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ACADEMIA DE ~TlINTE A MOLDOVEI

11\STITUTUL PATRIMONlULUI CULTURAL

CENTRUL ARHEOLOGIE

REVIST A ARHEOLO~GICA

Serie noua

VOLU:\1l L II

Nr. 1-2

'.\,··
,' ' ' ' i ·.~

CHI~INAU
2006
CUPRINS - CO)~EP'.,KAHHE - CONTENTS

STUDII - HCCJTE)J,OBAHlUI - RESEARCHES

ILIE BORZIAC (Chi}inau), VASILE CHIRICA ila}iJ. CONSIDERATII REFERITOARE


LA EVOLUHA PALEOLITICULUI FJNAI. $1 EPIPALEOLITICULUI IN SPATIUL
DINTRE NISTRU $1 CARPATll ORIENTAL! (aspectc palcoccologicc ~i tchnico-
tipologicc) .................................................................................................................................... 5
OJihrA JlAPlIHA ( K11w111ny), HEOJJ 11Tl14ECKA.5l KEPAMIIKA OOCEJIEHl15l
T3T3P3VKA HOY3 XV (K npo6nc:v1e l!l:1.JnHoBclllrn KymTypbr JlllHCJiHo-
J1CHT04Ho1i KCpa~.!llKll) ................................................................................................. 35
BAJIEHTl1H )IEPf'A 4EB ( Kuwwoy) )JJ1 f-IAMl1KA PA3Bl1TH.5l JJ,OMAWHEfO
CTAJJ,A HEO.rU-ITA -- £POH3bl lOr A BOCTOl.JHOl;I EBPOObI KAK
B03MO)KHhlh MHJJ,HKATOP K.nHMATl1l.JECKHX l13M EHEHl1Vf
OPOLlHIOro ................................................................................................................ 56
CEPr:El1 A[Y.;7 bl HI KOB ( K111111nm· 1, 1-lf'OPh liPYHKO (OiJecca), BAJIEPHft
KOJKOK\PY r Pe1n1J. 30clOTASl f'PlthHA 113 OKPECTHOCTEI1
roro,~umv, HOBOCEJlbCKOE-ll H.~, HlDKHEM LlYHAE .................................. 78
VASILE HAHEC 1Chi~inci111. ORIGlNEt\ CU.TUR.II GETICE - REPERE
lSTORIOGRAflCE .................................................................................................................... 90
VASILE GROSll, VLAD VORNIC, LAH.ISA CIOBANU (Chi,~inau), CERAMICA
ROMANA DJJ\: NECROPOLA DE T[> SANTANA DE MURE$-CERNJACHOV
DE LA BRAVICFNI (raionul Orhei, Moldm .1) ........................................................................ 104
SERGIC l\lUSTEA 1).. (Chl,1inau). ME$lE$\ GUL PRELUCRARII OSULUI $1
CORMJLUI LA :-JORDUL DU!\ARII DF .!OS [N SEC. VIII-IX ......................................... 128
CBETJIAHA PHUJ,EBA (K1111111my1, IOBEJIHPHbIE YKPAUJEHH.51 IlPYTO-
)],HECTPOBCKOrO ME:>K)IYPELfh5I B KOHTEKCTE 3THOKYJlbTYPHbIX
CB5!3E(1 PErI10HA B X-XI BB ............................................................................... 143

DISCUTII -JU1CKYCCl111 -DISCUSSIONS

OLEG LEVITKI, OLEG CHITIC (Chi~incfoJ IN CE PERIOADA PUTEA FI


FORTIFICAT A A~EZAREA TRINCA ·'LA $ANT"? ............................................................ 169
POMAH PAlil1HOBI14 (Kuwwoy), 0 OPOHCXO)K)lEHHH l1
ct>YHKUHOHAJlhHOM HA3HA lffH l 1'1-I CPE)IHEBEKOBbIX 'KPYf JlblX
fOPOJJ,HllJ, B IlPYTO-JJ,HECTPOHCKOM MDKJJ,YPELihE ................................... 181

