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01) If the excitation is critical, the power factor of the alternator is

is critical, the power factor of the alternator is unity power factor leading power factor lagging

unity power factor

leading power factorthe power factor of the alternator is unity power factor lagging power factor none of the

lagging power factorof the alternator is unity power factor leading power factor none of the above Reactive power

none of the aboveunity power factor leading power factor lagging power factor Reactive power is given by the equation,

leading power factor lagging power factor none of the above Reactive power is given by the

Reactive power is given by the equation,

delivered is significantly depends on excitation. When excitation is rated or critical, E cosθ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator neither

supplies nor draws any reactive power and operates at unity power factor. 02) What is/are the advantages of parallel operation of alternators?

From the above equation, the reactive power generated or

From the above equation, the reactive power generated or Increase in reliability Increase efficiency under light

Increase in reliability

Increase efficiency under light load conditionsthe reactive power generated or Increase in reliability continuity supply is maintained all of the above

continuity supply is maintainedreliability Increase efficiency under light load conditions all of the above The advantages of parallel operation

all of the above The advantages of parallel operation of alternators are The advantages of parallel operation of alternators are

1. Increase in reliability

2. Increase efficiency under light load conditions as the generators can be switched optimally according to the load.

3. Under maintenance or repair or routine work continuity supply is maintained

4. Future expansion ie quite easy

5. Any variation in voltage or frequency will hardly make a significant impact on the bus bar voltage and frequency. 03) What is/are the necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators?

necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators? Terminal voltage is same Frequency should be same Speed

Terminal voltage is same

Frequency should be sameparallel operation of alternators? Terminal voltage is same Speed of alternators should be same Both 1and

Speed of alternators should be sameTerminal voltage is same Frequency should be same Both 1and 2 Necessary conditions for parallel operation

Both 1and 2 Necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators are Necessary conditions for parallel operation of alternators are

1. Terminal voltage is same

2. Frequency should be same

3. Phase sequence should be same 04) When pure inductive load is connected to the alternator, what is the effect of armature reaction?

to the alternator, what is the effect of armature reaction? cross magnetization demagnetization magnetization none of

cross magnetization

demagnetizationwhat is the effect of armature reaction? cross magnetization magnetization none of the above When the

magnetizationof armature reaction? cross magnetization demagnetization none of the above When the load is pure inductive,

none of the above When the load is pure inductive, the armature flux will entirely demagnetizing the main flux. When the load is pure inductive, the armature flux will entirely demagnetizing the main flux. Therefore net flux in the air gap reduces with load and the main flux should be more than the actual under lagging loads. 05) Two generators operating in parallel with rating 50MW and 100MW respectively. Both their respective governor settings are identical as 4%, consider same no load frequency. How will the machine share a common load of 100 MW

50 MW and 50 MW respectivelyHow will the machine share a common load of 100 MW MW and 66.67 MW respectively

MW and 66.67 MW respectivelyshare a common load of 100 MW 50 MW and 50 MW respectively 33.33 MW and

33.33

MW and 33.33 MW respectivelyshare a common load of 100 MW 50 MW and 50 MW respectively MW and 66.67

66.67

any of the abovea common load of 100 MW 50 MW and 50 MW respectively MW and 66.67 MW

System frequency f = f 0 - (f 0 - f 1 )/ P rated *P 1 Where, f 0 is rated power frequency. System frequency f = 50 - 0.04*50/50* P 1 -------------- equation number 1 and also System frequency f = 50 - 0.04*50/100* P 2 -------------- equation number 2 Given that P 1 + P 2 = 100 ----------------equation number 3 By solving the above equations P 1 = 33.33 MW P 2 = 66.67 MW 06) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at 50Hz on no load. How will the machine share, if the load is 600 MW?

200 MW and 400MW

200

MW and 400MW

generator 1 gets over load

generator 1 gets over load

generator 2 gets over load

generator 2 gets over load

none of the above System frequency f = f 0 - (f 0 - f 1 )/ P r System frequency f = f 0 - (f 0 - f 1 )/ P rated *P 1 Where, f 0 is rated power frequency. f = 50 - 0.04*50/200 * P 1 f = 50 - 0.05*50/400 * P 2 Given that, P 1 + P 2 = 600 MW By solving the above equations, P 1 = 230.7 MW and P 2 = 369.23 MW. Therefore, generator 1 gets over load. 07) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping characteristics of their governors are identical as 4% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at 50Hz on no load. How will the machine share, if the load is 600 MW?

200 MW and 400MW respectively

200

MW and 400MW respectively

generator 1 gets over load

generator 1 gets over load

generator 2 gets over load

generator 2 gets over load

230.7 MW and 369.23 MW respectively System frequency f = f 0 - (f 0

230.7 MW and 369.23 MW respectively System frequency f = f 0 - (f 0 - f 1 )/P rated * P 1 Where, f 0 is rated power frequency. f 1 is full load frequency. f = 50 - 0.04 * 50/200* P 1 f = 50 - 0.04 * 50/400* P 2 Given that, P 1 + P 2 = 600 MW From the above equations, P 1 = 200 MW and P 2 = 400MW When different rating generators are in parallel they have to share the load proportional to their ratings, this is achieved through identical governor settings across their prime mover. 08) Two synchronous generators operating in parallel 200 MW and 400 MW respectively. The drooping characteristics of their governors are identical as 4% from no load to full load. Consider the governors operating at 50Hz on no load. What is the operating frequency, if the load is 600 MW?

