1209 transforming growth factor-β, 572
keyhole approach, 2011–2012, 2012f retinal pigment epithelial tear, 1185, 1185f vascular endothelial growth factor, 569–570
Angiography, see Fluorescein angiography; Arteriovenous malformation, fluorescein Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB),
Indocyanine green angiography angiography, 35f BEST1 mutations, 863–864
Angioid streak Artificial Silicon Retina (ASR), 2089 Autosomal recessive inheritance, 624f, 625
Bruch’s membrane, 477 Artificial vision Autosomal recessive inherited vitreoretinal i3
clinical course, 1268 clinical trials, 2089–2091, 2090f dystrophy, 848
histopathology, 1267 cortical prosthesis, 2079–2080 A-wave, electroretinogram
imaging electrotherapeutics, 2089 photoreceptor photocurrent, 184–185, 185f
fluorescein angiography, 1268, 1270f historical perspective, 2078–2079 post-receptor contributions, 185–187, 186f–187f
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1268 nanomedicine, 706 time course of photoreceptor response, 187–188,

Index
indocyanine green angiography, 1268 needs, 2078 188f–189f
optical coherence tomography, 1269, 1271f optic nerve prosthesis, 2080 Azathioprine, sarcoidosis management, 1402
sickle cell disease, 1074 optogenetics, 2089 AZOOR, see Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy
systemic conditions, 1267–1268, 1268b retinal prosthesis
treatment epiretinal prosthesis B
laser photocoagulation, 1269 advantages, 2081 Bacillus, infectious endophthalmitis, 2020
macular translocation, 1270 Argus I System, 2081, 2090f Bacterial endophthalmitis, see Endogenous
photodynamic therapy, 1270 Argus II System, 2081–2083, 2082f endophthalmitis; specific pathogens
transpupillary thermotherapy, 1270 fundus photography, 2083f Balloon cell
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors MESE 12 system for surgery, 2082, 2082f choroidal nevi, 2222, 2222f
bevacizumab, 1271–1272 Microfluidic Retinal Prosthesis, 2088 melanoma pathology, 2262, 2262f
combination therapy, 1272 pathological considerations, 2080–2086 Bardet–Biedl syndrome
ranibizumab, 1272 subretinal prosthesis, 2083–2086, 2084f–2086f BBSome, 810
Angiopoietin suprachoroidal transretinal stimulation, 2086, gene mutations, 790t–794t
age-related macular degeneration 2087f–2088f retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis,
gene therapy, 1245 retinitis pigmentosa artificial retina, 821–822 795–796
wet type pathophysiology, 1221 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Basal laminar deposit (BLD), age-related macular
angiogenesis Aspergillosis, ocular infection in AIDS, 1462 degeneration
inhibition, 1221–1222 Aspergillus, infectious endophthalmitis, 2022–2023 Bruch’s membrane lesion, 475–476
regulation, 571 Aspirin, central serous chorioretinopathy early disease, 1156–1158
Angiostatin management, 1303 late disease, 1159, 1159f
angiogenesis regulation, 572 ASR, see Artificial Silicon Retina Batten disease, see Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis
gene therapy, 662 Asteroid hyalosis, ultrasonography, 232–233, BBG, see Brilliant Blue G
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 234f BCNU, see Carmustine
intermediate uveitis evaluation, 1407 Astigmatism BCR, see Birdshot chorioretinopathy
sarcoidosis levels, 1392–1393 regressed retinopathy of prematurity, 1118 BDUMP, see Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic
Ankylosing spondylitis scleral buckle induction, 1657–1658 proliferation
epidemiology, 1418–1419 Astrocytoma, ciliary body, 2353 Bear track pigmentation, see Grouped pigmentation
ocular disease features, 1419 Ataxia telangiectasia, 2181 of retina
systemic disease, 1419 ATF6, unfolded protein response signaling, 531 Behçet’s disease, retinal autoimmunity, 586–587
treatment Atg proteins, autophagy, 538–541 BEST1
ocular disease, 1419 Atlas, retina, 163–165, 166f–167f autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy
systemic disease, 1419 Autofluorescence mutations, 864
Anomaloscope color matching test fluorescein angiography and hyperfluorescence, autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy mutations,
Moreland equation, 296–297, 296f 27–29, 29f 863–864
precautions, 297 imaging, see Fundus autofluorescence imaging Best macular dystrophy mutations, 855–864
Rayleigh equation, 294–296, 296f near-infrared autofluorescence, 111 Best macular dystrophy (BMD)
Anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, Autoimmune retinopathies (AIR), see also Retinal clinical features, 855–861
see Posterior vitreous detachment autoimmunity; specific diseases electroretinogram, 861–862
Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation autoantigens, 1381t fluorescein angiography, 859–861, 862f
(ACAID), immune privilege mechanisms, 583 clinical features, 1382–1385 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 859–861
Anterior hyaloid fibrovascular proliferation diagnosis, 1385–1386, 1385f, 1385t fundus photography, 856f–861f, 863f
(AHFVP), proliferative diabetic retinopathy differential diagnosis, 1386 gene mutations, 855–864
surgery complication, 1893–1894, 1893f electroretinogram, 1383f–1384f histopathology, 862–863, 862f
Antibiotics, see Infectious endophthalmitis; epidemiology, 1381–1382 optical coherence tomography, 859
specific antibiotics fundus photography, 1383f pathophysiology, 862–863
APCs, see Alkylphosphocholines mechanisms, 1381–1382 refractive error, 856
APE, see Autologous plasmin enzyme overview, 1381 treatment, 864
Aphakia perimetry, 1383f–1384f visual function, 856
pneumatic retinopexy considerations, 1723 prognosis, 1386–1387 Beta-blockers, central serous chorioretinopathy
retinal detachment treatment, 1386–1387 management, 1303
asymptomatic nonfellow eye Autoimmunity, see Retinal autoimmunity; Bevacizumab
giant retinal tears, 1801 specific diseases age-related macular degeneration, wet type
retinal break, 1801 Autologous plasmin enzyme (APE), retinopathy of management, 1206, 1225–1227
retinal break precursors, 1800 prematurity management, 1929 angioid streak management, 1271–1272
fellow eye Autophagy branch retinal vein occlusion management,
giant retinal tears, 1800 cross-talk between cell death pathways, 1036
retinal break, 1799–1800 538 histoplasmosis management, 1280–1281
retinal break precursors, 1797–1799, 1798f, diabetic retinopathy role, 542–543 ranibizumab comparison, 1225f
1798t overview, 537–538 retinal vein occlusion management,
nonfellow eye with high-risk factors, 1797 pathways, 538–541, 539f–540f 1045
APMPPE, see Acute posterior multifocal placoid therapeutic targeting, 547 Bietti’s cystalline dystrophy, choroidal disease
pigment epitheliopathy Autosomal dominant inheritance, 625 differential diagnosis, 896
Apolipoprotein B, MTP deficiency and angioid Autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation
streaks, 477 vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV), 848–849 (BDUMP)
Apoptosis Autosomal dominant radial drusen (ADRD) choroidal nevi, 2220–2221
cross-talk between cell death pathways, 538 clinical features, 881–882 fundus photography, 2202f
endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, 532 EFEMP1 mutations, 882–883 malignancies, 2203t
light damage induction, 545 electroretinogram, 882 overview, 2201–2202
neuroprotection, 546 fundus photography, 882f–883f Binding protein/glucose-regulated protein 78 (Bip/
overview, 537, 538f histopathology, 882–883, 883f GRP0078), unfolded protein response signaling,
retinitis pigmentosa, 544–545 optical coherence tomography, 882 529, 532f
ARB, see Autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy pathophysiology, 882–883 Biopsy, see Choroidal biopsy; Fine-needle aspiration
Argus I System, artificial vision, 2081, 2090f treatment, 883 biopsy; Retinal biopsy; Vitreous biopsy
Argus II System, artificial vision, 2081–2083, 2082f visual function, 882 Bip/GRP0078, see Binding protein/glucose-regulated
ARMS2, age-related macular degeneration Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy protein 78
polymorphisms, 522 (ADVIRC) BEST1 mutations, 864 Bipolar cell, optic nerve b-wave generation
ARN, see Acute retinal necrosis differential diagnosis, 842 cone-driven b-wave, 191, 191f
Arrestin, rhodopsin quenching, 347–349 overview, 848 scototopic b-wave, 190–191, 190f
Bipolar cell, retina complications, 1030 B-wave, electroretinogram
blue cone bipolar cell, 376 cystoid macular edema management bipolar cells of optic nerve in generation
classification, 364–392, 364t adventitial sheathectomy, 1985 cone-driven b-wave, 191, 191f
i4 functional overview, 372–373, 373f vitrectomy, 1985 scototopic b-wave, 190–191, 190f
gap junctions, 377–378, 379f diagnostic workup Müller cell hypothesis, 189–190, 189f
histogenesis, 333–335, 334f bilateral or multiple case patients, 1032 origins, 188–191
midget bipolar cell, 374–375 elderly, 1032
OFF cone bipolar cell, 373–374, 374f young patient, 1032 C
ON cone bipolar cell, 374–380, 374f–375f, 379f epidemiology, 1029 Calcium channel blockers, neuroprotection, 725t, 727
Index

rod bipolar cell, 376–377, 376f fluorescein angiography, 41f Cambridge color test (CCT), 297
rod pathways fluorescein angiography, 1031, 1031f Cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR)
primary pathway, 377–380, 377f, 379f hypoxia, 440–441 autoimmune retinopathy, 1381t, 1382
secondary and tertiary pathways, 380 optical coherence tomography, 103–104, 105f, electroretinogram, 2197f–2199f
Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR) 1031–1032, 1032f fundus photography, 2197f–2198f
clinical features, 1337–1338 pathogenesis, 1029 histopathology, 2196f
course and prognosis, 1338 SCORE study, 1597–1598 management, 2200–2201
differential diagnosis, 1341 serous retinal detachment, 622 optical coherence tomography, 2197f–2198f
electro-oculogram, 1340 spectral imaging, 144 overview, 2196–2200
electroretinogram, 1340 treatment Candida albicans
epidemiology, 1337–1338 corticosteroids endogenous endophthalmitis, 1517f
imaging dexamethasone implant, 1035 infectious endophthalmitis, 2022
fluorescein angiography, 1338–1339, 1339f iluven, 1037 ocular infection in AIDS, 1461–1462
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1340 triamcinolone, 1035 Canthaxanthine, crystalline retinopathy, 1548, 1548f
fundus photography, 1151f, 1338 follow-up, 1037 Capillary hemangioblastoma, see Von Hippel–Lindau
indocyanine green angiography, 70, 1339, 1339f laser therapy disease
optical coherence tomography, 1339–1340, macular edema, 1032–1034, 1033f CAR, see Cancer-associated retinopathy
1340f neovascularization, 1034–1035, 1034f Carbon dioxide, siphoning by Müller cell, 422
pathogenesis, 1340–1341 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase
perimetry, 1340 aflibercept, 1036–1037 endoplasmic reticulum stress with CAIV
treatment, 1341 bevacizumab, 1036 mutations, 533
Black sunburst, sickle cell disease retinopathy, 1076, pegaptanib, 1036 macular edema management with inhibitors,
1077f ranibizumab, 1036 597–599, 597f
Blastomyces dermatiditis, infectious endophthalmitis, vitrectomy, 1037 Carboplatin, subTenon carboplatin for
2023 BRAO, see Branch retinal artery occlusion retinoblastoma, 2124–2125, 2125f
Blau syndrome, see Familial juvenile systemic Brilliant Blue G (BBG) β-Carotene, age-related macular degeneration, early
granulomatosis vital dye staining, 1972 disease management, 1178
BLD, see Basal laminar deposit vitreoretinal interface visualization, 2097, 2097t, CCT, see Cambridge color test
Blind spot, see also Acute idiopathic blind spot 2098f CACD, see Central areolar choroidal dystrophy
enlargement BRIP, see Boston Retina Implant Project CAD test, see Color assessment and diagnosis test
finding, 363f Bromocriptine, neuroprotection, 726 cAMP, see Cyclic AMP
overview, 363 Bruch’s membrane CARCD, see Central areolar retinochoidal dystrophy
Bloch–Sulzberger syndrome, see Incontinentia age-related macular degeneration Carmustine (BCNU), retinal toxicity, 1537–1538
pigmenti hydraulic conductivity, 471f Carotid artery, ocular ischemic syndrome
Blood flow imaging, see Doppler imaging lesions carotid endarterectomy in treatment, 1100–1101
Blood oxygenation, see Magnetic resonance imaging; basal laminar deposit, 475–476 imaging in evaluation, 1098, 1100f
Spectral imaging basal linear deposit, 475 Catalase, gene therapy, 525
Blood supply, see Vasculature drusen, 474–475, 475f Cataract
Blood–retina barrier overview, 474–476, 474f age-related macular degeneration risk studies,
cystoid macular edema, 582 subretinal drusenoid debris, 476 1136
diabetic retinopathy and breakdown, 581–582, neovascular disease, 477 epiretinal membrane surgery complication, 1960
927, 940 response-to-retention hypothesis, 476–477 heavy tamponade complication, 1773
macular edema and breakdown, 591, 592f structural changes, 1145–1146, 1154–1155, infection after surgery, 2024–2025
Müller cell regulation, 427 1155f, 1160 intermediate age-related macular degeneration,
retinal detachment anatomy, 618 aging changes, 1154–1155, 1155f 1177
Blue cone bipolar cell, 376 angioid streaks, 477 intraocular gas exchange complication, 1745
Blue cone monochromatism choroidal nevi effects, 2224 macular hole surgery complication, 1975
diagnosis, 901 embryology, 465 management after penetrating injury, 1871–1872
overview, 901 fluorescein angiography, 12, 16, 36f proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery
treatment, 901 functions complication, 1891–1892
BMD, see Best macular dystrophy hydraulic conductivity and aging effects, indication and timing, 1876–1877
BMI, see Body mass index 470–472, 470t, 471f–472f outcomes, 1894
B-mode ultrasound, see Ultrasonography solute permeability, 473 technique, 1883
BMPC, see Bone marrow-derived progenitor cell structural integrity, 470 radiation cataract, 2137
Body mass index (BMI) history of study, 465 retinitis pigmentosa management, 815
age-related macular degeneration risk studies, retinal detachment anatomy, 618 silicone oil complication, 1766–1767
1138 retinal pigment epithelium CATT, see Comparison of Age-Related Macular
diabetic retinopathy studies, 918 synthesis and remodeling, 405–406 Degeneration Treatments Trial
Bone marrow-derived progenitor cell (BMPC) transplantation and aged Bruch’s membrane Cavernous hemangioma
disease-associated dysfunction, 439 graft survival, 2062 cerebro cavernous malformation association,
hypoxia response, 439 native retinal pigment epithelium 2153–2154, 2153f
Borrelia burgdorferi, see Lyme disease resurfacing, 2062 clinical findings, 2150f–2152f
Boston Retina Implant Project (BRIP), 2085 structure differential diagnosis, 2150–2151
Brachytherapy, see Radiation therapy aged eye fluorescein angiography, 2151, 2152f
Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) membrane lipoproteins, 467–469, genetics, 2154
clinical features, 1019–1020, 1019f–1021f 469f natural history, 2151
combined retinal vein occlusion, 1021–1022, miscellaneous changes, 469 pathology, 2152–2153
1021f–1022f chorocapillaris basal lamina, 467, 467f treatment, 2151–2152
fluorescein angiography, 6f, 24f components, 466t CCM, see Cerebro cavernous malformation
optical coherence tomography, 105–106, 106f elastic layer, 465, 466f CD44, retinal detachment response, 613
pregnancy, 1573 inner collagenous membrane, 465 CDI, see Color Doppler imaging
systemic lupus erythematosus, 1426f outer collagenous layer, 467 Cell cycle, retinoblastoma protein regulation,
Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) retinal pigment epithelium basal lamina, 465, 2108–2109, 2108f
Branch Vein Occlusion Study, 1597 466f Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP),
clinical features thick basal laminar deposit, 477 retinitis pigmentosa defects, 805
acute, 1030f BRVO, see Branch retinal vein occlusion Central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD), clinical
chronic, 1030f Burkitt lymphoma, see Lymphoma features, 891f
signs, 1029–1030 Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy, clinical Central areolar retinochoidal dystrophy (CARCD),
symptoms, 1029 features, 876–877 clinical features, 878–879, 878f
Central retinal artery, fluorescein angiography, signs and symptoms, 1292 peripheral exudative hemorrhagic
14–15 treatment chorioretinopathy, 68, 73f–75f
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) acetazolamide, 1303 varix of the vortex vein ampulla, 70, 76f
ancillary studies, 1014–1016, 1015f aspirin, 1303 myopic macular degeneration histopathology, i5
clinical features, 1012–1014, 1013f–1014f beta-blockers, 1303 1258–1259
combined retinal vein occlusion, 1021–1022, bullous disease management, 1303 nevus, see Choroidal nevi
1021f–1022f corticosteroid inhibitors, 1302 perfusion in age-related macular degeneration
epidemiology, 1012 finasteride, 1303 functional effects, 1173–1174
evaluation, 1017–1018 laser photocoagulation, 1302 overview, 1172–1174

Index
optical coherence tomography, 104–105, 105f observation, 1300–1301 pathology, 1173
pregnancy, 1573 photodynamic therapy with verteporfin prognostic value, 1174
systemic abnormalities, 1016–1017, 1017b, 1017f conventional dose, 1301 tumors, see specific tumors
treatment, 1018–1019 safety-enhanced dosing and laser fluence ultrasonography
Central retinal vein, fluorescein angiography, 14–15 reduction, 1301–1302 choroidal fold differential diagnosis, 281t
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) transpupillary thermotherapy, 1302 choroidal neovascularization, 258, 263f
Central Vein Occlusion Study, 1597 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, hemangioma, 275, 276f–277f
clinical features, 1039–1040 1302 hypotony changes, 258, 260f–262f
combined retinal artery occlusion, 1021–1022, Cephalosporins, infectious endophthalmitis melanoma
1021f–1022f management, 2028 A-mode, 263–267, 269f–270f
cystoid macular edema management Cerebro cavernous malformation (CCM), retinal B-mode, 263, 264f–268f
internal limiting membrane peeling, cavernous hemangiom association, 2153–2154, overview, 258–273
1984–1985 2153f treatment planning, 271–273, 271f–273f
vitrectomy, 1984 CFH, see Complement factor H metastatic tumors, 274, 274f–275f
epidemiology, 1039 CH, see Choroidal hemangioma osteoma, 275, 277f–278f
fluorescein angiography, 1041f ChC-BL, see Choriocapillaris basal lamina tuberculoma, 275, 278f–279f
fundus photography, 1039f–1041f Chemotherapy, see Retinoblastoma; specific drugs uveal effusion syndrome, 279, 280f
hypoxia, 440–441 Chloroquine, complications in rheumatoid disease Choroidal biopsy
neovascularization, 568 management, 1436 case example, 2055b, 2055f
ophthalmoscopic examination, 1042–1043 Chloroquine retinopathy histology, 2055
optical coherence tomography, 103–104, 104f clinical features, 1533–1536, 1534f indications, 2048t
oral contraceptive induction, 1539, 1540f fundus autofluorescence imaging, 129, 131f outcomes, 2055
pathogenesis, 1041–1042 perimetry, 320, 322f transscleral approach, 2054–2055, 2055f
perfusion status, 1040–1041 retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, transvitreal approach, 2042
perimetry, 307, 308f, 316–317 799 tumors, 2357
pregnancy, 1573 Chlorpromazine retinopathy uveitis, 2041–2042
retinal detachment, 1626f, 1627–1628 clinical features, 1533, 1534f Choroidal hemangioma (CH), circumscribed
risk factors and associations, 1042, 1042b retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, clinical features, 2340–2343, 2340f–2342f
SCORE study, 1597–1598 799 differential diagnosis, 2343
spectral imaging, 144 Chlorthalidone, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543, fluorescein angiography, 2340f, 2342f, 2343
treatment 1546f fundus autofluorescence imaging, 2344
chorioretinal venous anastomosis, 1046 Chondroitin sulfate, vitreous, 482–483 indocyanine green angiography, 2341f, 2343
follow-up, 1047 Choriocapillaris magnetic resonance imaging, 2343–2344
macular edema fluorescein angiography, 12 optical coherence tomography, 2341f, 2344
corticosteroids, 1043–1044, 1043f indocyanine green angiography, 55f–56f overview, 2340
observation, 1043 retinal detachment anatomy, 618 pathology, 2344–2345, 2344f–2345f
vascular endothelial growth factor Choriocapillaris basal lamina (ChC-BL), Bruch’s retinal detachment, 1631–1635, 1632f
inhibition, 1044–1045 membrane, 467, 467f treatment
neovascularization Chorioretinal atrophy, myopic macular laser photocoagulation, 2349
laser therapy, 1045 degeneration, 1262, 1262f photodynamic therapy, 2342f, 2345–2348, 2346t
medical therapy, 1045 Chorioretinal rupture, trauma, 1566 radiation therapy
radial optic neurotomy, 1047 Chorioretinal venous anastomosis (CRA), central brachytherapy, 2348
systemic treatment, 1045–1046 retinal vein occlusion management, 1046 external beam radiation therapy, 2348
tissue plasminogen activator, 1046 Chorista, definition, 2170 Gamma Knife, 2349
vitrectomy, 1046–1047 Choristoma, definition, 2170 proton beam therapy, 2348–2349
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) Choroid transpupillary thermotherapy, 2349
demographics, 1292 age-related macular degeneration changes, 1145, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors,
differential diagnosis 1155, 1160 2349
age-related macular degeneration, 1298 aging changes, 1155 ultrasonography, 2342f, 2343
autoimmune disease, 1300 atrophy, see Central areolar choroidal dystrophy; Choroidal melanoma, see also Uveal melanoma
inflammatory and infectious disease, 1300 Diffuse choroidal dystrophy; Gyrate atrophy; brachytherapy
optical disc pit, 1298 Peripapillary choroidal dystrophy adjuvant therapy, 2286
overview, 1298, 1300t fluorescein angiography dosimetry, 2275
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 1288–1289, blocked choroidal fluorescence isotope selection, 2275–2277, 2276f–2277f, 2276t
1298–1300 causes, 19–26, 19f, 21f juxtapapillary tumors, 2279–2280
tumors, 1300 deep retinal material, 19–20 large tumors, 2279
electroretinogram, 206f, 1294–1295 nevus, 21, 23f, 27f local tumor response, 2283
fluorescein angiography, 1292–1293, 1293f–1294f, subretinal material, 20–21, 21f–22f medium tumors, 2277–2278, 2278f
1296f vascular filling defects, 21–23, 25, 28f plaque design, 2277, 2277f
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 129, 131f, 1294 hyperfluorescence plaque placement, 2280–2283, 2281f
fundus photography, 1292f leak, 42–49, 44f–46f postoperative observations, 2283
history of study, 1291 vascular abnormalities, 31, 36f, 38f recurrence, 2283–2284
indocyanine green angiography, 64, 69f–70f, 1293, indocyanine green angiography small tumors, 2278–2279
1296f inflammation visual outcomes, 2284–2286
microperimetry, 1295 acute multifocal placoid pigment choroidal nevi origins, 2223
natural history, 1295–1297 epitheliopathy, 77 Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study,
optical coherence tomography, 98–101, 100f–101f, acute zonal acute outer retinopathy, 77–79, see Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study
1293–1294, 1296f–1298f 78f–79f endoresection
pathogenesis, 1291–1292 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 70 indications, 2304
perimetry, 317, 317f multifocal choroiditis, 70 outcomes, 2304–2305, 2304f
pregnancy, 1572–1573 punctate inner chorioretinopathy, 77 technique, 2304
retinal detachment serpiniginous choroidopathy, 77, 77f enucleation
bullous retinal detachment, 1622–1624, 1623f white-dot syndrome, 70, 76f–77f complications, 2274
chorionic central serous chorioretinopathy, neovascularization extrascleral extension, 2273–2274
1624, 1624f type 1, 4–6, 60f implants
serous retinal detachment, 620–621 type 2, 57, 61f sizing, 2272
risk factors, 1291–1292 tumors types, 2271–2272
serous detachment pathophysiology, 459–461, hemangioma, 66–68, 71f–72f indications, 2271
460f–461f melanoma, 68, 72f optic nerve invasion, 2273–2274
overview, 2271 histopathology, 1196–1197, 1197f CHRRPE, see Combined hamartomas of the retina
technique, 2272–2274, 2272f–2273f natural history and retinal pigment epithelium
exoresection extrafoveal and juxtafoveal choroidal Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS), see also Vasculitis
i6 anesthesia, 2302 neovascularization, 1198–1199, 1200f epidemiology, 1435
brachytherapy adjunct, 2301 subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, ocular disease features, 1436
ciliary body involvement, 2301–2302 1199 systemic disease, 1436
closure, 2299f–2300f, 2301 prevention, 1207 treatment, 1436
deep scleral incision, 2299f–2300f, 2301 epigenetics, 649 Cidofovir
exposure, 2298, 2299f–2300f gene therapy trials, 661–662 cytomegalovirus retinitis management
Index

extraocular extension, 2302 geographic atrophy association, 1154 intravitreal, 1453–1454, 1453f
indications, 2298 histoplasmosis differential diagnosis, 1274–1277 systemic, 1449–1450
lamellar scleral dissection, 2299f–2300f, hypotonic maculopathy differential diagnosis, uveitis induction, 1549
2300–2301 1315 CIE system, 289, 290f
ocular decompression, 2299f–2300f, 2301 imaging, see Choroid Ciliary arteries
outcomes myopic macular degeneration fluorescein angiography, 12, 14
local tumor control, 2302–2303, 2303f clinical features, 1262–1263, 1263f indocyanine green angiography, 57f
metastatic mortality, 2304 natural course and treatment, 1263–1264, 1264f surgical anatomy, 1669–1670, 1670f
retinal detachment, 2303 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery for membranes, Ciliary body tumors, see also specific tumors
visual acuity, 2302 1943 adenocarcinoma, 2353
postoperative management, 2302 photodynamic therapy, 750–751, 751f adenoma, 2353
preoperative evaluation, 2298 surgical management astrocytoma, 2353
preparation, 2298 historical perspective, 1991 biopsy, 2357
retinal adhesion, 2302 indications, 1991–1992 glioneuroma, 2353
tumor excision, 2299f–2300f, 2301 Submacular Surgery Trials, 1991 medulloepithelioma, 2351–2353, 2351t–2352t,
genetic defects subretinal hemorrhage, see Subretinal 2352f
chromosomal abnormalities, 2248 hemorrhage melanoma, see Uveal melanoma
gene expression profiling, 2248–2250 ultrasonography, 258, 263f pseudoadenomatous hyperplasia, 2353
genetic testing Choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) senile hyperplasia, 2353
clinical trials, 2251–2252 choroidal nevi, 2226, 2228–2229 Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)
indications, 2251f choroidal osteoma, 2332, 2333t delivery in therapy, 720–730
prognostic value, 2249–2250, 2252 Choroidal nevi encapsulated cell therapy, 662, 719f
techniques, 2250–2251 choroidal melanoma origins, 2223 encapsulation cell technology implant, 741
tissue procurement, 2250–2251 classification, 2223–2224 glaucoma neuroprotection, 717
GNA11, 2247–2248, 2249f clinical findings neuroprotection mechanisms, 718
GNAQ, 2247–2248, 2249f imaging, 2224, 2225f–2227f, 2226–2228 photoreceptor degeneration clinical trial, 718–720,
retinal detachment, 1632–1633 secondary changes, 2224–2226 719f–720f
secondary local resection after radiation therapy visual acuity, 2224 receptor modulation, 730
toxic tumor syndrome, 2305, 2305f–2306f differential diagnosis, 2226 retinitis pigmentosa neuroprotection, 718
transpupillary thermotherapy dysplastic nevus syndrome, 2220 stem cell delivery, 673
outcomes giant choroidal nevus Ciliochoroidal effusion, see Uveal effusion syndrome
ancillary treatment, 2309–2310, 2309f–2310f definition, 2219 Cilioretinal artery, fluorescein angiography, 14
primary treatment, 2308–2309, 2308f–2309f prevalence, 2220 Cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO)
technique, 2307–2308, 2308f halo nevus clinical features, 1020–1021
ultrasonography definition, 2219 combined retinal vein occlusion, 1021–1022,
A-mode, 263–267, 269f–270f prevalence, 2219 1021f–1022f
B-mode, 263, 264f–268f histopathology Cilium, photoreceptor, 352–353
overview, 258–273 cytology, 2221–2222, 2222f Circadian rhythm, ganglion cell in control, 391, 391f
treatment planning, 271–273, 271f–273f neighboring tissue changes, 2222–2223 Circumscribed choroidal hemangioma, see Choroidal
Choroidal metastases management, 2228–2229 hemangioma, circumscribed
clinical findings, 2324, 2324f melanocytoma Cisplatin, retinal toxicity, 1537–1538
differential diagnosis, 2324–2325 definition, 2219 Clear cell, differentiation of uveal melanoma, 2262,
fine-needle aspiration biopsy, 2326 prevalence, 2220 2262f
fluorescein angiography, 2325, 2325f natural history, 2228 Clofazimine retinopathy, clinical features, 1537,
fundus photography, 2324f, 2325 nevus 1537f
optical coherence tomography, 2326 definition, 2219 Clostridium, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021
primary tumor sites, 2324 prevalence, 2219–2220 CLRAO, see Cilioretinal artery occlusion
prognosis, 2328, 2328f ocular melanocytosis CME, see Cystoid macular edema
radiation therapy definition, 2219, 2220f CMV retinitis, see Cytomegalovirus retinitis
brachytherapy, 2327 prevalence, 2220 CNTF, see Ciliary neurotrophic factor
complications, 2327–2328 systemic associations CNV, see Choroidal neovascularization
external beam radiation therapy, 2326, 2327f bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic Coagulopathies
Gamma Knife, 2327, 2327f proliferation, 2220–2221 disseminated intravascular coagulation, 1104,
proton beam irradiation, 2327 halo nevi, 2221 1104b
systemic evaluation, 2326 overview, 2220 HELLP syndrome, 1105
ultrasonography, 2325–2326 Choroidal osteoma idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, 1104–1105,
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), see also specific choroidal neovascular membrane, 2332, 2333t 1106f
diseases clinical features, 2331–2332, 2333t ophthalmic involvement, 1105–1106
age-related macular degeneration choroidal computed tomography, 2336, 2336f thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, 1104–1105
neovascularization definition, 2330–2331 Coats disease
Bruch’s membrane disruption, 564–566 differential diagnosis, 2332–2334 blood testing, 1063
complement dysregulation, 566 fluorescein angiography, 2333f, 2335–2336 clinical presentation, 1059–1061, 1060f
drusen, 564 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 2336 computed tomography, 1063
environmental factors, 569 fundus photography, 2330f differential diagnosis, 1064–1065, 1066t
genetics, 568 incidence, 2330–2331, 2331f–2332f Doppler ultrasonography, 1063
inflammatory response, 566 indocyanine green angiography, 2336 fluorescein angiography, 1061f, 1063, 1064f–1065f
membrane formation, 566 magnetic resonance imaging, 2336 fundus photography, 1062f–1065f
stages, 565f management, 2337, 2337f history of study, 1058
age-related macular degeneration, wet type optical coherence tomography, 2334f–2335f, 2336 magnetic resonance imaging, 1063
associated factors, 1197 overview, 2330 overview, 1123–1124
differential diagnosis, 1197–1198 pathology and pathogenesis, 2334–2335 pathogenesis, 1058–1059
early identification, 1207 phosphorous-32 uptake, 2336 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1943–1944, 1944f
fluorescein angiography prognosis, 2337 retinal detachment, 1625–1628, 1625f–1626f
classic choroidal neovascularization, roentgenography, 2336 staging, 1060t
1186–1187, 1188f, 1193f–1194f ultrasonography, 275, 277f–278f, 2336 toxocariasis differential diagnosis, 1505
fading choroidal neovascularization, Choroidal rupture, trauma, 1565, 1565f treatment
1192–1194, 1196f Choroideremia, clinical features, 893–895, 894f cryotherapy, 1065–1066, 1067f
occult choroidal neovascularization, CHRPE, see Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal laser therapy, 1065–1066, 1067f
1187–1188, 1189f–1191f, 1193f pigment epithelium outcomes, 1067–1068, 1068f
surgery, 1066–1067 Comgenital X-linked retinoschisis, see X-linked electroretinogram, 211–214, 213f–214f
triamcinolone, 1066 retinoschisis overview, 902–905
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, Commotio retinae pathophysiology, 393–394
1066 overview, 1564, 1564f treatment, 905 i7
ultrasonography of retinal detachment, 251, 254f surgical management, 1856–1857 Conjunctiva, proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Coccidioidomycosis, ocular infection in AIDS, 1462 Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration surgery complications, 1892
Colchicine, proliferative vitreoretinopathy Treatments Trial (CATT), 1206–1207, 1230–1241, Conjunctival peritomy, scleral buckle surgery, 1672,
prevention, 1777, 1778t 1233t, 1234f, 1235t, 1605 1673f
Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS), Complement factor H (CFH) Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF),

