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Assignment by – Prof.

Sanjiva Shankar

Enterprise IT
Architecture &
Business process

Submission by – Suresh Kharia (Roll No: S-79)

Date – 22 September 2018

FMS Exe. Program (South Campus)



Once the proper alignment between Business IT strategy and IT strategy has been achieved,
the next step is to develop a detailed plan for strategic IT initiatives called Strategic IT Plan.

Strategic IT Plan (SITP)is a document that defines the priorities list of IT application portfolio
that would help organization realize its strategic vision using IT capabilities.

The stepping stone of defining principles and practices need to be undertaken in form of
Enterprise IT Architecture (EITA). This covers the architectural principles, under whose
guidance IT applications are built, purchased, customized and deployed within the

Challenges addressed by EITA. The principle and concepts of Enterprise IT architecture helps
in managing the diverse requirements of organizations by bringing planning, visualization,
modularity and agility in requirements management and implementation.

Enterprise IT Architecture (EITA). It is articulation of structure of IT systems, its elements and

components that comprise these systems, their externally visible properties and their
interrelationship. The major components of Enterprise IT Architecture (EITA) are :
 Business Process architecture
 Information system and or solution architecture
 Information technology architecture
 Security Architecture.
 Organisational Architecture.

Need. Enterprise IT Architecture (EITA) is an increasing mature are of professional practice

that merits inclusion of a dedicated course and provides a link from strategy to execution of
Information Systems.

Contents of Enterprise IT Architecture (EITA) document. The major heads of a Enterprise IT

Architecture (EITA) documents are:-
 Organisation Mission
 Vision of the Organisation
 Concept of overall Operation
 Enterprise Business Process Model
 Business Use case model
 Logical data model
 State time model
 Node connectivity diagrams
 Information exchange matrix
 Organisational Chart
 Systems Interface Description and connectivity diagram
 Standards profile
 Technical Architecture
 Sample architectural principles
 Data dictionary

Business Process - is a set of logically related trends performed to achieve a defaced business

Need for Business Process Reengineering.

- For process reengineering is to meet cost, customer satisfaction, and
compliance and competition aspects of a business.

Business Process Reengineering steps: -

 Identify the changing needs of customer to arrive at the process objectives.

 Develop processes that are efficient, effective and responsive to the needs of
 Establish if they are equal, if not better than competition.
 Make a processes flexible enough to accommodate changes, outsourcing partners
as well as varying situations.
 Adopt information technology to implement, monitor, simplify and transform
 Adopt a culture of service orientation for internal as well as external customers to
make process engineering a success.
 Above all work it with long term objectives.

Business Process Reengineering Mantras: -

 Organize around outcome.

 Encourage self-service by users as much as possible.
 Include Information Processing into actual work.
 Treat geographically –dispersed resources as though they were centralized
using IT.
 Linking paralleling activities.
 Put the decision point where the work is performed.
 All information must be captured once at the resource.
 Don’t ignore physical process
Business Process Reengineering Steps:

 Ascertain if process is
a.) Dysfunctional
b.) Important
c.) Feasible
d.) Test the environment
 Eliminate the process steps where needed.
 Innovate the process using IT
 Outsource or inhouse develop.
 Use effectively.

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) software is defined as package of computer

applications that support many, even most aspects of a company’s information needs. In
other words, Software solution that addresses the enterprise needs, taking a process view of
the overall org to meet the goals, by tightly integrating all functions under a common software

ERP provides two major benefits:

(i). A unified enterprise view of the business that encompasses all functions and
(ii). An enterprise database where all business transactions are entered, recorded,
processed, monitored and reported.

ERP functioning - ERP is typically used along with BPR exercise. This provides a process view
of the Organization and presents a common data repository to provide integration across
various functions ERP shares a common information repository/database for an enterprise.
ERP also coordinates the communication and controls the input of data.

Critical factors for success of an ERP implementation.

 Clear understanding of strategic goals
 Commitment by top management
 Organizational change management
 A great implementation teams
 Data accuracy
 Extensive education and training
 Focused performance measures
 Multi-site issues.
ERP system selection:
 Create the vision.
 Create a feature/function list.
 Create a software candidate list.
 Narrow the field to four to six serious candidates.
 Create the request for proposal (RFP).
 Review the proposals.
 Select two or three finalists.
 Have the finalists demonstrate their packages.
 Select the winner.
 Justify the investment.
 Negotiate the contract.
 Run a pre-implementation pilot.
 Validate the justification.

Steps for successful Implementation:

 Review the pre-implementation process to date.
 Install and test any new hardware.
 Install the software and perform the computer room pilot.
 Attend system training.
 Train on the conference room pilot.
 Establish security and necessary permissions.
 Ensure that all data bridges are sufficiently robust and the data are sufficiently
 Document policies and procedures.
 Bring the entire organization on-line, either in a total cutover or in a phased
 Celebrate.
 Improve continually.

Why ERP fail?

 Poor planning or poor management.
 Change in business goals during the project.
 Lack of business management support.

Why ERP implementations fail can be placed in following categories: -

 Strategic goals are not clearly defined the organisation has not thought through
the goals, expectations and deliverables.
 Top management is not committed to the system Top management lacks
commitment to the sys, does not see the profound changes it engenders and/or
does not actively participate in the implementation.
 Implementation project management is poor, the organisation underestimates
the scope, size & complexity of the project.
 The org is not committed to change
 A great implementation team is not selected.
 Inadequate education & target results in users that are unable to satisfactorily run
the system.
 Data accuracy is not ensured.
 Performance measures are not adapted to ensure that the org changes.
 Multi-site issues are not properly resolved.
 Technical difficulties can lead to implementation failure. These difficulties can
inclusive “bugs” in the software, problems interfacing with existing systems &
hardware difficulties.

Functions covered by Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). The major functions covered by
ERP are as follows:-

 Strategic Planning and Business Planning.

 Sales and Operations planning
 Forecasting /sales planning
 Customer Order Entry and promise of delivery
 Rough cut capacity planning
 Master production scheduling
 Material requirement planning
 Capacity requirement planning
 Plant scheduling
 Supply scheduling
 Execution and feedback
 Financial Integration
 Simulation

Development considerations for ERP.

 Ensuring data accuracy
 Pre-testing and activation of systems
 Cutover to new system and go live
 Garner executive support by forming steering committee
 Adopt a project mentality
 Expectations setting
 Recognize risk and plan accordingly
 Dedicated, knowledge resources.
 Draw up a good system architecture
 Resolve key design issues at early stage
 Modularize customization
 Proper documentation
 Willingness to change
 Ensuring rigorous testing
 Effective project management
 Letting Know problems and risks early
 Clarity in communications