to full load. Consider the governors operating at 50Hz on no load. What is the operating

50

Hz

45HZ

HZ

48Hz

Hz

48.5 Hz If the governor settings are made identical as 4%, they share load exactly proportional to If the governor settings are made identical as 4%, they share load exactly proportional to their ratings at a frequency f. f = 50 - 0.04*50/200 * 200 f = 48 Hz 09) Reactive power generated or delivered significantly depends on

power generated or delivered significantly depends on load angle excitation both 1 and 2 frequency Reactive

load angle

excitationgenerated or delivered significantly depends on load angle both 1 and 2 frequency Reactive power generated

both 1 and 2or delivered significantly depends on load angle excitation frequency Reactive power generated or delivered Q =

frequency Reactive power generated or delivered Q = V/X s * ( E cosδ - V Reactive power generated or delivered Q = V/X s * ( E cosδ - V ) Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage X s = Synchronous reactance δ = load angle From the above equation, the reactive power generated is significantly depends on excitation value. 1. When excitation is rated value, i.e. E cosδ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator nether supplies nor draws reactive power and operates at unity power factor. 2. If excitation is reduced. E cosδ < V, the generator draws reactive power from the bus and operates at leading power factor. 3. If excitation is increased, E cosδ > V, the generator delivers reactive power to the load and operates at lagging power factor. 10) When excitation is increased (over excitation), the synchronous generator operates at

(over excitation), the synchronous generator operates at unity power factor leading power factor lagging power factor

unity power factor

leading power factor (over excitation), the synchronous generator operates at unity power factor lagging power factor any of the
leading power factor

lagging power factor

any of the above(over excitation), the synchronous generator operates at unity power factor leading power factor lagging power factor

Reactive power generated or delivered Q = V/X s * ( E cosδ - V ) Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage X s = Synchronous reactance δ = load angle From the above equation, the reactive power generated is significantly depends on excitation value. 1. When excitation is rated value, i.e. E cosδ = V, which means Q = 0, the generator nether supplies nor draws reactive power and operates at unity power factor. 2. If excitation is reduced. E cosδ < V, the generator draws reactive power from the bus and operates at leading power factor. 3. If excitation is increased, E cosδ > V, the generator delivers reactive power to the load and operates at lagging power factor.

01) In a synchronous generator with constant steam input supplies power to an infinite bus at a lagging power factor. If the excitation is increased

both power angle and power factor decreaseat a lagging power factor. If the excitation is increased both power angle and power factor

both power angle and power factor increaseis increased both power angle and power factor decrease power angle decrease and power factor increase

power angle decrease and power factor increasefactor decrease both power angle and power factor increase power angle increase and power factor decrease

power angle increase and power factor decrease Power developed P = EV/X s * sinδ Where E = Excitation voltage V = Power developed P = EV/X s * sinδ Where E = Excitation voltage V = Terminal voltage X s = Synchronous reactance δ = load angle From the above equation, when steam input is constant and excitation is increased, power angle will decrease. Power delivered P = VI cosφ From the above equation, when excitation is increased then terminal voltage will increase and to maintain power input constant, power factor will decrease. 02) In a synchronous generator, if mechanical input is increased with constant excitation, the load angle will

is increased with constant excitation, the load angle will increase decrease either increase or decrease none

increase

decreasewith constant excitation, the load angle will increase either increase or decrease none of the above

either increase or decreaseconstant excitation, the load angle will increase decrease none of the above Power P = EV/Xs

none of the above Power P = EV/Xs * sinδ From the above equation, if input power is increased Power P = EV/Xs * sinδ From the above equation, if input power is increased with constant excitation, power angle will increase. If input power is decreased withe constant excitation, then power angle will decrease. 03) In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between

03) In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and armature current

field current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis

field current on Y-axis and armature current on X-axisfield current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis either of these field current on X-axis

either of thesefield current on Y-axis and armature current on X-axis field current on X-axis and power factor

field current on X-axis and power factor on Y-axis In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and armature current In synchronous generator V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis. For the same load and constant terminal voltage, the current supplied by the generator is minimum when operates at unity power factor and increases correspondingly lagging or leading. At critical excitation generator operates at unity power factor and current supplied by the generator is minimum at critical excitation. 04) In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between

In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and armature current

field current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis

field current on X-axis and power factor on Y-axisfield current on X-axis and armature current on Y-axis field current on Y-axis and power factor

field current on Y-axis and power factor on X-axison Y-axis field current on X-axis and power factor on Y-axis field current on Y-axis and

field current on Y-axis and armature current on X-axis In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and power In synchronous generator, inverted V curve is drawn between field current on X-axis and power factor on Y-axis. At critical excitation the power factor is unity. If excitation is decreased, the generator operates at leading power factor and if excitation is increased, the generator operates at lagging power factor. Therefore, the power factor is maximum at critical excitation and decreases correspondingly with under or over excitation. 05) Which of the following statement is correct, if short circuit ratios is high

statement is correct, if short circuit ratios is high good voltage regulation high voltage regulation low

good voltage regulation

high voltage regulation if short circuit ratios is high good voltage regulation low short circuit current none of the
high voltage regulation