Index
1610–1611 age-related macular degeneration management, proliferative vitreoretinopathy
brachytherapy findings 1223–1224 pathophysiology, 1643
complications, 2318–2319 deficiency wound healing, 1650–1651, 1650f
participants, 2318 choroidal neovascularization, 566 Contact lens, laser therapy use, 749–750, 749t
quality of life, 2319–2320 inflammation, 557 Contrast sensitivity tests
survival, 2318, 2319f–2320f oxidative stress, 523 applications, 303
chronology, 2318 Compression, see Retinal image analysis clinical versus statistical significance, 305
design Computed tomography (CT) computer tests, 305
observational study, 2317 choroidal osteoma, 2336, 2336f design, 305
overview, 2316–2318 Coats disease, 1063 gratings versus optotypes, 303–305
radiation therapy trials, 2316–2317 intraocular foreign body, 1858–1859 types, 303, 304f–305f
histopathologic findings, 2322 retinoblastoma, 2120–2122 Cornea
radiation therapy before enucleation findings sarcoidosis, 1392 decompensation in intraocular gas exchange, 1746
complications, 2320 tuberous sclerosis complex, 2165f heavy tamponade toxicity, 1772–1773
participants, 2320 uveal melanoma patients, 2313 infection after transplantation, 2025
survival, 2320, 2321f COMS, see Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study laceration repair, 1860–1861, 1861f
rationale, 2316 Cone, see also Color vision; Photoreceptor pediatric vitreoretinal surgery and
small choroidal melanoma, 2320–2322 abundance in human eye, 342, 365 keratoprosthesis, 1935–1936, 1936t
tumor size classification, 2317t chromaticity space, 290 proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery
Collagen, vitreous, 482, 482f coupling, 366–368 complications, 1891–1892
Coloboma differentiation, 338–339, 338f regressed retinopathy of prematurity changes,
pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1950 disorders 1118
ultrasonography of optic nerve, 255, 259f achromatopsia, 899–901, 900f Corticosteroids, see also specific corticosteroids
Color assessment and diagnosis (CAD) test, 297 monochromatism, 901 age-related macular degeneration management,
Color Doppler imaging (CDI), principles, 139–140 progressive dystrophies, 901–902 1247
Color matching distribution, 365f branch retinal vein occlusion management
CIE system, 289, 290f dynamic range, 285t dexamethasone implant, 1035
clinical testing, see Color vision electroretinogram iluven, 1037
cone chromaticity space, 290 a-wave, 184–185, 185f, 187–188, 188f–189f triamcinolone, 1035
experimental techniques, 289 bright flash mixed rod–cone electroretinogram central retinal vein occlusion management,
trichromacy theory, 289 diagnostic value of negative 1043–1044, 1043f
Color vision, see also Cone electroretinogram, 207–208, 209f central serous chorioretinopathy management
adaptive optics imaging studies, 298 extinct electroretinogram, 208 with inhibitors, 1302
appearance, 291, 291f normal findings, 203, 204f complications in rheumatoid disease
cone–rod interactions in color vision, 298 oscillatory potential abnormalities, 204, 205f management, 1436
discrimination prognostic value of negative Eales disease management, 1482
chromacity, 291 electroretinogram, 205–207, 206f–207f intermediate uveitis management
purity, 290–291 subnormal findings, 204–205, 205f bilateral disease, 1411–1412, 1411f
wavelength, 290 b-wave, 191, 191f unilateral disease, 1409–1411, 1410f
disorders dysfunction, 208–211, 209f–210f macular edema management, 598–599
classification, 292 extracellular potential generation, 178f proliferative vitreoretinopathy prevention, 1775
gene therapy, 298, 392 S-cone electroretinogram, 222, 223f retinal toxicity, 1537, 1538f
photopigment genes, 292 functional overview, 365–366 wound healing effects, 1652–1653
ganglion cell role, 391–392 histogenesis, 333–335, 334f Corynebacterium diphtheriae, infectious
opponency, 291f imaging with adaptive optics, 137–138, 137f endophthalmitis, 2020–2021
retinitis pigmentosa defects, 764 light adaptation, 286, 286f Cotton-wool spots
testing, see also Color matching Müller cells in photopigment recycling, 418 clinical features, 1022–1023
anomaloscope color matching test neural pathways etiology, 1023b
Moreland equation, 296–297, 296f retinal pathways, 287 fundus photography, 1022f
precautions, 297 reticulogeniculate pathways, 287–288, 288f histopathology, 1022f
Rayleigh equation, 294–296, 296f pedicule, 366, 367f–369f human immunodeficiency virus findings, 1443f
chromatic discrimination ability tests, 293, photopigment genes, 292 leukemia, 2363f
294f–295f rod interactions in color vision, 298 Purtscher’s retinopathy, 1568, 1568f
computerized tests spatial resolution, 287 C-peptide, diabetic retinopathy levels, 915
Cambridge color test, 297 spectral sensitivity, 286–287, 287f CRA, see Chorioretinal venous anastomosis
color assessment and diagnosis test, 297 Cone–rod dystrophy (CRD) CRALBP, see Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein
portal color sort test, 297 gene mutations, 790t–794t CRAO, see Central retinal artery occlusion
smart phone/tablet applications, 297 retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 789 CRD, see Cone–rod dystrophy
illumination sources, 293 Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment CRVO, see Central retinal vein occlusion
pseudoisochromatic plate tests, 293 epithelium (CHRPE) Cryopexy
selection of test, 297–298 choroidal nevi differential diagnosis, 2226 pneumatic retinopexy, 1724
Combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal classification, 2209, 2209f rhegmatogenous retinal detachment management
pigment epithelium (CHRRPE) clinical findings with pars plana vitrectomy, 1714f, 1715
course, 2216 grouped CHRPE, 2210 Cryotherapy
differential diagnosis, 2216 multiple CHRPE, 2210 Coats disease, 1065–1066, 1067f
epidemiology, 2214 solitary CHRPE, 2209–2210, 2209f retinal detachment prevention
etiology, 2216 combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal advantages and disadvantages, 1801–1802
fluorescein angiography, 2214–2215, 2215f pigment epithelium differential diagnosis, surgical adjunct, 1802
fundus photography, 2214, 2215f, 2217f 2216 retinoblastoma, 2128
histopathology, 2216 differential diagnosis, 2210–2212 retinopathy of prematurity, 1121–1122
history of study, 2214 epidemiology, 2209 Cryptococcus neoformans, ocular infection in AIDS,
optical coherence tomography, 2215–2216, examination, 2211 1462
2217f familial adenomatous polyposis, 2210, 2212, 2212f Crystalline retinopathy, see specific drugs
symptoms, 2214 histopathology, 2210–2211, 2211f CSC, see Central serous chorioretinopathy
systemic associations, 2215 Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) CSNB, see Congenital stationary night blindness
treatment diagnosis CSS, see Churg–Strauss syndrome
photodynamic therapy, 2217 abnormal fundus, see Fundus albipunctatus; CSV-1000, contrast sensitivity testing, 303
surgery, 2217–2218 Oguchi disease CT, see Computed tomography
visual acuity, 2214 normal fundus disease, 902–903, 903f CTGF, see Connective tissue growth factor
CVNV, see Choroidal neovascular membrane ganciclovir combination in resistant disease, hyperglycemia, 942–943
c-wave, electroretinogram, 182–183, 183f 1451 hypertension, 943–944
Cyclic AMP (cAMP), retinal adhesion effects, intraocular, 1452 ophthalmic evaluation, 944
i8 455–456, 456f systemic, 1449–1450 optical coherence tomography, 945–946, 946f
Cyclophosphamide ganciclovir clinical trials
pulse induction regimen, 1432t foscarnet combination in resistant disease, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial,
vasculitis management, see specific diseases 1451 1592–1594
Cysticercosis intraocular, 1452–1453, 1452f Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research
clinical presentation, 1511, 1512f intravenous, 1447–1448, 1448f Network, 1595–1596
Index

overview, 1511–1512 oral, 1448 Diabetic Retinopathy Study, 1589–1590


treatment, 1511–1512 maribavir, 1454 Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy study, 1590
Cystoid macular edema (CME), see also Macular resistance development and management, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study,
edema 1450–1451 1590–1592
anatomy, 1979 tomeglovir, 1455 Krypton Argon Regression of
anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, 500, valganciclovir, 1448–1449, 1451–1452 Neovascularization Study, 1592
502f miscellaneous trials, 1596–1597
blood–retina barrier, 582 D Sorbinil Retinopathy Trial, 1592
clinical signs, 1980 DACE, see Drain air cryotherapy explant United Kingdom Multicentre Controlled Study,
drug induction Dark adaptation 1590
docetaxel, 1541 functions, 288–289, 288f United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study,
epinephrine, 1541 retinitis pigmentosa dark adaptometry, 774f, 789 1594–1595
latanoprost, 1541 Daunorubicin, proliferative vitreoretinopathy C-peptide levels, 915
nicotinic acid, 1541 prevention, 1776–1777 diabetes duration studies
paclitaxel, 1541 DCMD, see Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy epidemiology, 911–912, 912f
etiology, 590, 591t DDI retinopathy, see Dideoxyinosine retinopathy proliferative disease, 978–981, 980f
fluorescein angiography of retinal leak, 40f–41f Deferoxamine retinopathy, clinical features, 1537, diabetes type impact
histology, 590f 1538f overview, 932, 932f–933f
history of study, 1979 Delivery, see Drug delivery; Gene therapy proliferative disease, 942–949, 949t
imaging Dermatomyositis early detection with retinal imaging, 155, 161f
fluorescein angiography, 1980–1981 diagnostic criteria, 1429b electroretinogram, 207f
optical coherence tomography epidemiology, 1429 endoplasmic reticulum stress, 533–534
age-related macular degeneration ocular disease features, 1429 epidemiology
vitreomacular traction, 1981, 1983f systemic disease, 1429 age effects, 911
diabetic macular edema, 1981 treatment alcohol consumption studies, 918
morphological subtypes, 1981t ocular disease, 1430 body mass index studies, 918
vitreomacular traction, 1981, 1982f systemic disease, 1429–1430 comorbidity, 919, 920t
intermediate uveitis association, 1405–1406, 1410f, Development, see Embryology exogenous insulin impact, 915–916
1413 Dexamethasone hypertension control studies, 916–917
optical coherence tomography, 101, 102f branch retinal vein occlusion management with incidence and progression, 909–910, 909t
pathophysiology, 1979–1980 implant, 1035 physical activity impact, 918
surgical management Ozurdex implant, 740–741, 740f pregnancy studies, 919
branch retinal vein occlusion DHA, see Docosahexaenoic acid prevalence, 907f–908f, 908t, 918–919
adventitial sheathectomy, 1985 Diabetes, age-related macular degeneration risk proteinuria association, 917
vitrectomy, 1985 studies, 1139 public health applications of studies, 919–921
central retinal vein occlusion Diabetic macular edema (DME), see also Cystoid race/ethnicity, 910–911
internal limiting membrane peeling, macular edema sex differences, 911
1984–1985 clinical evaluation smoking risks, 917–918
vitrectomy, 1984 retinal pigment epithelium alterations, 953–954, socioeconomic status studies, 918–919
cystotomy for diabetic macular edema, 954f statin impact, 917
1984 retinal thickening epigenetics, 648–649
internal limiting membrane peeling distribution, 940 fluorescein angiography
diabetic macular edema, 1983–1984 magnitude, 950, 950f findings, 33f
rationale, 1982 subretinal fibrosis, 954 technique, 11
technique, 1984 vascular permeability, 950–951, 951f funduscopic lesions of nonproliferative disease,
postoperative macular edema, 1986 visual acuity, 954–955 947–948, 947f–948f
radial optic neuropathy, 1985 vitreomacular traction and epiretinal genetics, 911, 930–931
retinitis pigmentosa, 1987 proliferation, 951–953, 952f–953f glaucoma association, 931, 931f
uveitic macular edema diurnal variation, 955 glycemic control impact
internal limiting membrane peeling, 1986 grading, 949t overview, 912–915, 913t, 914f
vitrectomy, 1985 management proliferative disease, 980–981, 1086
vitrectomy glycemic control, 955 grading, 948–949, 949b, 949t
age-related macular degeneration ocular treatment hypoxia, 440
vitreomacular traction, 1986 corticosteroids, 959–962 image detection algorithms, 166–168, 168t
diabetic macular edema, 1983 laser photocoagulation, 957–958, 958t inflammation, 523t, 553f
rationale, 1981–1982 overview, 957–958 macular edema
technique, 1984 vascular endothelial growth factor association, 909–910
vitreomacular traction syndrome and epiretinal antagonists, 958–959, 960f–961f nonproliferative retinopathy, 101–103, 103f
membrane, 1986 vitrectomy, 962 proliferative retinopathy, 103, 104f
vitreolysis, 1987 natural history, 940 management of nonproliferative disease
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis pregnancy, 1577–1578 antiplatelet therapy, 963
antiretroviral therapy impact, 1457–1458, 1457f telescreening, 1008–1009 fenofibrate, 964
clinical manifestations, 1444–1446, 1444f–1446f Diabetic retinopathy, see also Proliferative diabetic ocular treatment, 962–963
combined inflammatory and rhegmatogenous retinopathy risk factor modification, 955
retinal detachment management, 1906–1908, age at diagnosis, 912 ruboxistaurin, 963–964
1908f animal models, 932–934, 934f sorbinil, 963
complications, 1458 blood–retina barrier breakdown, 581–582, 927, management of proliferative disease
diagnosis, 1444–1446 940–941 laser therapy
immune recovery uveitis, 1457–1458, 1458f capillary changes advanced disease, 990–991
leukemia opportunistic infection, 2365, 2365f acellularity, 926–927 complications, 995–996, 995b
pathogenesis, 1444–1446 basement membrane thickening, 926 direct treatment, 991, 992f
retinal detachment, 1455–1457, 1455f–1456f closure and ischemia, 942 early studies, 982–983
screening for infection, 1416 microaneurysm, 926, 940, 941f number of scatter treatments, 993
treatment cell culture studies, 934–935 outcomes, 994–995, 994t
cidofovir clinical evaluation of nonproliferative disease panretinal photocoagulation, 983–987,
intravitreal, 1453–1454, 1453f diabetes duration, 927–928 983t–986t, 984f, 986f
systemic, 1449–1450 dyslipidemia, 944 pattern scanning delivery systems, 993
fomivirsen, 1454 fluorescein angiography, 945 protocol, 991–993, 991t–992t
foscarnet fundus photography, 944, 945f retreatment indications, 994–995
scatter photocoagulation and macular pathophysiology, 1506–1507 sustained delivery system formulation, 85–87, 735f
edema, 989–990 retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 801, targeted delivery, 736–737
surgery, see Proliferative diabetic 802f Drug toxicity, see specific drugs
retinopathy treatment, 1510, 1510f Drusen, see also Autosomal dominant radial drusen i9
wavelength, 993–994 Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine age-related macular degeneration
pituitary ablation, 982 (DICOM), 157 Bruch’s membrane lesion, 474–475, 475f
timing, 987–989, 988f–989f Digoxin, retinal toxicity, 1549 clinicopathologic classification, 1162
vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists, Diplopia, scleral buckle surgery complication, 1693 grading
996 Disciform scar color, 1160

Index
vitrectomy indications, 984t, 997 age-related macular degeneration, wet type distribution, 1160
vitreolysis, 996–997 fluorescein angiography, 1195–1196 fundus involvement extent, 1160
mortality, 919 overview, 1155f, 1185 size, 1160
myopia protection, 931–932 optical coherence tomography, 96, 97f symmetry, 1160
natural course Disothiazide, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543 systems, 1151, 1151f
nonproliferative disease, 940 Dispase, vitreolysis, 2095 type, 1160
proliferative disease Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) granular soft drusen, 1164–1165, 1166f
involutional disease, 978 ophthalmic involvement, 1105–1106 histochemistry, 1171–1172
retinal distortion and tractional detachment, overview, 1104, 1104b imaging
977–978, 977f pregnancy, 1573 fluorescence, 1161
vessel development and proliferation, retinal detachment, 1637 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1161
972–974, 973f–975f DME, see Diabetic macular edema optical coherence tomography, 1161
vitreous contraction and fibrovascular DNA methylation, see Epigenetics optical coherence tomography of dry
proliferation, 974–976, 975f–976f Docetaxel, cystoid macular edema induction, 1541 age-related macular degeneration, 90–92, 91f
neovascularization Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) outcome, 1170–1171, 1171f
origin and early recognition, 970–972, 970f–972f outer segment composition, 346–347 pathologic considerations, 1161–1162, 1162f
overview, 567 retinitis pigmentosa management, 817–818 pseudosoft cluster-driven drusen, 1163–1164,
genetics, 568–569 Dominant cystoid macular dystrophy (DCMD), 1164f–1165f
environmental factors, 569 clinical features, 885, 885f regressing drusen, 1169–1170, 1170f
oxidative stress, 518–519, 518t, 522t Dopamine, neuroprotection by agonists, 725t, 726 reticular drusen, 1168–1169, 1169f
pathogenesis theories Doppler imaging, see also Ultrasonography small, hard drusen
advanced glycation end products, 928 biometry, 229, 229f clinical features, 1162–1163, 1162f–1163f
aldose reductase, 928 Coats disease, 1063 formation, 1163, 1163f
glucose transport, 929 color Doppler imaging, 139–140 significance, 1163
proliferative disease, 969–970 Doppler optical coherence tomography, 141, 142f soft membranous drusen, 1166–1168, 1168f
protein kinase C, 928–929 laser Doppler flowmetry, 140f, 141 soft, fluid drusen, 1165–1166, 1167f
reactive oxygen intermediates, 928 laser Doppler velocimetry, 140–141 choroidal nevi effects, 2222–2223, 2225f, 2228f
pericyte loss, 925–926, 925f principles, 139–141 fluorescein staining, 47f, 49
perimetry, 313–316, 315f three-dimensional reconstruction, 229–230 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type
photocoagulation therapy, 755–756, 755f–756f Doxycycline, Lyme disease treatment, 1490, 1491t II, 885–886, 885f
pregnancy Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy, see Autosomal Dry eye syndrome, see Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
development in pregnancy, 1576 dominant radial drusen DUSN, see Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis
diabetic macular edema, 1577–1578 Drain air cryotherapy explant (DACE), bullous D-wave, electroretinogram
fetal outcomes, 1574–1578 retinal detachment management, 1674, 1674f, 1684 origins, 191–192
glycemic control, 1576 Drainage retinotomy photopic hill, 192
nonproliferative disease biopsy, 1830 Dyslipidemia
mild, 1576 fluid–air exchange, 1827–1829, 1828f age-related macular degeneration risk studies,
moderate to severe, 1576–1577 glaucoma management, 1830 1139
pregnancy effects on disease, 1575–1576 perfluorocarbon liquid diabetic retinopathy
progression, 1575, 1578 removal, 1830 evaluation, 944
proliferative disease, 1577, 1577f utilization, 1826–1827, 1827f, 1834, 1835f proliferative disease risks, 982
retinal cell loss, 542–543 precautions, 1840–1841 Dysplastic nevus syndrome, choroidal nevi, 2220
retinal detachment, 1627, 1627f principles, 1826
screening and surveillance, 955–956 retinal mass access, 1830 E
serous retinal detachment, 622 subretinal foreign body access, 1829–1830 Eales disease
spectral imaging, 144 Drug delivery clinical features, 1479, 1480f
telescreening administration routes diagnostic workup, 1482, 1483f
automated image analysis, 1010 injection, 739 differential diagnosis, 1481–1482, 1481f
compression of images, 1008 oral, 738–739 epidemiology, 1479
cost-effectiveness, 1010 topical, 739 management, 1482–1484, 1484f
data transfer, archiving, and retrieval, 1008 cell delivery natural history, 1479
guidelines from American Telemedicine engineering cells, 738 pathogenesis, 1479–1481
Association, 1006–1007 materials for immunological protection, 738 pathology, 1479–1481
image acquisition, 1008 devices Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study
interpretation, 1008–1009 encapsulation cell technology (ETDRS), 87, 300, 301f, 1590–1592
ophthalmologist-led model versus ciliary neurotrophic factor implant, 741 Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity trial
ophthalmologist-based model, 1006t vascular endothelial growth factor antibody (ETROP), 1122–1123, 1122t
patient satisfaction, 1010 implant, 741, 741f EAU, see Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis
program evaluation, 1010 implants Eclampsia
quality assurance, 1009–1010 I-vation triamcinolone implant, 741, 741f choroidopathy, 1572
security and documentation, 1008 Iluven fluocinolone implant, 740, 740f overview, 1571–1572
steps, 1007, 1007f Ozurdex dexamethasone implant, 740–741, retinopathy, 1571
vitreous changes, 942 740f vision loss, 1572
DIC, see Disseminated intravascular coagulation Retisert fluocinolone implant, 740 ECT, see Encapsulation cell technology
DICOM, see Digital Imaging and Communications in Vitrasert ganciclovir implant, 740 EFEMP1
Medicine injectables autosomal dominant radial drusen mutations,
Dideoxyinosine (DDI) retinopathy, clinical features, microparticles, 741–742 882–883
1537, 1538f nanoparticles, 741–742 mutation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, 534
Diffuse choroidal dystrophy, clinical features, 892, nanoscale systems, 742 EFTs, see Eye field transcription factors
892f ocular uptake, 742 EGF, see Epidermal growth factor
Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) inserts, 739 Elastic layer (EL), Bruch’s membrane, 465, 466f
clinical presentation MEMs devices, 739–740, 740f Electro-oculogram (EOG)
early stage, 1507, 1507f overview, 737 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1340
late stage, 1507–1508, 1508f topical nanocomposites, 742 principles and applications, 222–225, 224f
diagnosis, 1508–1509, 1508f–1509f genes, see Gene therapy retinitis pigmentosa, 777, 780f
differential diagnosis, 1509–1510 history of study, 734 Electron microscopy, uveal melanoma, 2258
epidemiology, 1506 pharmacokinetics in eye Electroretinogram (ERG)
history of study, 1506 barriers, 743 achromatopsia, 899–901, 900f
parasites, 1506 modeling, 743 autoimmune retinopathy, 1383f–1384f
autosomal dominant radial drusen, 882 test types, 181, 181b, 181f overview, 530f–531f
a-wave X-linked retinoschisis, 845–846, 846f protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic
photoreceptor photocurrent, 184–185, 185f Electrotherapeutics, artificial vision, 2089 reticulum kinase, 530
i10 post-receptor contributions, 185–187, 186f–187f ELOV4 Endostatin
time course of photoreceptor response, mutation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, age-related macular degeneration gene therapy,
187–188, 188f–189f 534 1245
Best macular dystrophy, 54–61 Stargardt-like dominant macular dystrophy angiogenesis regulation, 572
birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1340 mutation, 874–875 gene therapy, 662
b-wave Embryology Endothelial progenitor cell, see Adult stem cells
Index

bipolar cells of optic nerve in generation epigenetics Enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS)
cone-driven b-wave, 191, 191f DNA methylation, 644 differential diagnosis, 842
scototopic b-wave, 190–191, 190f histone modification, 644, 645f differential diagnosis, 848
Müller cell hypothesis, 189–190, 189f eye field electrophysiology, 848
origins, 188–191 overview, 331–333 management, 848
cancer-associated retinopathy, 2197f–2199f transcription factors, 331–333, 332f ocular features, 847–848, 847f
central retinal artery obstruction, 895f ganglion cell death, 339 overview, 847
central serous chorioretinopathy, 1294–1295 histogenesis of retinal cells, 333–335, 334f visual psychophysics, 848
chromosome 5q retinopathies, 841 inner retina, 335–338, 337f Enolase, retina autoantigen, 1381, 1381t
congenital stationary night blindness with normal key stages of retina development, 330–331, 330f, Enucleation
fundus, 902–903, 903f 331t retinoblastoma
distal retina components maturation of retina, 339–340 closure, 2134
c-wave, 182–183, 183f patterning of retinal pigment epithelium and optic nerve involvement, 2135
fast oscillating trough, 181, 182f, 184, 246 optic cup, 333 overview, 2131–2132
light peak voltage, 184, 185f photoreceptor differentiation, 338–339, 338f postoperative care, 2124
overview, 181–184, 182f prospects for retina studies, 340 preoperative preparation, 2132–2135
retinal pigment epithelial component, 183–184 Embryonic stem (ES) cell, human recurrence, 2136, 2137f
slow PIII, 183 culture, 669–670, 670f surgical technique, 2132–2134, 2133f
d-wave history of study, 670t tumor harvesting, 2134
origins, 191–192 photoreceptor differentiation, 671–672 uveal melanoma
photopic hill, 192 retinal pigment epithelium derivation choroidal melanoma
extracellular potential generation characterization of derived cells, 673, 675f complications, 2274
approaches for source determination differentiation, 673, 674f extrascleral extension, 2273–2274
intraretinal depth recording, 180 efficacy studies, 673–675, 676f implants, 2271–2272
lesioning or targeted mutations, 180 three-dimensional optic tissue culture, 672, indications, 2271
modeling, 180–181 672f optic nerve invasion, 2273–2274
pharmacological dissection, 180 EMT, see Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition overview, 2271
single-cell recordings, 180 Emulsification technique, 2272–2274, 2272f–2273f
glial cells in spatial buffering, 179–180, 179f heavy tamponade, 1773 posterior uveal melanoma
overview, 178–180, 178f, 199t silicone oil complication, 1767–1768 overview, 2239, 2268
fast-flicker electroretinogram, 192 Encapsulation cell technology (ECT) prognosis, 2240
focal electroretinogram ciliary neurotrophic factor implant, 741 EOG, see Electro-oculogram
clinical applications, 216, 217f–218f vascular endothelial growth factor antibody Epidermal growth factor (EGF), proliferative
multifocal electroretinogram, 219f implant, 741, 741f vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology, 1643
principles, 215–216, 215f–216f Encephalofacial hemangiomatosis, see Sturge–Weber Epigenetics
full-field electroretinogram syndrome age-related macular degeneration, 647
bright flash mixed rod–cone electroretinogram Encirclement choroidal neovascularization, 649
diagnostic value of negative giant retinal tear, 1846–1849 development
electroretinogram, 207–208, 209f rhegmatogenous retinal detachment management DNA methylation, 644
extinct electroretinogram, 208 with pars plana vitrectomy, 1715 histone modification, 644, 645f
normal findings, 203, 204f scleral buckle surgery, 1686–1687, 1687f–1688f chromatin remodeling complexes in retina
oscillatory potential abnormalities, 204, Endogenous endophthalmitis, see also Infectious development, 644
205f endophthalmitis; specific pathogens diabetic retinopathy, 648–649
prognostic value of negative bacterial endophthalmitis, 1516, 1516b, 1516f DNA methylation
electroretinogram, 205–207, 206f–207f classification, 1515b–1516b embryology of retina, 644
subnormal findings, 204–205, 205f clinical assessment, 1515–1516 overview, 642
cone dysfunction, 208–211, 209f–210f differential diagnosis, 1515b retina, 643
instrumentation, 202, 202f epidemiology, 1515 glaucoma, 647
photopic condition, 203–208, 203f fungal endophthalmitis, 1516–1518, 1516b–1517b, histone modification
rod dysfunction, 209–211, 211f 1517f acetylation/deacetylation, 642–643
scotopic condition, 202–203, 203f medical evaluation, 1516 embryology of retina, 644, 645f
second-order neuron dysfunction, 211–214, treatment methylation, 642
212f–214f intravitreal pharmacotherapy, 1519, 1519b retina, 643
X-linked retinoschisis, 214 recommendations, 1519–1520 history of study, 642
hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 1536f surgery, 1519 microRNA
instrumentation, 177f–178f systemic therapy, 1518–1519, 1518b embryology of retina, 644–646
intraoperative monitoring, 220–222, 222f Endophthalmitis, see also Endogenous processing, 643
light-emitting diode utilization, 220–222, 221f endophthalmitis; Infectious endophthalmitis; retina, 643
multifocal electroretinogram, 192, 193f Sympathetic endophthalmitis proliferative vitreoretrinopathy
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, 797f management after penetrating injury, 1870–1871 DNA methylation, 646
ocular ischemic syndrome, 1098, 1100f pharmacotherapy, 2100–2101 histone modification, 646
overview, 177, 177f–178f Endoplasmic reticulum stress prospects for study, 649
pattern dystrophy, 879 age-related macular degeneration, 534–535 retinal angiogenesis, 648
proximal retina components carbonic anhydrase mutations, 533 retinitis pigmentosa, 646–647
M-wave, 192–193, 194f diabetic retinopathy, 533–534 retinoblastoma, 647–648, 648f
oscillatory potential origins early onset macular dystrophies, 534 therapeutic targeting, 649
cell types, 197–198 lecithin-retinol acyltransferase mutations, 533 uveal melanoma, 648
models for study, 184–185 overview, 529 Epimacular membranes, dyes for vitreoretinal
neuron interactions, 198, 198f phosphodiesterase mutations, 533 interface visualization, 2096–2097, 2097t, 2098f
overview, 196–198 retinitis pigmentosa, 532 Epinephrine, cystoid macular edema induction,
pattern electroretinogram, 195, 220f rhodopsin mutations, 532–533 1541, 1544f
proximal negative response unfolded protein response signaling Epiretinal membrane (ERM)
applications, 220 apoptosis-inducing pathways, 532 classification, 1954–1956, 1954t
origins, 192–195, 194f ATF6, 531 clinical features, 1954–1956, 1955f–1956f
scototopic threshold response origins, 195–196, binding protein/glucose-regulated protein 78, combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal
196f–197f 529, 532f pigment epithelium differential diagnosis,
retinitis pigmentosa, 775–777, 776f–778f endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, 2216
S-cone electroretinogram, 222, 223f 531–532 differential diagnosis, 1957
Stargardt disease, 871–874 inositol-requiring enzyme-1, 530–531 epidemiology, 1954
fluorescein angiography, 1958, 1958f Fast-flicker electroretinogram, 192 loculated fluid, 1195
macular hole Fast oscillating trough (FOT), electroretinogram, 181, occult choroidal neovascularization, 1187–1188,
association, 1965f 182f, 184, 246 1189f–1191f, 1193f
peeling surgery, 1969, 1971f, 1973 Fat embolism syndrome (FES), trauma, 1569 overview, 1185–1186 i11
optical coherence tomography, 88–89, 89f, FAZ, see Foveal avascular zone retinal lesion anastomosis, 1194
1955f–1956f, 1957–1958, 1958f Fenestrated sheen macular dystrophy (FSMD), retinal pigment epithelial detachment,
pathogenesis, 1956–1957, 1956f, 1957t clinical features, 885, 885f 1190–1192, 1192f
perimetry, 318–320, 321f Fenofibrate, diabetic retinopathy management, 964 retinal pigment epithelial tear, 1195
scleral buckle surgery complication, 1691 Fenretinide, age-related macular degeneration speckled hyperfluorescence, 1192, 1195f

