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1.

Answer :It is 200Ώm.


上次从规范上拷贝文字的时候,欧姆这个单位拷贝错了,混凝土电
阻率是 200Ώm 拷贝成 200Wm.
2.

Answer :It is already been taken in account.


咨询提到的规范我们已经考虑过了

3.

Answer :According to IEC 62305-3 item E5.6.2.2.2 "The embedding of


steel or galvanized steel in concrete causes a stabilization of the natural
potential of the metal, due to the uniformly alkaline environment. In
addition, the concrete is of uniformly, relatively high resistivity – of the
order of 200 Ώm or higher. Consequently, the reinforcing bars in concrete
are considerably more resistant to corrosion than when they are exposed,
even if connected externally to more cathodic-electrode materials." that
means:
按照 IEC62305-3 条 E5.6.2.2.2“由于均一的碱性环境,混凝土中的钢
的埋藏或镀锌钢会使得金属自然位势稳定化。而且,混凝土有
200Ωm 或更高的均一的高电阻系数。相应地混凝土中的钢筋与它们
暴露时相比,有相当大的抗腐能力,即使外部与多个阴极电极材料
相连。”这说明:
a. the metal material embedded in concrete is more stable than in the air.
And also according to IEC 62305-3 table 5 the copper can be used in
concrete without protection, (for copper the main corrosion material are
Sulphur compounds and Organic materials that is not included in
concrete, because the concrete present a alkaline environment. So your
comments "the concrete present a high corrosion on copper" are not
correct).
埋在混凝土中的金属有更好的防腐效果(比空气中)。同时按照
IEC62305-3 表 5 规定铜可以无防护的用在混凝土中(铜的主要腐蚀
物是硫化物和一些有机物,这些都不包含在混凝土中,因为上面规
范有描述混凝土是一个稳定的碱性环境,所以咨询的意见混凝土会对
铜产生强烈腐蚀的意见是错误的)
b. When copper is connected directly to the steel reenforcement ,the
corrosion should happen on the steel reenforcement not copper.
当铜导体与混凝土中钢筋直接相连是,有可能发生的腐蚀是在钢筋
上而不是铜。
c. According to IEEE Std 141-1993 item 7.5.6 "To create a made
electrode by encasement of a metal electrode in concrete would probably
not be economical, but most industrial establishments employ much
concrete-encased metal below grade for other purposes. The reinforcing
steel in concrete foundations and footings are good examples. The
concrete encasement of steel, in addition to contributing to lowgrounding
resistance, serves to immunize the steel against corrosive disintegration,
such as would take place if the steel was in direct contact with the earth
(NEC). Though copper and steel are in contact with each other within the
bed of moist concrete, destructive disintegration of the steel member does
not take place.
Copper cable embedded in concrete is similarly beneficial, a fact that may
be of particular value under circumstances of high earth resistivity."
根据 IEEE 标准 141-1993 项 7.5.6“要创建一个包绕在混凝土中的金属
电极的电极可能会不经济,但大多数工业机构多采用混凝土浇注金
属用于其他目的。钢筋 在混凝土地基及基础是一个好的方式。混凝土
包绕的钢种,除了降低接地电阻,使钢筋免于发生腐蚀性解体(例
如,如果钢中与土壤的直接接触(NEC))。虽然铜和钢的彼此接触,
在潮湿混凝土,钢构件的破坏崩解并不会发生。
铜缆埋在混凝土里,同样是有益的,特别是对高土壤电阻率的情况
下,具有特殊的价值。“
And in our "Calculation Sheet for Grounding Design" the grounding
conductor section is 333.5mm2, and we select 2×185=370mm2, so if there
is some little corrosion(usually it will not happen because the surface
copper is very stability ) , it can satisfied the requirements.
在我们的接地计算报告中,接地导体需要的截面是 333.5mm2,而我
们选用的是两根 185 截面的(370mm2 ),就是说即使有小的腐蚀
(通常不会发生,因为接地体表面的铜是非常稳定的),也可以满
足需要。
4.

Answer : Nothing should be changed except to delete the PVC pipe ,so
the calculation sheet shall not be changed.
除了取消保护管,别的没变,报告不需要修改。
5.

Answer : ρs mean that the resistivity of the matter which is contact with
the grounding material . Obviously it is not the same value for PVC pipe
and concrete(or soil)
按照 IEEE-80 的公式(计算跨步电势和接触电势),式中 ρs 的意思
是与接地导体接触的物质的电阻率。很明显加上 PVC 护管(相当于
加了一层绝缘体)与敷设在混凝土或土壤的电阻率是不一样的。

另外,你们在沟通中需要说明,我们建议的是取消主厂房各层、控制
楼、大坝坝顶以及有设备地方的塑料管,在大坝坝体里的可以保留
(这样可以避免机械损伤,同时中水已经买了材料,能用一部分也
可以)。
我们回复比较晚的原因是,我们是电气工程师不是化学工程师,因
为他们的意见很奇怪,他们错误的意见浪费了我们大量的时间来研
究,这些口头跟他们说就行。同时跟他们说明解决问题的方式就是部
分需要取消保护管的图纸(已批准的)通过设代通知的形式发给前
方,以不影响施工。