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A Project Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Award of Degree of





Under the esteemed guidance of

Asst. Prof. Sri. V.RAMA KRISHNA, (M.TECH).


A.I.C.T.E., NEW DELHI) (Accredited by N.B.A., A.I.C.T.E., NEW DELHI)



Our most sincere and grateful acknowledgments to our alma mater SAGI


opportunity to our aspirations and become engineers.

We are thankful to our principal Dr. G.P.Saradhi Varma for providing us

with the necessary facilities to carry out this project.

We wish to express our deep gratitude and sincere appreciations to our guide

Sri. V.Rama Krishna, for his guidance and constant encouragement throughout this

project. We are very much grateful to him for his congenial co-operation.

We also express our thanks to Head of the Department Dr. P.V.Rama Raju

for his encouragement and co-operation throughout the project.

--Project Associates


Notice board is the primary thing in any institution or any organization or public utility places
like Bus stations, Railway stations and parks. But sticking various notices day-to-day is
difficult process. A separate person is required to take care of this display. This project deals
about an advanced hi-tech wireless notice board .This project is built around a micro-
controller which provides all the functionality of the display and wireless control. This
project is useful in real time applications and information can be given through our finger

Project has built with GSM technology and has extra features by the usage of
mobile applications. By using mobile applications we can prevent accessing of any
unauthenticated users, false subscribers and provides high security. The notice send through
SMS by incorporating GSM module facilitate the communication of displaying message on
the notice board via user’s mobile phone. By using GSM technology, certain users are fixed
and we cannot add new users to send the message but with additional use of mobile app we
can insert and delete user’s identity according to the circumstances. It saves more time and
reduces the cost of printing. It has advantages of low power consumption and low cost.











7.1 Conclusion
7.2 Future work



Notice Boards are a common occurrence in variety of institutions which we come across on a
daily basis. In the current scenario the notice boards are being managed manually. There is a
long process involved in order to put up notices on the notice board. This wastes a lot of
resources like paper, printer ink man power and also brings about loss of time.
And also, now a day’s every advertisement is going to be digital. Many big shops and
shopping centers are using the digital moving displays now. In Railways stations and bus
stands everything from ticket Information to platform Number etc is displayed on digital
moving displays. But in these displays if they want to change the message they have to go to
place of the display and connect the display to P.C. Suppose the same message is to be
displayed in main centers of cities to display critical messages then we have to go there with
a laptop and change the message by connecting it to the display board. So, keeping this in
mind we are designing a new display system which we can access remotely to display
something crucial within a matter of seconds, thus utilizing GSM technology.
An embedded system is a combination of software and hardware to perform a
dedicated task.


 Sending message from any of the remote area to the distant located Electronic-notice

board using GSM. For sending the text message from remote area we need to
interface the mobile phone with GSM.

For developing some of GSM based applications we need to have some commons peripherals
including GSM MODEM., SIM, Arduino board, LED, power supply and connecting wires.

Essential components for assembling GSM based applications including

 Power Supply or Power Adapter

 Bridge Rectifier



 Arduino Board

 LCD or LED displays

 Connecting wires....



Figure 1: Arduino Mega2560

Microcontroller ATmega2560
Operating Voltage 5V
Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V
Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V
Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 14 provide
PWM output)
Analog Input Pins 16
DC Current per I/O Pin 40mA
DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50mA
Flash Memory 256 KB of which 8 KB used
by bootloader
Clock Speed 16 MHz

The Arduino Mega2560 can be powered via the USB connection or with an external
power supply. The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can
come either from an AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected

by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into the board's power jack. Leads from a battery
can be inserted in the Ground and Vin pin headers of the POWER connector.

The board can operate on an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. If supplied with less
than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable.
If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and damage the board. The
recommended range is 7 to 12 volts.

The Mega2560 differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI
USB-to-serial driver chip.Instead, it features the Atmega8U2 programmed as a USB-to-serial
The power pins are as follows:

VIN: The input voltage to the Arduino board when it's using an external power
source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source).You
can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it
through this pin.
5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other
components on the board. come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by
USB or another regulated 5V supply.
3V3. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator. Maximum current draw
is 50mA.
GND. Ground pins.

The ATmega2560 has 256 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 8 KB
is used for the boot loader), 8 KB of SRAM and 4 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and
written with the EEPROM library).