low short circuit current

none of the above Short circuit ratio (SCR) is the ratio of two field currents, the field current required Short circuit ratio (SCR) is the ratio of two field currents, the field current required to produce rated voltage on open circuit to the field current required to rated current on short circuit. SCR = 1/( Xs(pu) adjusted ) Where, X s = Synchronous reactance If X s is low, then SCR is high. The low

value of Xs gives, 1. Good voltage regulation 2. Power developed is high, because power developed P 1 / X s 3. Machine is more stable but high short circuit current. 06) Damper winding is used to

high short circuit current. 06) Damper winding is used to decrease the load current suppress the

decrease the load current

suppress the hunting06) Damper winding is used to decrease the load current both 1 and 2 increase the

both 1 and 2is used to decrease the load current suppress the hunting increase the load current Due to

increase the load current Due to sudden change in the load or mechanical input the rotor is subjected to Due to sudden change in the load or mechanical input the rotor is subjected to vibrations and oscillate about its mean position. These swings are known as hunting. If this frequent and matches with the rotor frequency, a mechanical resonance will make the vibrations to become severe. Therefore these oscillations should be damped as quickly as possible. Therefore a damper winding is used to suppress the hunting. When the rotor runs at synchronous speed Ns, damper winding has no value. Due to any oscillations a relative speed between stator rotating magnetic field and rotor exist, consequently the damper winding come alive, emf induced, current produced, experience a torque which opposes it cause, i.e relative speed i.e. hunting. Therefore oscillations are suppressed quickly. 07) The synchronous reactance( Xs) is the

quickly. 07) The synchronous reactance( X s ) is the reactance due to armature reaction of

reactance due to armature reaction of the machine

reactance due to leakage fluxs ) is the reactance due to armature reaction of the machine combined reactance due to

combined reactance due to armature reaction and leakage fluxreaction of the machine reactance due to leakage flux reactance either due to armature reaction or

reactance either due to armature reaction or leakage flux Synchronous reactance X s = X l + X a r Where, X l = Synchronous reactance X s = X l + X ar Where, X l = reactance due to leakage flux X ar = reactance due to armature reaction of the machine 08) Synchronous reactance of an alternator represents

08) Synchronous reactance of an alternator represents armature reactance and leakage reactance a reactance

armature reactance and leakage reactance

a

a

reactance operating at synchronous speed

field winding reactance

field winding reactance

all of the above Total impedance Z s = R a + jX s =

all of the above Total impedance Z s = R a + jX s = R a + j(X l + X ar ) Where R a = armature resistance X s = synchronous reactance X l = leakage reactance X ar = armature reactance 09) In a synchronous machine, if φ is the flux per pole and f is the frequency of the emf induced E then

reactance 09) In a synchronous machine, if φ is the flux per pole and f is

E

φf

E∝ φ /f

φ/f

E∝ 1/( φ f)

1/(φf)

E∝ f/ φ

f/φ

Average emf induced E = dφ/dt emf at 1 conductor E = PφN s /60 N s = 120 *f/P Where, P = number of poles φ = flux per pole N s = synchronous

speed f = frequency average emf E = (φP* 120* f/P)/60 = 2φf Therefore E φf 10) The leakage reactance of a 3-phase alternator is determined by performing

of a 3-phase alternator is determined by performing open circuit and zero power factor tests zero

open circuit and zero power factor tests

zero power factor and slip testsby performing open circuit and zero power factor tests open circuit and short circuit tests short

open circuit and short circuit testsand zero power factor tests zero power factor and slip tests short circuit and slip tests

short circuit and slip tests In synchronous impedance method voltage regulation is determined by calculating synchronous impedance Zs. MMF method In synchronous impedance method voltage regulation is determined by calculating synchronous impedance Zs. MMF method is also determining voltage drop through MMF, but the drops in machine 'Ia*Xl' is voltage quantity and 'Ia*Xar' is MMF quantity. Because armature reaction is the reduction of flux which is represented through voltage drop. In potier method voltage quantities are calculated on voltage basis and MMF quantities are calculated on MMF basis. He also separated leakage reactance and armature reactance and named it as potier reactance. It requires open circuit, short circuit and zero power factor tests. But to find only leakage reactance open circuit and zero power factor tests are sufficient.

01) If direct axis reactance Xd and quadrature axis reactance Xq are equal, then reluctance power is

maximumzero minimum all of the above Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components.

zeromaximum minimum all of the above Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components. 1.

minimummaximum zero all of the above Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components. 1.

all of the above Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components. 1. Excitation power 2. Power due Power developed in salient pole machine contains two components. 1. Excitation power 2. Power due to saliency or reluctance Power developed in salient pole machine P = EV/X d * sinδ + V²/2( (X d -X q )/(X d *X q )) * sin2δ Therefore, if X d = X q , reluctance power will become zero.

hence it has no

02) In synchronous generator a synchronous dead load (lamp, furnaces etc) has no natural frequency of oscillation.

furnaces etc) has no natural frequency of oscillation. restoring torque. mechanical rotatory system. synchronizing

restoring torque.

mechanical rotatory system.has no natural frequency of oscillation. restoring torque. synchronizing power co efficient. damping torque. Under

synchronizing power co efficient.oscillation. restoring torque. mechanical rotatory system. damping torque. Under construction. 03) What is the

damping torque. Under construction. 03) What is the frequency of a alternator, if P = number of Under construction. 03) What is the frequency of a alternator, if P = number of poles and N = revolution made per second?

if P = number of poles and N = revolution made per second? PN / 2

PN / 2 Hz.

