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UNIVERSITY OF NIB ‘The scientific journal FACTA UNIVERSITATIS. Series: "Physical Education’ Vol. 1, No, ‘Editor of Series: Nenad Zivanovié ‘Address: Trg bratstva | jedinstvm 2 YU - 18000 Nis "Tel. (18) 28-955 Fux. (18) 26-488 CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND BASIC MUSICAL ABILITIES Radmila Kos Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Physical Education [Nis Yugoslavia Abstract: This study as ite aim to establish the relations between coordination and basi ‘masiealabities and performed on a sample of 202 shool-hays and 184 schol girls, 10 ‘years of age. The resulls confirm the sterling assumption whick implied siatistically ‘Nanificont canonical corelation betoson coordination ond asic musica! abiliie in both ‘male and female somples. In sport, a well os in the instruction in the fd of physical feucation and recreation and ctv implying application of muse as a bockground floment, special allntion should be peid 10 the ablity to discriminate rhythm and to ‘memorise melodies. ‘The results ofthese research provided grounds fo ossert thet these 0 abilities correlate with coordination cbilitiee mos! Key words: coordination, basic musical abilities, rhythm: abilities, memorise modiss abilities ‘The ability to coordinate motion and movements on hand and musical abilities on the other are rudimentary forms of complex body functions. Coordinative abilities ean be observed from the functional point of view as an internal link of motor abilities, while musical abilities, can be regarded as the embodiment of a particular funetional state reflecting the correlation between acoustic stimuli from the exterior and auditory analyzers. Appropriate elements common to both music and motion ean be found in each motion in life and sport. However, the correlation is more emphasized in individual disciplines (Ggure skating, dancing, synchronized swimming, ‘women's enmpetitive gymnasties, rhythmical enmpetitive gymnasties ote). The harmony of music and motion is more easily achieved by persons with developed musical abilities Coordinate activity in solving motor tasks involves fast and precise locomotive activities. Such activities involve a rational course of activities and movements aimed at covering particular space with the optimum energetic consumption. Musical abilities are projected on two levels (basic and advanced"). It is assumed that basic musical abilities are, to a certain extent, innate (Skoen, Wing, Marsel, Drake). Priority in research is given to the ‘UDK 793.8:796.012.2 Recived March 15, 1993 Radmila Kostié ility to discriminate toneheights (Seashore, Wing, Marsel, Drake). Priory in research is given to the ability to discriminate tone-heights (Seashore, Wing, Holmstrom), while discrimination and recognition of the melody and discrimination and memorization of rhythmic structures come next, Aesthetic judgement and estimation is required in upper forms of musical abilities. A very limited number of papers is available on the correlation between. coordination and musical abilities (Poljakovié, 1972; Eéimovié-Zgajnjer, 1978, 1981; Lomen, Radosavljevié, 1980; Kostié, 1987; Popovié, 1987, i dr.) Some comparisons of the resulls are not possible because of the’ differences concerning applied measuring instruments, age of the examines and data processing methods. 2. Objective and hypotesis 2.1. The research objective was to determine the correlation between coordination and musical abilities children - pupils of both sexes. 22. There isi coordinative and basic musical abilities. 3. Methods 8.1. The sample of examinees ‘The research included 202 male and 184 female elementary school pupils of 9-10. No discrimination concerning free sports activities was made, The sample did not include pupils who were, due to their health condition, advised by medical authorities not to attend classes of physical education. Male and female pupils were treated as independent sub-samples, 3.2. The sample of variables ‘The measuring instruments used for estimation of coordination fall into the following hypothetical factors of coordination: coordination in rhythm, coordination of arms, coordination of legs, coordination of the whole body, speed of performance of complex motor tasks, reorganization af swaying stereotypes (Gredelj and associates, 1975), ‘The choice of measuring instruments was made s0 as to ensure the best representation of the given dimension and to suit the age of the examinees best. For that reason several instruments were partly modified in comparison to their original version. The following measuring instruments were used: beating with legs and hands (CBLED, jumps in circles (CJC), slalom with two balls (CS2B), jumping over the horizontal rope (CJOHR), agility in the air (CAA), agility with the staff (CAWS), catching and