Input And Output:

Each of the 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an input or output, using
pin mode(),pin write(), and digital read() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can
provide or receive a maximum of 40mA and has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by
default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized functions:

Serial 0:0 (RX) and 1 (TX) ; Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX);
Serial 2:17 (RX)and 16 (TX) ; Serial 3: 15 (RX) and 14 (TX).
Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. Pins
0 and 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the
ATmega8U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip.

External Interrupt pins:

2 (INTR 0), 3 (INTR 1), 18 (INTR 5), 19 (INTR 4), 20 (INTR 3), and 21 (INTR 2). These
pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a
change in value. See the attach interrupt () function for details.
PWM (0 to13): Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analog write() function.
SPI: 50 (MISO), 51 (MOSI), 52 (SCK), 53 (SS). These pins are used for serial
communication with SPI protocol for communication between 2 or more devices. SPI enable
bit must be set to start communication with other devices.

LED(13): There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value,
the LED is on, when the pin is
LOW, it's off.
I2C: 20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL). Digital pin 20 for SDA and 21 for SCK (Speed 400khz) to
enable two wire communication with others devices. Function used are wire.begin() to start
I2C conversion, with wireRead() to read I2Cdata and wire.Write() to write I2C data.

Controller Pins:
RESET: (Reset input) A low level on this pin for longer than the 4 clock cycle will generate
a reset. Arduino Mega has inbuilt reset circuit with push button to reset system and this pin
can be used by other devices to reset controller.

XTAL1, XTAL2: Crystal (16Mhz) is connected to supply clock for controller with 2 bypass
capacitor to ground.

AREF: This pin is used, when we use Adc for analog to digital conversion with external
reference voltage for conversion and don’t want to use internal 1.1V or 5v reference.

The Arduino Mega2560 has a number of facilities for communicating with a
computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers.The ATmega2560 provides four
hardware UARTs for TTL (5V) serial communication.

The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual
data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when
data is being transmitted via the ATmega2560 chip and USB connection to the computer (but
not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1).

A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the

Mega's digital pins.The ATmega2560 also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The
Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the I2C bus.

Automatic(Software) Reset:
Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino
Mega2560 is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected
computer. One of the hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the ATmega2560 is connected to
the reset line of the ATmega2560 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted
(taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this
capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the upload button in the Arduino
environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the lowering of
DTR can be well coordinated with the start of the upload.

This setup has other implications. When the Mega2560 is connected to either a
computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from
software (via USB). For the following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the
Mega2560. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload
of new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of data sent to the board after a connection is
opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when
it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after
opening the connection and before sending this data.

The Mega contains a trace that can be cut to disable the auto-reset. The pads on either
side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It's labeled "RESET-EN". You may
also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from 5V to the reset
line; see this forum thread for details.

USB Over Current Protection:
The Arduino Mega has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer's USB
ports from shorts and over current. Although most computers provide their own internal
protection, the fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500mA is applied to
the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is

The Arduino Mega2560 can be programmed with the Arduino software
The Atmega2560 on the Arduino Mega comes preburned with a bootloader that allows you to
upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates
using the original STK500 protocol (reference, C header files ).
You can also bypass the bootloader and program the microcontroller through the
ICSP (In-Circuit Serial Programming) header.


Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can
affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. The microcontroller
on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on wiring) and
the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-
alone or they can communicate with software on running on a computer (e.g. Flash,
Processing, MaxMSP).

Once you have downloaded/unzipped the arduino IDE, you can Plug the Arduino to
your PC via USB cable.
Blink LED:
Now you’re actually ready to “burn” your first program on the arduino board.
To select “blink led”, the physical translation of the well known programming “helloworld”,

Once you have your sketch you’ll see something very close to the screenshot on the right.
In Tools>Board select MEGA Now you have to go to Tools>SerialPort and select the right
serial port, the one arduino is attached to.

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
GSM, which stands for Global System for Mobile communications, regions
(important) as the world's most widely, used cell phone technology. Cell phones use a cell
phone service carrier's GSM network by searching for base stations in the nearby area. Global
system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular
GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common
European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European
mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHZ. It is estimated that many countries
outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership.