Index
surgical management management, 1223 terminology, 1190
complications FES, see Fat embolism syndrome angioid streaks, 1268, 1270f
cataract, 1960 FEVR, see Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy Best macular dystrophy, 859–861, 862f
intraoperative, 1960 FGF-2, see Fibroblast growth factor-2 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1338–1339, 1339f
retinal detachment, 1960 Fibrillin, vitreous, 483 blood flow assessment, 139
indications, 1958–1959 Fibrinoid syndrome, proliferative diabetic branch retinal vein occlusion, 1031, 1031f
internal limiting membrane peeling, 1959–1960 retinopathy surgery complication, 1893 cavernous hemangioma, 2151, 2152f
peeling techniques, 1959 Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) central retinal vein occlusion, 1041f
principles, 1704–1705, 1704f–1705f age-related macular degeneration, wet type central serous chorioretinopathy, 1292–1293,
proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgical pathophysiology, 1220–1221 1293f–1294f, 1296f
removal, 1813, 1813f angiogenesis regulation, 570–571 chloroquine retinopathy, 1534f
recurrence, 1960 delivery with nanoparticles, 694 chlorpromazine retinopathy, 1534f
vital dye utilization, 1959 neuroprotection, 717–718 choroidal hemangioma, circumscribed, 2340f,
Episcleritis, rheumatic disease, 1416 proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology, 2342f, 2343
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), 1642 choroidal metastases, 2325, 2325f
proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology, Fibrosis, see Subretinal fibrosis choroidal nevi, 2225f
1641, 1644f Finasteride, central serous chorioretinopathy choroidal osteoma, 2333f, 2335–2336
Epitheloid cell, uveal melanoma, 2257, 2257f management, 1303 clofazimine retinopathy, 1537f
EPO, see Erythropoietin Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) Coats disease, 1061f, 1063, 1064f–1065f
ERG, see Electroretinogram choroidal metastases, 2326 combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal
ERM, see Epiretinal membrane findings, 2056, 2056f pigment epithelium, 2214–2215, 2215f
Erosive vitreoretinopathy (ERVR) pathology, see specific diseases contraindications, 6
differential diagnosis, 844 technique, 2056 cystoid macular edema, 1980–1981
electroretinogram, 841 Fish eggs, pneumatic retinopexy complication, cytomegalovirus retinitis, 1445f
management, 842 1727–1728, 1727f diabetic macular edema, 951, 951f
ocular features, 840–841 Fluocinolone diabetic retinopathy
overview, 840 Iluven implant, 740, 740f nonproliferative disease, 945
visual psychophysics, 841 Retisert implant, 740 overview, 11
ERVR, see Erosive vitreoretinopathy Fluorescein angiography diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma, 2142f
Erythropoietin (EPO) abnormalities diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, 1509f
angiogenesis regulation, 437 blocked choroidal fluorescence epiretinal membrane, 1958, 1958f
diabetic retinopathy variants, 930–931 causes, 19–26, 19f, 21f equipment
ES cell, see Embryonic stem cell deep retinal material, 19–20 camera, 3–4, 3f
ESCS, see Enhanced S-cone syndrome nevus, 21, 23f film versus digital imaging, 3
Etanercept, sarcoidosis management, 1402 subretinal material, 20–21, 21f–23f filters, 4
ETDRS, see Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy vascular filling defects, 21–23, 25, 28f light sources, 4, 4f
Study blocked retinal fluorescence, 6–8, 18–19, 19f–20f overview, 3, 3b
Ethoxyzolamide, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543 flow chart, 17f fluorescein
ETROP, see Early Treatment for Retinopathy of hyperfluorescence metabolism, 4–5
Prematurity trial aneurysm, 33f solutions, 4
Evolution, overview, 629 arteriovenous malformation, 35f fundus anatomy and histology, 11–14, 13f
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) autofluorescence, 27–29, 29f gentamicin toxicity, 1540f, 1543f
overview, 583–585, 584f choroidal leak, 42–49, 44f–46f geographic atrophy, 1175
retinal antigens choroidal vessel abnormalities, 31, 36f, 38f historical perspective, 133–135, 151
interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, 585 disk leak, 39, 39f hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 1535f–1536f
recoverin, 585 hemangioma, 38f hypotonic maculopathy, 1313, 1313f
rhodopsin, 585 leak overview, 38–39 image analysis, see Retinal image analysis
S-antigen, 584–585 neovascularization, 34f, 36f–37f, 44f interferon microangiopathy, 1542f–1543f
External beam radiotherapy, see Radiation therapy overview, 26–50 Lyme uveitis, 1490f
Extracellular matrix (ECM), proliferative papilledema, 39 macular telangiectasia, 1053, 1054f
vitreoretinopathy and remodeling pigment epithelial window defect, 29–49, multifocal choroiditis, 1358, 1358f
pathophysiology, 1643–1644, 1644f 29f–30f, 10.e1f multiple evanescent white dot syndrome,
wound healing, 1651–1652 preinjection fluorescence, 27 1365–1366, 1365f
Extravasation, fluorescein angiography complication, retinal leak, 39–42, 40f–43f normal findings, 14–16, 15f–16f
5 telangiectasia, 33f–34f ocular ischemic syndrome, 1093–1099, 1093f,
Eye field transcription factors (EFTs), development tortuosity and dilation, 32f 1097f–1099f, 1097t
role, 331–333, 332f transmitted fluorescence characteristics, 29 optic disc melanocytoma, 2207–2208, 2207f
tumor angioma, 35f persistent placoid maculopathy, 1353–1355, 1354f
F vascular abnormality overview, 5 pregnancy safety studies, 1579
FACT, see Functional Acuity Contrast Test vitreous leak, 34f, 39 principles, 2, 2f–3f
FAF, see Fundus autofluorescence imaging hypofluorescence progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis
Fainting, fluorescein angiography complication, 5 causes, 16–26 syndrome, 1363
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), congenital localization, 18 punctate inner choroidopathy, 1361, 1361f
hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, staining radiation retinopathy, 1084–1085, 1084f
2210, 2212, 2212f drusen, 47f, 49 relentless placoid chorioretinitis, 1352
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) scar tissue, 47f, 49, 49f retinal metastasis, 2192f
overview, 1124–1125 sclera, 49–50, 49f retinitis pigmentosa, 777, 781f
pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1945–1947, 1946f acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement, 1372 serpiginous choroiditis, 1347, 1348f
toxocariasis differential diagnosis, 1500 acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1373 side-effects and complications, 5–6, 5b
Familial juvenile systemic granulomatosis acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment Stargardt disease, 868–869, 873f
epidemiology, 1428 epitheliopathy, 1332f, 1342–1343, 1342f stereophotography, 4
ocular disease features, 1428 acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, 1369, 1369f systemic lupus erythematosus, 1425f–1426f
systemic disease, 1428 age-related macular degeneration, wet type talc retinopathy, 1539f
treatment classic choroidal neovascularization, 1186–1187, technique
ocular disease, 1428 1188f, 1193f–1194f alignment and photography, 6, 6f–7f
systemic disease, 1428 disciform scar, 1195–1196 checklist, 11b
FAP, see Familial adenomatous polyposis; Fundus fading choroidal neovascularization, 1192–1194, digital angiography, 7–8
albipunctatus 1196f focusing, 6–8
Farnsworth–Munsell 100-hue test, 293, 294f–295f feeder vessels, 1194 injection, 9
patient education, 8 retinitis pigmentosa, 778, 782f Fundus reflectometry, see Retinal densitometry
patient positioning, 9 scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, 112, 113f, 113t Fungal endophthalmitis, see Endogenous
peripheral retina photography, 8, 8f serpiginous choroiditis, 1347–1348, 1349f endophthalmitis; specific pathogens
i12 planning, 9–11, 10f spectrophotometer, 112
stereophotography, 8 Stargardt disease, 868–869 G
thioridazine retinopathy, 1532f–1533f Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1333f GA, see Geographic atrophy
uveal effusion syndrome, 1309, 1309f wide-field imaging, 113, 114f Gallium scan, sarcoidosis, 1391–1392
Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1329f, 1629f Fundus camera, see Fundus autofluorescence Gamma Knife
wide-angle angiography, 4, 4f imaging choroidal hemangioma management, 2349
Index

Fluorescence, see also Fluorescein angiography; Fundus imaging, see also specific techniques choroidal metastases management, 2327, 2327f
Fundus autofluorescence imaging; Indocyanine classification, 152 Ganciclovir
green angiography principles, 2, 2f fluorescein angiography anatomy and histology, cytomegalovirus retinitis management
pseudofluorescence, 3, 3f, 27 11–14, 13f foscarnet combination in resistant disease,
Fluoroquinolones, infectious endophthalmitis image analysis, see Retinal image analysis 1451
management, 2029 prospects, 154 intraocular, 1452–1453, 1452f
5-Fluorouracil, proliferative vitreoretinopathy systemic disease early detection, 155 intravenous, 1447–1448, 1448f
prevention, 1775–1776 Fundus photography oral, 1448
FNAB, see Fine-needle aspiration biopsy acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement, 1371 Vitrasert implant, 740
Focal electroretinogram, see Electroretinogram acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1372, 1373f Ganglion cell, retina
Fomivirsen, cytomegalovirus retinitis management, acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment circadian rhythm control, 391, 391f
1454 epitheliopathy, 1342, 1342f–1343f classification, 364–392, 364t, 387f
Foreign body, see Intraocular foreign body acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, 1368–1369, color vision role, 391–392
Foscarnet, cytomegalovirus retinitis management 1368f, 1370f functional overview, 386–392
ganciclovir combination in resistant disease, 1451 age-related macular degeneration glaucoma depletion, 394f
intraocular, 1452 early disease, 1213f histogenesis, 333–335, 334f
systemic, 1449–1450 wet type, 1183f–1184f, 1214f identification tools, 392–393
FOT, see Fast oscillating trough autoimmune retinopathy, 1383f ON/OFF selectivity, 389f–390f
4-2-1 rule, severe nonproliferative diabetic autosomal dominant radial drusen, 882f–883f pupil diameter control, 391
retinopathy, 970b Best macular dystrophy, 856f–861f, 863f visual channels, 388–390, 389f
Fovea bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation, Ganglion cell layer (GCL)
anatomy, 362–363, 362f 2202f cell death in development, 339
fundus image analysis, 160–161 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1151f, 1338 maturation, 339–340
Foveal avascular zone (FAZ), diabetic macular cancer-associated retinopathy, 2197f–2198f overview of retina layers, 361–362, 362t
edema, 951 central retinal vein occlusion, 1039f–1041f GAP-43, retinal detachment response, 609
Foveal cyst, macular hole pathogenesis, 1963 central serous chorioretinopathy, 1292f Gas exchange, see Intraocular gas exchange
Foveal relocation, see Macular translocation surgery chloroquine retinopathy, 1534f GATE, see German adaptive threshold estimation
Foveoschisis, see Myopic foveoschisis chlorpromazine retinopathy, 1534f GCL, see Ganglion cell layer
Freckles, choroidal nevi differential diagnosis, 2226 choroidal hemangioma, 1632f GDNF, see Glial-derived neurotrophic factor
FSCN2, retinitis pigmentosa defects, 804 choroidal metastases, 2324f, 2325 Gemcitabine, retinal toxicity, 1541
FSMD, see Fenestrated sheen macular dystrophy choroidal nevi, 2225f–2226f, 2228f Gene
Full-field electroretinogram, see Electroretinogram choroidal osteoma, 2330f duplication, 626
Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT), 303 clofazimine retinopathy, 1537f mitichondrial genes, see Mitochondria
Fundus albipunctatus (FAP) Coats disease, 1062f–1065f mutations, 624f, 630–632
diagnosis, 904–905, 904f–905f combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal structure, 626–627, 628f
electroretinogram, 209–210, 211f–212f pigment epithelium, 2214, 2215f, 2217f transcription and protein translation, 626,
treatment, 905 congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment 627f
Fundus autofluorescence imaging (FAF) epithelium, 2209f, 2211f Gene therapy
acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1373 diabetic retinopathy, nonproliferative disease, 944, age-related macular degeneration
acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment 945f angiostatin, 1245
epitheliopathy, 1344, 1344f diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, 1507f, endostatin, 1245
acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, 1369, 1369f 1510f pigment epithelial-derived factor, 1245
age-related macular degeneration Eales disease, 1480f vascular endothelial growth factor receptor,
early disease, 115–129, 116f epiretinal membrane, 1955f–1956f 1220–1221
geographic atrophy, 115, 117–118, 117f–119f epiretinal prosthesis, 2083f antioxidant enzymes, 525
angioid streaks, 1268 fundus albipunctatus, 904f clinical trials
Best macular dystrophy, 859–861 gentamicin toxicity, 1540f, 1543f choroidal neovascularization, 661–662
birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1340 hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 1535f encapsulated cell therapy, 662
central serous chorioretinopathy, 129, 131f interferon microangiopathy, 1542f–1543f Leber congenital amaurosis, 662–664, 664f
central serous chorioretinopathy, 1294 intermediate uveitis, 1405f–1406f outcome measures, 663
chloroquine retinopathy, 129, 131f leukemia, 1635f retinoblastoma, 661
choroidal hemangioma, circumscribed, 2344 lymphoma, 1635f safety and efficacy issues, 662–663
choroidal neovascularization, 118–121, 121f macular telangiectasia, 1051–1052, 1051f–1053f color vision disorders, 298, 392
choroidal osteoma, 2336 methanol poisoning, 1541 dead retina reversal, 665
congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment morning glory syndrome, 1636f delivery
epithelium, 2211, 2212f multifocal choroiditis, 1355–1356, 1357f challenges, 738f
drusen in age-related macular degeneration, multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, comparison of vectors, 653t
1161 1364–1365, 1364f nonviral gene delivery, 652, 737–738
excitation and emission ranges by instrument, pattern dystrophy, 876f–879f surgical delivery of vectors, 657–659, 657f–658f,
113f persistent placoid maculopathy, 1353, 1353f 660f
functional correlates of abnormalities, 129 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 1631f viral vectors, 652–657, 737
fundus camera, 112–113, 113t progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis genetic testing, 665
geographic atrophy, 1175 syndrome, 1363 nanoparticle applications
high myopia complications, 1916 punctate inner choroidopathy, 1360, 1360f nonviral vectors, 695–698
hydrochloroquine retinopathy, 129 relentless placoid chorioretinitis, 1346, 1351f ocular applications, 699
image analysis, 114–115, 114f retinal metastasis differential diagnosis, viral vectors, 698–699, 699f
lipofuscin, 111 2190–2191, 2191f plasticity of visual system, 664, 664f
macular pigments, 111–112 retinitis pigmentosa, 764–769, 764f–769f, 777–780 preclinical studies
macular telangiectasia, 123–128, 127f–128f, 1053, serpiginous choroiditis, 1346, 1346f–1347f comparison of vectors, 659–660
1054f Sorbs fundus dystrophy, 880f–881f proof-of-concept studies, 660–661
multifocal choroiditis, 1359 Stargardt disease, 866f–872f transduction characteristics of vectors, 659
multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, 1366 Stargardt-like dominant macular dystrophy, prospects, 665
near-infrared autofluorescence, 111 875f–876f retinitis pigmentosa, 819–820
persistent placoid maculopathy, 1339 talc retinopathy, 1539f terminology, 652
pigment epithelial detachment, 118, 120f thioridazine retinopathy, 1532f–1533f window of opportunity, 663–664
prognosis, 1335 toxocariasis, 1502f–1503f X-linked retinoschisis, 847
pseudoxanthoma elasticum, 128–129, 130f toxoplasmosis, 1495f–1497f Genetic counseling
relentless placoid chorioretinitis, 1352 tuberculosis, 1474f–1475f retinitis pigmentosa
retinal dystrophy, 121–123, 122f–127f Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1328f, 1330f family groups, 813–814
overview, 813–815 Glaucoma complications
support services, 814–815 diabetic retinopathy association, 931, 931f cataract, 1773
X-linked retinoschisis, 846 drainage retinotomy, 1830 corneal toxicity, 1772–1773
Genetic testing epigenetics, 647 emulsification, 1773 i13
gene therapy considerations, 665 ganglion cell depletion, 394f hypotony, 1774
high-throughput DNA screening, 633 infection after filtration surgery, 2025 inflammation, 1773
informed clinical examination, 632 neuroprotection, 546 intraocular pressure elevation, 1774
known gene and mutation screening, 632 neurotrophic factors in neuroprotection, 717 proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1774
linkage and heterozygosity mapping, 632–633 pneumatic retinopexy considerations, 1723 sticky oil, 1773–1774

Index
prospects, 633 proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery overview, 1769–1774
uveal melanoma indication and timing, 1879–1880 technique, 1771–1772, 1772f
clinical trials, 2251–2252 outcomes, 1896 Helicobacter pylori, central serous chorioretinopathy
indications, 2251f technique risks, 1291–1292
prognostic value, 2249–2250, 2252 aqueous shunt, 1883–1884 treatment, 1303
techniques, 2250–2251 cyclodestructive therapy, 1884 HELLP syndrome
tissue procurement, 2250–2251 retinal ganglia cell pathology, 716–717 ophthalmic involvement, 1105–1106
von Hippel–Lindau disease, 2161 retinal ganglionic cell loss, 542 overview, 1105
Genome, composition in humans, 629 retinopathy of prematurity, 159, 1118 Helmholtz ophthalmoscope, 133f
Gentamicin, retinal toxicity, 1540, 1540f, 1543f scleral buckle surgery complication, 1691, 1693f Helminth infection, see Cysticercosis; Diffuse
Geographic atrophy (GA) silicone oil complication, 1763–1765 unilateral subacute neuroretinitis; Infectious
choroidal neovascularization association, 1177 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors with endophthalmitis; Oncherciasis; Toxocariasis
clinical significance in age-related macular vitreoretinal surgery for neovascular disease, Hemangioma, see also Cavernous hemangioma;
degeneration, 1176 2100, 2100f Choroidal hemangioma, circumscribed
drusen-related atrophy Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) fluorescein angiography, 38f
choroidal atrophy, 1175 Müller cell gliosis marker, 426f indocyanine green angiography of choroidal
pathology, 1175 retinal detachment response, 609, 611f–612f, tumors, 66–68, 71f–72f
pigment epithelial detachment, 1166f, 614f ultrasonography of choroid, 275, 276f–277f
1174–1175 Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) Hemangiopericytoma, uvea, 2357
drusen-unrelated atrophy, 1174 delivery, 736 Hemodialysis, exudative detachment association,
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 115, 117–118, nanoparticle delivery, 694 1637
117f–119f Glioneuroma, ciliary body, 2353 Hemorrhage, perfluorocarbon liquid for
imaging Glucose transport, diabetic retinopathy suprachoroidal hemorrhage, 1753–1754,
fluorescein angiography, 1175 pathogenesis, 929 1753f
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1175 Glutathione, retinal pigment epithelium oxidative Heparin, proliferative vitreoretinopathy
optical coherence tomography, 1175–1176, stress protection, 408 prevention, 1777
1176f GNA11, uveal melanoma mutations, 2247–2248, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), proliferative
incipient atrophy progression in age-related 2249f vitreoretinopathy
macular degeneration, 1172, 1172f–1173f GNAQ, uveal melanoma mutations, 2247–2248, pathophysiology, 1642
intermediate disease and cataract, 1177 2249f wound healing, 1650–1651, 1650f
optical coherence tomography, 92, 93f Golchet chart, 1356t Heredity
OT-551 for management, 524 Goldmann–Favre vitreotapetoretinal degeneration autosomal dominant inheritance, 625
prognosis, 1176 differential diagnosis autosomal recessive inheritance, 624f, 625
surgical management, 2015 chromosome 5q retinopathies, 842 digenic and polygenic inheritance, 626
Geographic helicoid peripapillary choroidopathy overview, 842, 848 isolated cases, 625
(GHPC), fluorescein angiography, 49f snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration, 840 pedigree analysis, 624f
German adaptive threshold estimation (GATE), electrophysiology, 848 X-linked inheritance, 624f, 625
perimetry, 770 management, 848 Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), acute retinal
GFAP, see Glial fibrillary acidic protein ocular features, 847–848, 847f necrosis syndrome, 1526
GHPC, see Geographic helicoid peripapillary overview, 847 Herpetic retinitis
choroidopathy visual psychophysics, 848 necrosis with human immunodeficiency virus
Giant cell arteritis, see also Vasculitis Goldman visual field (GVF), perimetry, 309–310, infection, 1458–1459, 1459f
classification, 1432b 310f, 313, 316 progressive outer retinal necrosis, 1459
epidemiology, 1432 Gold nanoparticles, imaging, 147, 147f HGF, see Hepatocyte growth factor
ocular disease features, 1432–1433 GPA, see Granulomatosis with polyangitis HIF, see Hypoxia-inducible factor
systemic disease, 1432 Granit’s PII, see B-wave High myopia, see also Myopia; Myopic foveoschisis
treatment, 1433 Granit’s PIII, see A-wave epidemiology, 1912
Giant choroidal nevus, see Choroidal nevi Granular cell tumor, uvea, 2355 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1916
Giant retinal tear Granulomatosis with polyangitis (GPA), macular complication incidence, 1913
etiology, 1844 see also Vasculitis macular hole, 1914–1916, 1914f, 1968
fundus photography, 1845f epidemiology, 1434–1435 optical coherence tomography, 1913f–1915f,
giant retinal tear surgery, 1749–1751, 1750f–1751f, ocular disease features, 1435 1915–1916
1848, 1849f systemic disease, 1435 posterior retinal detachment from paravascular
historical perspective of management, 1844–1845 treatment, 1435 microholes, 1914–1915, 1915f
laser photocoagulation, 1846 Grouped pigmentation of retina, retinitis pigmentosa retinal detachment resulting from peripheral
outpatient fluid–gas exchange, 1846 differential diagnosis, 801, 803f breaks, 1912–1913
pathogenesis, 1844 GRP0078, see Binding protein/glucose-regulated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after
proliferative vitreoretinopathy protein, 78 refractive surgeries, 1913
surgery, 1813 Guanylyl cyclase, phototransduction, 349 Histone modification, see Epigenetics
tears, 1846 GVF, see Goldman visual field Histoplasmosis, ocular
scleral buckling surgery, 1846 Gyrate atrophy, choroid and retina, 892–893, AIDS association, 1462
ultrasonography, 1845, 1846f 893f clinical features, 1274–1277, 1274f–1276f
vitreoretinal surgery differential diagnosis, 1274–1277
alternative techniques, 1849 H epidemiology
conversion to 360-degree tear, 1848 Haemophilus influenzae, infectious endophthalmitis, age, 1277–1278
encirclement, 1846–1849 2021 distribution in United States, 1277
fellow eye management, 1850 Haller’s layer, indocyanine green angiography, frequency, 1277
lens management, 1847 55f–56f sex and race, 1278
outcomes, 1850 Halo nevus, see Choroidal nevi genetic susceptibility, 1278
perfluorocarbon liquid utilization, 1749–1751, Hamartia, definition, 2170 Histoplasma capsulatum infectious endophthalmitis,
1750f–1751f, 1848, 1849f Hamartoma, see also Combined hamartomas of the 2023
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1847–1848 retina and retinal pigment epithelium history of study, 1274
retina mobilization, 1847 definition, 2170 multifocal choroiditis differential diagnosis,
retinopexy, 1848 Heat shock proteins (HSPs), neurotrophic pathway 1362
silicone oil utilization, 1758, 1848–1849 modulation, 728–730, 728f–729f natural history, 1278
tamponade, 1848–1849 Heavy tamponade pathogenesis, 1278, 1279f
visualization, 1847 agents systemic infection
vitrectomy, 1847 newer generation agents, 1770–1771, 1771f clinical features, 1277
vitreous base excision, 1847 physical properties, 1770t ocular infection relationship, 1277
treatment aqueous outflow increase, 1314 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1339, 1339f
laser photocoagulation, 1278–1280 hypotony, 1314, 1314t blood flow assessment, 139, 140f
macular translocation, 1281–1282 maculopathy, 1315 central serous chorioretinopathy, 64, 69f–70f, 1293,
i14 photodynamic therapy, 1280 ocular perfusion decrease, 1314 1296f
submacular surgery, 1281, 1282f optic disc edema, 1315 choroidal hemangioma, circumscribed, 2341f, 2343
triamcinolone, 1281 ultrasonography, 1313, 1313f choroidal inflammation
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, differential diagnosis acute multifocal placoid pigment
1280–1281, 1280f chorioretinal scars, 1315 epitheliopathy, 77
HIV, see Human immunodeficiency virus choroidal neovascularization, 1315 acute zonal acute outer retinopathy, 77–79,
Index

Hives, fluorescein angiography complication, 5–6 overview, 1315, 1315t 78f–79f


Hodgkin lymphoma, see Lymphoma retinal folds, 1315 birdshot chorioretinopathy, 70
Horizontal cell retrobulbar mass, 1315 multifocal choroiditis, 70
A-type cell, 369–370, 370f scleral buckle, 1315 punctate inner chorioretinopathy, 77
B-type cell, 370, 371f scleral inflammation, 1315 serpiniginous choroidopathy, 77, 77f
classification, 364–392, 364t treatment, 1315–1316, 1316f white-dot syndrome, 70, 76f–77f
functional overview, 371–372 Hypotony choroidal neovascularization
gap junctions, 370–371, 372f heavy tamponade complication, 1774 type 1, 4–6, 60f
H1 cell, 370 intraocular gas exchange complication, 1746 type 2, 57, 61f
H2 cell, 370 silicone oil complication, 1765–1766 choroidal osteoma, 2336
Horseshoe tear, see Retinal tear Hypoxia choroidal tumors
HSPs, see Heat shock proteins age-related macular edema, 442f, 443 hemangioma, 66–68, 71f–72f
HSV-2, see Herpes simplex virus type, 2 choroidal ischemia, 443 melanoma, 68, 72f
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diabetic retinopathy, 440 peripheral exudative hemorrhagic
antiretroviral therapy, 1465, 1465t inflammation, 553–557, 553f chorioretinopathy, 68, 73f–75f
clinical spectrum, 1442 neovascularization, see Neovascularization; varix of the vortex vein ampulla, 70, 76f
control, 1442 specific conditions dynamic versus conventional imaging, 53f–54f
epidemiology, 1441 ocular ischemic syndrome, 441 historical perspective, 51
management of infection, 1442 overview, 434–440 image analysis, see Retinal image analysis
occupational exposure, 1441 retinal detachment, 442 injection technique, 53–54
ocular findings in AIDS, see also Cytomegalovirus retinal ischemia consequences, 442 instrumentation, 52–53, 52f
retinitis; Herpetic retinitis; Pneumocystis carinii retinal vein occlusion, 440–441 multifocal choroiditis, 1358, 1359f
choroidopathy; Syphilis; Toxoplasmosis sickle cell disease, 441 multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, 1366,
fungal infection, see specific fungi Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1366f
invasive diagnostics, 1463–1464, 1464f angiogenesis pathway, 562, 564f normal findings, 54, 55f–56f, 58f
noninfectious retinopathy, 1443–1444, 1443f deficiency effects, 436–437 persistent placoid maculopathy, 1353–1355, 1354f
overview, 1442 inhibiting factor, 435 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 61–64,
pathogenesis, 1441 overview, 435–436, 436f 66f–68f, 1287–1288, 1288b, 1288f–1289f
Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS, target genes in angiogenesis, 437 pregnancy safety studies, 1579
1611–1612 types, 436 punctate inner choroidopathy, 1361, 1361f
virology, 1441 relentless placoid chorioretinitis, 1352
Humphrey visual field (HVF), perimetry, 310, I retinal angiomatous proliferation, 61, 63f–65f
317–318 ICG, see Indocyanine green retinal pigment epithelium detachment, 58f–59f,
HVF, see Humphrey visual field ICGA, see Indocyanine green angiography 63f, 67f–68f
Hyalocyte, posterior vitreous cortex, 486–488, ICL, see Inner collagenous membrane serpiginous choroiditis, 1347, 1347f–1348f
488f–489f Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) vitreoretinal interface visualization, 2097, 2097t
Hyaluronan, vitreous, 482, 497 ophthalmic involvement, 1105–1106 Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1329f
Hyaluronidase, vitreolysis, 2095 overview, 1104–1105, 1106f Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)
Hydrochlorothiazine, retinal fold induction, IFN-α, see Interferon-α overview, 670
1541–1543 IFN-γ, see Interferon-γ retinal pigment epithelium
Hydroxychloroquine, complications in rheumatoid IGF-1, see Insulin-like growth factor-1 derivation, 675–676
disease management, 1436 ILL, see Internal limiting lamina limitations, 676–677
Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy ILM, see Internal limiting membrane small molecule enhancement, 677, 678f
clinical features, 1535–1536, 1535f Iluven Infection, see also Infectious endophthalmitis;
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 129 branch retinal vein occlusion management, 1037 specific infections
perimetry, 320 iluven fluocinolone implant, 740, 740f retinal detachment
retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 799 Immune privilege, eye bacterial, 1630
Hyperfluorescence, see Fluorescein angiography anterior chamber-associated immune deviation, fungal, 1630
Hyperopia, age-related macular degeneration risk 583 viral, 1630
studies, 1136 antigen transport, 582 scleral buckle surgery complication, 1691–1693
Hyperoxia, retinopathy of prematurity, 434 downregulatory immune environment silicone oil indications for viral retinitis, 1759
Hypertension, see also Eclampsia; Pre-eclampsia age-related macular degeneration, 582 Infectious endophthalmitis
age-related macular degeneration risk studies, overview, 582 animal models, 2023–2024
1138–1139 overview, 582–585, 582t antimicrobial therapy
diabetic retinopathy retinal pigment epithelium, 409 administration routes, 2028, 2028b
control studies, 916–917 Immune system agent selection, 2027–2028
evaluation, 943–944 adaptive immunity, 579–580 aminoglycosides, 2028–2029
retinal detachment, 1626–1627 innate immunity, 579 antifungal agents, 2029
Hypertensive choroidopathy, 1003–1004 regulation, 580–581 blebs-associated endophthalmitis, 2030
Hypertensive optic neuropathy, 1004 Implant, see Artificial vision; Drug delivery cataract surgery, 2029–2030
Hypertensive retinopathy Incipient atrophy, age-related macular degeneration, cephalosporins, 2028
classification, 1001–1002, 1002f 1172, 1172f–1173f chronic postoperative endophthalmitis, 2030
definition, 1001–1002 Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) endogenous endophthalmitis, 2030
end-organ damage relationship, 1003 overview, 1124 fluoroquinolones, 2029
epidemiology, 1002–1003 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1948 overview, 2026–2035
prospects for study, 1004 Indocyanine green (ICG) traumatic endophthalmitis, 2030
stroke relationship, 1003 pharmacokinetics, 51–54 vancomycin, 2028
Hyperthermia therapy, retinoblastoma preparation of solutions, 53–54 vitrectomy, 2029–2034
chemotherapy adjunct, 2125–2126 properties, 51–54 bacteria
Hyphema, closed globe injury surgical management, toxicity, 52 Actinobacter, 2021
1852–1853, 1853f vital dye staining, 1970–1972 Actinomyces, 2022
Hypofluorescence, see Fluorescein angiography Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) Bacillus, 2020
Hypotonic maculopathy acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement, 1372 Clostridium, 2021
clinical features, 1312–1313, 1313f acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1372 Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 2020–2021
fluorescein angiography, 1313, 1313f acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment Haemophilus influenzae, 2021
optical coherence tomography, 1313–1314, epitheliopathy, 1343–1344, 1343f Klebsiella, 2022
1314f age-related macular degeneration, 54–61, Listeria monocytogenes, 2021
overview, 1312 1208–1209 Moraxella, 2021
pathogenesis angioid streaks, 1268 Neisseria, 2021
Nocardia, 2021–2022 cystoid macular edema association, 1405–1406, nanomedicine for monitoring, 700–701
Propionibacterium, 2021 1410f, 1413 pneumatic retinopexy assessment, 1727
Pseudomonas, 2021 differential diagnosis, 1407, 1408t–1409t proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery
Staphylococcus, 2019–2020 epidemiology, 1405 elevation, 1893 i15
Streptococcus, 2020 imaging retinal adhesion effects, 449f
endogenous endophthalmitis, 2026 fundus photography, 1405f–1406f IOFB, see Intraocular foreign body
etiology, 2019, 2019b optical coherence tomography, 1406–1407 IOP, see Intraocular pressure
fungi ultrasonography, 1406–1407 IP, see Incontinentia pigmenti
Aspergillus, 2022–2023 pathophysiology IPL, see Inner plexiform layer