120 / PN Hz.of poles and N = revolution made per second? PN / 2 Hz. 120N / P

120N / P Hz.and N = revolution made per second? PN / 2 Hz. 120 / PN Hz. 120P

120P / N Hz. If a two poles alternator rotates one complete rotation, it produces one cycle of generated If a two poles alternator rotates one complete rotation, it produces one cycle of generated voltage. If a P poles alternator rotates one complete rotation, it produces P/2 cycles of generated voltage. If a P poles alternator rotates N complete rotations, it produces NP/2 cycles of generated voltage. As the N is the rotation made per second, the frequency that is number of cycles produced during one second, of the generated voltage would be NP/2 Hz.

04) In alternator, the rotary part is

would be NP/2 Hz. 04) In alternator, the rotary part is armature. core. magnetic field poles.

armature.

core.be NP/2 Hz. 04) In alternator, the rotary part is armature. magnetic field poles. none of

magnetic field poles.Hz. 04) In alternator, the rotary part is armature. core. none of these. Basically, the alternators

none of these. Basically, the alternators have the field winding in its rotary part and the armature windings Basically, the alternators have the field winding in its rotary part and the armature windings in its stationary part. We know that the field winding produces the magnetic fields and the other name of the field winding is magnetic field poles. Hence, the rotary part of the alternator is magnetic field poles. 05) If peak value of phase mmf is F max , then peak value of the rotating field caused by three phase is

peak value of the rotating field caused by three phase is (3/2)F max . F max

(3/2)Fmax.

Fmax . max.

3Fmax . max.

(1/2)Fmax . max.

The peak value of the resultant mmf is peak FPEAK = 1.5 FM. The value of depends on No. of turns/phase, winding current, No. of poles, and winding factor. The formula for the peak value of MMF is given below

factor. The formula for the peak value of MMF is given below 06) For a fault

06) For a fault at the terminal of a synchronous generator, the fault current is maximum for a

of a synchronous generator, the fault current is maximum for a 3 - phase to ground
of a synchronous generator, the fault current is maximum for a 3 - phase to ground

3

- phase to ground fault.

3

- phase fault.

line to line fault.line to ground fault. Most of the faults occur in an alternate, are line to

line to ground fault. Most of the faults occur in an alternate, are line to ground fault. This type Most of the faults occur in an alternate, are line to ground fault. This type of faults is most saviour in an alternator because the phase winding conductors are placed in the slots of the steel stator and stator is always kept in ground potential. 07) If the excitation of the synchronous generator fails, it acts as a/an

of the synchronous generator fails, it acts as a/an synchronous generator. synchronous motor. induction motor.

synchronous generator.

synchronous motor.generator fails, it acts as a/an synchronous generator. induction motor. induction generator. Normally the

induction motor.it acts as a/an synchronous generator. synchronous motor. induction generator. Normally the alternatives are

induction generator. Normally the alternatives are connected to the system to which number of others alternator are Normally the alternatives are connected to the system to which number of others alternator are also connected and hence the system behaves as an infinite bus. Due to influence of this in finite bus, there will be a rotating magnetic field in the stator windings of all alternators and these fields are all rotated in synchronous read. The field created by the rotor windings gets locked with this rotating magnetic field of the stator and also rotates in shame same speed. If the excitation of the generator fails, suddenly there will be no more magnetically locking between rotor and rotating magnetic field of stator. But still the governor will supply same mechanical power to the rotor due to this sudden magnetic unlocking; the rotor will be accelerated beyond the synchronous speed. Hence there will be a negative slip between rotor and rotating magnetic field which creates large slip frequency currents in the rotor circuit to maintain the power output of the machine as an induction generator. 08) A 500 V, 55 kVA single phase alternator has an effective resistance of 0.5 �©. An excitation current of 10 A produces 200 A armature current on short circuit and an emf of 450 V on per circuit. The synchronous reactance will be

2.241 �©.of 450 V on per circuit. The synchronous reactance will be 2.781 �©. 25.564 �©. 2.74

2.781 �©. circuit. The synchronous reactance will be 2.241 �©. 25.564 �©. 2.74 �©. The synchronous impedance
2.781 �©.

25.564 �©.

2.74 �©. The synchronous impedance (ZS) value is the ratio of the short circuit voltage and the The synchronous impedance (ZS) value is the ratio of the short circuit voltage and the short circuit current. Therefore ZS = 450/200 = 2.25

and the short circuit current. Therefore ZS = 450/200 = 2.25 Ohms. Now, the synchronous reactance

Ohms. Now, the synchronous reactance (XS) = 09) Methods of synchronizing of alternator may be done by

= 09) Methods of synchronizing of alternator may be done by all dark lamp method. all

all dark lamp method.

all bright lamp method.of alternator may be done by all dark lamp method. one dark two bright. all of

one dark two bright.may be done by all dark lamp method. all bright lamp method. all of these. The

lamp method. all bright lamp method. one dark two bright. all of these. The method of

all of these. The method of connecting an incoming alternator safely to the live bus-bars is called synchronizing. The equality of voltage between the incoming alternator and the bus-bars can be easily checked by a voltmeter. The phase sequence of the alternator and the bus-bars can be checked by a phase sequence indicator. Differences in frequency and phase of the voltages of the incoming alternator and bus-bars can be checked by one of the following two methods: (i) By Three Lamp (one dark, two bright) method, (ii) By synchroscope. 10) A synchronous generator is feeding a zero power factor (lagging) load at rated current. The armature reaction is

magnetizing. (lagging) load at rated current. The armature reaction is demagnetizing. cross – magnetizing.
magnetizing.