Antenna is the most important part in wireless project. It is an interface between the
transmission line and the space to propagate electronic wave. It converts the electrical energy
into electromagnetic wave for transmitter. Similarly, on the received side, the electromagnetic
wave for transmitter. similarly, on the received side, the electromagnetic signal is converted
back to electric signal. Antenna is a passive device that power radiated by transmitting
antenna cannot be greater than the power entering the transmitter. The antenna is reciprocal
that means the same design can works equally well as a transmitting or a receiving antenna.
In this project there are three types of antenna that can be implemented in the project. They
are helical antenna, loop antenna and whip antenna.

The SIM300 is a complete Tri-band GSM solution in a compact plug-in module.
Featuring an industry-standard interface, the SIM300 deliversGSM/GPRS900/1800/1900Mhz
performance for voice, SMS, data and Fax in a small form factor and with low power
The leading features of SIM300 make it deal fir virtually unlimited application, such as WLL
applications (Fixed Cellular Terminal), M2M application, handheld devices and much more.
1. Tri-band GSM/GPRS module with a size3 of 40x33x2.85
2. Customized MMI and keypad/LCD support
3. An embedded powerful TCP/IP protocol stack
4. Based upon mature and field proven platform, backed up by our support service,
from definition to design and production.

General Features:
 Tri-band GSM/GPRS900/1800/1900Mhz

 GPRS multi-slot class 10

 GPRS mobile station class-B

 Complaint to GSM phase 2/2+

 -class 4(2W @900MHz)

 -class 1(1W @/18001900MHz)

 Dimensions: 40x33x2.85 mm

 Weight: 8gm

 7. Control via AT commands

 (GSM07.07, 07.05 and SIMCOM enhanced ATCommands)

 SIM application tool kit

 supply

 voltage range 3.5.........4.5 v

 Low power consumption

 Normal operation temperature: -20 'C to +55 'C

 Restricted operation temperature: -20 'C to -25 'C and +55 'C to +70 'C

 Storage temperature: -40 'C to + 80 'C

Specifications for Fax:

 Group 3 and class 1

Specifications for Data:

 GPRS class 10: max 85.6 kbps (downlink)

 PBCCH support

 coding schemes Cs 1,2,3,4

 CSD up to 14.4 kbps


 Non transparent mode

 Specifications for SMS via GSM/GPRS:
 Point to point MO and MT

 SMS cell broadcast

 Text and PDU mode

At cellular command interface
Specifications for voice:
1. Tricodec
-Half rate (HR)
-Full rate (FR)
-Enhanced full rate (EPR)
2. Hands free operation
(Echo cancellation)
Microsoft windows mobile RIL driver
MUX driver
 Interface to external SIM 3v 1.8v

 60 pins board-to-board connector

 Two analog audio interfaces

 LCD interface

 RTC backup

 AT commands via serial interface

 Dual-Serial interfaces

 Antenna connector and antenna pad

Need of GSM:
The GSM study group aimed to provide the following through the GSM
 Improved spectrum efficiency

 International roaming

 Low-cost mobile sets and base stations(BS)

 High-quality speech

 Compatibility with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone
company services.

 Support for new services

GSM - Architecture:
A GSM network consists of several functional entities whose functions and interfaces are
defined. The GSM network can be divided into following broad parts.
 The Mobile Station (MS)

 The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

 The Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)

 The Operating Support Subsystem (OSS)

Specifications for different Personal Communications Services (PCS) systems vary
among the different pc’s networks. The GSM specification is listed below with important
Modulation is a form of change process where we change the input information into a
suitable format for the transmission medium. We also changed the information by
demodulating the signal at the receiving end.
The GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation method.

Access Methods:
Because radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, a method must be
devised to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible.
GSM choose a combination of TDMA/FDMA as its method. The FDMA part involves
the division by frequency of the total 25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies of 200
kHz bandwidth.
One or more carrier frequencies are then assigned to each BS. Each of these carrier
frequencies is then divided in time, using a TDMA scheme, into eight time slots. One time
slot is used for transmission by the mobile and one for reception. They are seperated in time
so that the mobile unit does not receive and transmit at the same time.

Transmission Rate:
The total symbol rate for GSM at 1 bit per symbol in GMSK produces 270.833 K
Symbols /second. The gross transmission rate of the time slot is 22.8 Kbps.
GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.

Frequency band:
The uplink frequency range specified for GSM is 933 - 960 MHz (basic 900 MHz
band only). The downlink frequency band 890 - 915 MHz (basic 900MHz band only).