Index
Blastomyces dermatiditis, 2023 pars planitis, 1408–1409 iPSC, see Induced pluripotent stem cell
Candida, 2022 sarcoidosis, 1409 IRBP, see Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein
Histoplasma capsulatum, 2023 treatment IRE-1, see Inositol-requiring enzyme-1
parasites bilateral disease, 1411–1412, 1411f Iridescent spots, sickle cell disease retinopathy,
ectoparasites, 2023 unilateral disease, 1409–1411, 1410f 1074–1076, 1077f
helminths, 2023 vitrectomy, 1412 Iris color, age-related macular degeneration risk
toxoplasmosis, 2023 Internal limiting lamina (ILL) studies, 1136
postoperative infection degenerative remodeling, 488, 490f Iris melanoma, see Uveal melanoma
cataract surgery, 2024–2025 retinal sheen dystrophy, 488, 489f Iron oxide nanoparticles, imaging, 146–147
cornea transplantation, 2025 structure, 488, 489f IS, see Inner segment
glaucoma filtration surgery, 2025 variations, 490 Island of Traquair, perimetry, 307, 308f
intraocular injection, 2025–2026 Internal limiting membrane (ILM) Itching, fluorescein angiography complication, 5–6
scleral buckling surgery, 2026 dyes for vitreoretinal interface visualization, ITP, see Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
strabismus surgery, 2026 2096–2097, 2097t, 2098f
vitrectomy, 2025 peeling J
surgical management cystoid macular edema surgery Jansen syndrome
complications, 2034 central retinal vein occlusion, 1981 electroretinogram, 841
inflammation control, 2033–2034 diabetic macular edema, 1983–1984 management, 842
outcomes, 2034–2035 rationale, 1982 ocular features, 840–841
postoperative management, 2033 technique, 1984 overview, 840
preoperative evaluation, 2031 uveitic macular edema, 1986 visual psychophysics, 841
techniques, 2031–2033, 2031f–2033f myopic foveoschisis surgery, 1917 JIA, see Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
trauma association, 2026 epiretinal membrane surgery, 1959–1960 Joubert syndrome, gene mutations, 790t–794t
Inferior oblique muscle, surgical anatomy, 1669–1670 macular hole surgery, 1969, 1971f, 1973 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)
Inflammation Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), classification, 1421b
age-related macular degeneration experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis antigen, epidemiology, 1421
anti-inflammatory therapy, 557 585 ocular disease features, 1422, 1422t
genetics, 557 Interplexiform cell, classification, 364–392, 364t systemic disease, 1421
microglia role, 556 Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) treatment
overview, 555, 555f computed tomography, 1858–1859 ocular disease, 1423
pathways, 556–557 drainage retinotomy for subretinal foreign body systemic disease, 1422
choroid, see Choroid access, 1829–1830
diabetic retinopathy, 553f magnetic resonance imaging, 1859 K
hypoxia, 553–557, 553f optical coherence tomography, 1859f KARNS, see Krypton Argon Regression of
oxidative stress relationship, 522–523, 523t, surgical management, 1861–1865, 1862f–1865f, Neovascularization Study
554–557 1862t Kawasaki disease, see also Vasculitis
retinal detachment trauma, 557–559, 558f trauma, 1652 epidemiology, 1434
retinopathy of prematurity, 557 ultrasonography, 243, 244f–246f ocular disease features, 1434
Inflammatory bowel disease Intraocular gas exchange, see also Pneumatic systemic disease, 1434
epidemiology, 1419–1420 retinopexy; specific gases and surgeries treatment, 1434
ocular disease features, 1420 applications KCNJ13, snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration
systemic disease, 1419–1420 macular hole repair, 1743–1744 mutations, 839
treatment pneumatic retinopexy, 1742, 1743f KCS, see Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
ocular disease, 1420 postvitrectomy gas exchange, 1744 Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS), choroidal disease
systemic disease, 1420 scleral buckling surgery for retinal detachment, differential diagnosis, 895–896, 896f
Infliximab, sarcoidosis management, 1402 1742–1743 Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), rheumatic disease,
Inheritance, see Heredity subretinal blood displacement, 1744 1415
INL, see Inner nuclear layer vitrectomy for retinal detachment, 1741, 1742f Keratopathy, silicone oil complication, 1768
Innate immunity, overview, 579 complications KH902, age-related macular degeneration, wet type
Inner collagenous membrane (ICL), Bruch’s cataract, 1745 management, 1242
membrane, 465 corneal decompensation, 1746 Klebsiella, infectious endophthalmitis, 1516f, 2022
Inner nuclear layer (INL) hypotony, 1746 Klippel–Traunay–Weber syndrome, 2181
fluorescence microscopy, 363–364, 363f intraocular pressure elevation, 1745–1746 Kneist dysplasia
overview of retina layers, 361–362, 362t lens capture, 1746 clinical findings
Inner plexiform layer (IPL) subretinal gas, 1746 extraocular, 843
fluorescence microscopy, 363–364, 363f dynamics in eye ocular, 843–844
overview of retina layers, 361–362, 362t altitude change responses, 1740, 1745 differential diagnosis, 844
stratification, 361–362, 388f general anesthesia considerations, 1740 management, 841
Inner segment (IS), photoreceptor, 342, 351–352 resorption phases, 1739–1740, 1741f overview, 842–843
Inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1), unfolded functions pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1945, 1946f
protein response signaling, 530–531 globe volume replacement, 1738–1739 Knobloch syndrome
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) postoperative visualization, 1738 clinical findings
angiogenesis regulation, 570 retina folding and unfolding, 1738 extraocular, 843
vascular endothelial growth factor regulation, tamponade, 1738, 1738t ocular, 843–844
439–440 gas types, 1735t differential diagnosis, 842, 844
Integrins, age-related macular degeneration historical perspective, 1735 management, 841
therapeutic targeting, 1246 physical properties of gases, 1735–1738, 1736t overview, 842–843
Intensity modulated radiation therapy, see Radiation postoperative care pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1948
therapy fundus exam, 1745 Krypton Argon Regression of Neovascularization
Interferon retinopathy, clinical features, 1541, head posture, 1744–1745 Study (KARNS), 1592
1541f–1543f intraocular pressure measurement, 1745 KSS, see Kearns–Sayre syndrome
Interferon-α (IFN-α), macular edema management, laser photocoagulation, 1745 Kynurenic acid (PDA)
599 vision change, 1745 a-wave studies, 186–187, 187f
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), retinal detachment studies, 620 preparation of gas for injection, 1739f, 1740 d-wave studies, 191–192
Intermediate cell, uveal melanoma, 2257, 2257f Intraocular pressure (IOP)
Intermediate uveitis heavy tamponade and elevation, 1774 L
clinical presentation, 1405–1407 intraocular gas exchange Laceration, see Trauma
complications, 1413 elevation, 1745–1746 Lacquer cracks, myopic macular degeneration, 1262,
course, 1412–1413 measurement, 1745 1262f
Lamellar macular hole (LMH) retinal dialyses retinal detachment laser Light-emitting diode (LED), electroretinogram
biomicroscopy, 1965–1966 demarcation, 1786 utilization, 220–222, 221f
histology, 1965 retinal macroaneurysm management, 1028 Light flash, see Photopsia
i16 optical coherence tomography, 1966, 1967f retinoblastoma consolidation chemotherapy, Light injury, see Photic retinal injury
LAMP-2A, see Lysosome-associated protein type 2126–2128, 2127f Light peak voltage, electroretinogram, 185f
2A retinopathy of prematurity, 1121–1122 Lincoff’s rules, retinal break localization, 1671
Landolt C test, 300 retinopexy for scleral buckle surgery Linkage, 628, 632–633
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), uvea, 2357 diode laser, 1676 Lipofuscin, see also Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosin
Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), principles, 140f, photocoagulation, 1676 fluorescein angiography, 21
Index

141 round hole retinal detachment laser demarcation, fundus autofluorescence imaging, 111
Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), principles, 1785 Listeria monocytogenes, infectious endophthalmitis,
140–141 selective retina therapy, 758, 758f 2021
Laser injury, see Photic retinal injury sickle cell retinopathy, 1079–1080 Liver function tests (LFTs), uveal melanoma
Laser therapy, see also Photodynamic therapy; transpupillary thermotherapy, 752 patients, 2313
Transpupillary thermotherapy uveal melanoma LMH, see Lamellar macular hole
aberrations, 749 photoablation, 2311 LMWH, see Low-molecular weight heparin
age-related macular degeneration, wet type photocoagulation for ancillary treatment Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs),
photocoagulation therapy pre-surgical therapy, 2310 neurotrophic pathway modulation, 730
complications, 1201–1202 radiation complications, 2310 Low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH),
follow-up evaluation, 1201 retinal detachment, 2310 proliferative vitreoretinopathy prevention, 1777
Macular Photocoagulation Study, 1200–1201 X-linked retinoschisis, 846–847 LRAT, see Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase
patient preparation, 1199–1201 Latanoprost Lumbar puncture, Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease,
well-defined lesions, 1199–1202 cystoid macular edema induction, 1541, 1544f 1333–1334
angioid streak management with uveitis induction, 1549 Lutein
photocoagulation, 1269 Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), photoreceptor neuroprotection, 722
branch retinal vein occlusion pathways, 287–288, 288f retinitis pigmentosa management, 817–818
macular edema, 1032–1034, 1033f LC3, autophagy role, 538–541, 541f Luzindole, neuroprotection, 726f
neovascularization, 1034–1035, 1034f LCA, see Leber congenital amaurosis Lyme disease
central retinal vein occlusion management, 1045 LCH, see Langerhans cell histiocytosis course and outcome, 1491
central serous chorioretinopathy management LCPUFAs, see Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty diagnosis, 1490, 1490t
with photocoagulation, 1302 acids differential diagnosis, 1490
choroidal hemangioma photocoagulation, 2349 LDF, see Laser Doppler flowmetry epidemiology, 1489
chromophore absorption, 747f LDV, see Laser Doppler velocimetry ocular manifestations, 1489–1490, 1490f
Coats disease, 1065–1066, 1067f Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) pathogenesis, 1489
contact lens use, 749–750, 749t gene mutations, 790t–794t treatment, 1490, 1491t
delivery system, 748–749, 749f gene therapy, 662–664, 664f Lymphoma, see also Primary central nervous system
diabetic macular edema management with retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, lymphoma
photocoagulation, 957–958, 958t 794–795 Burkitt lymphoma, 2369–2370, 2369f
diabetic retinopathy, proliferative disease Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), endoplasmic Hodgkin lymphoma, 2367–2369, 2368f
advanced disease, 990–991 reticulum stress with mutations, 533 mycosis fungoides, 2369
complications, 995–996, 995b LED, see Light-emitting diode non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 2366–2367, 2366f–2367f
direct treatment, 991, 992f Leiomyoma, uvea, 2355–2356, 2355f–2356f overview, 2359
early studies, 982–983 Lens retinal detachment, 1634, 1634f–1635f
number of scatter treatments, 993 capture in intraocular gas exchange, 1746 systemic classification, 2359
outcomes, 994–995, 994t extraction and vitreoretinal changes, 505–506, 505f treatment, 2369
panretinal photocoagulation, 983–987, giant retinal tear surgical management, 1847 uvea, 2356, 2356f–2357f
983t–986t, 984f, 986f pediatric vitreoretinal surgery management, 1936 vitreous biopsy, 2050t
pattern scanning delivery systems, 993 perfluorocarbon liquid for dislocation, 1752, 1752f
protocol, 991–993, 991t–992t proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgical M
retreatment indications, 994–995 management, 1812 Macroaneurysm, see Retinal macroaneurysm
scatter photocoagulation and macular edema, regressed retinopathy of prematurity changes, MacTel, see Macular telangiectasia
989–990 1118 Macula
wavelength, 993–994 subluxation and dislocation surgical management, fluorescein angiography, 12–13, 13f
drusen disappearance after prophylactic 1853–1855, 1854f–1855f sickle cell disease effects, 1073–1074, 1075f
photocoagulation, 1166 surgical management, 1702–1704, 1703f–1704f vitreomacular interface, 490, 495f
Eales disease management, 1482–1483 Leptospirosis Macular buckling surgery, myopic foveoschisis,
histoplasmosis management with course and outcome, 1492–1493 1917
photocoagulation, 1278–1280 diagnosis, 1492 Macular cyst, anomalous posterior vitreous
horseshoe retinal tear laser demarcation, 1787, differential diagnosis, 1492t detachment, 500, 502f
1787f epidemiology, 1491–1492 Macular detachment, optic disc pit association
intraocular gas exchange and photocoagulation, ocular manifestations, 1492 appearance, 1585
1745 pathogenesis, 1491–1492 course, 1585
macular edema management, 596, 596f, 751–752 treatment, 1492 pathophysiology, 1586, 1586f
macular translocation surgery adjunct, 1999 Leukemia prognosis, 1586
necrosis, 752, 752f anemia and thrombocytopenia manifestations, treatment, 1586–1587
ocular ischemic syndrome, 1102 2363, 2363f Macular dystrophy, see also specific diseases
optical properties of eye, 746 clinical manifestations, 2360–2365 clinical approach, 852–854, 853f–854f
overview, 746 epidemiology, 2359–2360, 2360t drug toxicity in differential diagnosis, 855f, 856t
photocoagulation hyperviscosity manifestations, 2363–2365, 2364f overview, 852
age-related macular degeneration, 756 infiltrates types, 853t
diabetic retinopathy, 755–756, 755f–756f choroid, 2361–2362, 2361f–2362f Macular edema, see also Cystoid macular edema;
healing of retinal lesions, 755 retinal or preretinal, 2360–2361, 2361f Diabetic macular edema
pattern-scanning laser photocoagulation, vitreous, 2362–2363, 2362f branch retinal vein occlusion laser therapy,
755–756 opportunistic infection, 2365, 2365f 1032–1034, 1033f
photodisruption, 756–758, 757f overview, 2359 central retinal vein occlusion management
principles, 752–755, 753f–754f, 754t prognosis, 2365 corticosteroids, 1043–1044, 1043f
wavelength selection, 756 retinal detachment, 1634–1635, 1635f observation, 1043
photothermal interactions with tissue, 751 systemic classification, 2359 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition,
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy management treatment, 2365 1044–1045
with photocoagulation, 1289 Leukocoria diabetic retinopathy association, 909–910
principles of lasers, 747–749, 747f–748f retinoblastoma, 2111, 2111f, 2117 etiology, 590, 591t
prospects ultrasonography in differential diagnosis, 282t laser therapy, 751–752
temperature monitoring in retina, 758–759 LFTs, see Liver function tests pathogenesis
tissue change monitoring in real time, 759 LGN, see Lateral geniculate nucleus blood–retina barrier breakdown, 591, 592f
retinal detachment prevention with Light adaptation cell junctions and vascular permeability,
photocoagulation calcium feedback, 349–351, 350f 591–592
advantages and disadvantages, 1802 guanylyl cyclase role, 349 endothelial cell death and vascular
surgical adjunct, 1802–1803 overview, 286, 349 permeability, 594
extracellular matrix alterations and vascular trauma MCP-1, see Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
permeability, 594–595 overview, 1565–1566, 1566f Medulloepithelioma, ciliary body, 2351–2353,
growth factors, 592–594, 594f pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1940–1941, 1941f 2351t–2352t, 2352f
inflammation and vascular permeability, 592 surgical management, 1857–1858 Meiosis, overview, 628, 629f i17
mechanical factors, 595–596 vitreolysis management, 1975 Melanin, fluorescein angiography, 21
neuronal involvement, 595 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS), 8, Melanocytoma, see also Choroidal nevi; Optic disc
transcellular transport and vascular 1200–1201, 1598–1600 melanocytoma
permeability, 595 Macular retinoschisis, myopic macular degeneration, uveal, 2354, 2354f
retinitis pigmentosa management, 816–817 1263, 1263f Melanocytosis, see Oculodermal melanocytosis

Index
treatment Macular telangiectasia (MacTel) Melanoma, see Choroidal melanoma; Collaborative
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, 597–599, 597f adaptive optics imaging Ocular Melanoma Study; Posterior uveal
corticosteroids, 598–599 microperimetry, 1055 melanoma; Uveal melanoma
interferon-α, 599 visual function, 1054–1055 Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR)
laser therapy, 596, 596f classification, 1050, 1051f management, 2200–2201
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 598 clinicopathological correlation, 1056 overview, 2200
prospects, 601–602 differential diagnosis, 1055–1056 retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 799
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, epidemiology, 1050–1051 Melatonin, neuroprotection, 725t, 726f
599, 600f fluorescein angiography, 33f–34f, 1053, 1054f Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN),
vitrectomy, 599–601 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 123–128, type II disease and drusen, 885–886, 885f
Macular hole (MH), see also Lamellar macular hole 127f–128f, 1053, 1054f Meridional folds, 490, 492f
anomalous posterior vitreous detachment fundus photography, 1051–1052, 1051f–1053f Meriodonal complex, 490, 492f
histopathology and pseudo-operculum, 504, genetics, 1055 MESE 12 system, retinal prosthesis surgery, 2082,
504f history of study, 1050 2082f
overview, 500, 503f–504f, 504–505 optical coherence tomography, 1053–1054, 1054f Metastasis, see also Choroidal metastases; Melanoma;
pathogenesis, 504–505 prospects for study, 1056 Retinal metastases; Retinoblastoma
classification, 1965, 1967t staging, 1055, 1055t posterior uveal melanoma prognostic indicators
clinical features treatment, 1056 cytogenetics, 2235
epiretinal membrane association, 1965f Macular translocation surgery extrascleral extension, 2235
stage 0, 1963–1964 advantages, 2007 histopathology, 2234
stage 1A, 1964, 1964f age-related macular degeneration outcomes microvasculature, 2234–2235
stage 1B, 1964, 1964f neovascular disease, 2000–2004, 2002t, tumor size, 2234–2235
stage 2, 1964, 1964f 2003f–2004f retinal detachment, 1633–1634, 1634f
stage 3, 1964–1965, 1965f non-neovascular disease, 2004–2005 uveal melanoma
stage 4, 1965 angioid streak management, 1270 pathology
clinical trials, 1613 animal models, 1996 tumor extension, 2259–2260
epidemiology complications, 2005–2007, 2006t tumor stroma, 2258–2259, 2259f
fellow eye incidence, 1962 histoplasmosis management, 1281–1282 patient management
prevalence, 1962 historical perspective, 1996 liver, 2315
risk factors, 1962 indications, 1997–1998, 1997t systemic, 2315
high myopia complication, 1914–1916, 1914f postoperative management Methanol, retinal toxicity, 1549, 1549f
history of study, 1962 extraocular muscle surgery, 2000, 2001f Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,
intraocular gas exchange for repair, 1743–1744 laser therapy, 1999 endophthalmitis, 1520f
lamellar macular hole positioning, 1999, 2000f Methocyflurane, crystalline retinopathy, 1547f, 1548
biomicroscopy, 1965–1966 preoperative evaluation Methotrexate, sarcoidosis management, 1402
histology, 1965 diagnostic testing, 1998 Metronidazole, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543
optical coherence tomography, 1966, 1967f history and retinal examination, 1997–1998 MEWDS, see Multiple evanescent white dot
microholes, 1968 principles, 1996–1997, 1997f syndrome
optical coherence tomography, 89–90, 89f prospects, 2007 MFC, see Multifocal choroiditis
pathogenesis technique MGS, see Morning glory syndrome
foveal cyst, 1963 limited macular translocation, 1998–1999, 2000f MH, see Macular hole
optical coherence tomography studies, 1963, MTS0360, 1998, 1999f Micro Perimeter 1 (MP-1), microperimetry, 311
1963f–1964f, 1966f Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Microaneurysm, diabetic retinopathy, 926, 940, 941f
posterior vitreous detachment progression, choroidal hemangioma, 2343–2344 Microfluidic Retinal Prosthesis, 2088
1963–1964 choroidal osteoma, 2336 Microglia, age-related macular degeneration
premacular vitreous cortex contraction, 1963 Coats disease, 1063 inflammation role, 556
vitreomacular traction, 1962–1963 intraocular foreign body, 1859 Microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS), 1715–1717,
perimetry, 318–320, 320f principles, 145 1716f, 1717t
pseudoholes, 1968 prospects, 146 Microphthalmos, ultrasonography, 232, 232f
secondary macular hole retinal imaging, 145–146, 146f Microplasmin
high myopia, 1968 retinoblastoma, 2120 retinopathy of prematurity management, 1929
rare causes, 1968, 1968t sarcoidosis, 1392 vitreolysis, 2095, 2095f
trauma, 1968 trilateral retinoblastoma, 2143, 2143f MicroRNA
silicone oil indications, 1759 uveal melanoma patients, 2313 embryology of retina, 644–646
surgical management Malaria, antimalarial drug retinopathy, see specific epigenetics in retina, 643
complications drugs processing, 643
cataract, 1975 Malattia leventinese, see Autosomal dominant radial Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), see also Vasculitis
field defects, 1975 drusen epidemiology, 1435
perioperative, 1972 Mannitol, retinal adhesion effects, 456–457, 457f ocular disease features, 1435
reopening, 1975 MAR, see Melanoma-associated retinopathy systemic disease, 1435
retinal detachment, 1974–1975 Marfan syndrome treatment, 1435
epiretinal membrane peeling, 1969, 1971f pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1947 Midget bipolar cell, 374–375
gases, 1972 vitreoretinal degeneration chondrodysplasia Minocycline, neurotrophic pathway modulation,
healing and adjuvants, 1969, 1969f, 1972 differential diagnosis, 844 728–729
historical perspective, 1968 Maribavir, cytomegalovirus retinitis management, Mitochondria
internal limiting membrane peeling, 1969, 1454 DNA
1971f, 1973 Marshall syndrome haplogroups, 638
outcomes clinical findings mutation and retinal disease
anatomic, 1973 extraocular, 843 age-related macular degeneration and
visual, 1973–1974, 1974f ocular, 843–844 damage, 640
posterior hyaloid detachment, 1969, 1970f differential diagnosis, 840, 844 heredity, 638, 639t
postoperative positioning, 1972–1973 management, 841 oxidative damage, 638–640, 640f
principles, 1968–1969 overview, 842–843 properties, 635, 637f
silicone oil, 1972 Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) electron leakage, 636
vital dye staining age-related macular degeneration functional overview, 635–636, 636f
Brilliant Blue, 1972 therapeutic targeting, 1243f, 1246 localization in retina and optic nerve, 636–638,
indocyanine green, 1970–1972 wet type pathophysiology, 1221 637f
Trypan blue, 1972 angiogenesis regulation, 571–572 origins, 635
vitrectomy, 1969 macular edema role, 594–595 oxidative injury, 521–522, 522t
reactive oxygen species formation, 636 indocyanine green angiography, 1366, 1366f prospects, 148
structure, 635 optical coherence tomography, 1366, quantum dots, 147–148
MIVS, see Microincision vitrectomy surgery 1366f–1367f nanomachines
i18 MMPs, see Matrix metalloproteinases pathogenesis, 1367 manufacture, 691–692, 691f–692f
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), perimetry, 1367 physical properties, 690–691
proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology, treatment, 1368 nanotechnology overview, 146, 689–690
1642 Multiple myeloma, 2370 obstacles in ophthalmology
Moraxella, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021 Multiple sclerosis (MS), intermediate uveitis dose delivery, 709
Moreland equation, anomaloscope color matching differential diagnosis, 1407, 1409t persistence of nanoparticles, 708
Index

test, 296–297, 296f Mutation, classification, 624f, 630–632 safe manufacture, 708–709
Morning glory syndrome (MGS), retinal detachment, M-wave, electroretinogram, 192–193, 194f side effects, 709
1636–1637, 1636f Mycobacterial infection physiological monitoring, 700–701
MP-1, see Micro Perimeter, 1 epidemiology, 1473 principles, 689–690
MPA, see Microscopic polyangiitis laboratory evaluation, 1476–1477 prospects, 709, 710t
MPGN, see Membranoproliferative nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, prosthetics
glomerulonephritis 1475–1476 bionic retina, 706
MPS, see Macular Photocoagulation Study treatment, 1477–1478, 1477t induced photosensitivity, 701–706,
MRI, see Magnetic resonance imaging tuberculosis 703f–705f
MS, see Multiple sclerosis extrapulmonary, 1473 scaffolds in regenerative medicine
MTS0360, see Macular translocation surgery latent tuberculosis, 1476 cell transplant support, 706
Müller cell ocular overview, 706–708
aging effects, 424f differential diagnosis, 1475 subretinal space, 706–708, 707f–708f
arrangement, 415f forms, 1473–1475, 1474f surgical applications, 708, 709f
blood–retina barrier regulation, 427 pathogenesis, 1475 theranostics, 701
b-wave, 189–190, 189f pulmonary, 1473 NCL, see Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosin
carbon dioxide siphoning, 422 resistant disease treatment, 1478 NCMD, see North Carolina macular dystrophy
cone photopigment recycling, 418 Mycophenolate, sarcoidosis management, 1402 Near-infrared autofluorescence, see Fundus
extracellular pH regulation, 422 Mycosis fungoides, see Lymphoma autofluorescence imaging
extracellular potential generation spatial Myofibrocyte, periretinal proliferation, 507–511, 512f Necrosis
buffering, 179–180, 179f Myopia, see also High myopia cross-talk between cell death pathways, 538
extracellular space volume regulation, 427 diabetic retinopathy protection effects, 931–932 overview, 537, 538f
functional overview, 417 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery for complications, Neisseria, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021
gliosis, 429–430 1942–1949 Neovascularization, see also Angiogenesis;
histogenesis, 333–335, 334f regressed retinopathy of prematurity, 1117–1118 Choroidal neovascularization; Proliferative
ionotropic receptors, 184–188 Myopic foveoschisis vitreoretinopathy; specific diseases
light guidance, 417–418, 417f clinical features, 1913–1914, 1913f adult stem cell therapy risks, 679
mechanical stress response, 427–428 macular degeneration, 1263 age-related macular degeneration choroidal
morphology, 415–430, 416f optical coherence tomography, 1913f–1915f, 1917f neovascularization
Müller glia as stem cell source, 556 pathophysiology, 1913–1914 Bruch’s membrane disruption, 564–566
neurotransmitters surgical management complement dysregulation, 566
glutamate toxicity protection, 418–421, indications, 1916 drusen, 564
419f–421f internal limiting membrane peeling, 1917 environmental factors, 569
neuronal activity regulation, 428–429 macular buckling, 1917 genetics, 568
precursor synthesis, 421–422 postoperative complications, 1917–1918 inflammatory response, 566
uptake, 418, 419f prognosis, 1916 membrane formation, 566
neurovascular coupling mediation, 427, 428f tamponade, 1917 stages, 565f
oxidative stress protection function, 422 vitreous separation, 1916–1917 angioid streak association, see Angioid streak
potassium buffering, 422–425, 423f–424f Myopic macular degeneration branch retinal vein occlusion laser therapy,
proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology, animal models, 1259, 1259f 1034–1035, 1034f
1641 choroidal neovascularization natural course and central retinal vein occlusion management
retinal detachment response, 609, 610f–612f, 613, treatment, 1263–1264, 1264f laser therapy, 1045
613b epidemiology, 1256, 1257t–1258t medical therapy, 1045
scototopic threshold response generation, fundus features central retinal vein occlusion neovascularization,
196 chorioretinal atrophy, 1262, 1262f 568
slow PIII, 183 choroidal neovascularization, 1262–1263, 1263f diabetic retinopathy neovascularization,
stem cells, 430 foveoschisis, 1263 see also Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
trophic support function, 422 lacquer cracks, 1262, 1262f environmental factors, 569
water clearance, 425–427, 425f macular retinoschisis, 1263, 1263f genetics, 568–569
Multifocal choroiditis (MFC) myopic conus, 1259–1260, 1260f overview, 567
clinical features, 1355–1357 posterior staphyloma, 1260–1262, 1261f epigenetics
course and prognosis, 1357–1358 histopathology choroidal neovascularization, 649
differential diagnosis, 1362 choroid, 1258–1259 retinal angiogenesis, 648
electrophysiology, 1359 retinal pigment epithelium, 1258–1259 fluorescein angiography, 34f, 36f–37f, 44f, 48f
epidemiology, 1355 sclera, 1258 fundus autofluorescence imaging of choroidal
imaging pathogenesis, 1256–1258 neovascularization, 118–121, 121f
fluorescein angiography, 1358, 1358f Myositis, see Dermatomyositis; Polymyositis hereditary vitreoretinopathies
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1359 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory
fundus photography, 1355–1356, 1357f N vitreoretinopathy, 848–849
indocyanine green angiography, 1358, 1359f NAC, see N-Acetylcysteine dominant peripheral retinal neovascularization,
optical coherence tomography, 1358–1359, NADPH oxidase (nox), inhibitors for 849
1359f neuroprotection, 721 indocyanine green angiography of choroid
indocyanine green angiography, 70 Nanoceria, neuroprotection, 723 type 1, 4–6, 60f
perimetry, 1359 Nanomedicine type 2, 57, 61f
systemic associations, 1359 drug delivery with nanoparticles proliferative diabetic retinopathy, see Diabetic
Multifocal electroretinogram, see Electroretinogram antibiotics, 694 retinopathy
Multimodal imaging, see Retinal image analysis antimetabolites, 694 retinopathy of prematurity neovascularization
Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) antioxidant therapy, 694–695, 696f–697f environmental factors, 569
autoantibodies, 1386 general considerations, 692–694, 693f genetics, 569
clinical features, 1364–1365 immunosuppression therapy, 695 overview, 567–568
course and prognosis, 1365 neurotrophins, 691–692 uveitis neovascularization, 568
differential diagnosis, 1367–1368 gene therapy applications Nerve growth factor (NGF)
electrophysiology, 1366 nonviral vectors, 695–698 glaucoma neuroprotection, 717
epidemiology, 1359–1361 ocular applications, 699 receptor modulation, 730
histoplasmosis differential diagnosis, 1275–1277 viral vectors, 698–699, 699f retinitis pigmentosa neuroprotection, 718
imaging imaging Neurofibroma, uvea, 2355
fluorescein angiography, 1365–1366, 1365f gold nanoparticles, 147, 147f Neurofibromatosis
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1366 iron oxide nanoparticles, 146–147 choroidal nevi, 2220
fundus photography, 1364–1365, 1364f overview, 699–700 combined systemic hamaromatoses, 2182
overview, 2170–2174 uveal effusion syndrome, 1624–1625 angioid streaks, 1269, 1271f
type, 1 Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome, 1628–1629, autosomal dominant radial drusen, 882
central nervous system features, 2172 1629f Best macular dystrophy, 859
diagnostic criteria, 2171t Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1339–1340, 1340f i19
management, 2173 macular edema management, 598 branch retinal artery occlusion, 105–106, 106f
ophthalmologic features, 2171, 2172f Normoxia, retina measurements, 434 branch retinal vein occlusion, 103–104, 105f,
skin features, 2171–2172 Norrie disease 1031–1032, 1032f
type, 2 overview, 1124–1125 bullous retinal detachment, 1623f
central nervous system features, 2173–2174 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1948–1949 cancer-associated retinopathy, 2197f–2198f