demagnetizing.

cross – magnetizing.The armature reaction is magnetizing. demagnetizing. ineffective. The four-point starter eliminates the drawback

demagnetizing. cross – magnetizing. ineffective. The four-point starter eliminates the drawback

ineffective. The four-point starter eliminates the drawback of the three-point starter that if we adjust the field resistance in a three point starter to adjust the certain level of field current, the main coil gets de-energized. So, the motor is suddenly getting turned OFF. But, in the four point starter, the main voltage coil is not connected with the field resistance. Instead of it is directly connected to the armature circuit. It does not allow the motor to stop even if we adjust the field current with very low value of a DC shunt motor. Hence, it is suitable for a dc shunt motor with field weakening control.

1) The field system of an alternator is usually excited

1) The field system of an alternator is usually excited 250 / 250 V DC. /

250 / 250 V DC.

/ 220 V AC.of an alternator is usually excited 250 / 250 V DC. 110 230 V AC. 3

110

is usually excited 250 / 250 V DC. / 220 V AC. 110 230 V AC.

230 V AC.

3 - �¦, 50 Hz and 400 V. Under construction. 02) Alternator operates on the principle of �¦, 50 Hz and 400 V. Under construction. 02) Alternator operates on the principle of

construction. 02) Alternator operates on the principle of self induction. electromagnetic induction. mutual induction.

self induction.

electromagnetic induction.02) Alternator operates on the principle of self induction. mutual induction. self or mutual induction. Under

mutual induction.the principle of self induction. electromagnetic induction. self or mutual induction. Under construction. 03) In a

self or mutual induction. Under construction. 03) In a synchronous machine, if the field flux axis is ahead of Under construction. 03) In a synchronous machine, if the field flux axis is ahead of the armature field axis in the direction of rotation, the machine operating is

axis in the direction of rotation, the machine operating is synchronous generator. synchronous motor. asynchronous

synchronous generator.

synchronous motor.of rotation, the machine operating is synchronous generator. asynchronous motor. asynchronous generator. Under

asynchronous motor.operating is synchronous generator. synchronous motor. asynchronous generator. Under construction. 04) In an

asynchronous generator. Under construction. 04) In an alternator the voltage generated per phase is proportional to Under construction. 04) In an alternator the voltage generated per phase is proportional to

the voltage generated per phase is proportional to flux per pole. number of turns in coil.

flux per pole.

number of turns in coil.generated per phase is proportional to flux per pole. frequency of waveform. all of the above.

frequency of waveform.is proportional to flux per pole. number of turns in coil. all of the above. Under

all of the above. Under construction. 05) The aircraft alternators are designed to generate emf of high frequency of Under construction. 05) The aircraft alternators are designed to generate emf of high frequency of 400 Hz in order to

to generate emf of high frequency of 400 Hz in order to compensate for high speeds.

compensate for high speeds.

reduce the bulk.frequency of 400 Hz in order to compensate for high speeds. make the system free from

make the system free from external disturbances.Hz in order to compensate for high speeds. reduce the bulk. all of above. Under construction.

all of above. Under construction. 06) Three phase alternators are invariably connected in star so as to Under construction. 06) Three phase alternators are invariably connected in star so as to

phase alternators are invariably connected in star so as to reduce magnetic losses. reduce the size

reduce magnetic losses.

reduce the size of stator conductors used.connected in star so as to reduce magnetic losses. increase the terminal voltage. all of the

increase the terminal voltage.magnetic losses. reduce the size of stator conductors used. all of the above. 07) The armature

of stator conductors used. increase the terminal voltage. all of the above. 07) The armature of

all of the above. 07) The armature of a single phase alternator is completely wound with T turn coils distributed uniformly. The induce voltage in each turn is 2 V ( rms ). The emf of the whole winding is

uniformly. The induce voltage in each turn is 2 V ( rms ). The emf of

2T Volts.

1.11T Volts.coils distributed uniformly. The induce voltage in each turn is 2 V ( rms ). The

1.414T Volts.1.273T Volts. 08) The maximum electric current that can be supplied by an alternator depends

1.273T Volts. 08) The maximum electric current that can be supplied by an alternator depends upon 08) The maximum electric current that can be supplied by an alternator depends upon

speed of exciter.that can be supplied by an alternator depends upon number of poles. exciter current. strength of

number of poles.supplied by an alternator depends upon speed of exciter. exciter current. strength of the magnetic field

exciter current.alternator depends upon speed of exciter. number of poles. strength of the magnetic field . 09)

strength of the magnetic field . 09) Two alternators A and B are sharing an inductive load equally. magnetic field. 09) Two alternators A and B are sharing an inductive load equally. If the excitation of alternator A is increased

equally. If the excitation of alternator A is increased alternator B will deliver more alternator A

alternator B will deliver more

alternator A will deliver more electric current and than B. electric current and than B.

both will deliver more current.A will deliver more electric current and than B. both will continue to share load equally.

both will continue to share load equally. 10) Three phase alternators are invariably star-connected becausecurrent and than B. both will deliver more current. magnetic losses are the minimum. small conductors

phase alternators are invariably star-connected because magnetic losses are the minimum. small conductors can be

magnetic losses are the minimum.

small conductors can be used.star-connected because magnetic losses are the minimum. less turns of wire are required. higher terminal voltage

less turns of wire are required.losses are the minimum. small conductors can be used. higher terminal voltage is obtain. 01) Modern

higher terminal voltage is obtain. voltage is obtain.