Channel spacing:
This indicates separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 200

Speech coding:
GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit
rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes
through this filter, leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

Duplex Distance:
The duplex distance is 80 MHz Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink
and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 80 MHz apart.

 Frame duration:4.615 ms

 Duplex Technique: Frequency Division Duple Xing (FDD) access mode previously
known as WCDMA. Speech channels per RF channel is 8.

Advantages of GSM:
 GSM is already used worldwide with over 450 million subscribers.

 International roaming permits subscribers to use one phone throughout Western

Europe. CDMA will work in Asia, but not France, Germany, the U.K. and other
popular European destinations.

 GSM is mature, having started in the mid-80s. This maturity means a more stable
network with robust features. CDMA is still building its network.

 GSM's maturity means engineers cut their teeth on the technology, creating an
unconscious preference.

 The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules, which are smart cards that provide
secure data encryption give m-commerce advantages.

Commands always start with AT (which means Attention) and finish with a <CR>
Information responses and result codes:
Response start and end with <CR><LP>, except for the ATVO DCE response format) and -
the ATQ1 (result code suppression) commands.
If command syntax is incorrect, an ERROR string is returned.
If command syntax is correct but with some incorrect parameters, the +CME ERROR:
<Err> or +CMS ERROR: <SMS>Erm strings are returned with different error codes.
If the command line has been performed successfully, an OK string is returned.
In some cases, such as "AT+CPIN?" or (unsolicited) incoming events, the product does not
return the OK string as a response.

In the following examples <CR> and <CR><LFP are intentionally omitted.

1. Manufacturer identification +CGMI

2. Request model identification +CGMM
3. Request revision identification +CGMR
4. Product Serial Number +CGSN
5. Dial command D
ATD<nb> where <nb> is the destination phone number
Please note that for an international number, the local international prefix does not need be
set (usually 00) but does need to be replaced by the + character.
Example: to set up a voice call to Wavecom offices from another country, the AT command
Note that some countries may have specific numbering rules for their GSM numbering. The
response to the ATD command is one of the following:
6. Hang-Up command H
The ATH (or ATH0) command disconnects the remote user. In the case of multiple calls are
released (active, on-hold and waiting calls). The specific Wavecom ATH1 command has
been appended to disconnect the current outgoing call, only in dialing or alerting same ATH1
can be used only after the ATD command, and before its terminal response (CARRIER…). It
can be useful in the case of multiple calls.
When the product receives a call, it sets the Ringling signal and sends the ASCII"RING" or
CRING: type" string to the application (+CRING if the cellular result code +CRC is
enabled). Then it waits for the application to accept the call with the ATA command.
Command syntax: ATH

7. Answer a call A:
When the product receives a call its sets the RingInd signal and sends the ASCII “RING” or
“+CRING; <Type>” string to the application (+CRING if the cellular result code +CRC is
enabled). then it waits for the application to accept the call with the ATA command.

Syntax:Command syntax: ATA

8. Redial last telephone number ATDL

This command redials the last number used in the ATD command. The last number dialed is
displayed followed by ";” for voice calls only
Command syntax: ATDL
9. Preferred Message Format +CMGF

The message formats supported are text mode and PDU mode. In PDU mode, a
Complete SMS Message including all header information is given as a binary string (in
hexadecimal format). Therefore, only the following set of characters is allowed:
{‘0’,’1’,’2’,’3’,’4’,’ 5’,’6’,’7’,’8’,’9’, ‘A ‘,’B’,’C’,’ D’,’E’,’ F’}. Each pair or characters are
converted to a byte (e.g.: '41' is converted to the ASCII character ‘A’, whose ASCII code is
0x41 or 65). In Text mode, all commands and responses are in ASCII characters. The format
selected is stored in EEPROM by the +CSAS command.
Command syntax: AT+CMGF

10. Read message +CMGR

This command allows the application to read stored messages. The messages are read from
the memory selected by +CPMS command
Command syntax: AT+CMGR=<index>

11. Send message +CMGS

The<address> field is the address of the terminal to which the message is sent. To send the
message. simply type. <ctrl-Z> character (ASCII 26). The text can contain all existing
except <ctrl-z> and <ESC (ASCII 27). This command can be aborted using the <ESC>
character when entering text. In PDU mode, only hexadecimal characters are used.
AT+CMGS= <length> <CR>
PDU is entered <ctrl-Z/ ESC>

12. Delete message +CMGD

This command deletes one or several messages from preferred message storage ("BM” SMS
storage).CB ‘RAM storage’, "SM" SMSPP storage ‘SIM storage' or "SR" SMS Status-
Command syntax: AT+CMGD <Index> [<DelFalg>]


LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of
5x7 dot matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether
messages are displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied
on pin marked as Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some

versions of displays have built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during
operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

Fig 19: Liquid crystal display.