Index
diagnostic criteria, 2173t North Carolina macular dystrophy (NCMD), clinical central retinal artery occlusion, 104–105, 105f, 894f
management, 2174 features, 883, 884f central retinal vein occlusion, 103–104, 104f
ophthalmologic features, 2173, 2174t NOS, see Nitric oxide synthase central serous chorioretinopathy, 98–101,
skin features, 2173 nox, see NADPH oxidase 100f–101f, 1293–1294, 1296f–1298f
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosin (NCL) Nrf2 choroidal hemangioma, 1632f, 2341f, 2344
gene mutations, 790t–794t dietary antioxidant effects, 524 choroidal metastases, 2326
macular dystrophy differential diagnosis, 854, inflammation pathway, 519 choroidal nevi, 2227f
854f NRL, retinitis pigmentosa defects, 804 choroidal osteoma, 2334f–2335f, 2336
retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, NSAIDs, see Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal
796–798, 797f–798f Nucleus, photoreceptor, 353 pigment epithelium, 2215–2216, 2217f
Neuroprotection Nyctalopia, retinitis pigmentosa, 761–769 commercial instruments, 84t
antioxidant therapy, see Oxidative stress congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment
neurotrophic factors, see also specific neurotrophins O epithelium, 2212f
delivery, 720–730 OCL, see Outer collagenous layer cystoid macular edema
glaucoma, 717 Ocriplasmin, macular hole management, 1975 age-related macular degeneration
pathway modulation OCT, see Optical coherence tomography vitreomacular traction, 1981, 1983f
heat shock proteins, 728–730, 728f–729f Octopus perimetry, 314f, 316f, 323f–324f diabetic macular edema, 1981
long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, 730 Ocular histoplasmosis, see Histoplasmosis, ocular morphological subtypes, 1981t
minocycline, 728–729 Ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS) overview, 101, 102f
receptor agonists and antagonists, 730 carotid artery imaging, 1098, 1100f vitreomacular traction, 1981, 1982f
Rho, 729–730 clinical features, 441 data analysis, 83–85, 83f–85f
retinitis pigmentosa, 717–718 clinical presentation diabetic macular edema, 950–953, 950f, 952f–953f
overview, 716–717 amaurosis fugax, 1092 diabetic retinopathy
retinal cell loss, 545–547, 546t anterior segment findings, 1092, 1092f, 1097t nonproliferative disease, 101–103, 103f,
retinitis pigmentosa, 821 collateral vessels, 1092, 1092f 945–946, 946f
serotonin pathway, 717 pain, 1092 proliferative retinopathy, 103, 104f
small molecule neuroprotection posterior segment findings, 1092–1093, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, 1509f
calcium channel blockers, 727 1093f–1096f, 1097t Doppler optical coherence tomography, 141, 142f
neuromodulators and neurotransmitters, prolonged light recovery, 1091–1092 drusen in age-related macular degeneration, 1161
725–727 vision loss, 1072, 1073f epiretinal membrane, 1955f–1956f, 1957–1958,
overview, 725–730, 725t visual acuity, 1092 1958f
retinoids, 727 differential diagnosis, 1099–1100, 1101t frequency domain, 154
Nevus, see Choroidal nevi electroretinogram, 1098, 1100f geographic atrophy, 1175–1176, 1176f
NGF, see Nerve growth factor epidemiology, 1091 high myopia complications, 1913f–1915f,
Nicotinic acid, cystoid macular edema induction, etiology, 1091 1915–1916
1541 fluorescein angiography, 1093–1099, 1093f, historical perspective, 133–135, 151
Night blindness, see Congenital stationary night 1097f–1099f, 1097t hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 1536f
blindness; Nyctalopia history of study, 1091 hypotonic maculopathy, 1313–1314, 1314f
Night vision, dark adaptation functions, 288–289, systemic diseases, 1099 image analysis, see Retinal image analysis
288f treatment image-guided therapy, 155–156
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), inhibitors for carotid endarterectomy, 1100–1101 intermediate uveitis, 1406–1407
neuroprotection, 721–722 laser therapy, 1102 intraocular foreign body, 1859f
Nocardia, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021–2022 medical therapy, 1101–1102 laser therapy monitoring in real time, 759
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, see Lymphoma Ocular melanocytosis, see also Choroidal nevi long-wavelength imaging, 155
Nonrhegmatogenous retinal detachment, central nervous system features, 2181 macular hole
see also Retinal detachment management, 2181 lamellar macular hole, 1966, 1967f
age-related macular degeneration, 1630–1631, ophthalmologic features, 2181, 2181f pathogenesis studies, 1963, 1963f–1964f, 1966f
1630f overview, 2180–2181 macular telangiectasia, 1053–1054, 1054f
central retinal vein occlusion, 1626f, 1627–1628 skin features, 2181 modes, 82, 154
central serous chorioretinopathy Ocular trauma, see Trauma multifocal choroiditis, 1358–1359, 1359f
bullous retinal detachment, 1622–1624, 1623f OFF cone bipolar cell, 373–374, 374f multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, 1366,
chorionic central serous chorioretinopathy, Oguchi disease 1366f–1367f
1624, 1624f diagnosis, 903–904, 903f myopic foveoschisis, 1913f–1914f, 1917f
choroidal hemangioma, 1631–1635, 1632f electroretinogram, 209–210, 211f myopic macular degeneration, 1263f
choroidal melanoma, 1632–1633 treatment, 905 normal macular findings, 85–87, 86f–87f
Coats disease, 1625–1628, 1625f–1626f OIS, see Ocular ischemic syndrome operating microscope injury, 1559f
collagen vascular diseases, 1505 Oncherciasis optic disc pits, 1584f
diabetic retinopathy, 1627, 1627f clinical presentation, 1511 persistent placoid maculopathy, 1355
disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, 1637 epidemiology, 1510–1511 principles, 82f–83f, 98, 152–154, 153f
hemodialysis exudative detachment, 1637 treatment and prevention, 1511 punctate inner choroidopathy, 1361, 1362f
hypertension, 1626–1627 ON cone bipolar cell, 374–380, 374f–375f, 379f radiation retinopathy, 1085–1086
infection ONL, see Outer nuclear layer relentless placoid chorioretinitis, 1352
bacterial, 1630 ONS, see Organoid nevus syndrome retinal metastasis, 2192f
fungal, 1630 OP, see Oscillatory potential retinal pigment epithelium
viral, 1630 Ophthalmia, see Sympathetic ophthalmia deformation, 86f
leukemia, 1634–1635, 1635f OPL, see Outer plexiform layer detachment, 89f, 94–95, 95f–96f
lymphoma, 1634, 1634f–1635f Opsin, retinal detachment response, 607 tear, 95–96, 96f
metastases, 1633–1634, 1634f Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinitis pigmentosa, 780, 782f
morning glory syndrome, 1636–1637, 1636f achromatopsia, 899–901, 900f serpiginous choroiditis, 1347, 1348f–1349f
optic disk pit, 1635–1636 acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement, 1372 sickle cell retinopathy, 1080
organ transplantation exudative detachment, acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1373, 1373f solar maculopathy, 1557f
1637 acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment spectral domain optical coherence tomography
pathophysiology, 1622 epitheliopathy, 1344, 1344f age-related macular degeneration
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 1630–1631, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, 1369, 1370f dry type, 90–94, 90f–91f
1631f adaptive optics combination geographic atrophy, 92, 93f
postsurgical exudative retinal detachment, 1637 perimetry, 325 wet type, 94, 94f, 98f
pregnancy, 1626–1627, 1626f principles, 135, 135f disciform scarring, 96, 97f
scleritis, posterior, 1629–1630 prospects, 139 epiretinal membrane, 88–89, 89f
sympathetic ophthalmia, 1629 technology, 135–137, 136f fluid, intraretinal and subretinal, 94
macular hole, 89–90, 89f Osteoma, see Choroidal osteoma eyes with complete posterior hyaloid
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 98 OT-551 separation, 1885–1886, 1885f–1886f
principles, 154 antioxidant studies of neuroprotection, 724 eyes with incomplete posterior hyaloid
i20 retinal angiomatous proliferation, 97, 97f geographic atrophy management, 524 separation, 1886–1888, 1886f–1888f
vitromacular traction, 87–88, 88f Ouabain, retinal adhesion effects, 458 photocoagulation, 1889
Stargardt disease, 869 Outer collagenous layer (OCL), Bruch’s membrane, subtotal posterior vitreous adhesion, 1888, 1889f
swept source, 154 467 tamponade, 1889–1890
tamoxifen crystalline retinopathy, 1547f Outer nuclear layer (ONL), overview of retina rhegmatogenous retinal detachment management
time domain, 154 layers, 361–362, 362t advantages, 1712
Index

toxocariasis, 1503f Outer plexiform layer (OPL) core vitrectomy, 1713–1714, 1714f
uveal effusion syndrome, 1309 fluorescence microscopy, 363–364, 363f encirclement, 1715
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor overview of retina layers, 361–362, 362t fluid–air exchange, 1714f
therapy monitoring, 98, 98f–99f Outer segment (OS), photoreceptors outcomes, 1717–1718, 1717t–1718t
Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1333f, 1629f disc patient selection, 1713
welder’s maculopathy, 1557f morphogenesis, 346 peripheral vitrectomy, 1714–1715, 1714f
X-linked retinoschisis, 845, 845f stabilizing proteins, 345–346 phacoemulsification and intraocular lens
Optic cup, patterning, 333 interdigitation between outer segment and retinal implantation, 1715
Optic disc pigment epithelium microvilli, 451, 451f photocoagulation/cryopexy of tear, 1714f, 1715
anatomy, 1583, 1584f lipids, 346–347 pneumatic retinopexy comparison, 1730
anomalies phototransduction protein targeting, 352 port creation through pars plana, 1713
aplasia, 1583 plasma membrane, 346 positioning following surgery, 1715
cavities, 1583 retinal pigment epithelium in phagocytosis, principles, 1713
hypoplasia, 1583 406–407, 407f scleral buckling surgery comparison, 1718t
megalopapilla, 1583 structural overview, 343–347 sutureless microincision surgery, 1715–1717,
fluorescein angiography, 12–16, 25, 26f, 39, 39f Oxidative stress 1716f
fundus image analysis, 160–161 age-related macular degeneration, 517–518, 518t, tamponade, 1715
hypotonic maculopathy and edema, 1315 522t triamcinolone acetonide use, 1715f
retinitis pigmentosa, 768f–769f antioxidant defenses, 517 uveal effusion syndrome management, 1311
swelling in proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 972, antioxidant therapy for neuroprotection Pattern dystrophy (PD), see also specific dystrophies
974f N-acetylcysteine, 722 clinical features
Optic disc melanocytoma age-related macular degeneration, 723–724 adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform pattern
clinical features, 2205–2206, 2205f–2206f endogenous antioxidant defense bolstering, dystrophy, 877
diagnosis, 2207–2208, 2207f 722 butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy, 876–877
history of study, 2205 lutein, 722 central areolar retinochoidal dystrophy,
management, 2208 NADPH oxidase inhibitors, 721 878–879, 878f
pathology and pathogenesis, 2206–2207, 2206f nanoceria, 723 Sjögren reticular dystrophy of the retinal
Optic disc pit nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, 721–722 pigment epithelium, 877–878, 878f
central serous chorioretinopathy differential OT-551, 724 electroretinogram, 879
diagnosis, 1298 Rac1 targeting, 722 fundus photography, 876f–879f
epidemiology, 1583–1585 rationale, 721–723 overview, 875–880, 876f
macular detachment retinitis pigmentosa, 724 pathophysiology, 879–880
appearance, 1585 rod-derived cone viability factor, 722 treatment, 880
course, 1585 saffron extract, 723 Pattern electroretinogram (PERG), 195, 220f
pathophysiology, 1586, 1586f zeaxanthin, 722 Pattern macular dystrophy, choroidal disease
prognosis, 1586 diabetic retinopathy, 518–519, 518t, 522t, 928 differential diagnosis, 897
treatment, 1586–1587 inflammation relationship, 522–523, 523t, 554–557 Pax6, eye field development role, 331, 332f, 335
optical coherence tomography, 1584f inherited retinal degeneration, 518t, 519–520 PCNSL, see Primary central nervous system
pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1949–1950, 1949f mitochondria lymphoma
retinal changes, 1584–1585, 1585f DNA oxidative damage, 638–640, 640f PCST, see Portal color sort test
retinal detachment, 1635–1636 oxidative injury, 521–522, 522t PCV, see Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
visual defects, 1584 reactive oxygen species formation, 636 PD, see Pattern dystrophy
Optic nerve nanoparticle antioxidant therapy, 694–695, PDA, see Kynurenic acid
avulsion trauma, 1567 696f–697f PDE, see Phosphodiesterase
choroidal melanoma invasion, 2273–2274 overview, 517 PDGF, see Platelet-derived growth factor
head, see Optic disc photoreceptor oxidative injury, 521 PDI, see Protein disulfide isomerase
hypertensive optic neuropathy, 1004 retinal pigment epithelium oxidative injury, 520 PDT, see Photodynamic therapy
mitochondria localization, 636–638 retinopathy of prematurity, 557 PEDF, see Pigment epithelium-derived factor
prosthesis for artificial vision, 2080 therapeutic targeting Pediatric vitreoretinal surgery
retinoblastoma involvement, 2135 advanced glycation end-product inhibitors, 525 choroidal neovascularization membranes, 1943
sickle cell disease effects, 1073, 1074f antioxidants Coats disease, 1943–1944, 1944f
tuberous sclerosis complex manifestations, 2167 diet, 524 coloboma, 1950
ultrasonography supplements, 523–524 cornea and keratoprosthesis, 1935–1936, 1936t
coloboma, 255, 259f gene therapy, 525 developmental considerations, 1933–1935,
cupping assessment, 255–258 overview, 523–525, 524t 1933t–1934t, 1934f
Opticin vasculature oxidative injury, 520–521 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, 1945–1947,
vitreous, 483 Ozurdex dexamethasone implant, 740–741, 740f 1946f
vitreous body, 483–486, 483f–486f incontinentia pigmenti, 1948
Optogenetics, artificial vision, 2089 P Kneist dysplasia, 1945, 1946f
Ora bay, 490, 492f Paclitaxel (Taxol) Knobloch syndrome, 1948
Oradialysis, pediatric vitreoretinal surgery in proliferative vitreoretinopathy prevention, 1777, lens management, 1936
trauma, 1939–1940 1778t Marfan syndrome, 1947
Oral contraceptives, retinal toxicity, 1539, 1540f cystoid macular edema induction, 1541, 1545f myopia complications, 1942–1949
Organ transplantation, exudative detachment PACS, see Picture archiving system Norrie disease, 1948–1949
association, 1637 PAN, see Polyarteritis nodosa optic pit, 1949–1950, 1949f
Organoid nevus syndrome (ONS) PAOM, see Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous,
central nervous system features, 2178 Papilledema, fluorescein angiography, 39 1950–1951
management, 2178–2179 Paracentesis, pneumatic retinopexy, 1725–1726, 1725f posterior segment surgical techniques, 1936–1939,
ophthalmologic features, 2178, 2179f Paracoccidioidomycosis, ocular infection in AIDS, 1937f, 1938t
overview, 2178 1462 preoperative examination and treatment, 1935
skin features, 2178 Pars plana, development, 1934f, 1934t retinopathy of prematurity, see Retinopathy of
OS, see Outer segment Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), see also Vitrectomy prematurity
Oscillatory potential (OP), electroretinogram children, see Pediatric vitreoretinal surgery Stickler syndrome, 1945–1947, 1945f
abnormalities, 204, 205f endogenous endophthalmitis management, 1519 tamponade, 1939
origins proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery trauma indications
cell types, 197–198 closure, 1890 closed globe injuries
models for study, 184–185 combined traction and rhegmatogenous macular hole, 1940–1941, 1941f
neuron interactions, 198, 198f detachment, 1888–1889 oradialysis, 1939–1940
overview, 196–198 entry site preparation, 1884–1885, 1884f vitreous hemorrhage, 1941
open globe injuries, 1939, 1940f epidemiology, 1350 Photopsia, retinitis pigmentosa, 764
shaken baby syndrome, 1942, 1943f imaging Photoreceptor, see also Cone; Rod
Terson syndrome, 1941–1942, 1942f fluorescein angiography, 1353–1355, 1354f age-related macular degeneration changes, 1154,
X-linked retinoschisis, 1947–1948, 1947t fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1339 1159 i21
Pedicule, cone, 366, 367f–369f fundus photography, 1353, 1353f aging changes, 1154
PEG, see Polyethylene glycol indocyanine green angiography, 1353–1355, cilium connection of segments, 352–353
Pegaptanib 1354f classification, 364–392, 364t
age-related macular degeneration, wet type optical coherence tomography, 1355 coupling, 366–368
management, 1203 pathogenesis, 1355 diseases

Index
branch retinal vein occlusion management, 1036, systemic associations, 1355 constitutive phototransduction and retinal
1044–1045 treatment, 1340 disease, 354–355
PEHCR, see Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic PET, see Positron emission tomography PDE6 mutations, 355
chorioretinopathy PFCL, see Perfluorocarbon liquid rhodopsin mutations, 354
Penicillin G, syphilis treatment, 1488–1489, 1488t PFSU, see Progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis transducin mutations, 355
Pentoxifylline, central retinal vein occlusion syndrome embryonic stem cell differentiation, 671–672
management, 1045–1046 PFV, see Persistent fetal vasculature glutamate release in dark, 368–369
Perfluoro-octane, see Perfluorocarbon liquid Phacamatosis pigment vascularis inner segment, 342, 351–352
Perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL), see also central nervous system features, 2180 light damage and apoptosis induction, 545
Heavy tamponade complications classification, 2179t mitochondria localization, 636–638, 637f
anterior chamber liquid, 1754, 1754f management, 2180 models for analysis, 342
subretinal liquid, 1753–1754 ophthalmologic features, 2180, 2180f nucleus, 353
toxicity, 1754 overview, 2179–2180 outer segment
drainage retinotomy skin features, 2180 disc
removal, 1830 Phosphodiesterase (PDE) morphogenesis, 346
utilization, 1826–1827, 1827f, 1834, 1835f deactivation, 349 stabilizing proteins, 345–346
indications endoplasmic reticulum stress with mutations, lipids, 346–347
giant retinal tears, 1749–1751, 1750f–1751f 533 phototransduction protein targeting, 352
lens dislocation, 1752, 1752f PDE6 mutations, 355 plasma membrane, 346
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1748–1749 phototransduction signal activation and structural overview, 343–347
suprachoroidal hemorrhage, 1753–1754, amplification, 347 oxidative injury, 521
1753f retinitis pigmentosa defects, 804–805 phototransduction
trauma, 1751–1752 Phosphorous-32, choroidal osteoma uptake, cascade, 348f
vitreous base shaving, 1749 2336 cyclic GMP-gated channel feedback regulation,
injection technique, 1747 Photic retinal injury 350
physical properties, 1737, 1746–1747, 1747t age-related macular degeneration, phototoxicity light adaptation
prospects, 1754 hypothesis, 1560 calcium feedback, 349–351, 350f
removal technique, 1747–1748 apoptosis induction, 545 guanylyl cyclase role, 349
silicone oil exchange, 1709, 1709f, 1748–1753, photochemical injury overview, 286, 349
1748f mechanisms, 1557 overview, 347–351
types, 1746–1747 solar maculopathy, 1557–1558, 1557f protein translocation, 350–351
vitreoretinal surgery utilization, 1707–1708, welder’s maculopathy, 1557–1558, 1557f recoverin control of rhodopsin kinase, 350
1708f operating microscope and endoilluminator rod versus cone, 351
Perforating injury, see Trauma injury, 1534f, 1558–1560 signal activation and amplification, 347
PERG, see Pattern electroretinogram ophthalmoscope injury, 1560 signal deactivation
Pericyte, diabetic retinopathy and loss, 542, 542f, fundus camera injury, 1560 phosphodiesterase, 349
925–926, 925f photomechanical injury rhodopsin quenching, 347–349
Perifoveal capillary net, fluorescein angiography, laser accidents, 1555–1556 regeneration
16 mechanisms, 1555 clinical trials, 718–720, 719f–720f
Perimetry, see Visual field testingacute idiopathic photothermal injury endpoints in trials, 720
blind spot enlargement, 1372, 1372f laser pointers, 1532–1533 retinal detachment response
acute macular neuroretinopathy, 1373 mechanisms, 1556 acute detachment, 606–608, 608f–609f
acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, 1369, 1370f operating room, 1532 chronic detachment, 611–612
autoimmune retinopathy, 1383f–1384f slit-lamp photocoagular operators, 1556 stem cell therapy, 2068–2069
birdshot chorioretinopathy, 1340 practical prevention, 1561 synaptic terminal, 353–354, 353f
central serous chorioretinopathy microperimetry, safety standards in prevention, 1560–1561 ultrastructure, 342, 343f–344f
1295 sunglasses in prevention, 1560 Photoreceptor cell-specific ATP-binding cassette
cytomegalovirus retinitis screening, 1447f Photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy (PAOM) transporter (ABCR), outer segment disc
macular telangiectasia adaptive optics imaging comparison with optical coherence tomography, stabilization, 345
for microperimetry, 1055 145f Photoreceptor transplantation
multifocal choroiditis, 1359 instrumentation, 144–145 animal models of retinal degeneration, 2064–2068
multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, 1367 principles, 144 immune response, 2070–2071
punctate inner choroidopathy, 1362 prospects, 145 implantation sites and preparation, 2065
retinitis pigmentosa, 761–763, 762f–763f, 769–772, Photochemical damage, see Light damage outcomes, 2069–2070
771f–773f Photocoagulation, see Laser therapy photoreceptor cell
serpiginous choroiditis, 1349 Photodynamic therapy (PDT), see also Laser therapy replacement, 2067–2068, 2068f
snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration, 839 age-related macular degeneration, wet type rescue, 2065–2067, 2066f, 2067t
Peripapillary choroidal dystrophy, clinical features, follow-up evaluation, 1203 prospects, 2071
892, 892f overview, 1202–1203 rationale, 2064–2071
Peripheral exudative hemorrhagic chorioretinopathy patient preparation, 1202–1203 PHPV, see Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
(PEHCR), indocyanine green angiography, 68, ranibizumab comparison, 1204–1205 Phthisis, ultrasonography, 232, 233f
73f–75f sensitizer structures and pharmacology, 1247f, PIC, see Punctate inner choroidopathy
Peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK), rheumatic 1248 Picture archiving system (PACS), retinal images,
disease, 1415 trials, 1601–1602 156–157
Peripherin verteporfin, 1248–1249 Pigmented paravenous retinochordal atrophy
outer segment disc stabilization, 345 angioid streaks, 1270 (PPRCA), retinitis Pigment epithelial-derived
retinitis pigmentosa defects, 804, 806f–807f central serous chorioretinopathy management factor (PEDF)
PERK, see Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic with verteporfin age-related macular degeneration
reticulum kinase conventional dose, 1301 gene therapy, 1245
Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), overview, 1124 safety-enhanced dosing and laser fluence wet type pathophysiology, 1217, 1220–1221
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), reduction, 1301–1302 angiogenesis regulation, 571
see also Persistent fetal vasculature choroidal hemangioma, 2342f, 2345–2348, 2346t gene therapy, 661
pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1950–1951 combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal Pigment epithelial window defect, fluorescein
toxocariasis differential diagnosis, 1505 pigment epithelium, 2217 angiography hyperfluorescence, 29–49, 29f–30f,
Persistent placoid maculopathy (PPM) histoplasmosis, 1280 10.e1f
clinical features, 1353 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 1289 pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 799–800, 800f
course and prognosis, 1353 pregnancy safety studies, 1579 PIM1, retinitis pigmentosa defects, 804
differential diagnosis, 1355 principles, 750–751, 750f–751f Pinealoma, trilateral retinoblastoma, 2143, 2143f
electrophysiology, 1355 uveal melanoma, 2310–2311 PINK1, autophagy role, 538–539
Pituitary ablation, proliferative diabetic retinopathy epidemiology, 1286 PR, see Pneumatic retinopexy
management, 982 indocyanine green angiography, 61–64, 66f–68f, Pre-eclampsia
PKC, see Protein kinase C 1287–1288, 1288b, 1288f–1289f choroidopathy, 1572
i22 Plaque brachytherapy, see Radiation therapy optical coherence tomography, 98 overview, 1571–1572
Plasmin, vitreolysis, 2095 overview, 1285 retinopathy, 1571
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) pathogenesis, 1285–1286 vision loss, 1572
age-related macular degeneration retinal detachment, 1630–1631, 1631f Pregnancy
therapeutic targeting, 1243–1244 serous retinal detachment, 621 amniotic fluid embolism, 1574
wet type pathophysiology, 1220–1221 treatment branch retinal artery occlusion, 1573
Index

proliferative vitreoretinopathy combination therapy, 1290 central retinal artery occlusion, 1573
pathophysiology, 1642 laser photocoagulation, 1289 central retinal vein occlusion, 1573
wound healing, 1650–1651, 1650f photodynamic therapy, 1289 central serous chorioretinopathy, 1572–1573
PNET, see Primitive neural ectodermal tumor vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, diabetic retinopathy
Pneumatic retinopexy (PR) 1289 development in pregnancy, 1576
acceptance, 1731 PORN, see Progressive outer retinal necrosis diabetic macular edema, 1577–1578
anesthesia, 1723 Portal color sort test (PSCT), 297 fetal outcomes, 1574–1578
complication management Positron emission tomography (PET) glycemic control, 1576
fish eggs, 1727–1728, 1727f sarcoidosis, 1392 nonproliferative disease
gas entrapment at injection site, 1728, 1728f uveal melanoma patients, 2313, 2314f mild, 1576
overview, 1731, 1731t Posterior scleritis, see Scleritis moderate to severe, 1576–1577
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1731 Posterior staphyloma overview, 919, 944
retinal break recurrence, 1731 myopic macular degeneration, 1260–1262, pregnancy effects on disease, 1575–1576
steamroller, 1728, 1729f 1261f progression, 1575, 1578
subretinal gas, 1731 ultrasonography proliferative disease, 1577, 1577f
cryopexy versus laser, 1724 overview, 230 disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, 1573
gas scleral buckle, 230, 231f eclampsia
injection, 1726, 1726f Posterior uveal melanoma, see also Uveal choroidopathy, 1572
intraocular gas properties, 1721–1722, 1722t melanoma overview, 1571–1572
preparation, 1725, 1725f choroidal nevi association, 2233 retinopathy, 1571
types and amounts, 1724–1725 epidemiology vision loss, 1572
historical perspective, 1721 age and sex differences, 2231 pre-eclampsia
horseshoe retinal tear, 1787 cancer history, 2234 choroidopathy, 1572
intraocular pressure assessment, 1727 diet, 2234 overview, 1571–1572
number of sessions, 1723–1724, 1724b eye and skin color, 2234 retinopathy, 1571
outcomes geographic distribution, 2234–2235 vision loss, 1572
comparison with other techniques hormonal factors, 2233–2234 retinal detachment, 1626–1627, 1626f
scleral buckling surgery, 1730 incidence, 2231, 2232t safety
vitrectomy, 1730 occupational and chemical exposures, fluorescein angiography, 1579
overview, 1730, 1730t 2235 indocyanine green angiography, 1579
overview of steps, 1726f, 1728–1729 race, 2231–2232 photodynamic therapy, 1579
paracentesis, 1725–1726, 1725f smoking, 2234 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors,
patient instruction, 1727 sunlight, 2234 1579
patient selection genetics, 2232–2233 thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, 1573–1574
aphakia, 1723 management uveal melanoma risks, 1574
glaucoma, 1723 enucleation uveitis, noninfectious, 1578–1579
ideal situations, 1723 overview, 2239, 2268 Preprocessing, retinal image analysis, 157
lattice degeneration, 1723 prognosis, 2240 Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome,
opacities, 1723 local resection, 2268 see Histoplasmosis
positioning considerations, 1722–1723 metastasis, 2269 Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)
posterior vitreous detachment, 1723 orbital exenteration, 2268 clinical findings
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1722 radiation therapy central nervous system, 2374–2375
pseudoaphakia, 1723 metastasis and survival, 2239–2240 eye, 2373–2375, 2374f
retinal breaks overview, 2238, 2268 definition, 2373
extent, 1722 visual prognosis and ocular morbidity, diagnosis, 2375
inferior breaks, 1722 2240–2241, 2241f differential diagnosis, 2375–2376
postoperative management, 1729–1730 transpupillary thermotherapy, 2238–2239, epidemiology, 2373
prophylactic therapy during surgery for retinal 2267–2268 etiology, 2373
detachment, 1801 metastasis prognostic indicators pathogenesis, 2373
retina–gas interface, 1722 cytogenetics, 2243 primary intraocular lymphoma, 2373
sterilization of ocular surface, 1725 extrascleral extension, 2242–2243 prognosis, 2377
Pneumocystis carinii choroidopathy, features in AIDS, general considerations, 2267 radiation therapy
1459–1460, 1460f histopathology, 2242 central nervous system, 2377
PNR, see Proximal negative response microvasculature, 2242 eye, 2376–2377
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), see also Vasculitis periodic observation, 2267 Primitive neural ectodermal tumor (PNET), trilateral
epidemiology, 1434 tumor size, 2241–2242, 2241f retinoblastoma, 2143, 2143f
ocular disease features, 1434 Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) Prinomastat, proliferative vitreoretinopathy
systemic disease, 1434 aging prevention, 1777, 1778t
treatment, 1434 epidemiology, 498 Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), herpetic
Polyethylene glycol (PEG), drug delivery, 734–735, overview, 497–498 retinitis, 1459
735f symptomatic disease, 498 Progressive subretinal fibrosis and uveitis syndrome
Polymorphisms anomalous posterior vitreous detachment (PFSU)
frequency, 629–630 cystoid macular edema, 500, 502f clinical features, 1360, 1363
types, 630 macular cyst, 500, 502f course and prognosis, 1363
Polymyositis macular hole differential diagnosis, 1363
diagnostic criteria, 1429b histopathology and pseudo-operculum, 504, epidemiology, 1359–1361
epidemiology, 1429 504f imaging
ocular disease features, 1429 overview, 500, 503f–504f, 504–505 fluorescein angiography, 1363
systemic disease, 1429 pathogenesis, 504–505 fundus photography, 1363
treatment manifestations, 498f pathogenesis, 1363
ocular disease, 1430 peripheral retinal effects, 500, 500f systemic associations, 1363
systemic disease, 1429–1430 vitreomacular traction, 500, 501f treatment, 1363–1364
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) vitreous effects, 498–500, 499f Proliferative diabetic retinopathy, see also Diabetic
classification, 1288 macular hole progression, 1963–1964 retinopathy
clinical features, 1286–1287, 1286f–1287f, 1288b Potassium iodate, retinal toxicity, 1538–1539 management
differential diagnosis PPM, see Persistent placoid maculopathy laser therapy
age-related macular degeneration, 1288 PPRCA, see Pigmented paravenous retinochordal advanced disease, 990–991
central serous chorioretinopathy, 1288–1289, atrophy complications, 995–996, 995b
1298–1300 PPV, see Pars plana vitrectomy direct treatment, 991, 992f
early studies, 982–983 transforming growth factor-β, 1642 PRPF genes, retinitis pigmentosa defects, 808–809
number of scatter treatments, 993 vascular endothelial growth factor, 1643 Pseudoadenomatous hyperplasia, ciliary body, 2353
outcomes, 994–995, 994t Müller cells, 1641 Pseudoaphakia
panretinal photocoagulation, 983–987, retinal pigment epithelium cells, 1641 pneumatic retinopexy considerations, 1723 i23
983t–986t, 984f, 986f classification, 1808–1809, 1809t–1810t proliferative vitreoretinopathy, see Proliferative
pattern scanning delivery systems, 993 diagnosis, 1807–1808, 1808f–1809f vitreoretinopathy
protocol, 991–993, 991t–992t epigenetics prophylactic therapy
retreatment indications, 994–995 DNA methylation, 646 complications, 1804
scatter photocoagulation and macular histone modification, 646 cryotherapy