throwing of the ball (CCTB), squeezing trough and 46 Correlation between coordination and basic musical abilities Jumping over (CSTJO), polygon backward (CPB) (Gredelj, M., and associates, 1975). Testing of basic musical abilities involved their differentiation and construction of measuring instruments which would cover the following abilities: the ability to recognise rhythmical structures (rhythm given in its “pure form), the ability to determine rhytinmical structures on the basis of the way certain words are pronounced, the ability to recognise given melody ‘motives (based on tone pitch discrimination), the ability to recognise familiar melody motives (discrimination of melody motives taken from widely known songs). The following measuring instruments were used: recognition of rhythmical structures (MRRS), rhythmical structures in speech (MRSS), recognition of melody motives (MRMM), and recognition of widely known melody motives (MRKMM) (Kostié, R., B.Anastasijevié, V.Nefié, 1988) 8.3, Data processing methods ‘The correlation between coordination and basic musical abilities was established by Hottelling’s procedure for maximum canonical interaction determination. The estimates included: canonical correlation coefficients (C), characteristic education roots (C2). Hi-quadrant for testing the significance of ‘canonical roots (HD), degree of freedom (NDF), significance of canonical roots @), 4, Results and discussion ‘The correlation between the group of coordination variables and the group of variables of basic musical abilities is in the sample of female examinees explained by means of two significant canonical correlation’, ic. by two significant canonical factors in the common zone of the groups of variables. (On the basis of the correlation coefficient of the first pair of canonical factors which equals, 62, it can be stated that the correlation between the two systems is averagely high (Table 1). It is supposed that the exhibition of musical abilities of the female examinees would, to a certain extent, depend upon the level of coordination. ‘As for musical abilities (Table 3), MRSS sooms to have high impact upon the first canonical dimension, while MRKMM comes next, CJOHR has the highest impact upon the fist canonical factor in the domain of coordination (Table 2) and is followed by CC. ‘The relation of the second canonical as compared to the first one, but still indicates a significant correlation between the two dimensions. In the sphere of musical abilities, MRMM exerts the highest impact upon the second canonical factor, while CSTJO and CJIC play the same role in the sphere of cocrdination. 47 Radmila Kostié ‘Table 1. Canonical correlation between coordination and musical abilities Female examinees cy Hi ‘NDF P oa 938 | 098 36 oat O17 56.74 24 Male examinees re oc 2367 21 “Table 2, Structure of canonical coordination factors Female examinees ‘Male examines Tar r 7 7 CAA, 0.08 a 32 ‘CAWS ‘oaT 007 0.06 ccTs 03. 013, CuOHR cose “ox ‘CPE. 0.05 0.06 caLit cou 0.92 (C528 ‘0.04 048 sno ‘oor 07 CC. 04 261 Correlation between coordination and music abilities has been asserted on the sample of male examinees well. ‘The inspection of the Table 1 reveals a significant canonical root. Coordination variables CCTB and CJOHR exert the highest impact. upon the first canonical factor (Table 2) while MRKMM and MRRS (Table 3) produce the same effect among the variables of musical abilities, “Table 5. Serveture of canonical factors of movin! abies Female examinees ‘Male examinees Test r © r RRS 2.00, “ous 0A) ‘MRSS: “Ts ar 022 “MRMM coz 075 0.23) MRKMAE 061 i Oat Coordination abilities presuppose functional coordination of muscular and nervous ystems, with the predominant role of the central nervous system. Analyzers, visual, auditory, kinesthetic, vestibular and other also play a significant role. ‘The cited analyzers enable information on the position of the body and its parts during motor activities. ‘The external and internal control regulation cycle are essential for the formation and realisation of specific programs of complex movement and 48 ing plays a predominant role in the process of mastering new motor habits, whereas the improvement of details is the sole competence of the internal control ring (Fidelius,1972). Being that both male and female examinees were in the situation to master new motor habits with each applied measuring instrument, their comprehension was essentially determined by the external control ring (Bernstein, 1947; Chaidze, 1970). Still, it is commonly assumed that the realisation of coordinating ‘motion is conditioned by the interaction between both external and internal control rings. Starting from G.P.Guilford's assumption (1957) that musical abilities represent an independent from of intellectual expression of an individual, it is speculated that they are partly conditioned