MATERIALE SI CERCETARI DE TEREJ\ - MATEPI1AJihl 11 TIOJIEBhIE


HCCJIEJ],OBAIHHI ·- PAPERS AND SURVEYS

CEPrEtt KOBAJIEHKO, CEPrEH r;o]])IH (Kllli/111/J)'), KPEMHEBblfl


l1HBEHTAPh PAHHETPHITOJlbCKO r-o rJOCEJ1EHH.5I
AJIEKCAH)lPOBKA I ......................................................................................................... 198
OLEG CHITIC (Chi,1·i11i"111). 0 NOUA A~jEZARE A CULTURII CUCUTENI-
TRIPOLIE DE LA TEMELEUTl, raionul Flllrqti, Rcpubhca Moldova .................................... 213
CEPrEH ArYJihHl1KOB flOCEJlEHl15l 3I10Xl1 D03)1HEt1
(Kl/lllllll)_l°),
EPOH3bl B f;y JVKAKCK011 CTErII I .................................................................... 217
CEPrEfi KYPl.J.ATOB (}(1111111/IJ)'), HCCJIE)],OHAHHE KYPrAHOB 3DOXJ1
hPOlBbl HA CPEJU-JE;\1 f1PYTE ............................................................................. 263
TATbJIHA )lEM 11EHKO, OJIEf JIEBHUK1111 ( Kllu1.1111Jy), KYPJ'AHbI Y
CEJIA fiYP JT:lH EIJJTb .............................................................................................. 293
AJIEKCAH)lP JIEBHHCKHH, AJIEKCEfl PO:\'JAHl.JIYK (Kuwumy),
IlAMJffHMK KYJibTYPbI CAXAPHA-CO. IOHqEHb HA JIEBOEEPE)KbE
/lHECTPA (PAll1KOB-MJibIHbJ) .......................................................................... 328
MAJlfJI KAWYiiA ( Kwuwoy), fETCKHE MA 1 EPHAJibI 113 MHOfOCJlO(IHOfO
IIOCEJIEH 1151 XOJIEPKAHb (pacKonK11 I9: 4 ro;w) ................................................ 3 34
VLAD VORNIC, VALER.JU BUBULICI, LARISA CIOBANU (Chi!finau), 0 A$EZARE
DACICA DlN EPOCA ROMANA DESCOPERITA LA ODAIA (comuna Miciurin,
raionul Drochia, ]\1oldova) ........................................................................................................... 348
VLAD VORNIC, SERGJU TABUNCIC (Chi!finau) CONTRIBUTII LA CUNOA$TEREA
REALIT ATILOR ARHEOLOGICE DIN MICRO ZONA ORA$ULUI IALOVENI ............ 364
JIMJJIHH JJ:EPfAl.JfEBA (KuwumyJ, MOHETA IIETPA MYllIATA, HAM.JJ:EHHAJI
J--IA TTO)],OJll1I1 ............................................................................................................ 384

CERCET ARI INTERDISCIPLINARE-· ME)K)lJ1CIJJ1IlJIHHAPHbIE


HCCJIEL{OHAHIUI-INTERDJSClPLINARY SURVEYS
ANATOLIE DAVID, VIORICA PASCARU, VIORELIA RUSU, LUCIA GALEANU
(Chi$inau), CARACTERISTICA REMINISCENTELOR SCHELETICE :$I
COMPONENTEI SISTEMATICE A MAMIFERELOR DE LA STA TIUNEA
PALEOLITICA PLURISTRATIGRAFICA BUZD UJENI I.. .................................................. 387
OJIEf PE)lK03YEOB (Kuwumy), AM<DI1EI111 I1 PEI1TI1Jil1I1
TTAJIEOJil1TI1lJECKOfl CTO5IHK11 EY3.LJ:Y)KEH1, I
(PECI1YEJIHKA MOJl)],OBA) .................................................................................... 393
CBETJIAHA ME)UIHHK ( llopmo A.1ezpe), HH1''.0JIAi1 KETPAPY (Kuuam:Jy ),
PEKOHCTPYKL(I151 PACTHTEJibHOCTH 1'1 fIPl1POJJ:HOH CPE,l],bl B
TTAJIEOJI11TE MOJI}J:OBbl (no naJIHH0JI0rHl.J<!CKHM .llaHHhIM 113 Ky.rrhTYPHhIX
CJ10CB B rpOTe J;y3.llY)KCHb) ............................................................................................ 395