Index
edema, 989–990 giant retinal tear surgery, 1846–1848 advantages and disadvantages, 1801–1802
wavelength, 993–994 heavy tamponade complication, 1774 surgical adjunct, 1802
pituitary ablation, 982 Müller cell reactivity, 430f laser photocoagulation
timing, 987–989, 988f–989f overview, 1640, 1640f advantages and disadvantages, 1802
vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists, pathophysiology, 1806–1807, 1806f surgical adjunct, 1802–1803
996 perfluorocarbon liquid indications, 1748–1749 outcomes
vitrectomy indications, 984t, 997 pneumatic retinopexy flap tears, 1803
vitreolysis, 996–997 considerations, 1722 lattice degeneration, 1803
neovascularization complications, 1731 previous retinal detachment in fellow eye,
environmental factors, 569 patient selection considerations, 1722 1804
genetics, 568–569 prevention retinal holes, 1803–1804
origin and early recognition, 970–972, corticosteroids, 1775 retinal detachment
970f–972f daunorubicin, 1776–1777 asymptomatic nonfellow eye
overview, 567 experimental drugs, 1777, 1778t giant retinal tears, 1801
silicone oil indications, 1760 5-fluorouracil, 1775–1776 retinal break, 1801
surgical management heparin, 1777 retinal break precursors, 1800
anesthesia, 1881 low-molecular weight heparin, 1777 nonfellow eye with high-risk factors, 1797
cataract, 1876–1877 mechanisms of drug actions, 1775f Pseudofluorescence, 3, 3f, 27
combined traction-rhegmatogenous overview, 1809–1810 Pseudomonas, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021
detachment, 1879, 1879f prospects, 1778 Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE)
complications retinoic acid, 1777 angioid streaks, 477, 1267–1268, 1269f
intraoperative, 1891–1892 retinal detachment fundus autofluorescence imaging, 128–129, 130f
postoperative, 1892–1894, 1893f–1894f association, 609–613 Psoriatic arthritis
education and training, 1880–1883, 1881f epidemiology, 1806 CASPAR criteria, 1420b
equipment, 1881–1883, 1882f risk factors, 1807 epidemiology, 1420
fibrovascular proliferation, 1877, 1877f surgical management ocular disease features, 1420–1421
glaucoma, 1879–1880 adequacy testing, 1813–1814, 1814f systemic disease, 1420
informed consent, 1880 adjunctive therapy, 1821 treatment
outcomes anesthesia, 1811 ocular disease, 1421
cataract surgery, 1894 anterior tractional membrane removal, 1813, systemic disease, 1421
glaucoma surgery, 1896 1814f PUK, see Peripheral ulcerative keratitis
retinal detachment, 1895–1896, 1895t chorioretinal adhesion and scleral indentation, Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC)
vitreomacular traction, 1894–1895 1815–1816 clinical features, 1359–1360
vitreous hemorrhage surgery, 1894 complications course and prognosis, 1360–1361
overview, 1876 early, 1819–1820 differential diagnosis, 1362–1363
pars plana vitrectomy intraoperative, 1819 electrophysiology, 1362
closure, 1890 late, 1820–1821, 1820f epidemiology, 1359–1361
combined traction and rhegmatogenous contraindications, 1823–1824 imaging
detachment, 1888–1889 epiretinal membrane removal, 1813, 1813f fluorescein angiography, 1361, 1361f
entry site preparation, 1884–1885, 1884f fluid–air exchange, 1815 fundus photography, 1360, 1360f
eyes with complete posterior hyaloid lens management, 1812 indocyanine green angiography, 77, 1361, 1361f
separation, 1885–1886, 1885f–1886f outcomes, 1821–1823, 1822t–1823t, 1823f optical coherence tomography, 1361, 1362f
eyes with incomplete posterior hyaloid perfluorocarbon liquid, 1813 pathogenesis, 1362
separation, 1886–1888, 1886f–1888f postoperative management, 1819 perimetry, 1362
photocoagulation, 1889 relaxing retinectomy, 1834 treatment, 1363
subtotal posterior vitreous adhesion, 1888, retinectomy, 1840 Pupil
1889f scleral buckling, 1810 constriction in proliferative diabetic retinopathy
tamponade, 1889–1890 subretinal membrane removal, 1814–1815, surgery, 1891
postoperative care 1815f ganglion cell in diameter control, 391
convalescence, 1890 tamponade Purtscher’s retinopathy, trauma, 1568, 1568f
examinations, 1890–1891 heavy silicone oil, 1817–1818 PVD, see Posterior vitreous detachment
glycemic control, 1891 overview, 1816, 1816t PVR, see Proliferative vitreoretinopathy
medications, 1890–1891 removal of silicone oil, 1818 PXE, see Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
revision surgery, 1891 silicone oil, 1816–1817, 1817f
preoperative evaluation, 1880 technique, 1811–1812 Q
preoperative preparation, 1881, 1881f vitrectomy, 1810–1813, 1812f Quantum dot, imaging, 147–148
retinal detachment, tractional detachment, wound healing and traumatic proliferative Quinine retinopathy
1878–1879, 1878f vitreoretinopathy retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 799
techniques cellular response, 1649–1650, 1651f quinine sulfate retinopathy clinical features,
cataract surgery, 1883 extracellular matrix remodeling, 1651–1652 1536–1537, 1537f
glaucoma surgery, 1883–1884 growth factors, 1650–1651, 1650f
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors Propionibacterium, infectious endophthalmitis, 2021, R
with vitreoretinal surgery, 2098–2099, 2099f 2047f–2048f RA, see Retinoic acid; Rheumatoid arthritis
vitreomacular traction, 1878 Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), 532, 532f Rac1, targeting for neuroprotection, 722
vitreous hemorrhage, 1877–1878, 1878f Protein kinase C (PKC) Racemose hemangiomatosis, see Wyburn-Mason
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) age-related macular degeneration therapeutic syndrome
biomarkers, 1644 targeting, 1244 Radial optic neuropathy (RON)
cellular pathophysiology diabetic retinopathy activation, 519 central retinal vein occlusion management, 1047
blood-borne cells, 1641–1642 diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis, 928–929 surgical management, 1985
membrane composition, 1641 macular edema role, 594 Radiation retinopathy (RR)
modulators Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum classification, 1085–1086
connective tissue growth factor, 1643 kinase (PERK), unfolded protein response clinical features, 1084–1085, 1084f
epidermal growth factor, 1643 signaling, 530 diagnosis, 1086–1087
extracellular matrix remodeling, 1643–1644, Proteinuria, diabetic retinopathy association, 917 fluorescein angiography, 1084–1085, 1084f
1644f Proton beam therapy, see Radiation therapy incidence and dosimetry
fibroblast growth factor-2, 1642 Proximal negative response (PNR), duration, 1086
hepatocyte growth factor, 1642 electroretinogram fractionation, 1086
monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, 1642 applications, 220 radiation type, 1086
platelet-derived growth factor, 1642 origins, 192–195, 194f radiation volume, 1086
total dose, 1086 visual prognosis and ocular morbidity, fluorescein angiography, 1352
treatment modality, 1086 2240–2241, 2241f fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1352
natural history, 1084–1085 secondary local resection after toxic tumor fundus photography, 1346, 1351f
i24 ocular findings, 1085t syndrome, 2305, 2305f–2306f indocyanine green angiography, 1352
optical coherence tomography, 1085–1086 RAGE, see Receptor for advanced glycation end optical coherence tomography, 1352
overview, 1083 products pathogenesis, 1352
pathogenesis, 1083 Ranibizumab systemic associations, 1349
prognosis, 1088 age-related macular degeneration, wet type treatment, 1353
risk factors, 1086 management Retinal adhesion
Index

treatment, 1087–1088 efficacy, 1227–1230, 1228f–1229f, 1231t–1233t fluid pressure, 448–450, 449f–450f
Radiation therapy follow-up, 1204f, 1207 force magnitude, 447
age-related macular degeneration, wet type, minimally classic lesion efficacy, 1205 ionic sensitivity, 447–448, 448f
1209 photodynamic therapy comparison, 1204–1205 measurement, 447
choroidal hemangioma safety, 1205–1206 mechanical forces inside subretinal space,
brachytherapy, 2348 angioid streak management, 1272 618–619
external beam radiation therapy, 2348 bevacizumab comparison, 1225f mechanical forces outside subretinal space
Gamma Knife, 2349 branch retinal vein occlusion management, 1036 interdigitation between outer segment and
proton beam therapy, 2348–2349 diabetic macular edema management, 959, retinal pigment epithelium microvilli, 451,
choroidal metastases 960f–961f 451f
brachytherapy, 2327 histoplasmosis management, 1281 interphotoreceptor matrix properties, 451–452,
complications, 2327–2328 macular edema management, 599, 600f 452f–453f
external beam radiation therapy, 2326, 2327f RAP, see Retinal angiomatous proliferation overview, 448, 451–456
Gamma Knife, 2327, 2327f Rapamycin, age-related macular degeneration retinal pigment epithelium subcellular
proton beam irradiation, 2327 management, 1247–1248 components and mobility, 452–454
Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Rayleigh equation, anomaloscope color matching metabolic factors
brachytherapy findings test, 294–296, 296f inhibitor studies, 455–456, 455f
complications, 2318–2319 Rb, see Retinoblastoma protein oxygen dependence, 454, 454f, 619
participants, 2318 RB1 mutations, see Retinoblastoma subretinal fluid transport and protein
quality of life, 2319–2320 RD, see Retinal dialyses concentration, 456, 457f, 619
survival, 2318, 2319f–2320f RdCVF, see Rod-derived cone viability factor pharmacological modification
radiation therapy before enucleation findings Reactive arthritis acetazolamide, 455f, 457–458
complications, 2320 epidemiology, 1419 ionic solutions, 458
participants, 2320 ocular disease features, 1419 mannitol, 456–457, 457f
survival, 2320, 2321f systemic disease, 1419 ouabain, 458
primary central nervous system lymphoma treatment prospects for study, 461–462
central nervous system, 2377 ocular disease, 1419 serous detachment pathophysiology, 459–461,
eye, 2376–2377 systemic disease, 1419 460f–461f
retinoblastoma Reactive oxygen species, see Oxidative stress surgical implications
brachytherapy, 2105f, 2130–2131 Receiver operator characteristics (ROC), retinal recovery, 458
complications image analysis algorithms, 159 retinopexy effects, 458–459, 459f
bony hypoplasia, 2137–2139 Receptor for advanced glycation end products vitreous effects in subretinal space, 459
cataract, 2137 (RAGE), diabetic retinopathy variants, 930 temperature sensitivity, 447–448, 448f, 458
cognitive deficits, 2138 Receptor interacting protein (RIP) kinase, retinal vitreous support, 450–451
retinopathy, 2137–2138 detachment response, 607 Retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP)
secondary malignant neoplasms, 2138 Recoverin indocyanine green angiography, 61, 63f–65f
external beam radiotherapy, 2128–2129 control of rhodopsin kinase, 350 optical coherence tomography, 97, 97f
intensity modulated radiation therapy, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis antigen, Retinal autoimmunity, see also Autoimmune
2129–2130, 2129f–2130f 585 retinopathies
proton beam radiotherapy, 2130 retina autoantigen, 1381, 1381t infection induction, 586–587
uveal melanoma Rectus muscle, slinging for scleral buckle surgery, protective function, 586
charged-particle irradiation 1672, 1674f uveitis, 585–587
clinical findings, 2293 Refsum disease Retinal biopsy
complications, 2294–2295 gene mutations, 790t–794t indications, 2048t
depth–dose curve, 2290f retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis transvitreal approach
dose, 2292 adult-onset disease, 796 case examples, 2053b–2054b, 2054f
enucleation frequency, 2295 infantile disease, 796 histology, 2053
follow-up, 2292 Registration, retinal image analysis, 158, 165f–166f, outcomes, 2053
metastasis and survival, 2296 172, 172f technique, 2052–2053, 2053f
operative technique, 2290–2291, 2291f Reiter syndrome, see Reactive arthritis uveitis, 2041–2042
overview, 2290 Relapsing polychondritis Retinal cavernous hemangiomatosis
patient selection, 2290 epidemiology, 1430 central nervous system features, 2178
planning, 2291, 2291f–2292f ocular disease features, 1430 management, 2178
recurrence, 2295 systemic disease, 1430, 1430t ophthalmologic features, 2177–2178, 2177f
technique, 2291–2292, 2292f treatment skin features, 2178
tumor regression, 2293 ocular disease, 1430 types, 2177–2178
visual outcomes, 2293–2294, 2293f–2294f systemic disease, 1430 Retinal concussion, features, 1565
choroidal melanoma brachytherapy Relaxing retinectomy Retinal contusion, features, 1565
adjuvant therapy, 2286 complications, 1841–1842 Retinal densitometry, retinitis pigmentosa,
dosimetry, 2275 indications, 1830–1834, 1831b 774–775
isotope selection, 2275–2277, 2276f–2277f, outcomes, 1841 Retinal detachment, see also Nonrhegmatogenous
2276t precautions, 1840–1841 retinal detachment; Retinal dialyses; Retinal
juxtapapillary tumors, 2279–2280 principles and techniques, 1831–1833, pigment epithelium; Retinal tear;
large tumors, 2279 1832f–1833f Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment; Round
local tumor response, 2283 proliferative vascular retinopathy, 1834 hole retinal detachment
medium tumors, 2277–2278, 2278f trauma, 1833–1834, 1833f–1835f acute detachment response
plaque design, 2277, 2277f Relaxing retinotomy Müller cell, 609, 610f–612f
plaque placement, 2280–2283, 2281f complications, 1841–1842 photoreceptors, 606–608, 608f–609f
postoperative observations, 2283 indications, 1830–1834, 1831b retinal pigment epithelium, 606, 606f–607f
recurrence, 2283–2284 outcomes, 1841 adhesion, see Retinal adhesion
small tumors, 2278–2279 precautions, 1840–1841 anatomy, 618
visual outcomes, 2284–2286 principles and techniques, 1831–1833, 1832f animal models, 605
pathological response Relentless placoid chorioretinitis (RPC) asymptomatic eyes without high-risk factors
brachytherapy, 2254, 2263f clinical features, 1350–1352 asymptomatic retinal breaks, 1796–1797
proton beam irradiation, 2263–2264, 2264f course and prognosis, 1351–1352 vitreoretinal precursors of retinal breaks
radiation retinopathy, 2264–2265, 2264f differential diagnosis, 1352, 1352t cystic retinal tufts, 1796
posterior uveal melanoma electrophysiology, 1340 degenerative retinoschisis, 1796
metastasis and survival, 2239–2240 epidemiology, 1350 lattice degeneration, 1796, 1796f
overview, 2238, 2268 imaging overview, 1795–1796
asymptomatic nonfellow eyes with high-risk management Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), see also Retinal
factors conservative management, 1786 detachment
aphakic and pseudophakic nonfellow eyes, laser demarcation, 1786 aging changes, 541, 1152, 1153f, 1154
1797 scleral buckling surgery, 1786 age-related macular degeneration i25
family history of retinal detachment, 1797 natural history, 1786 basal laminar deposit, 1156–1159, 1159f
myopic nonfellow eyes, 1797 Retinal folds cell loss, 543–544
asymptomatic patients with retinal detachment in drug induction, 1541–1543 detachment in wet type disease
fellow eye hypotonic maculopathy differential diagnosis, fluorescein angiography, 1190–1192, 1192f
asymptomatic aphakic and pseudophakic 1315 overview, 1184f, 1209

Index
nonfellow eyes Retinal ganglia cell (RGC) membranous debris
giant retinal tears, 1801 age-related loss, 541 apex of retinal pigment epithelium,
retinal break, 1801 diabetic retinopathy and loss, 542 1158–1159
retinal break precursors, 1800 glaucoma and loss, 542 external to retinal pigment epithelium
phakic fellow eye glaucoma basement membrane, 1157f, 1158
giant retinal tears, 1800 neurotrophic factors, 717 internal to retinal pigment epithelium
retinal break, 1799–1800 pathology, 716–717 basement membrane, 1157, 1158f
retinal break precursors, 1797–1799, 1798f, neuroprotection, 545–547, 546t overview of changes, 1146–1148, 1152, 1153f,
1798t Retinal image analysis 1154, 1159
cell loss, 544 algorithm performance measures structural changes, 1146–1148
choroidal melanoma exoresection, 2303 clinical safety relevant performance, 159 tear in wet type disease
chronic detachment response receiver operator characteristics, 159 fluorescein angiography, 1195
Müller cell, 613, 613b reference standard, 159 natural history, 1199
photoreceptors, 611–612 repeatability, 159 overview, 1185, 1185f
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 609–613 sensitivity, 158–159 avascular outer retina maintenance, 408–409
classification, 1902 specificity, 158–159 Bruch’s membrane
cytomegalovirus retinitis, 1455–1457, 1455f–1456f compression basal lamina, 465, 466f
definition, 618 legal issues, 156 synthesis and remodeling role, 405–406
epiretinal membrane surgery complication, 1960 lossy image compression, 156 cell culture models, 406
high myopia patients, see High myopia principles, 156 cell heterogeneity and polarity, 401–403,
hypoxia, 442 detection, 157 402f–403f, 403t
inflammation in trauma, 557–559, 558f fundus image analysis choroidal nevi effects, 2223–2226
macular hole surgery complication, 1974–1975 atlas, 163–165, 166f–167f congenital hypertrophy, see Congenital
perimetry, 323 diabetic retinopathy detection algorithms, hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium
proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery 166–168, 168t cytokine and growth factor secretion, 409–410,
complication, 1892 fovea detection, 160–161 410t
indication and timing optic nerve disk detection, 160–161 cytoskeleton, 405
combined traction-rhegmatogenous prospects, 168 diabetic macular edema alterations, 953–954, 954f
detachment, 1879, 1879f retinal lesion detection, 161–163, 161f–162f, electroretinogram component, 183–184
tractional detachment, 1878–1879, 1878f 164f embryology, 401
outcomes, 1895–1896, 1895t vessels fluorescein angiography
reattachment and recovery, 613–616, 614f–615f analysis, 163, 165f anatomy, 12–13, 13f
retinopathy of prematurity, see also Retinopathy of detection, 160, 160f detachment, 45f, 48f
prematurity interpretation, 158 normal findings, 14, 16, 22f
regressed disease, 1117 multimodal imaging pigment epithelial window defect, 29–49,
stage 4, 1116–1117, 1116f fundus image registration, 172 29f–30f, 10.e1f
stage 5, 1116–1117 optical coherence tomography rip, 46f
treatment, 1122–1123 fundus photograph registration, 172, 172f fundus autofluorescence imaging of pigment
serous detachment mutual registration of images, 172–173 epithelial detachment, 118, 120f
age-related macular degeneration, 621 optical coherence tomography, three-dimensional hamartoma, see Combined hamartomas of the
branch retinal vein occlusion, 622 image analysis retina and retinal pigment epithelium
central serous chorioretinopathy, 620–621 flattening, 169 hyperplasia, 490, 494f
diabetic retinopathy, 622 lesion detection, 170–171 immune privilege, 409
miscellaneous diseases, 622 retinal layer detection, 169, 169f indocyanine green angiography of detachment,
persistence and resorption, 620 retinal layer thickness analysis, 169 58f–59f, 63f, 67f–68f
polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, 621 texture analysis, 169–170 interdigitation between outer segment and retinal
uveitis, 621–622 vessel detection, 170, 170f pigment epithelium microvilli, 451, 451f
silicone oil indications picture archiving system, 156–157 junctions, 403–405, 404f
choroidal coloboma, 1760 pixel feature classification, 158 light absorption, 406
complicated pediatric retinal detachments, 1760 preprocessing, 157 myopic macular degeneration histopathology,
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1758 prospects, 173 1258–1259
surgery, see also Pneumatic retinopexy; Scleral registration, 158, 165f–166f, 172, 172f optical coherence tomography
buckling surgery; specific techniques retinal image deformation, 86f
children, see Pediatric vitreoretinal surgery definition, 156 detachment, 89f, 94–95, 95f–96f
management algorithm, 1732, 1732f digital exchange, 157 tear, 95–96, 96f
trauma file size, 156 outer segment phagocytosis, 406–407, 407f
overview, 1566–1567 segmentation, 158, 168f, 170f–171f, 171 oxidative injury, 520
surgical management supervised versus unsupervised analysis, 158 oxidative stress protection, 408
closed globe injury, 1857–1858, 1857f Retinal lattice, degeneration, 490, 494f patterning, 333
open globe injury, 1867–1870 Retinal macroaneurysm proliferative vitreoretinopathy pathophysiology,
types clinical description, 1026, 1026f–1027f 1641
combined types, 1618–1619, 1619f diagnosis, 1026–1027 reconstruction for age-related macular
exudative retinal detachment, 1619–1620, 1619f natural course, 1027–1028, 1028f degeneration
rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment, 1027–1028 rationale, 2011, 2011t
1616–1618, 1616f, 1618f Retinal metastases transplantation of full-thickness from
traction retinal detachment, 1618, 1618f case reports, 2187t–2189t midperiphery, 2011
ultrasonography clinical findings regeneration, 547–548
acute, 243–250, 247f–249f signs, 2185–2190, 2185f, 2190f stem cell therapy
chronic symptoms, 2185 delivery of trophic factors, 673
Coats disease, 251, 254f diagnosis, 2191–2193, 2192f embryonic stem cell derivation
overview, 250–251, 250f–253f differential diagnosis, 2190–2191, 2191f characterization of derived cells, 673, 675f
retinoblastoma, 255, 255f–257f epidemiology, 2185 differentiation, 673, 674f
retinopathy of prematurity, 255, 258f metastatic cascade efficacy studies, 673–675, 676f
retinoschisis, 251 dissociation, invasion, and intravasation, induced pluripotent stem cells
vitreoretinal traction in pathogenesis, 1793, 1793f 2184 derivation, 675–676
water movement impairment in etiology, 619 extravasation and angiogenesis, 2184–2185 limitations, 676–677
Retinal dialyses (RD) hematogenous dissemination, 2184 small molecule enhancement, 677, 678f
trauma, 1567, 1567f prognosis, 2193 overview, 2063–2064, 2063t
retinal detachment treatment, 2193 stem cell sources, 672–677
transport of nutrients, ions, and water, 409 differential diagnosis International Classification, 2114–2116, 2114b,
traumatic tear, 1566 Bardet–Biedl syndrome, 795–796 2115f
uveal melanoma degenerative changes, 2261f chloroquine retinopathy, 799 Reese–Ellsworth classification, 2114
i26 visual cycle, 407–408, 408f chlorpromazine retinopathy, 799 clinical presentation, 2111, 2111f
Retinal pigment epithelium transplantation choroidal disease and X-linked retinitis diagnosis
age-related macular degeneration pigmentosa, 895, 895f–896f approach with family, 2118–2119
outcomes, 2059, 2059f cone–rod dystrophy, 789 imaging, 2120
rationale, 2058–2062 diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, 801, pseudoretinoblastoma, 2118, 2119f
aged Bruch’s membrane 802f signs and symptoms, 2105f,
Index

graft survival, 2062 grouped pigmentation of retina, 801, 803f 2117–2118


native retinal pigment epithelium resurfacing, hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 799 epidemiology, 2111–2112
2062 infectious retinitis, 798–799 epigenetics, 647–648, 648f
graft failure, 2061 Leber congenital amaurosis, 794–795 gene therapy trials, 661
immune response melanoma-associated retinopathy, 799 genetics
immune privilege, 2060–2061 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, 796–798, clinical genetics, 2104–2111
rejection, 2061–2062 797f–798f low penetrance retinoblastoma, 2107
prospects, 2061–2062 pigmented paravenous retinochordal atrophy, molecular genetics, 2105–2106, 2105f
Retinal sheen dystrophy, internal limiting lamina, 799–800, 800f RB1 gene
488, 489f quinine retinopathy, 799 features, 2106–2107, 2106f
Retinal tear, see also Giant retinal tear; Retinal Refsum disease mutations, 2107t
detachment adult-onset disease, 796 tumor defects, 2107
anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, 500, infantile disease, 796 terminology, 2105, 2111
500f rubella retinopathy, 798–799 metastasis
horseshoe tear severe early childhood onset retinal dystrophy, orbital retinoblastoma, 2139–2140
clinical presentation, 1786, 1786f 794–795 risk factors, 2139–2140
management syphilis, 798 survival, 2139
conservative management, 1787 thioridazine retinopathy, 799 workup, 2120, 2139
laser demarcation, 1787, 1787f traumatic retinopathy, 801 molecular pathogenesis, 2110–2111
pneumatic retinopexy, 1787 electro-oculogram, 777, 780f natural history, 2112–2114, 2112f–2113f
scleral buckling surgery, 1787–1788 electroretinogram, 212f, 216, 775–777, 776f–778f prognosis
vitrectomy, 1788–1790, 1788f, 1789t endoplasmic reticulum stress, 532 eye salvage and vision, 2117
natural history, 1786–1787 epidemiology, 761 survival
progression to detachment, 1794–1795, 1795t epigenetics, 646–647 factors affecting, 2116–2117, 2116f
prophylactic removal of anterior flap, 1839 fluorescein angiography, 777, 781f rates, 2116
Retinal tuft, 485f, 490, 492f–493f fundus autofluorescence imaging, 778, 782f staging, 2120–2122, 2121f–2122f
Retinal vein occlusion, see Branch retinal vein fundus photography, 764–769, 764f–769f, toxocariasis differential diagnosis, 1504
occlusion; Central retinal vein occlusion 777–780 treatment
Retinectomy, see also Relaxing retinectomy genetic counseling chemotherapy
anterior retinal displacement management family groups, 813–814 complications, 2125
extensive periretinal fibrous proliferation, overview, 813–815 consolidation chemotherapy, 2126–2128,
1838–1839 support services, 814–815 2127f
giant retinal tear flap contraction and fibrosis, genetics historical perspective, 2124
1839–1840, 1840f autosomal dominant genes, 801–804, hyperthermia therapy adjunct, 2125–2126
intrinsic retinal detachment, 1837–1838 803f–807f intra-arterial chemotherapy, 2126
overview, 1837–1840, 1838f autosomal recessive genes, 804–806 subTenon carboplatin, 2124–2125, 2125f
prophylactic removal of horseshoe tear anterior digenic inheritance, 807–808 systemic chemotherapy, 2124, 2124f
flap, 1839 gene mutations, 790t–794t, 801–808 terminology, 2123–2124
retinoschisis management, 1840 RNA splicing defects, 808–809 tumor regression patterns, 2135–2136, 2135t,
complications, 1841–1842 Usher syndrome, 790t–794t, 808 2136f
outcomes, 1841 X-linked genes, 806–807 cryotherapy, 2128
precautions, 1840–1841 histopathology, 810 enucleation
principles, 1709 history of study, 761 closure, 2134
proliferative vascular retinopathy, 1840 inner retinal pathology, 811–812 optic nerve involvement, 2135
retinal contraction, focal or diffuse contraction neurotrophic factors in neuroprotection, 717–718 overview, 2131–2132
management optical coherence tomography, 780, 782f postoperative care, 2124
circumferential contraction, 1835–1837, outer retinal disease, 811 preoperative preparation, 2132–2135
1836f–1837f perimetry, 312–313, 312f, 761–763, 762f–763f, surgical technique, 2132–2134, 2133f
overview, 1834–1837, 1836f 769–772, 771f–773f tumor harvesting, 2134
Retinitis pigmentosa photoreceptors philosophy, 2122–2123
antioxidant studies of neuroprotection, 724 abnormalities, 810–811, 811f planning by type, 2123
BBSome, 810 degeneration, 393, 395f radiation complications
cell death pathways, 810 protein trafficking defects, 810 bony hypoplasia, 2137–2139
cell loss, 544–545 retinal densitometry, 774–775 cataract, 2137
cellular remodeling and vascular changes, RPGR interactome, 809 cognitive deficits, 2138
812–813, 812f scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, 780 retinopathy, 2137–2138
classification treatment secondary malignant neoplasms, 2138
age of onset, 780–781 artificial retina, 821–822 radiation therapy
inheritance type, 780 cataract extraction, 815 brachytherapy, 2130–2131, 2131f
molecular defect type, 781–782 cell therapy, 820–821 external beam radiotherapy, 2128–2129
pericentral retinitis pigmentosa, 784, 785f–786f docosahexaenoic acid, 817–818 intensity modulated radiation therapy,
retinal involvement or fundus appearance, gene therapy, 819–820 2129–2130, 2129f–2130f
782–783, 783f lutein, 817–818 proton beam radiotherapy, 2130
sectoral retinitis pigmentosa, 783–784, 784f macular edema, 816–817 recurrence, 2136, 2137f
unilateral or extremely asymmetrical retinitis neuroprotection, 821 visual acuity outcomes, 2138–2139
pigmentosa, 784–787, 787f–788f prospects, 819 ultrasonography of retinal detachment, 255,
clinical features purported cures, 818–822 255f–257f
anterior segment abnormalities, 769 vitamin A, 817 Retinoblastoma protein (Rb)
central vision loss, 763–764, 763f USH interactome, 809–810 cell cycle regulation, 2108–2109, 2108f
color vision defects, 764 Retinoblastoma E2F regulatory network, 2110
nyctalopia, 761–769 atypical forms tumor suppressor pathway, 2109–2110
photopsia, 764 diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma, 2141–2142, Retinoic acid (RA), proliferative vitreoretinopathy
vitreous abnormalities, 769, 770f 2142f prevention, 1777
clinical trials, 1613 iatrogenic extraocular extension, 2142–2143 Retinoids, neuroprotection, 725t, 727
complicated retinitis pigmentosa older children, 2142–2143 Retinoma, clinical features, 2140–2142, 2141f
systemic associations, 787 retinoma, 2140–2142, 2141f Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)
Usher syndrome, 787–789 trilateral retinoblastoma, 2143, 2143f age of onset, 1119–1120, 1119f, 1120t
cystoid macular edema management, 1987 Children’s Oncology Group trials, 2140 classification, 1113, 1920–1922, 1921f–1922f
dark adaptometry, 774f, 789 classification clinical trials
CRYO-ROP, 1608–1610 vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, systemic disease, 1417
LIGHT-ROP, 1610 1123, 1926 treatment
STOP-ROP, 1610 laser photocoagulation, 1925 ocular disease, 1418
ETROP, 1610, 1925–1926 ultrasonography of retinal detachment, 255, 258f systemic disease, 1418 i27
cryotherapy vascular endothelial growth factor regulation, Rho, neurotrophic pathway modulation, 729–730
clinical trials, 1925 439–440 Rhodopsin
threshold criteria, 1920f vitamin E in prevention, 1121 endoplasmic reticulum stress with mutations,
differential diagnosis, 1118, 1505 zones of retina, 1113, 1113f 532–533
examination, 1924–1926, 1924f Retinopexy, see also Pneumatic retinopexy experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis antigen,