There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the
microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background
light is built in).


Depending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there
are 8-bit and 4-bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the
process in a phase called “initialization”. In the first case, the data are transferred through
outputs D0-D7 as it has been already explained. In case of 4-bit LED mode, for the sake of
saving valuable I/O pins of the microcontroller, there are only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) used for
communication, while other may be left unconnected.

Consequently, each data is sent to LCD in two steps: four higher bits are sent first (that
normally would be sent through lines D4-D7), four lower bits are sent afterwards. With the
help of initialization, LCD will correctly connect and interpret each data received. Besides,
with regards to the fact that data are rarely read from LCD (data mainly are transferred from
microcontroller to LCD) one more I/O pin may be saved by simple connecting R/W pin to the
Ground. Such saving has its price.

4 (RS) 1
5 (R/W) 2 Gnd
6(EN) 3


89S52 P1.0
P1.4 Vcc FOR

Fig 20: LCD interconnection with micro controller block diagram

LCD interfacing with arduino mega2560 board


To have a clear view of the characters on the LCD, contrast should be adjusted. To
adjust the contrast, the voltage should be varied. For this, a preset is used which can behave
like a variable voltage device. As the voltage of this preset is varied, the contrast of the LCD
can be adjusted.

Fig : Variable resistor


Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three terminals connected. This
arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for example to set the switching point of a
circuit with a sensor, or control the volume (loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals
at the ends of the track are connected across the power supply, then the wiper terminal will
provide a voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

Fig 22: Potentiometer Symbol.


These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are designed to be
mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the circuit is built. For
example to set the frequency of an alarm tone or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit. A
small screwdriver or similar tool is required to adjust presets.
Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw must
be turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving
very fine control.

Fig 23: symbol of preset.


GSM based Electronic notice board can be widely used for multitude of applications
including educational sector, traffic control, banks, public advertisements, stock exchanges

Educational Institutions and Organization: Currently we rely on putting up papers on

notice board to inform people of events. This method can be discarded by using wireless
notice boards to display information in real time.

Crime Prevention: Display board put up on roads will display tips on public security,
accident prevention, information on criminals on the run. The board will help flash messages
such as vehicle thefts as and when they occur.

Managing Traffic: In metropolitan cities we frequently come across traffic jams. One way to
avoid this would be inform people beforehand to take alternative routes. A wireless notice
board serves well for this purpose.

Advertisement: In shopping malls we get to hear the offers on various products from time to
time. Instead we continuously display the information regarding the products and related
offers on electronic display boards.
Railways Station: Instead of announcing the delay in arrival of trains we can display the

 Messages are only to be sped on a mobile or a computer, which in turn are displayed
wirelessly on the display unit.

 Since we don't use papers to display information, printers are also of no use in this

 Faster means of transferring information i.e., there is no delay in transmission of

information. Messages are displayed in a matter of seconds after typing.

 As long as we have the required network coverage, we can send messages from any
part of the world.


This project enjoys a wide area of scope. It can be extended in many ways and can be
made much more useful than it is. A few of them are
 Voice recognition can be introduced to the project.
 Global positioning system can be used to determine the location of the sender.
 It can be used as a distress call indicator using an alarm.


Our most sincere and grateful acknowledgments to our alma mater SAGI

RAMA KRISHNAM RAJU ENGINEERING COLLEGE for giving us the opportunity

to our aspirations and become engineers.

We are thankful to our principal Dr. G.P.Saradhi Varma for providing us

with the necessary facilities to carry out this project.

We wish to express our deep gratitude and sincere appreciations to our guide

Sri. V.Rama Krishna, for his guidance and constant encouragement throughout this

project. We are very much grateful to him for his congenial co-operation.

We also express our thanks to Head of the Department Dr. P.V.Rama Raju

for his encouragement and co-operation throughout the project.

-- Project Associates