RECENZll ~I PREZENT ARI DE CART l - PKUEH3ll1111 KHlf)KHOE


0.603PEH11E-PAPER AND BOOK REVIE\V
BaJ1CHTllH JJ:epra'ICB, 0 CKilTTCTpax. 3TIO.llhI B 3au~11Ty MnrpaLUIOHHOH K0HUCTIU11H
M. f11M6yrnc. Revista Arheologica, Serie Noua, Vc,I. I, nr. 2, Chi~inau, 2005, 6-166.
ClEPfEJ1 TIYCTOBAJIOB (R"ueB) ............................................................................ 405
D. Braund (ed.), Scythians and Greeks. Cultural Interactions in Scythia, Athens and Early
Roman Empire (sixth century BC - first century AD I, Exeter: University of Exeter
Pn~ss, 2005, XII+254 p. VALER.JU BANARU (Ci,i,~inau/Man11hei111J ................................. 413
Vlad Vornic, A~ezarea ~i necropola de tip Santana de M .ire~ - C'ern_iachov de la Bude~ti,
Chi~inau: Editura Pontos, 2006, 472 p. OCTAVIAl\ MUNTEANU (Chi~·inau) .................... 420
Jurij M. Mogaricev, fk1uep11b1e uepKBH Tanpm.:n [Pes\ernye ccrkvi Tavriki]. Simferopol:
Editura ,.Tavrija'·. 1997. 382 p. LUDMILA BACU\'IENCO (Chi~inc,uj ............................... 424
Nicolac Chetram, Nicolac IU1ilcanu. Ion C. Surucean in a,·hcologia ~i muzeologia
basarabcana, Chi~inau: Editura Tyragetia, 2001, 256 p. LUDMILA BACUMENCO
( Ch i,,i nciu) ............................................................................................................................... 426
IN HONOREM

K 75-;1cr1110 co ..'IH51 poiK,1CHll51 HHKOJia51 AuroHoBJl'rn Kerpapy


HJIKOJIAJJ TEHbllOB ( K11w1111Jy) ........................................................................... 429
narp1rnpxy Mo1nascKofi apxcononrn - H11K0Jrn10 Kerpapy - 75 ncr!
CEPTEB KOBAIIEHKO ( Kuww1:Jy) ......................................................................... 432
C CepcroiL. . Mbl wan.101 (K 50-nermo Ceprc51 Ary.rILHHKOBa)
MA 11 fl )'{A LU}'EA ( Kw11wtJ)') ..................................................................................... 434
50 JICT l1rop5! Maw.J.yphl. lUlI! HCCKOJlbKO B111C4aT.11Cmn1 B CBSI3H C 106HJISipOM
POMAH PAEJ1HOBJfl./ (K11w1111Jy) .......................................................................... 440
Ora implinirilor (Doctor habilitat Oleg Levitki la 50 de ani)
Vi4SILE HAI-JEU (Chi;p'nau) ...................................................................................................... 447
Ha 6yMare :rnaKOB cnc,u»: EsreHmo CaE:e - 50 ner
«0CTaBIT5!5!
MAJ!Jl KALUYHA ( Kwuu11Jy) .................................................................................... 452

LIST\ ABREHERILOR-CCTHCOKCOKPALUEHHfi-USTOF ABBREVIATION ............................. 460

INIF'ORl\1ATII SI CO\'DITIILE DE EDITAREAREVISTEIARIIEOWGICE ................................................ 461

lll l<l>OP:\LUU15I ll YCIOBlUIHJ.Ll,AlUHIAPXEOHOrill/ECKOrO)lffPJJAJIA ........................ 463