Index
glaucoma, 159, 1118 giant retinal tear surgery, 1848 585
histopathology and pathophysiology principles, 1710, 1710f mutations, 354
retinal detachment development in stage 4A, retinal adhesion effects, 458–459, 459f outer segment disc stabilization, 345
1924 scleral buckle surgery quenching, 347–349
stage 1, 1922 cryotherapy, 1675–1676, 1675f–1676f recoverin control of rhodopsin kinase, 350
stage 2, 1922–1923 diode laser, 1676 retinitis pigmentosa defects, 801, 803, 803f–804f
stage 3, 1922–1923 overview, 1674–1677 Rifambutin, uveitis induction, 1549
stage 4, 1923–1924 photocoagulation, 1676 RIP kinase, see Receptor interacting protein kinase
stage 5, 1923–1924, 1923f technique selection, 1676–1677 RNA interference, vascular endothelial growth
history of study, 1108 Retinoschisis, see also Macular retinoschisis; X-linked factor, 1237f, 1243
hyperoxia, 434 retinoschisis ROC, see Receiver operator characteristics
involution, 1117 degenerative, 1796 Rod, see also Photoreceptor
light exposure studies, 1121 retinectomy, 1840 abundance in human eye, 342
limitations of traditional care, 1129, 1129f ultrasonography of retinal detachment, 251 bipolar cell
neovascularization Retinotomy, see Drainage retinotomy; Relaxing overview, 376–377, 376f
environmental factors, 569 retinotomy pathways
genetics, 569 Retisert fluocinolone implant, 740 primary pathway, 377–380, 377f, 379f
overview, 567–568 RGC, see Retinal ganglia cell secondary and tertiary pathways, 380
nursery examination RGS-9, phototransduction, 349 cone interactions in color vision, 298
parent informing, 1120 Rhabdomyosarcoma, uvea, 2357 differentiation, 338–339
screening guidelines, 1120 Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), dynamic range, 285t
side effects, 1120 see also Retinal detachment; Retinal dialyses; electroretinogram
technique, 1120 Retinal tear; Round hole retinal detachment a-wave, 184–185, 185f, 187–188, 188f–189f
timing, 1119–1120, 1119f, 1120t classification, 1712–1713 bright flash mixed rod–cone electroretinogram
oxidative stress and inflammation, 557 combined inflammatory and rhegmatogenous diagnostic value of negative
oxygen role retinal detachment electroretinogram, 207–208, 209f
animal model studies, 1109 clinical examination and findings, 1904–1905, extinct electroretinogram, 208
clinical findings, 1108 1905f normal findings, 203, 204f
retinal neovascularization, 1109–1111, epidemiology, 1902–1903 oscillatory potential abnormalities, 204, 205f
1109f–1110f management prognostic value of negative
retinal vasoconstricton and vascular occlusion, active inflammation, 1906, 1907f electroretinogram, 205–207, 206f–207f
1109 acute necrosis, 1908–1909, 1909f subnormal findings, 204–205, 205f
oxygen therapy, 1926 cytomegalovirus retinitis, 1906–1908, 1908f dysfunction, 208–211, 209f–211f
pathogenesis persistent inflammatory serous retinal extracellular potential generation, 178f
normal vasculogenesis, 1111–1112, 1111f detachment, 1906 rod dysfunction, 209–211, 211f
sequence of events, 1112–1113, 1112f pathophysiology, 1903–1904, 1903f–1904f functional overview, 366
regressed disease prognosis, 1909–1910 histogenesis, 333–335, 334f
ocular changes high myopia patients, see High myopia imaging with adaptive optics, 137–138, 137f
astigmatism, 1118 pars plana vitrectomy light adaptation, 286, 286f
cornea, 1118 advantages, 1712 monochromatism, 900f
lens, 1118 complications, 1719 neural pathways
myopia, 1117–1118 core vitrectomy, 1713–1714, 1714f reticulogeniculate pathways, 287–288, 288f
overview, 1117b encirclement, 1715 retinal pathways, 287
sequelae, 1117 fluid–air exchange, 1714f spatial resolution, 287
risk factors, 1118–1119 outcomes, 1717–1718, 1717t–1718t spectral sensitivity, 286–287, 287f
staging patient selection, 1713 spherules, 366, 369f
stage 1, 1114, 1114f peripheral vitrectomy, 1714–1715, 1714f Rod-derived cone viability factor (RdCVF),
stage 2, 1114, 1114f phacoemulsification and intraocular lens neuroprotection, 722
stage 3, 1114f, 1115 implantation, 1715 Rod outer segment, see Outer segment
stage 4, 1116–1117, 1116f photocoagulation/cryopexy of tear, 1714f, Roentgenography, choroidal osteoma, 2336
stage 5, 1116–1117 1715 Rom-1, outer segment disc stabilization, 345
surgical management pneumatic retinopexy comparison, 1730 RON, see Radial optic neuropathy
enzymatic treatment of vitreoretinal junction, port creation through pars plana, 1713 ROP, see Retinopathy of prematurity
1929 positioning following surgery, 1715 Rosiglitazone, diabetic retinopathy management, 981
preoperative evaluation, 1926 principles, 1713 Rosuvastatin, ocular ischemic syndrome
scleral buckling, 1926 prognostic factors, 1719 management, 1101–1102
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors scleral buckling surgery comparison, 1718t Roth’s spot, cytomegalovirus retinitis, 1444f
with vitreoretinal surgery, 2099–2100 sutureless microincision surgery, 1715–1717, Round hole retinal detachment
vitrectomy 1716f clinical presentation, 1784, 1784f, 1795
ab interno incision, 1929–1930, 1930f tamponade, 1715 management
closed lens pars plicata vitrectomy, triamcinolone acetonide use, 1715f conservative management, 1785
1930–1931, 1930f–1931f pathogenesis, 1712 laser demarcation, 1785
lens-sparing vitrectomy, 1929, 1929f prospects, 1719 scleral buckling surgery, 1785–1786
stage 4A, 1926 risk factors, 1794, 1794t natural history, 1784–1785
stage 4B, 1927 symptomatic eyes RPC, see Relentless placoid chorioretinitis
stage 5, 1927–1929, 1927f–1928f horseshoe-shaped tear progression to RPE, see Retinal pigment epithelium
telescreening detachment, 1794–1795, 1795t RR, see Radiation retinopathy
accuracy, 1129–1131, 1130f, 1130t–1131t overview, 1794–1795 RRD, see Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment
barriers and challenges, 1132 retinal holes as precursors, 1795 Rubella retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa differential
cost-effectiveness, 1131–1132 round tears, 1795 diagnosis, 798–799
evaluation of programs, 1132 tears with persistent vitreoretinal traction, Ruboxistaurin, diabetic retinopathy management,
image quality, 1131 1794–1795, 1794f 963–964
prospects, 1132 tears without persistent vitreoretinal traction,
treatment 1795 S
cryotherapy, 1121–1122 Rheumatic disease, see specific diseases Saffron extract, neuroprotection, 723
laser therapy, 1121–1122 Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Salmon patch lesions, sickle cell disease retinopathy,
Early Treatment for Retinopathy of classification, 1417b 1074, 1076f
Prematurity trial, 1122–1123, 1122t epidemiology, 1417 S-antigen, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis
retinal detachment, 1122–1123 ocular disease features, 1417–1418 antigen, 584–585
Sarcoidosis extrusion, 1691–1693 SEADS, see Symptomatic exudative-associated
biopsy, 1393t glaucoma, 1691, 1693f derangements
clinical features infection, 1691–1693 SECORD, see Severe early childhood onset retinal
i28 extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, 1391 macular epiretinal membranes, 1691 dystrophy
intrathoracic sarcoidosis, 1391 retinal detachment recurrence, 1689–1691, Segmentation, retinal image analysis, 158, 168f,
tissue distribution, 1391t 1690f–1692f 170f–171f, 171
course, 1393–1394 conjunctival peritomy, 1672, 1673f Selective retina therapy (SRT), principles, 758, 758f
epidemiology, 1390 documentation, 1687 Senile hyperplasia, ciliary body, 2353
evaluation examination under anesthesia and break Senior Loken syndrome, gene mutations, 790t–794t
Index

algorithm, 1400f localization, 1674, 1674f Serotonin receptor, neuroprotection pathway, 717
chest X-ray, 1391 final examination, 1687, 1689f Serous retinal detachment, see Retinal detachment
computed tomography, 1392 forces leading to retinal tears and detachments Serpiginous choroiditis (SC)
gallium scan, 1391–1392 fluid movement, 1662–1663, 1663f clinical features, 1346
magnetic resonance imaging, 1392 membranes, cellular proliferation, and course and prognosis, 1346–1347
positron emission tomography, 1392 breaks, 1663, 1663f differential diagnosis, 1349–1350, 1352t
histology, 1392 overview, 1661–1663 electrophysiology, 1348
immunology, 1392 vitreous traction, 1662, 1662f epidemiology, 1346
laboratory tests, 1392–1393 outcomes, 1688–1689 imaging
ocular manifestations, see also Intermediate uveitis patient positioning, 1672 fluorescein angiography, 1347, 1348f
anterior segment and cornea, 1394, 1394t pneumatic retinopexy comparison, 1730 fundus autofluorescence imaging, 1347–1348,
course, 1399–1401 preoperative assessment 1349f
diagnosis, 1396–1399, 1399t retinal break locating, 1670–1671, 1671f fundus photography, 1346, 1346f–1347f
posterior segment, 1394–1396, 1395f–1399f scheduling surgery, 1671–1672 indocyanine green angiography, 1347,
prognosis, 1399–1401 preparation and draping, 1672 1347f–1348f
treatment, 1401–1402, 1401f rectus muscle slinging, 1672, 1674f optical coherence tomography, 1347,
pathogenesis, 1390 retina attachment promotion forces 1348f–1349f
prognosis, 1393–1394 overview, 1663–1667 indocyanine green angiography, 77, 77f
Sattler’s layer, indocyanine green angiography, physiologic adhesion, 1664 pathogenesis, 1349
55f–56f thermal chorioretinal adhesions, 1664 perimetry, 1349
SBS, see Shaken-baby syndrome retina effects, overview of forces, 1661, systemic associations, 1349
SC, see Serpiginous choroiditis 1661f treatment, 1350
Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) retinopexy Severe early childhood onset retinal dystrophy
adaptive optics for single cell imaging cryotherapy, 1675–1676, 1675f–1676f (SECORD), retinitis pigmentosa differential
clinical applications, 138–139, 138f diode laser, 1676 diagnosis, 794–795
color vision studies, 298 overview, 1674–1677 Shaken baby syndrome (SBS)
photoreceptor imaging, 137–138, 137f–138f photocoagulation, 1676 ocular features, 1568–1569
principles, 135, 135f technique selection, 1676–1677 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1942, 1943f
prospects, 155 revision surgery, 1672 vitreoretinal changes, 506, 507f
technology, 135–137 rigidity effects, 1660–1661 Shh, see Sonic hedgehog
blood flow assessment, 139 scleral buckling surgery and retina attachment Shock, fluorescein angiography complication, 5
fundus autofluorescence imaging, 112, 113f, 113t promotion Short tandem repeat (STR), 630
historical perspective, 133–135, 151 fluid movement, 1666–1667, 1667f Short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP),
image analysis, see Retinal image analysis traction on retinal surface, 1665–1666, 310–311, 313, 315
microperimetry, 311, 325 1665f–1666f Sickle cell disease (SCD)
retinitis pigmentosa, 780 vitreous traction, 1664–1665, 1665f anterior segment involvement, 1073, 1073f
Scar tissue scleral explant selection, 1677–1680, heredity, 1071
disciform scarring, optical coherence tomography, 1677f–1680f history of study, 1071
96, 97f scleral sutures, 1680–1683, 1680f–1684f hypoxia, 441
fluorescein staining, 47f, 49, 49f subretinal fluid drainage nonproliferative retinopathy
SCD, see Sickle cell disease air injection, 1686, 1686f black sunburst, 1076, 1077f
Schwannoma, uvea, 2355 cut down techniques, 1684–1685, 1685f iridescent spots, 1074–1076, 1077f
Sclera drain site location, 1684 salmon patch lesions, 1074, 1076f
fluorescein staining, 49–50, 49f encirclement, 1686–1687, 1687f–1688f pathophysiology, 1071–1072
laceration repair, 1860–1861, 1861f indications, 1683–1687 phenotypic spectrum, 1071
myopic macular degeneration histopathology, postoperative complications, 1685–1686, posterior segment involvement
1258 1685f angioid streaks, 1074
sclerotomy, 1700–1701, 1701f single stage techniques, 1685, 1685f macula, 1073–1074, 1075f
sclerotomy distance in children, 1938t timing, 1684 optic nerve, 1073, 1074f
surgical anatomy, 1669 surgical anatomy vasculature, 1074, 1076f
thinning for uveal effusion syndrome choroidal vasculature, 1670, 1670f vitreoretinal interface, 1073
management, 1311, 1312f coats of eye, 1669, 1669f prevalence, 1071
Scleral arc length, 1658–1659, 1658f extraocular muscles, 1669–1670, 1670f proliferative retinopathy
Scleral buckle innervation, 1670 classification schemes, 1079
hypotonic maculopathy differential diagnosis, vitrectomy comparison, 1718t epidemiology, 1079
1315 retinal detachment prevention, 1803 Goldberg classification
ultrasonography, 230, 231f retinal dialyses retinal detachment, 1786 overview, 1078t
Scleral buckling surgery retinopathy of prematurity management, 1926 stage I, 1076–1077
explant selection, 1677–1680, 1677f–1680f round hole retinal detachment, 1785–1786 stage II, 1077–1078
geometric effects on eye scleral sutures, 1680–1683, 1680f–1684f stage III, 1077f–1078f, 1078
axial length, 1656–1657, 1656f–1657f Scleral chord length, 1658–1659, 1658f stage IV, 1079
internal geometry effects, 1659, 1659f–1660f Scleritis stage V, 1079
refractive errors retinal detachment in posterior scleritis, imaging, 1080
astigmatism, 1657–1658 1629–1630 natural history, 1079
spherical equivalent errors, 1658, 1658t rheumatic disease, 1415–1416 treatment, 1079–1080, 1080f
scleral chord length versus scleral arc length, ultrasonography of posterior scleritis, 279, retrobulbar and orbital involvement,
1658–1659, 1658f 280f–281f 1072–1073
volume changes, 1659–1660, 1660f, 1660t Scleroderma systemic manifestations, 1072
horseshoe retinal tear, 1787–1789 epidemiology, 1428 Sildenafil, retinal toxicity, 1549–1550
postoperative infection, 2026 ocular disease features, 1428–1429 Silicone oil (SO)
proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery, 1810 systemic disease, 1428 chemical properties, 1755–1756, 1756t
retinal detachment repair treatment giant retinal tear surgery, 1758, 1848–1849
anesthesia, 1672 ocular disease, 1429 heavy tamponade, see Heavy tamponade
blood flow effects, 1661 systemic disease, 1428–1429 historical perspective, 1755
closure, 1687, 1690f S-cone electroretinogram, 222, 223f indications
complications Scototopic threshold response (STR), origins, giant retinal tears, 1758
anterior segment ischemia, 1693 195–196, 196f–197f macular hole, 1759
band migration, 1693 SDD, see Subretinal drusenoid debris proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 1760
diplopia, 1693 SDF-1, see Stromal-derived factor-1 retinal detachment
choroidal coloboma, 1760 Sorbinil Retinopathy Trial (SRT), 1592 characterization of derived cells, 673, 675f
complicated pediatric retinal detachments, Sorsby fundus dystrophy differentiation, 673, 674f
1760 clinical features, 880–881 efficacy studies, 673–675, 676f
proliferative vitreoretinopathy, 1758 fundus photography, 880f–881f induced pluripotent stem cells i29
sympathetic endophthalmitis, 1760 TIMP3 mutations, 880–881 derivation, 675–676
trauma, 1760 treatment, 881 limitations, 676–677
viral retinitis, 1759 Spectral domain optical coherence tomography, small molecule enhancement, 677, 678f
infusion see Optical coherence tomography stem cell sources, 672–677
complications Spectral imaging retinitis pigmentosa, 820–821

Index
anterior chamber oil, 1763 clinical applications, 144 terminology, 669–671
cataract, 1766–1767 instrumentation, 143–144, 143f umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells
emulsification, 1767–1768 principles of retinal oxygenation assessment, overview, 682–685
glaucoma, 1763–1765 141–142 transcriptomics, 684f
hypotony, 1765–1766 Spherule, rod, 366, 369f Stereotactic radiosurgery, see Gamma Knife
keratopathy, 1768 Spindle A cell, uveal melanoma, 2257, 2257f Stickler syndrome
retinal detachment recurrence, 1767 Spindle B cell, uveal melanoma, 2257, 2257f clinical findings
vision loss, 1768 Spiral of Tillaux extraocular, 843, 843f
exchange innervation, 1670 ocular, 843–844, 843f
air, 1708–1709, 1761–1762, 1762f surgical anatomy, 1669–1670, 1670f differential diagnosis
perfluourocarbon, 1709, 1709f, 1748–1753, Spondylarthropathy, see also Ankylosing spondylitis; chondrodysplasia, 844
1748f, 1762–1763, 1764f Inflammatory bowel disease; Psoriatic arthritis; chromosome 5q retinopathies, 841–842
general considerations, 1760–1761 Reactive arthritis snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration, 839
lens status, 1761 classification, 1418b management, 841
small gauge vitrectomy, 1761 epidemiology, 1418 overview, 842–843
macular hole surgery, 1972 Spotted cystic dystrophy, clinical features, 883–885, pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1945–1947, 1945f
pediatric use, 1939 884f STR, see Scototopic threshold response
permanent tamponade, 1769 Squalamine, age-related macular degeneration STR, see Short tandem repeat
physical properties management, 1247 Strabismus
buoyancy, 1756, 1757f SRT, see Selective retina therapy; Sorbinil infection after surgery, 2026
specific gravity, 1756 Retinopathy Trial regressed retinopathy of prematurity, 1109–1111
viscosity, 1757–1758, 1757f SST, see Submacular Surgery Trials Streptococcus, infectious endophthalmitis, 2020
proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery Staphylococcus, infectious endophthalmitis, 2019–2020 Stroke, hypertensive retinopathy relationship, 1003
tamponade Staphyloma, see Posterior staphyloma Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), hypoxia induction,
heavy silicone oil, 1817–1818 Stargardt disease 438
overview, 1816, 1816t ABCA4 mutations, 864, 865f, 874 STS, see Suprachoroidal transretinal stimulation
removal of silicone oil, 1818 choroidal disease differential diagnosis, 896–897, Sturge–Weber syndrome
silicone oil, 1816–1817, 1817f 897f central nervous system features, 2175–2176
removal, 1768–1769, 1768f clinical features, 864–874, 865f classification, 2174–2176, 2174t
Silicone Study, 1613, 1769 differential diagnosis, 855f management, 2176
Single cell imaging, see Scanning laser electroretinogram, 871–874 ophthalmologic features, 2174–2175, 2175f, 2176t
ophthalmoscopy fluorescein angiography, 868–869, 873f skin features, 2175
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) fundus autofluorescence imaging, 868–869 Subarachnoid hemorrhage, see Terson syndrome
mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, 638 fundus photography, 866f–872f Submacular surgery
overview, 630 histopathology, 874 age-related macular degeneration, wet type
Sjögren reticular dystrophy of the retinal optical coherence tomography, 869 management, 1208
pigment epithelium, clinical features, 877–878, pathophysiology, 874 histoplasmosis management, 1281, 1282f
878f perimetry, 313 Submacular Surgery Trials (SST), 1602–1603, 1991
Sjögren syndrome visual acuity, 868 Subretinal drusenoid debris (SDD), age-related
epidemiology, 1427 Stargardt-like dominant macular dystrophy (SLDMD) macular degeneration Bruch’s membrane lesion,
ocular disease features, 1427 ELOV4 mutation, 874–875 476
systemic disease, 1427 fundus photography, 875f–876f Subretinal fibrosis, diabetic macular edema, 954
treatment pathophysiology, 875 Subretinal fluid drainage, scleral buckle surgery
ocular disease, 1427 Statins, diabetic retinopathy impact, 917 air injection, 1686, 1686f
systemic disease, 1427 Steamroller, pneumatic retinopexy complication, cut down techniques, 1684–1685, 1685f
SLDMD, see Stargardt-like dominant macular 1728, 1729f drain site location, 1684
dystrophy Stem cell therapy encirclement, 1686–1687, 1687f–1688f
SLE, see Systemic lupus erythematosus age-related macular degeneration treatment indications, 1683–1687
SLO, see Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy prospects, 2015–2016 postoperative complications, 1685–1686, 1685f
Slow PIII, electroretinogram, 183 photoreceptor regeneration, 2015 single stage techniques, 1685, 1685f
Small-interfering RNA, see RNA interference retinal pigment epithelium regeneration, timing, 1684
Smoking 2063–2064, 2063t Subretinal hemorrhage
age-related macular degeneration risk studies, Stem cell therapy, see also specific stem cells age-related macular degeneration, wet type
1136–1137 adult stem cells natural history, 1199
diabetic retinopathy risks, 917–918 endothelial progenitor cells, 677–679 overview, 1185
posterior uveal melanoma risks, 2234 neovascularization risks, 679 choroidal nevi differential diagnosis, 2226
Snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration (SVD) neurotrophic rescue in retinal degeneration, etiology, 1992
comparison with other vitreoretinal 680–682, 681f–682f natural history, 1992
degenerations, 837t–838t sources, 670–671 surgical management
differential diagnosis vasculotrophic rescue, 679–680, 680f removal of blood and neovascularization,
chromosome 5q retinopathies, 841 adult stem cells 1992
Goldmann–Favre vitreotapetoretinal endothelial progenitor cells, 677–679 tissue plasminogen activator, 454, 1992–1993
degeneration, 840 neovascularization risks, 679 vitrectomy, 1992–1993
Marshall syndrome, 840 neurotrophic rescue in retinal degeneration, vascular endothelial growth inhibitor
Stickler syndrome, 839 680–682, 681f–682f management, 1993
Wagner syndrome, 840 sources, 670–671 SubTenon carboplatin, see Carboplatin
genetics, 839 vasculotrophic rescue, 679–680, 680f Sulfur hexafluoride, physical properties, 1737
management, 840 clinical trials, 685 Sulphonamide, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543
ocular features, 836–839 embryonic stem cell Sunlight exposure, age-related macular degeneration
overview, 836 culture, 669–670, 670f risk studies, 1138, 1216
perimetry, 839 history of study, 670t Superior oblique muscle, surgical anatomy,
SNP, see Single nucleotide polymorphism photoreceptor differentiation, 671–672 1669–1670
SO, see Silicone oil three-dimensional optic tissue culture, 672, 672f Superoxide dismutase, gene therapy, 525
SO, see Sympathetic ophthalmia induced pluripotent stem cell overview, 670 Suprachoroidal transretinal stimulation (STS),
Solar maculopathy, features, 1557–1558, 1557f Müller glia as stem cell source, 556 artificial vision, 2086, 2087f–2088f
Sonic hedgehog (Shh), eye field development role, prospects, 685 SVD, see Snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration
331–333, 332f retinal pigment epithelium SWAP, see Short-wavelength automated perimetry
Sorbinil, diabetic retinopathy management, delivery of trophic factors, 673 Sympathetic endophthalmitis, silicone oil
963 embryonic stem cell derivation indications, 1760
Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) security and documentation, 1008 Transplantation, see Photoreceptor transplantation;
clinical findings, 1320–1321 steps, 1007, 1007f Retinal pigment epithelium transplantation
complications, 1321–1323 retinopathy of prematurity Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT)
i30 course, 1321–1323 accuracy, 1129–1131, 1130f, 1130t–1131t angioid streaks, 1270
diagnosis, 1321, 1321f–1323f barriers and challenges, 1132 central serous chorioretinopathy management,
differential diagnosis, 1321 cost-effectiveness, 1131–1132 1302
epidemiology, 1318 evaluation of programs, 1132 choroidal hemangioma, 2349
history of study, 1318 image quality, 1131 uveal and choroidal melanoma
immunopathology, 1319–1320, 1319f–1320f prospects, 1132 brachytherapy adjuvant therapy, 2286
Index