01) Modern 3-phase alternator of a central power station will have generated voltage of

of a central power station will have generated voltage of 132 kV. 400 V. 11 kV.

132 kV.

power station will have generated voltage of 132 kV. 400 V. 11 kV. 230 V. Under

400 V.

11 kV.

will have generated voltage of 132 kV. 400 V. 11 kV. 230 V. Under construction. 02)

230 V.

Under construction. 02) In an alternator, voltage drops occurs in

02) In an alternator, voltage drops occurs in armature resistance only. armature resistance and leakage

armature resistance only.

armature resistance and leakage reactance. .

armature resistance, leakage reactance and armature reaction.resistance only. armature resistance and leakage reactance . armature resistance, leakage reactance, armature reaction

armature resistance, leakage reactance, armature reaction and earth connection. 03) The frequency of voltage generated

armature resistance, leakage reactance, armature reaction and earth connection. 03) The frequency of voltage generated by an alternator having 8 poles and rotating at 250 rpm is

earth connection. 03) The frequency of voltage generated by an alternator having 8 poles and rotating

50

Hz.

Hz.60

60

Hz.25

25

16.67 Hz.at 250 rpm is 50 Hz. Hz. 60 Hz. 25 Under construction. 04) Unbalance 3 -

Under construction. 04) Unbalance 3 - �¦ stator currents cause

construction. 04) Unbalance 3 - �¦ stator currents cause vibrations. double frequency currents in the rotor.

vibrations.

double frequency currents in the rotor.Hz. 60 Hz. 25 16.67 Hz. Under construction. 04) Unbalance 3 - �¦ stator currents cause

heating of rotor.all of the above. Under construction. 05) The maximum possible speed at which an alternator

all of the above.heating of rotor. Under construction. 05) The maximum possible speed at which an alternator can be

Under construction. 05) The maximum possible speed at which an alternator can be driven to generate 50 Hz and 4000 V is

alternator can be driven to generate 50 Hz and 4000 V is 4000 rpm. 3000 rpm.

4000 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

3600

rpm.

1500 rpm. Under construction. 06) Two mechanically coupled alternators deliver power at 50 Hz and 60 Hz Under construction. 06) Two mechanically coupled alternators deliver power at 50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. The highest speed of the alternators is

60 Hz respectively. The highest speed of the alternators is 500 rpm. 600 rpm. 3000 rpm.

500 rpm.

600 rpm.

600 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

3600 rpm.

Under construction. 07) A synchorous generator connected to an infinite bus is over excited. Considering only the reactive power from the point view of the system the machine acts as

an infinite bus is over excited. Considering only the reactive power from the point view of
 

A

resistor.

A

capacitor.A

an inductor.acts as   A resistor. A capacitor. None of these. Since overexcited synchorous generator

None of these.  A resistor. A capacitor. an inductor. Since overexcited synchorous generator conncted to an

Since overexcited synchorous generator conncted to an infinite bus. Here no single generator can influence either voltage or frequency. 08) Two mechanically coupled alternators deliver power at 50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. Highest speed of alternator is

50 Hz and 60 Hz respectively. Highest speed of alternator is 500 rpm. 600 rpm. 3000

500 rpm.

600

rpm.

3000 rpm.

3600 rpm.

speed of alternator is 500 rpm. 600 rpm. 3000 rpm. 3600 rpm. [math] rac{F_1}{F_2} = rac{P_1}{P_2}

[math] rac{F_1}{F_2} = rac{P_1}{P_2} = rac{50}{60} ewline \Rightarrow 6P_1 = 5P_2 [/math] For maximum speed, no. of poles should be minimum. If P 1 = 10, P 2 = 10 as P 1 , P 2 should be even.

1 = 10, P 2 = 10 as P 1 , P 2 should be even.

[math] N_S = rac{50 imes 120}{10} = 600 \; rpm [/math] 09) A part an alternator winding consist of eight coils in series, each having an emf of 20 V rms induced in it. Coils are placed in successive slots and between each slot and the next, there is an electrical phase displacement of 30°. Find the emf of eight coils in series

56.91 V.

56.91 V.

66.91 V.

66.91 V.

76.91 V.

76.91

V.

86.91 V. β = 30° m = 8. coils = 8 X 20 = 160

86.91 V.

86.91 V. β = 30° m = 8. coils = 8 X 20 = 160 V

β = 30° m = 8.

coils = 8 X 20 = 160 V Vector sum = K d X airmetic sum = 0.4182 X 160 = 66.91 V. 10) A 3-φ alternator has negligible stator resistance. A short circuit test is conducted on this alternator. At a particular speed, a field current of If1 is required to drive the rated armature current. If the speed of the alternator is reduced to half, the field current required to maintain rated armature current

Arithmatic sum of voltage induced in

rated armature current Arithmatic sum of voltage induced in Would be equal to I f1 /2.