INIFORl\lATION AND CONDITION OF PUBLICKfION IN THEARCHAEOWGICALMAGAZINE ........ 465


Volumul JI, Nr 1-2 5

S11JDII-- MCCJJE)lOBAH H51-- RESEARCHES

CONSIDERATII
,
REFERITOARE LA EVOLUTKA ' PALEOLITICULUI FINAL
SI EPIPALEOLITICULUl[ iN SPATIUL DINT RE NISTRU SI CARPATII ORIENTAL!
(aspecte paleoecologice ~i tehnko-tipologice)
[lie BORZIAC, Vasile CHlRICA, Chi~inau/Ia~i

Paleoliticul final ( 14. 500-10. 000 mii ani BP) in spafiul Ca,;uato-Nistrean este reprezentat de peste 50 situri
strati/icate, care aufi1rnizat materiale suficiente pentru a exa/11ina pmblemele situa{iei ecologice, demogra.fice $i de
taxonomie c11/tura/.-cro110/ogica a paleoliticului final, epipalc·oliticului ,~i de apreciere a particularitafilor consti-
t11irii mezolitic11lui. in urma analizei telmicii de debitaj, tipologiei ordinare $i al artefactelor relevante penh-u indus-
triile din zona de la etapa desmbili:·arii situa/iei climaterice 1ie la sfar$itul pleistocenuhri - inceputul holocenului,
autorii traseaza un $ir de particularitafi de evolufie a paleo, dicului _J111al. Perpetua evolu/ie a gravetianului (epi-
gravetianului) local, care a evoluat in baza gravetianului timpuriu din zona, afost intercalatd cu o injluenfa aurig-
naciami tardiva la circa 20-19 mii ani BP (Ra$cov 7, 111111/ din mvelele de la Ra$cov 8) $1 la etapafinala, de elementele
culturale svideriene, care, de altfiA, puteau safi evolufionat $i din gravetianul local. Tehnica de debitaj din industri-
ile tardigravetiene a evolu(ionat, atingand anumite inalfimi 1aparifia nucleelor piramidale, secundare din ([$Chii,
utilizarea pe larg al mediatoarelor), dar n-a ajuns la tehniw din mezoliticul tardenoadan, 1wezent in zona. Nici
microlitizarea $i nici geometrizarea 11-au creat reale ciii de tre,~ere $i evolufie a gravetianului local in mezolitic. La
etapa fina!t1 a paleoliticului superior local, gravetienii dispar treptat din zona, odat,1 cu disparifia (fncetarea
aparifiei renului polar. Toate sta/iunile cu fauna de ren sunt, ·onsiderate de noi ca aparfinand paleoliticuluifinal
$i epipaleoliticului. Presupusa crizii economicii, creata la fi•ralul ultimului Pleniglacial wiirmian a provocat in
sinegetica omului w1 $ir de caracteristici compensatorii, care -iu anihilat in mare miisur.i aceasta criza. Populafia
rardenoaziana de tip Grebenniki a patnms in zona dupa un h1,1tus demografic relativ, creat de disparz"fia gravetie-
nilor $i extrem de rara populafie de la limitele de 9800-9200 8P-- Mezoliticul fn spafiul Carpato-Nistrean nu are
o origine locala, cum considerau unii cercetiitori. In
lucran se mai examineaza unele pmbleme particulare de
evolufie a complexelor tardiglaciare pe fonul paleoliticului Jmal $i epipaleoliticului din zonefe limitrofe.