management after trauma, 1872–1873 Tenon’s capsule, surgical anatomy, 1669, 1669f outcomes
pathogenesis, 1318–1319 Terson syndrome ancillary treatment, 2309–2310, 2309f–2310f
prevention, 1323–1324 pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1941–1942, 1942f primary treatment, 2308–2309, 2308f–2309f
prognosis, 1324 trauma, 1568 pathological response, 2265
retinal detachment, 1629 Terson syndrome, ultrasonography, 239, 240f posterior uveal melanoma, 2238–2239,
treatment, 1323 TGF-β, see Transforming growth factor-β 2267–2268
Symptomatic exudative-associated derangements Thioridazine retinopathy technique, 2307–2308, 2308f
(SEADS), image analysis, 171, 171f choroidal disease differential diagnosis, 896, 897f principles, 752
Synaptic terminal, photoreceptor, 353–354, 353f retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 799 Trauma, see also Choroidal rupture; Chorioretinal
Synchysis, aging and vitreous degeneration Thioridazine retinopathy rupture; Commotio retinae; Fat embolism
morphology, 496, 497f clinical features, 1532–1533, 1532f–1533f syndrome; Macular hole; Optic nerve avulsion;
pathogenesis, 496 perimetry, 320 Photic retinal injury; Purtscher’s retinopathy;
Synchysis scintillans, ultrasonography, 233 Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), angiogenesis inhibition, Retinal concussion; Retinal contusion; Retinal
Syphilis 1221–1222 detachment; Retinal dialyses; Retinal pigment
ocular infection in AIDS, 1462–1463, 1463f Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) epithelium tear; Shaken-baby syndrome;
retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis, 798 ophthalmic involvement, 1105–1106 Terson’s syndrome; Valsalva retinopathy;
Syphilitic uveitis overview, 1104–1105 Whiplash retinopathy
clinical features, 1486–1487, 1487f pregnancy, 1573–1574 classification, 1647b, 1852, 1852t
course and outcome, 1489 Tie2, angiogenesis role, 571 infectious endophthalmitis
diagnosis, 1487–1488 Tight junction, retinal pigment epithelium, 403–405, antimicrobial therapy, 2030
differential diagnosis, 1488, 1488t 404f association, 2026
epidemiology, 1486 TIMP3, Sorsby fundus dystrophy mutations, retinitis pigmentosa differential diagnosis from
pathogenesis, 1486 880–881 traumatic retinopathy, 801
treatment, 1488–1489, 1488t Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) vitreoretinal changes
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) central retinal vein occlusion management, 1046 blunt trauma, 506, 506f
diagnostic criteria, 1423b subretinal hemorrhage management, 454, penetrating trauma, 507, 507f
epidemiology, 1423 1992–1993 shaken-baby syndrome, 506, 507f
ocular disease features, 1424–1426, 1424f–1426f vitreoretinal surgery applications, 2096 surgical management
retinal detachment, 1505 TNF-α, see Tumor necrosis factor-α closed globe injuries
systemic disease, 1423–1424 Tomeglovir, cytomegalovirus retinitis management, commotio retinae, 1856–1857
treatment 1455 hyphema, 1852–1853, 1853f
ocular disease, 1427 Topiramate, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543 lens subluxation and dislocation, 1853–1855,
systemic disease, 1426–1427 Tortuosity, fluorescein angiography, 32f 1854f–1855f
Systemic sclerosis, see Scleroderma Toxic tumor syndrome, secondary local resection, macular hole, 1857–1858
2305, 2305f–2306f retinal detachment, 1857–1858, 1857f
T Toxocariasis vitreous hemorrhage, 1855–1856, 1856f
Tadalafil, retinal toxicity, 1549–1550 diagnosis, 1504 open globe injuries
Takayasu’s arteritis, see also Vasculitis differential diagnosis cataract after penetrating injury, 1871–1872
classification, 1433b bacterial endophthalmitis, 1505 endophthalmitis after penetrating injury,
epidemiology, 1433 Coats disease, 1505 1870–1871
ocular disease features, 1433 familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, 1505 intraocular foreign body management,
systemic disease, 1433 persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, 1505 1861–1865, 1862f–1865f, 1862t
treatment, 1434 retinoblastoma, 1504 laceration, 1860–1861, 1861f
Talc retinopathy, clinical features, 1539, 1539f retinopathy of prematurity, 1505 late complications of penetrating injury,
Tamoxifen, crystalline retinopathy, 1543–1548, toxoplasmosis, 1504–1505 1872, 1872f
1546f–1547f history of study, 1500 perforating injury, 1865–1867, 1866f
Tamponade, see also Heavy tamponade ocular manifestations preoperative evaluation, 1858–1860,
giant retinal tear surgery, 1848–1849 atypical presentations, 1504 1858f–1859f
intraocular gas exchange, 1738, 1738t chronic endophthalmitis, 1503–1504 retinal detachment, 1867–1870
myopic foveoschisis surgery, 1917 overview, 1502–1504 vitreous hemorrhage, 1867–1870,
pars plana vitrectomy, 1715 peripheral granuloma, 1502–1503, 1502f–1503f 1868f–1869f
pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1939 posterior pole granuloma, 1503, 1503f sympathetic ophthalmia management, 1872–1873
proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery pars parasitology, 1500–1501, 1501f prevention, 1873
plana vitrectomy, 1889–1890 pathophysiology, 1501–1502 epidemiology, 1647, 1852
proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery treatment, 1505 anatomic changes, 1647–1648, 1647f
heavy silicone oil, 1817–1818 visceral larval migrans, 1500–1505 histopathology, 1648, 1648f
overview, 1816, 1816t Toxoplasmosis animal models, 1648–1649
removal of silicone oil, 1818 diagnosis, 1496–1497 wound healing and traumatic proliferative
silicone oil, 1816–1817, 1817f infectious endophthalmitis, 2023 vitreoretinopathy
silicone oil for permanent tamponade, 1769 life cycle, 1494–1495 cellular response, 1649–1650, 1651f
Taxol, see Paclitaxel ocular infection in AIDS, 1460–1461, 1461f extracellular matrix remodeling, 1651–1652
TB, see Trypan blue ocular manifestations, 1495–1496, 1495f–1497f growth factors, 1650–1651, 1650f
Telangiectasia, see Macular telangiectasia outcomes and complications, 1497 endophthalmitis, traumatic, 1652
Telescreening overview, 1494, 1494b intraocular foreign body, 1652
diabetic retinopathy pathogenesis, 1495 combat injury, 1652
automated image analysis, 1010 strains and haplogroup genetics, 1494–1495 management
compression of images, 1008 toxocariasis differential diagnosis, 1504–1505 pharmacotherapy, 1652–1653
cost-effectiveness, 1010 treatment and prevention, 1497–1498, 1498b, 1498f surgery, 1652
data transfer, archiving, and retrieval, tPA, see Tissue plasminogen activator pediatric vitreoretinal surgery indications
1008 Transducin closed globe injuries
guidelines from American Telemedicine mutations, 355 oradialysis, 1939–1940
Association, 1006–1007 phototransduction, 349 macular hole, 1940–1941, 1941f
image acquisition, 1008 Transduction, see Gene therapy vitreous hemorrhage, 1941
interpretation, 1008–1009 Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) open globe injuries, 1939, 1940f
ophthalmologist-led model versus angiogenesis regulation, 572 shaken baby syndrome, 1942, 1943f
ophthalmologist-based model, 1006t macular edema role, 592–594, 594f Terson syndrome, 1941–1942, 1942f
patient satisfaction, 1010 proliferative vitreoretinopathy perfluorocarbon liquid indications, 1751–1752
program evaluation, 1010 pathophysiology, 1642 relaxing retinectomy, 1833–1834, 1833f–1834f
quality assurance, 1009–1010 wound healing, 1650–1651, 1650f silicone oil indications, 1760
Trepenoma pallidum, see Syphilitic uveitis coloboma, 255, 259f recurrence, 2295
Triamcinolone cupping assessment, 255–258 technique, 2291–2292, 2292f
branch retinal vein occlusion management, phthisis, 232, 233f tumor regression, 2293
1035 proliferative vitreoretinopathy with retinal visual outcomes, 2293–2294, 2293f–2294f i31
central retinal vein occlusion management, detachment, 1809f Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study,
1043–1044, 1043f prospects, 283 see Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study
Coats disease management, 1066 retinal detachment epigenetics, 648
cystoid macular edema surgery, 1984 acute, 243–250, 247f–249f fluorescein angiography, 38f
histoplasmosis management, 1281 chronic genetic defects

Index
I-vation implant, 741, 741f Coats disease, 251, 254f chromosomal abnormalities, 2248
rhegmatogenous retinal detachment management overview, 250–251, 250f–253f gene expression profiling, 2248–2250
with pars plana vitrectomy, 1715f retinoblastoma, 255, 255f–257f genetic testing
Triamcinolone implant, 741, 741f retinopathy of prematurity, 255, 258f clinical trials, 2251–2252
Triamterene, retinal fold induction, 1541–1543 retinoschisis, 251 indications, 2251f
Trilateral retinoblastoma, 2143, 2143f retinoblastoma staging, 2121, 2122f prognostic value, 2249–2250, 2252
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, toxoplasmosis scleritis, posterior, 279, 280f–281f techniques, 2250–2251
management, 1497–1498, 1498b staphyloma tissue procurement, 2250–2251
Trypan blue (TB) overview, 230 GNA11, 2247–2248, 2249f
vital dye staining, 1972 scleral buckle, 230, 231f GNAQ, 2247–2248, 2249f
vitreoretinal interface visualization, 2097, 2097t techniques indocyanine green angiography, 68, 72f
Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, age-related macular A-mode, 228 laser therapy
degeneration therapeutic targeting, 1244 B-mode, 228, 228f photoablation, 2311
TSC, see Tuberous sclerosis complex ultrasound biomicroscopy and high-frequency photocoagulation for ancillary treatment
TSP-1, see Thrombospondin-1 ultrasound, 228–229, 228f–230f pre-surgical therapy, 2310
TTP, see Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura uveal effusion syndrome, 1309, 1309f radiation complications, 2310
TTT, see Transpupillary thermotherapy uveal melanoma patients, 2313 retinal detachment, 2310
Tuberculoma, ultrasonography of choroid, 275, vitrectomy planning, 283t metastasis management
278f–279f vitreoschisis, 499f liver, 2315
Tuberculosis vitreous systemic, 2315
epidemiology, 1473 asteroid hyalosis, 232–233, 234f pathology
extrapulmonary, 1473 degeneration, 232 balloon cell melanoma, 2262, 2262f
laboratory evaluation, 1476–1477 foreign body, 243, 244f–246f bilateral uveal melanoma, 2262
latent tuberculosis, 1476 hemorrhage, 235–236, 236f–239f, 282t, 1856f clear cell differentiation of uveal melanoma,
ocular infection, 239, 241f–243f 2262, 2262f
differential diagnosis, 1475 inflammation, 239, 243f–244f cytological features, 2256–2257, 2256f–2257f
forms, 1473–1475, 1474f pathological changes, 232–243, 233f, 233t degenerative changes, 2261f
pathogenesis, 1475 persistent and hyperplastic primary vitreous, diffuse uveal melanoma, 2260, 2262f
pulmonary, 1473 233–235, 235f electron microscopy, 2258
resistant disease treatment, 1478 synchysis scintillans, 233 gross appearance, 2254–2256, 2255f–2256f
treatment, 1477–1478, 1477t Terson syndrome, 239, 240f immunohistochemistry, 2257–2258, 2257f
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease, 1328f multifocal unilateral uveal melanoma, 2262,
clinical manifestations von Hippel–Lindau disease, 2158f 2262f
adnexal lesions, 2167 Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells necrotic melanoma, 2262, 2263f
cognitive and behavioral disability, 2164–2165, overview, 682–685 radiation therapy response
2165f transcriptomics, 684f brachytherapy, 2254, 2263f
optic nerve phakoma, 2167 Unfolded protein response, see Endoplasmic proton beam irradiation, 2263–2264, 2264f
overview, 2164 reticulum stress radiation retinopathy, 2264–2265, 2264f
retina, 2166–2167, 2166f–2167f Usher syndrome retroinvasive melanoma, 2262, 2263f
seizure, 2164 gene mutations, 790t–794t, 808 specimens
skeleton, 2166 USH interactome, 809–810 fixation, 2254
skin, 2165, 2165f retinitis pigmentosa, 787–789 gross examination, 2254
visceral features, 2166 Uveal effusion syndrome staining, 2254, 2255f
differential diagnosis, 2167–2168, 2168b clinical features, 1307–1309, 1308f transpupillary thermotherapy response, 2265
genetics, 2168–2169 differential diagnosis tumor extension, 2259–2260
history of study, 2164 hydrodynamic effusions, 1310 tumor stroma, 2258–2259, 2259f
Tübinger perimetry, 309–310, 310f, 317f inflammatory disease, 1310 photodynamic therapy, 2310–2311
TULP1, retinitis pigmentosa defects, 805–806 neoplasia, 1310–1311 pregnancy and risks, 1574
Tumor angioma, fluorescein angiography, 35f overview, 1309–1311, 1310t work-up of patients
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), macular edema scleropathies, 1309–1310 genetic testing, 2298
role, 592 fluorescein angiography, 1309, 1309f imaging, 2313, 2314f
optical coherence tomography, 1309 liver function tests, 2313
U overview, 1306 screening and biopsy ethics, 2314–2315
Ultrasonography, see also Doppler imaging pathophysiology of ciliochoroidal effusion Uveitis, see also Experimental autoimmune
choroid general mechanisms, 1306–1307, 1307f uveoretinitis; Intermediate uveitis
choroidal fold differential diagnosis, 281t idiopathic and nonophthalmic effusion, 1307 autoimmunity
hemangioma, 275, 276f–277f, 2342f, 2343 retinal detachment, 1624–1625 animal models, 583t
hypotony changes, 258, 260f–262f treatment retinal autoimmunity in humans, 585–587
melanoma pars plana vitrectomy, 1311 clinical trials, 1612–1613
A-mode, 263–267, 269f–270f scleral thinning, 1311, 1312f cytomegalovirus retinitis and immune recovery
B-mode, 263, 264f–268f vortex vein decompression, 1311 uveitis, 1457–1458, 1458f
overview, 258–273 ultrasonography, 279, 280f, 1309, 1309f drug induction
treatment planning, 271–273, 271f–273f Uveal melanocytic proliferation, systemic cidofovir, 1549
metastases, 274, 274f–275f, 2325–2326 malignancy association, 2354–2355 latanoprost, 1549
neovascularization, 258, 263f Uveal melanocytoma, 2354, 2354f rifambutin, 1549
osteoma, 275, 277f–278f, 2336 Uveal melanoma, see also Choroidal melanoma; macular edema management
tuberculoma, 275, 278f–279f Posterior uveal melanoma internal limiting membrane peeling, 1986
uveal effusion syndrome, 279, 280f charged-particle irradiation vitrectomy, 1985
combined inflammatory and rhegmatogenous clinical findings, 2293 neovascularization, 568
retinal detachment, 1905f complications, 2294–2295 pregnancy and noninfectious uveitis,
coupling agents, 227, 227f depth–dose curve, 2290f 1578–1579
diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma, 2142f dose, 2292 proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery
historical perspective, 227 enucleation frequency, 2295 complication, 1892
hypotonic maculopathy, 1313, 1313f follow-up, 2292 rheumatic disease
intermediate uveitis, 1406–1407 metastasis and survival, 2296 acute anterior uveitis, 1416
intraocular foreign body, 1859f operative technique, 2290–2291, 2291f chronic anterior uveitis, 1416
leukocoria differential diagnosis, 282t overview, 2290 intermediate uveitis, 1416
microphthalmos, 232, 232f patient selection, 2290 panuveitis, 1416
optic nerve planning, 2291, 2291f–2292f posterior uveitis, 1416
sarcoidosis, see Sarcoidosis pegaptanib therapy, 1203, 1243 layouts, 300
serous retinal detachment, 621–622 ranibizumab therapy optotypes, 300
spirochete infection, see Lyme disease; Syphilitic efficacy, 1227–1230, 1228f–1229f, 1231t–1233t contrast, 301
i32 uveitis minimally classic lesion efficacy, 1205 contrast sensitivity, see Contrast sensitivity tests
vitrectomy photodynamic therapy comparison, distance, 300–301
diagnostic vitrectomy 1204–1205 electronic acuity tests, 302–303
culture, 2042 safety, 1205–1206 luminance, 301
cytokine/chemokine measurement, 2043 RNA interference of vascular endothelial near acuity tests
cytology, 2042 growth factor, 1237f, 1243 letter size specification, 302
Index

flow cytometry, 2042–2043 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor words versus continuous text, 302
histopathology, 2042–2043 gene therapy, 1220–1221 scoring, 302
indications, 2040, 2040t angioid streak management Visual-evoked potential (VEP), principles and
molecular analysis, 2042 bevacizumab, 1271–1272 applications, 223f, 225
preoperative preparation, 2040 combination therapy, 1272 Visual field testing
prospects, 2043 ranibizumab, 1272 case study, 307, 308f
retinal or choroidal biopsy, 2041–2042 branch retinal vein occlusion management clinical applications
vitreous sampling, 2040–2041 aflibercept, 1036–1037 age-related macular degeneration, 317–318,
therapeutic vitrectomy bevacizumab, 1036 318f–319f
indications, 2056 pegaptanib, 1036 central retinal vein occlusion, 307, 308f,
outcomes, 2044–2045, 2044f ranibizumab, 1036 316–317
principles, 2043–2044 central retinal vein occlusion management, central serous retinopathy, 317, 317f
prospects, 2045 1044–1045 diabetic retinopathy, 313–316, 315f
technique, 2043–2044 central serous chorioretinopathy management, epiretinal membrane, 318–320, 321f
1302 infectious retinopathy, 320–323
V choroidal hemangioma management, 2349 macular hole, 318–320, 320f
Valganciclovir, cytomegalovirus retinitis Coats disease management, 1066 melanoma and other tumors, 323–324,
management, 1448–1449, 1451–1452 histoplasmosis management, 1280–1281, 1280f 323f–324f
Valsalva retinopathy, trauma, 1569, 1569f macular edema management, 599, 600f retinal detachment, 323
Vancomycin, infectious endophthalmitis myopic macular degeneration management, retinitis pigmentosa, 312–313, 312f
management, 2028 1263–1264 toxic retinopathies, 320, 322f
Vardenafil, retinal toxicity, 1549–1550 optical coherence tomography monitoring of island of Traquair, 307, 308f
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) therapy, 98, 98f–99f microperimetry, 311
acute retinal necrosis syndrome, 1525–1526, 1525f polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy management, prospects
retinitis, see Herpetic retinitis 1289 color perimetry, 325
Varix of the vortex vein ampulla, indocyanine green pregnancy safety studies, 1579 layer-by-layer perimetry, 325
angiography, 70, 76f radiation retinopathy management, 1087–1088 optical coherence tomography/adaptive optics,
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) subretinal hemorrhage management, 1993 325
age-related macular degeneration, wet type vitreoretinal surgery applications qualitative techniques, 307–309, 309f
pathophysiology glaucoma, neovascular, 2100, 2100f quantitative techniques, 309–311, 310f
angiogenesis, 1217, 1218f proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 2098–2099, reliability, 311–312
isoforms, 1218f 2099f reproducibility, 311–312
overview, 1217–1218, 1217f retinopathy of prematurity, 2099–2100 variables affecting, 311b
receptors, 1219–1220 von Hippel–Lindau disease management, Vitamin A, retinitis pigmentosa management,
vascular permeability, 1218–1219 2160–2161 817
angiogenesis regulation, 569–570 Vasculature, see also specific arteries and veins Vitamin C, age-related macular degeneration,
Best macular dystrophy therapeutic targeting, comparison of retinal and choroidal vasculature, early disease management, 1178
864 433, 434f Vitamin E
blood–retina barrier breakdown role, 927 oxidative injury, 520–521 age-related macular degeneration, early disease
diabetic retinopathy Vasculitis, see also Churg–Strauss syndrome; Giant management, 1178
neovascularization, 567 cell arteritis; Granulomatosis with polyangitis; retinopathy of prematurity prevention, 1121
variants, 930 Kawasaki disease; Microscopic polyangiitis; Vitrasert ganciclovir implant, 740
discovery, 433–434 Polyarteritis nodosa; Takayasu’s arteritis Vitrectomy, see also Pars plana vitrectomy
encapsulation cell technology antibody implant, classification, 1430–1432, 1431b branch retinal vein management, 1037
741, 741f progression and prognosis, 1431 central retinal vein occlusion management,
gene therapy targeting, 662 treatment 1046–1047
hyperglycemia response, 520 adjuvant therapy, 1432 children, see Pediatric vitreoretinal surgery
hypoxia-inducible factor induction, 437 aims, 1431–1432 combined inflammatory and rhegmatogenous
isoforms, 437 biologicals, 1432 retinal detachment, 1906, 1907f–1908f
macular edema role, 591–592, 595 induction stage, 1431, 1432t cystoid macular edema
normal vasculogenesis role, 1111–1112, 1111f maintenance stage, 1431–1432 age-related macular degeneration
proliferative diabetic retinopathy relapse, 1432 vitreomacular traction, 1986
antagonist therapy, 996 VEGF, see Vascular endothelial growth factor branch retinal vein occlusion, 1985
pathogenesis, 969–970 VEP, see Visual-evoked potential central retinal vein occlusion, 1984
proliferative vitreoretinopathy Verteporfin, see also Photodynamic therapy diabetic macular edema, 1983
pathophysiology, 1643 choroidal hypoperfusion in photodynamic rationale, 1981–1982
wound healing, 1650–1651, 1650f therapy, 28f technique, 1984
receptors, 437–438, 438f overview in photodynamic therapy, 750–751, 751f Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy study, 1590
regulation of function in retina, 439–440 Verucca, 490, 495f diabetic macular edema management, 962
retinopathy of prematurity management with VHL, see Von Hippel–Lindau disease diabetic retinopathy, proliferative disease
inhibitors, 1123 Viditech VCTS 6500, contrast sensitivity testing, 303, indications, 984t, 997
therapeutic targeting, 437 304f–305f Eales disease management, 1483–1484, 1484f
vascular permeability regulation, 442–443 Vigabatrin, retinal toxicity, 1549 giant retinal tear, 1847
Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, Visceral larval migrans, see Toxocariasis horseshoe retinal tear
see also specific drugs Visual acuity indications, 1788–1789, 1788f
age-related macular degeneration choroidal melanoma laser versus cryotherapy, 1789–1790
aflibercept therapy, 1241–1242 brachytherapy outcomes, 2284–2286 scleral buckling, 1789
bevacizumab therapy, 1206, 1225–1227 exoresection outcomes, 2302 sutureless vitrectomy, 1790
clinical trials combined hamartomas of the retina and retinal variations, 1790
ABC, 1604 pigment epithelium, 2214 infection after, 2025
ANCHOR, 1604 diabetic macular edema, 954–955 intermediate uveitis management, 1412
CATT, 1206–1207, 1230–1241, 1233t, 1234f, ocular ischemic syndrome, 1092 macular edema management, 599–601
1235t, 1605 retinoblastoma treatment outcomes, 2138–2139 macular hole, 1969
FOCUS, 1604 Stargardt disease, 868 proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery pars
MARINA, 1604 X-linked retinoschisis, 845 plana vitrectomy
PIER, 1605 Visual acuity tests closure, 1890
V.I.S.I.O.N., 1604 administration, 301 combined traction and rhegmatogenous
follow-up, 1204f, 1207 applications, 300 detachment, 1888–1889
KH902 therapy, 1242 chart design entry site preparation, 1884–1885, 1884f
eyes with complete posterior hyaloid proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery overview, 500, 503f–504f, 504–505
separation, 1885–1886, 1885f–1886f indication and timing, 1878 pathogenesis, 504–505
eyes with incomplete posterior hyaloid outcomes, 1894–1895 manifestations, 498f
separation, 1886–1888, 1886f–1888f Vitreoretinal surgery, see also specific diseases and peripheral retinal effects, 500, 500f i33
photocoagulation, 1889 surgeries vitreomacular traction, 500, 501f
subtotal posterior vitreous adhesion, 1888, air–gas exchange, 1707, 1707f vitreous effects, 498–500, 499f
1889f air–silicone exchange, 1708–1709 base excision in giant retinal tear surgery, 1847
tamponade, 1889–1890 algorithms, 1710 components
proliferative vitreoretinopathy surgery, 1810–1813, anatomy, 1696, 1696f chondroitin sulfate, 482–483

Index
1812f antimicrobial therapy, 1710 collagen, 482, 482f
retinal macroaneurysm management, 1027 children, see Pediatric vitreoretinal surgery fibrillins, 483
retinopathy of prematurity management control systems, 1699 hyaluronan, 482, 497
ab interno incision, 1929–1930, 1930f dyes for vitreoretinal interface visualization, opticin, 483
closed lens pars plicata vitrectomy, 1930–1931, 2096–2097, 2097t, 2098f diabetic retinopathy changes, 942
1930f–1931f epiretinal membrane management, 1704–1705, lens extraction and vitreoretinal changes, 505–506,
lens-sparing vitrectomy, 1929, 1929f 1704f–1705f 505f
stage 4A, 1926 ergonomics of tools, 1699 perfluorocarbon liquid for base shaving, 1749
stage 4B, 1927 extrusion techniques, 1705–1706, 1706f periretinal proliferation
stage 5, 1927–1929, 1927f–1928f fluid–air exchange, 1707, 1707f complex membranes, 507–511, 510f–512f
rhegmatogenous retinal detachment management hemostasis, 1709–1710, 1710f premacular membranes, 507, 508f
with pars plana vitrectomy infusion system management, 1697–1699, 1698f retroretinal membranes, 507
advantages, 1712 interfacial surface tension management, physiology, 495–496
core vitrectomy, 1713–1714, 1714f 1706–1709, 1706f–1707f retinitis pigmentosa abnormalities, 769, 770f
encirclement, 1715 lens management, 1702–1704, 1703f–1704f sickle cell disease effects on vitreoretinal interface,
fluid–air exchange, 1714f mechanics 1073
outcomes, 1717–1718, 1717t–1718t fatigue failure, 1697 surgical anatomy, 1696, 1696f
patient selection, 1713 peeling, 1696–1697, 1697f trauma and vitreoretinal changes
peripheral vitrectomy, 1714–1715, 1714f shear, 1697, 1697f blunt trauma, 506, 506f
phacoemulsification and intraocular lens microscope requirements, 1699, 1700f penetrating trauma, 507, 507f
implantation, 1715 panretinal photocoagulation, 1710 shaken-baby syndrome, 506, 507f
photocoagulation/cryopexy of tear, 1714f, 1715 perfluoro-octane ultrasonography
pneumatic retinopexy comparison, 1730 overview, 1707–1708, 1708f asteroid hyalosis, 232–233, 234f
port creation through pars plana, 1713 perfluourocarbon–silicone oil exchange, 1709, degeneration, 232
positioning following surgery, 1715 1709f, 1748–1753, 1748f foreign body, 243, 244f–246f
principles, 1713 prophylactic therapy during surgery for retinal hemorrhage, 235–236, 236f–239f, 282t
scleral buckling surgery comparison, 1718t detachment infection, 239, 241f–243f
sutureless microincision surgery, 1715–1717, pneumatic retinopexy, 1801 inflammation, 239, 243f–244f
1716f silicone oil removal, 1801 pathological changes, 232–243, 233f, 233t
tamponade, 1715 vitrectomy for non-retinal detachment, 1801 persistent and hyperplastic primary vitreous,
triamcinolone acetonide use, 1715f retinectomy, 1709 233–235, 235f
transconjunctival, small gauge vitrectomy, retinopexy, 1710, 1710f synchysis scintillans, 233
1699–1700, 1701f sclerotomy, 1700–1701, 1701f Terson syndrome, 239, 240f
traumatic injury management, 1652 subretinal proliferation management, 1705, 1705f Vitreous biopsy
ultrasonography in planning, 283t transconjunctival, small gauge vitrectomy, case examples, 2051b–2052b, 2052f
uveal effusion syndrome management with pars 1699–1700, 1701f findings, 2049t, 2050–2051
plana vitrectomy, 1311 vitreous cutter, 1699, 1700f histology, 2049–2050
uveitis vitreous removal, 1701–1702, 1702f indications, 2048t
diagnostic vitrectomy Vitreoretinal traction intraocular lymphoma, 2050t
culture, 2042 retinal detachment pathogenesis, 1793, 1793f technique, 2049, 2050f
cytokine/chemokine measurement, 2043 symptomatic eyes uveitis, 2040–2041
cytology, 2042 tears with persistent vitreoretinal traction, Vitreous detachment, pneumatic retinopexy
flow cytometry, 2042–2043 1794–1795, 1794f considerations, 1723
histopathology, 2042–2043 tears without persistent vitreoretinal traction, Vitreous hemorrhage
indications, 2040, 2040t 1795 age-related macular degeneration, wet type
molecular analysis, 2042 retinal tear and detachment role, 1662, 1662f differential diagnosis, 1198, 1198f
preoperative preparation, 2040 scleral buckling surgery and retina attachment overview, 1185
prospects, 2043 promotion, 1664–1665, 1665f fluorescein angiography, 34f, 39
retinal or choroidal biopsy, 2041–2042 Vitreous pediatric vitreoretinal surgery in trauma,
vitreous sampling, 2040–2041 aging 1941
therapeutic vitrectomy biochemical changes, 497 proliferative diabetic retinopathy surgery
indications, 2056 posterior vitreous detachment complication, 1893
outcomes, 2044–2045, 2044f epidemiology, 498 indication and timing, 1877–1878, 1878f
principles, 2043–2044 overview, 497–498 outcomes, 1894
prospects, 2045 symptomatic disease, 498 surgical management
technique, 2043–2044 structural changes, 497 closed globe injury, 1855–1856, 1856f
Vitreolysis synchysis open globe injury, 1867–1870, 1868f–1869f
cystoid macular edema management, 1987 morphology, 496, 497f VKH disease, see Vogt–Koyangi–Harada disease
diabetic retinopathy, proliferative disease pathogenesis, 496 VMT, see Vitromacular traction
management, 996–997 anatomy and histology Vogt–Koyangi–Harada (VKH) disease
macular hole management, 1975 internal limiting lamina clinical features
pharmacologic vitreolysis degenerative remodeling, 488, 490f acute uveitic stage, 1327, 1328f–1330f
dispase, 2095 retinal sheen dystrophy, 488, 489f chronic recurrent stage, 1331, 1331f
hyaluronidase, 2095 structure, 488, 489f chronic uveitic stage, 1327, 1331f
microplasmin, 2095, 2095f variations, 490 distinguishing acute versus chronic disease,
plasmin, 2095 posterior vitreous cortex 1331, 1331t
rationale, 2094 hyalocytes, 486–488, 488f–489f overview, 1326–1331
Vitreomacular traction (VMT) structure, 486–488, 487f prodromal stage, 1327
anomalous posterior vitreous detachment, 500, vitreomacular interface, 490, 495f complications and management, 1334–1335,
501f vitreopapillary interface, 490, 495f–496f 1335f
cystoid macular edema pathophysiology, vitreoretinal interface, 486–495, 491f diagnostic criteria, 1327b
1979–1980 vitreous base variations, 490 differential diagnosis, 1334
diabetic macular edema, 951–953, 952f–953f vitreous body, 483–486, 483f–486f epidemiology, 1326
epiretinal membrane surgery, 1986 anomalous posterior vitreous detachment imaging, 1329f, 1333, 1333f
macular hole pathogenesis, 1962–1963 cystoid macular edema, 500, 502f lumbar puncture, 1333–1334
optical coherence tomography macular cyst, 500, 502f overview, 1326
age-related macular degeneration macular hole pathogenesis, 1331–1332, 1332f
vitreomacular traction, 1981, 1983f histopathology and pseudo-operculum, 504, retinal detachment, 1628–1629, 1629f
overview, 87–88, 88f, 1981, 1982f 504f treatment, 1334, 1334b
Vomiting, fluorescein angiography complication, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, 2370 management, 2177
5 Watzke sleeve, encirclement, 1688f ophthalmologic features, 2176–2177, 2176f
Von Hippel–Lindau disease (VHL) Wegener’s granulomatosis, see Granulomatosis with overview, 2176–2177
i34 clinical presentation, 2156–2157, 2157f–2158f polyangitis skin features, 2177
diagnosis, 2157–2158, 2158f Weiss ring, 497f
fluorescein angiography, 35f Weissenbacher–Zweymuller syndrome X
genetic testing, 2161 clinical findings X-linked inheritance, 624f, 625
genetics, 2156 extraocular, 843 X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS)
history of study, 2156 ocular, 843–844 differential diagnosis, 846, 848
Index

ocular lesions differential diagnosis, 844 electroretinogram, 214, 845–846, 846f


epidemiology, 2158–2159 management, 841 genetic counseling, 846
pathology of capillary hemangioblastoma, overview, 842–843 ocular features, 844–845, 845f
2159–2160, 2159f Welding, maculopathy, 1557–1558, 1557f optical coherence tomography, 845, 845f
screening, 2161, 2161t Whiplash retinopathy, features, 1569 overview, 844
treatment White-dot syndrome, indocyanine green pediatric vitreoretinal surgery, 1947–1948, 1947t
overview, 2160 angiography, 70, 76f–77f treatment
vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, White spot syndromes, see Acute idiopathic blind gene therapy, 847
2160–2161 spot enlargement; Acute macular laser therapy, 846–847
Vortex vein, uveal effusion syndrome management neuroretinopathy; Acute posterior multifocal pharmacotherapy, 846
with decompression, 1311 placoid pigment epitheliopathy; Acute zonal retinal transplantation, 847
VZV, see Varicella zoster virus occult outer retinopathy; Birdshot surgery, 847
chorioretinopathy; Multifocal choroiditis; Multiple visual acuity, 845
W evanescent white dot syndrome; Persistent Xanthophyll, fluorescein angiography, 14, 21
Wagner syndrome placoid maculopathy; Progressive subretinal XLRS, see X-linked retinoschisis
differential diagnosis, 840–842, 844 fibrosis and uveitis syndrome; Punctate inner
electroretinogram, 841 choroidopathy; Relentless placoid chorioretinitis; Z
management, 842 Serpiginous choroiditis Zeaxanthin, neuroprotection, 722
ocular features, 840–841, 841f Wyburn-Mason syndrome Zinc oxide, age-related macular degeneration, early
overview, 840 central nervous system features, 2177 disease management, 1178, 1178t
visual psychophysics, 841 classification, 2177t Zonula occludens, diabetic retinopathy effects, 927