Would be equal to If1/2.

Would be equal to If1 . f1.

Woud be equal to 2If1 . f1.

Cannot be predicted due to insufficient data. If speed is reduced to half, then induced emf will be reduced to half or If speed is reduced to half, then induced emf will be reduced to half or in other words to maintain rated open circuit voltage, the field current

required is two times the previous value

the field current required is two times the previous value But impedence varies with field current
the field current required is two times the previous value But impedence varies with field current

But impedence varies with field current and so unless we know that the value of Z s for various field currents it is impossible to maintain rated current at short circuited condition with the half reduced speed.

01) Torque angle of a synchorous machine operating from a constant voltage bus is usually defined as the space angle between

Stator mmf wave and resultant mmf wave.voltage bus is usually defined as the space angle between Rotor mmf wave and resultant flux

Rotor mmf wave and resultant flux density wave.space angle between Stator mmf wave and resultant mmf wave. Stator mmf wave and resultant flux

Stator mmf wave and resultant flux density.mmf wave. Rotor mmf wave and resultant flux density wave. Rotor mmf wave and stator mmf

Rotor mmf wave and stator mmf wave. As shown in the figure, V is applied voltage to stator and E b is As shown in the figure, V is applied voltage to stator and E b is induced emf in the rotor, ± is the angle between two and is called load (or) torque angle because it depends on the load. It will be more if the load is more . Also, if ± is more than a limited value, then the loss of synchronism in the machine will occur. 02) The result of slip test on a 3-phase, 20 KVA, 400 V, 50 Hz connected salient pole alternator is given below- Phase value: Vmax = 100 V, Vmin = 96 V, Imax = 10 A and I min = 7 A. The direct and quadranature axis reactances are respectively

The direct and quadranature axis reactances are respectively 8.248 and 5.54 �©. 14.28 and 5.54 �©.

8.248 and 5.54 �©.

14.28 and 5.54 �©. axis reactances are respectively 8.248 and 5.54 �©. 14.28 and 9.60 �©. and 9.60 �©. 8.248
14.28 and 5.54 �©.

14.28 and 9.60 �©.

and 9.60 �©.14.28 and 5.54 �©. 14.28 and 9.60 �©. 8.248 [math] X_d = rac{V_{max}}{I_{min}} = rac{100}{7} =

8.248

14.28 and 9.60 �©. and 9.60 �©. 8.248 [math] X_d = rac{V_{max}}{I_{min}} = rac{100}{7} = 14.25

[math] X_d = rac{V_{max}}{I_{min}} = rac{100}{7} = 14.25 \; \Omega [/math]. [math] X_q = rac{V_{min}}{I_{max}} = rac{96}{10} = 9.6 \; \Omega; [/math] 03) If the field current is reduced to zero the maximum power developed by alternator is

03) If the field current is reduced to zero the maximum power developed by alternator is

1.644 KW.

2.73 KW.[/math] 03) If the field current is reduced to zero the maximum power developed by alternator

5.46 KW.[/math] 03) If the field current is reduced to zero the maximum power developed by alternator

0.9103 KW.Maximum developed by alternator is given as [math] P_{max} = rac{V_t^2}{2} \left [ rac{1}{X_q} -

0.9103 KW. Maximum developed by alternator is given as [math] P_{max} = rac{V_t^2}{2} \left [ rac{1}{X_q}

Maximum developed by alternator is given as [math] P_{max} = rac{V_t^2}{2} \left [ rac{1}{X_q} - \rac{1}{X_d} ight]. 04) If dimension of all the parts of a synchorous generator and the number of field and armature turns are double, then generated voltage will change by a factor of

double, then generated voltage will change by a factor of 1. 2. 4. 8. Phase emf

1.

2.double, then generated voltage will change by a factor of 1. 4. 8. Phase emf induced

4.then generated voltage will change by a factor of 1. 2. 8. Phase emf induced =

8.then generated voltage will change by a factor of 1. 2. 4. Phase emf induced =

Phase emf induced = 4.44 W fN ph φ, where symbol having usual meaning. On doubling diameter and length of the machine, the pole face area becomes four times the original area, air gap length doubles, thus, magnetic flux path reluctance becomes half of the original. Since field MMF has also been doubled, the flux φ shall be four times the original value. Armature turns also have been developed. Hence, generated voltage will

change by a factor of 8. 05) Find the synchronous reactance of alternators in which a given field current of 200 A on short circuit and a generated emf of 50 V on open circuit. Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm

emf of 50 V on open circuit. Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm 0.23Ω. 0.25Ω. 0.5Ω. 1Ω.

0.23Ω.

0.25Ω.50 V on open circuit. Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm 0.23Ω. 0.5Ω. 1Ω. Z s =

0.5Ω.open circuit. Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm 0.23Ω. 0.25Ω. 1Ω. Z s = 50/200 = 0.25

1Ω.Armature resistance is 0.1 ohm 0.23Ω. 0.25Ω. 0.5Ω. Z s = 50/200 = 0.25 Ω. 06)

Z s = 50/200 = 0.25 Ω.

ohm 0.23Ω. 0.25Ω. 0.5Ω. 1Ω. Z s = 50/200 = 0.25 Ω. 06) For the above
ohm 0.23Ω. 0.25Ω. 0.5Ω. 1Ω. Z s = 50/200 = 0.25 Ω. 06) For the above

06) For the above problem, find the induced voltage of an alternator of it is to deliver a load of 100 A at power factor of 0.8 lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V.

power factor of 0.8 lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V. 220 V. 222 V. V.