"llpo6.1e,,,b1 <}Jumubnozo nw,eo.11uma u enunw1eo11uma/{11ecmpo6cKo-KapnamcKozo pezuo11a (na.1t'03Ko1102u-


"lecKue· u mex11uKo-muno.102u'lec1<:ue acneKmbl)". B cmambe, 'ta oc11ot:e oa1111b1x c,11eJ1c11b1x OUC!fU11.i1w1, pacc.11a111-
puBmomo1 CjtoJ1c11b1e 1n:11e11e1111R e npupoo11oii cpeoe 1ta Jman,' no3011ezo n,1eilc111olfe11a u. KaK 11oc,1eocmeuR Jmo-
,'O, --me U3.11e11e11uf/, Komopble IIJJOlOOlll.-1U 6 .\teCmllb/X '-/C.10Be~ ,>('KU.\" COOOll{eC/116(/X. /1,0K(Gb/BC/emcR "3{[6UCU. IIOC/11b
•mc.1e1111ocmu .11ecm110;,o 11ace.N1mR e )'KC1Ja1111oe epe.11R om ,·.11ow11,u•1ecKux 111.11e11e11u11, K 1,:omopb1.-11 '-le.weeK
eb1pa60111a.1 c11101iKue aoan11we111,1e 11aeb1Ku. Pacc.-11ampuea1< ,mcR eonpocb1 e3au.1w3a13;1cu.11oc111u .-1teJ.1coy Kar-1e-
c11113e1111b1.-11u c01Ju2a..11u t: Ka.HellltblX u11oyc111punx, c11oco6ax c ,omb1 u eb16ope npechtema oxo111b1, 6 O(I/I//0.1t c.,1y-
•1ae - Ce6CJJIIO?O 0;1e1tR. YKa3bll/{l('/11('}/, 111110 6 110301/C.1111a.1ec, wme pe?U0/1{{ )-'JICI.' UCl70i!b306(lj/Cf/ .1yK U cmpe.1bl.
Ha oc11oee a11a.1113a Ko.1tn1eKcoe ,.:a11e1111b1x opyouil 113)"'-ltllO, •1cn eo11pocb1 .1wKpo.111111u1a1111u u ?eo.11e111pu3mJUu
11eKOl1IOJJblX f11ll/106 opyiJuil. OdnaKO J/7111 mex11111,:o-1m1110.10, tl'-IC'CKl/C 11po11ecCb/ /IC npuee.w, 110 .11111.'llll/O {l6/110-
po6, K .11ecm110.11y llj)Ol(CCCJ' 11pe11pall(Clll/JI t1030/lei'pc16e/11CK/IX w1iJyc111p111i 6 .11C30i/Ullll/'-/(.'("KUe. IlpeC.106_\'l11bllJ
"KJJll3llC oxo11111u'-/be?O X03Riicmea" 11a Jnw11e rjJu11a.1b110i'O nneo.wma. 1w ca.1to.11 iJe.,1e, u.ite.7 .ww;,o•mc.1e1111b1e
06beKmu1J111,1e u cy6beKmu1J111>1e Ko.1111e11camop11b1e o6cmoHm, abcmea, Ko111opb1e nepe'luc.w10111cn 6 pa6ome. l{e-
rw10111CH e1,1eoOb1 o npu111.10.11 xapaKmepe 11111nu'-1111>1x .11e30.1w1,u'-/etKux cpe6e1111uKoecKux w1oycmpuil, u o cyuie-
cmeoewwu 6pe.11e111w;,o xuam_1 ca ( 11epep1,rna 6 700-/:500 :1c1!1) .1teJ1cdy 11u.11u u rjJ1111a.1b11ona:1eo.wmu'-lecKu.11u
( ll.111 e11una.1eo.1ll/Jlll"-/eCKU.1lll J KO.lt/1.ICKC{l.\ll/ JJC?UOl/a, K0111op,,1i1, B03.1l0.JICIIO, /IC Ubt:l 110.11/b/.11.