by auditory perceptive processes. Correct solving of applied measuring instruments within the dimension of ‘musical abilities involves auditory analysis, auditory synthesis, auditory memory, cognition (isolation of information out of the group of structures and their procession, comprehension of the similar and the different), sharpness of hearing (ability to hear and discriminate the heard), perception of the parts and of the whole. ‘The correlation among the variables of coordination and musical abilities can, hypothetically, be explained primarily by the participation of cognitive processes in solving tasks in both areas. Cognitive processes influence: = the speed with which motor problems are comprehended (for coordination) and the speed of auditory analysis and synthesis (for musical abilities), = the speed with which motor tasks are mastered (coordination) and auditory memory (for musical abilities), = the control of the performance of movements and motions in the given sequence (coordination) and solving of the specific task by recalling set samples of tasks (musical abilities) It is assumed that there are two sources of covariance, One of them is general speed of information flow from the receptor to CNS and back, and the second is the specific share of engnitive processes in the motor activity, heing ‘that complex structures of movements/motion have been applied 5. Conclusion ‘The results confirm the starting assumption which implied statistically significant correlation between coordination and basic musical abilities in oth male and female samples. In sports, as well as in the instruction in the field of physical education and recreation and activities implying application of music as a background element, special attention should be paid to the ability to discriminate rhythm. 49 Radmila Kostié ‘and to memorise melodies. The research provided grounds to assert that these ties correlate with coordination abilities most. 6. References 1. Blume,D.D., (1989), Karohteristike koordinationihsposobnosti i moguénosti njihovihstoarenja u _proceu treningo, Sovremenitrening, br 2, ar.17-27. 2, Réimavie 2gainjr, S, (1978), Upiecaj ritma hao musikalne komponente na uspeh 1 exsicko) _simnastc\ i plesovima, Mogistarahi rad, Fakultet a fish kultur, Zagreb, 2, Edimovis-2gainjer, 8, (1978), Razlibe izmodsisptaniha hat imaju brlo dobro razeijen oseaj za ‘ita w nokim kognitvnio i honationim foktorima lignowt, Kinsiologije, Zagreb, br. 1-2, st. 127-135, 4. Fared,V., (1977), Upravlene na dvitenijtav sport, Medicina i fiskultura, Sofia. 5. Gredelj, M, i saradnici, (1975), Model hijerahijeke strukture motoritkih speobnosti I. Rezultati dobijen primenom jednog neoklasiénog postupka za procenu latentnih dimenzia, Kineiologia, grb br 1° sr. 783. 6. Hoch, A, (1976), Struktura hoordinacje, Kineiologiia, Zagreb, br 2, tr 151-198. 1. Kostié,R. 1B, Anastasijvis, (1982), Toptivanje nekik elemenota muzicke obdarenosti pomot ‘Storovog test, Fiigha hulturta, Beograd, br , sr. 358-360. 8 Kostie, R, (1984), Promene rezuliate vorjobli hoordinacje w ritme i musiSke nadarenosti laazvane vesbanjem drudtoenih plesova, Zbornik radova, Filoofeki fakulta. OOUR Fisisho coaspitane, Nid, et. 87-100. 9 Kowtis, R, i sarodnici, (1987), Relaije mucithih i hognitionih sposobnosti i motoridhog leradavani rimifhih struktura, Zhornshradova, Filoofe fable, hn. 1, str, 185-192. 10, Kostis, RB, Anastasieit, V. Nef, (1988), Metrjshe harakterstike mernih inatrumonata 20 rocenu muzithih sposobnost, Zbornik radova Pilzofskog fakultet, Svesko fizicha hulturo, bet, sr 87-101. U1, Kost, R,, (1987), Relocije tome hoordinacije i muzishik sposobnosti wSnika, Doktorska digertacija, Nib 12, Momirovié, K, J. Stale, B. Wolf, (1975), Pouzdonost nekik homposinih testo primarnih motorithih sposobnost, Kinezologtjo, Zagreb, br. 1-2, str. 169-198. 19, MirkoviéRadot, K, (1975), Merenje musidhih spoeobnoeti, Pahologa, Beograd, br. 1-2, sr. 51.93, 14. Ore, G, (1984), Relaije izmedu primarnih motorigkih sposobnosti i efhasnosti ivodenia plesnih siruktura hod selekeiniranog.uzorka ispitaniks, Magistorski rad, Pakulet za ithe flturu, Zagreb 15. Popovié, D., # saradnici, (1987), Relacie kognitionih i honationih dimensija| ritmickih struktura, Zbornikradove, Filozfih fault, b.wt. 48-50, KORELACIJA IZMEDU KOORDINACIJE I OSNOVNIH MUZICKIH SPOSOBNOSTI Cilj ovog istradivanja je relacija izmedju koordinaeije i osnovnih muzitkih sposobnosti. Sprovedeno je na uzorku od 202 uéenika i 184 uéenice, 9-10 godina starosti. Dobijeni rezultati su pokazali statisti¢ki znaéajnu kanonitku korelaciju izmedju koordinacije i osnovnih muziékih sposobnosti, kako kod defaka tako i kod devojéica. U sportu, kao i u fiziékom vaspitanju i rekreaciji muzika mote da se primeni kao prate¢i element, a specijalna paZnja treba biti usmerena na moguénost raspoznavanja ritma i paméenja melodije. 50