220 V.

222 V.factor of 0.8 lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V. 220 V. V. 225 V. 230

V.of 0.8 lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V. 220 V. 222 V. 225 V. 230

225

V.lagging with terminal voltage of 200 V. 220 V. 222 V. V. 225 230 IR a

230

IR a = 100 X 0.1 = 10 Volts IX s = 100 X 0.23 = 23 Volts. cosθ = 0.8, sinθ = 0.6

IX s = 100 X 0.23 = 23 Volts. cosθ = 0.8, sinθ = 0.6 07)
IX s = 100 X 0.23 = 23 Volts. cosθ = 0.8, sinθ = 0.6 07)

07) Voltage across the open circuited field termninals of a synchorous machine under slip test is

A modulated supply frequency AC voltage with slip frequency envelop. AC of supply frequency.
A modulated supply frequency AC voltage with slip frequency envelop. AC of supply frequency.

A modulated supply frequency AC voltage with slip frequency envelop.

AC of supply frequency.

DC.

DC.

DC of slip frequency.

DC of slip frequency.

When the driving power from the prime mover driving the alternator is lost, but alternator remain connected to the supply network and the field supply also remains, the alternator will behaves as a synchorous motor and will also continue to rotate the same direction. 08) Two single-phase alternators operating in parallel have induced EMFs on open circuit of 2300° and 23010° volts and respective reactance of j2 Ω j3 Ω calculate the terminal voltage

circuit of 230 ∠ 0° and 230 ∠ 10° volts and respective reactance of j2 Ω
 

150

V.

200 V.

200

V.

223.V.

223.V.

300 V.

300

V.

E 1 = 2300° Volts. E 2 = 23010° Volts Z 1 = j2 Ω Z 2 = j3 Ω Z = 6 Ω

230 ∠ 10° Volts Z 1 = j2 Ω Z 2 = j3 Ω Z =

Hence I = I 1 + I 2 = 37.2 -7.3° Terminal voltage, V = IZ

= 223.2-7.3° Volts.

09) In above questions, find the power delivered by each of the alternators to a load of impedance 6Ω(resistive)

of the alternators to a load of impedance 6Ω(resistive) 100 W, 2000 W. 3190 W, 5040

100 W, 2000 W.

3190 W, 5040 W.to a load of impedance 6Ω(resistive) 100 W, 2000 W. W, 5040 W. 1000 W, 7000

W, 5040 W.of impedance 6Ω(resistive) 100 W, 2000 W. 3190 W, 5040 W. 1000 W, 7000 W. V

1000

W, 7000 W.100 W, 2000 W. 3190 W, 5040 W. W, 5040 W. 1000 V = 223.2 ∠

V = 223.2 -7.3° Volts. I 1 = 14.73-14° I 2 = 22.63-3.4° P 1 = VI 1 cosθ 1 P 2 = VI 2 cosθ 2

6000

10) Two 3-phase AC generators are such that one has twice the linear dimensions of the other. The field windings of each are excited to give identical sinusoidal air-gap flux density waveform. Both have the same number of stator slots and identical winding patterns. The conductor/slot in a big generator is K times that of the smaller one. The value of K to get equal no load voltage at same frequency is

1/4.

1/4.

1/2.

1/2.

4.

4.

8.

8.

The area gap flux density waveform as a function of special angle¸ being the same, the bigger machine will give flux per pole = S 2 X θ. Where θ is

flux per pole in the smaller machine. Therefore, to get equal no-load voltage, the number of series turns in the bigger machine should be half of that in the smaller one.

01) A 3-phase, alternator has generated emf per phase of 230 V with 10% 3 rd harmonic and 6% 5 th harmonic content. Calculate rms line voltage for star connection.

50 V.

50 V.

100 V.

100

V.

230.2 V.

230.2 V.

399 V.

399

V.

E 3 = 230 V E 5 = 0.6X230 = 13.8 V

V. 399 V. E 3 = 230 V E 5 = 0.6X230 = 13.8 V [math]

[math] herefore Emf \; per \; phsae = \sqrt{E_3^2 + E_5^2} = \sqrt{230^2 + 13.8^1} = 230.2 \; V [/math].

02) In above question, find rms line voltage for delta connection?

50 V.

50 V.

100 V.

100

V.

230.2 V.

230.2 V.

399 V.

399

V.

Since for delta connection, line emf is same as phase emf. So the rms value of line emf = 230.2 V. 03) Fifth harmonic component of the induced voltage in three phase AC generator can be eliminated by using a winding pitch of

AC generator can be eliminated by using a winding pitch of 2 / 3. 4 /

2 / 3.

4 / 5.can be eliminated by using a winding pitch of 2 / 3. 5 6 / 6.

can be eliminated by using a winding pitch of 2 / 3. 4 / 5. 5

can be eliminated by using a winding pitch of 2 / 3. 4 / 5. 5

5

6

/ 6.

/ 7.

Coil span factor n th harmonic, K c = cos( 0.5 X n X θ). Where θ is an angle by which the coil is short of the full pitch.

θ is an angle by which the coil is short of the full pitch. Those fifth

Those fifth harmonic component gets eliminated by using a coil pitch of (4 / 5).