"Les problemes du paleolithique final et epipaleolithique de la region entre le Dniestr et /es Carpates
Orienta/es". Dans I 'article, d la base des disciplines donnees contigues on examine /es changemellfs complexes
du mercredi nature! (t /'<?tape d11 pleistocene tardif et en raiso,1 de cc/a /es clwngements, qui ollf eu lieu dans /es
co11111111na11tes locales h11111ai11e.1. 011 protll"e la depe11dm1ce dt, nombre de la population locale au temps fixe des
clw11geme11ts cli111atiq11es vers q"i la per.1on11e a elabore /es ha •it11desfer111es adaptives. On examine /es questions
de f'i11terdepe11dance entre Jes progres q11alitatif1· <1 pierre inc:,wr;el/e /es 111oye11s de la clwsse er le clwix et !es
a11i111a11x des chasses, dans le cos prt;se11t le re1111e. II est i11diq,1e q11e da11s le pafrolirhiq11e tardif de la region on
urilisait dejct / 'oignon etfleche A la base de l 'crude des e11se111b·es des imtrumellls e11 pierre 011 erudie /es questions
de 111icrolitisatio11 er de gco111mrisatio11 de cert([ins types <10s instn1111c11ts. Cepe11da11t ceux-ci le processus
tec/111iq11e et typo/ogiqu.: 11 ·a JJas amc11e. a I '111·i1 des c111Te11, s, 1'er.1 le proci:.1 /ocu/ de la tra11sfor111ation des
6 RcTisra Arheo!ogica. Serie 1101/(l

i11dustrie.1 turdigr(ffeftienne c:• 111esolithique. Fwl/Cll.\ "la Ci isc def ·econo//lie de clw.1se .. (I/ 'ct ape d11 paleolirhiq11c
fi11cil, en /<111. u1·ai1 no111brrnr clhllcnts o/Jjecnf et rnb;c ·til que fair une ri:g11/oreur !es circonswnces, qui s011t
cn111nc;n'e.1 clans le truvuii. Se font /es conclusion.1 su,· le curn,·tere e1rn11gcr 1ypiq11e 111esolithiq11c de ripe
Grcbe1111iki de 1'industrie et sur I 'existence re111pomirc hi11t11s ( 1"intamption clans 700-800 ans) entre eux et
final paleo!ithiq11c ( 011 epi!'aleolithiques) !cs e11sc111h!c.1 de 111 n;gion, q111 11 'etoi1 pas, proba1>1emcnt, comp/er.

Introducere
Procesul metamorf02elor climaterice de la sfir~itul ultimului Pleniglacial ~i de pe parcursul tranzitiei
la epoca holocenului a rrovocat schimbari ireversibile in mediul ambiant, schimbiiri, care au indus ~i
sinegetica colectivelor umane care locuiau la aceasLl etapii in Europa, inclusiv ~i in zona cuprinsii intre
Carpatii Orientali ~i Nistm. Aceste schimbari, pe masura posibilitatilor ~i in dependentii de sursele
factologice dllsponibi le la mornentul respectiv, antenx, au fost examinate de catre arheologi (M. Bmdiu,
A. Piiunescu, V Chi1ic.:, I. Borziac, A. Cerna~, l\L Biti1i, C.S. Nicolaescu-Plop~or, N. Chetraru),
paleobotani~ti (F Damhlon, M. Carciumarn, G. Pa~;chevici. S. Medcanik, N. Volontir), paleontologi
(.:\. Da\·id. L. Alcxceva, A. Prepdita, A CcpaWga, T. Obada, V. Pascaru, A. Nadachowski, Al. Bolomey,
I. Lopc1.-Ba:v on l. paleug,:ografi (C. l\1ihailescu. P. Doluhanov, N. Hotinski etc.). Deosebit remarcam
cuntributia geologilor I I vanova ~i P. Haesac11s. care au pus bazelc cronologiei relative $i exacte a celor
mai importante situri din zon[1 atribuite paleoliticilui superior, contribu1ii efectuate in urma unor
rnultilatcrak cerc:cfari i11terdisciplinare, la care au contribuit modest ~i autorii acestei lucrari. La baza
ex pun cm noastre au tosl puse datele ~i publicapilc cercetatorilor nominalizati, pe care le vom remarca
concret de fiecare clatii. Aici ne vom refrri la problernele in cauza in dependentii de noile date $i
claborfiri mai reccntc. on rnai anterioare. d::ir ~i in viliunca rcaliz~lrilor recente in studiul paleoliticului
superior europcan. De ::is~:rnenca utilizam cercctiiri le ~i elaboriirile noastre, inclusiv ccle practice, de
tcrcn, dobandite pc parcu:·sul snidiului de catre autori a statiunilorpaleolitice, epipaleolitice ~i mezolitice
din zona vizat[1 timp de p,:ste 30 ani.
Populatia pako!; t icu I.ii final 111 aiia Ca1vato-Nistreana, posibil, a fost cea mai densa din Europa ~i era
concentrata cu precad.:n? in trei zone geogratice bazinele hidrografice ale Nistrului ~i Prutului de MUloc ~i
zona premontana a Cmvailor Orientali (l.JepHbIUI 1973, KeTpapy 1973; Brudiu 1974; Borziac 1983;
Chirica 1989; Paunescu 1998: Idem 1999 ). A.cestc zone, in fond, au fost populate mai intens pe tot
pat·cursul paleoliticulw superior ~i doarunele statiuni 1.wlate se intalncsc ~i in spatiile interbazinale (fig. l ).
Perioada de timp., odata cu care incep schimbiin le oscilatorii ale climei, spre deosebire de relativa
stabilitate anterioara din ulti:rnul PleniglaciaL es1:e esti1 nata la circa l 4.500 ani BP 1.Clima extrem de rece ~i
sead1, care a favorizat acumulatile de nisip fin cuartitii:: ~i n1atcrial detritic aluvionar, precum ~i stratmi de
loess cu wme de perniafrost 2 pe pantele ~i teras,cle .l\ 1strului ~i Pmtului ~' al af1uentilor lui, s-a ameliorat
relativ spre o 1:emperare ~i urnidizare relativa, fenomene climatence, cares-au produs odatli cu inceputul
acumularilor de loess al cuverturii tardiglaciare. Scltimbarea treptata a climei aspre ~i seci a favorizat
dec\an~area unei perioade ciclice oscilatorii de faze pc,zitive ~i negative ale climei, darin ambele cazuri cu
ev1dente tendinte spre umidizare. Aceste pulsatii palei.,climatice, ca ~i rnulte altele anterioare lor, ~i-au liisat
amprentele in procesul de acw1rnlare a depuneri lor sedimentare, strnctura ~i caracteml !or in flora ~i fauna
tardiglaciara. Iar ele la ranclul lor au influentat mai multc pat11cularitilti ale vietii omului, care a locuit in
zona. De la timpul nominal:izat ~i pana la circa 10.000 ani BP 111 clima dorninantii din spatiul viz.at, ca ~i pe
intregul continent. sunt inregistrate cateva perioade nui calde ~i altcle, altemante, reci.

Succesiunea ~i particularitatille mediului ambiant din tardiglaciarul


zonei Carpato-Nistrene
Cea mai aspr21 ~i mai seaca etapa de evohrrie clirnatcrica a ultimului Pkniglacial wiinnian, care a
durat int re circa 16.500 ~:i I4.500 BP in part,.:.i de \lord al Europei Ccnlrale, poarta denumirea de
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( ~>

~'-
1-a ~-________,.,

·- b I
Fig. 1. Harta schcmatica a amplasarii princip,1lelor statiuni ale paleoliticului final ~:i
ale epipaleol iticului din spatiul Carpato-Nistrean. a. 5,tatiuni ale paleoliticului final; b. Statiun:i
atribuite epipaleoliticului.

stadialul Pomerania (Kozarski 1980). Pe parcursul L1i depunerile din cuatemarul tardi v au fost
reprez,~ntate de nisipuri fine cuar(itice ~i material det1iti _; aluvionar, care este practic peste tot depistat
pc suprafetele mai adapostite ale teraselor raurilor, unde, alocuri, acest gen de sedimente a capatat
grosirn i considerabile. De exemplu, in secventa de la O sauti stratLil de nisip eficient structurat atinge
1
8 Rcvista Arheo/ogidi. Serie nouii

o grosime de circa 3,5 111 (fig. 2). Depunerile de loess din aceasta perioada sunt intercalate ori sunt
in compozitie cu nisipurile nominalizate. pe care speciali~tii le considera ca exponenti ai activitatii
eoliene 3 (Haesaerts ~i al. 2003: Idem 2004 ). Se poate de afirmat, ca clima aspra ~i seaca a fost
inso1ita pe tot parcursul acestui stadial de intense v,inturi, care au contribuit la transportul de pe

COS/>,UTSI (MOLDOVA)
C~ronostrat,graphy

P A SA B COSAUTSII HOLOCENE
A1

DRYAS 111
l
II A ----------~2
2 "'""' eT _________
COSAUTSI II .,.;
: AU.EROO

s '"'" ORYASII
A G - - - - - - - - - , -1 - - - - - - - - - - -
N L 1
hum
D A COSAUTSI IH r SOI.UNG
3
y
hum -13,361) t 80 C _________
t
J) -----------
L A
0 Ill -13,661) t uo L
E DRYASI
s
s

lgt

s POMERANIA
A 1c
N
6 D 1 -17,13C>t 180

s
t
L
7 T
y L ---------")..':\: - -
1d
s
A
~ COSAUTSI IV :
N E L
D - - - - - - - - - 14
8 p
2a -17.230± 140 L
s 2b E -----------
A N -~-~~1-y:_2__
2c -17.620,210
N I
D 3b -17,910t50 G
9 y 3 -18,030 t 150 L _ COSAUTSI V-4 _
la -17,780t90 A
L 4 -17,950 t 100
0 C
e -18,260 t 210
I FRANKFURT
s A
s 6a -18,430 ± 100
10 L _ COSAUTSI VI·2 _
6b -19,200 ± 150
&:
L
0 6d -19,120 t 100
C 7 -19,440±100
A
11 L 8 -19,070t1CO
I COSAUTSI Vl-4
N -19.410 ., 100
p
u
T
12 10

L COSAUTSI Vll-2
13 0
E ----------- -----------
s
s
BRANDENBURG
3
14
1
ch
'.'. ~~~_,,---;·~~:~· P A SA B
m 4
P Haesaerts 10/02

Fig. 2. Dcsenul stratigrafici depuncnlor cuatcmarnlui tardiv de pc locul arnplasii1ii statiunii


plmistratig:ralice tardigravcticnc Cosauti cu evidcn\icrca cclor mai irnpo1iantc date radiomctrice,
a fazclor pulsa\iilor climaticc ~i a cronostratigrafici (dupa P. Haesac1is ~i al. 2003).
l'i1/u11111l 11, .7V1: 1-2 9

platouri pe terase a matenalului detritic, inclusiv in consistente cantitrqi a nisipului fin cuartitic
(HBaHoBa 1987, 116-117; Haesaerts $i al. 2003; Bor:i:'.iac, Haesaerts, Chinica 2006).
Orizonturile de nisip fin cuan;itic sunt depistate in sccventele de pe locul amplasarii a mai multor
situri din paleoliticul superior din zona-Cormani IV, Oselivca I, Ataki IV, Molodova I, Coste$ti l,
Lespezi, Cemaleuca--Stani$te., Cotul-Miculinti etc. (liBa1-1osa 1977; Idem 1987: fpttrophesa,
KeTpapy 1983; Paunescu 1998; Borziac $i al. 2006, 192-195) $i servesc ca indicato1i, conform
c:irora,dupa incetarea acumularii !or, in clima au surven 1t unele schimbari orientate spre temperare $i
marire a umiditatii, patticularirn.ti care fixeaza inceputul oscilatiei climaterice pozttive Dryas P. Aceasta
oscilat11e climaterica pozitiva de la finele paleoliticului :,uperior mai are $i denumirea de Pre--Bolling
(Mstino) (Ia. Kozlowski, St. Kozlowski 1975, 23; Idem l 977). Acest microstadial (Bolling5, in Europa
Occidentala) este numit de noi ,,Cosauti Ill" (fig. 2). El, Cimform estimarilor Jui P. Haesae1ts, continea o
perioada relativ mai rece la jumiitatea sa de evolutie kmporala, marcata in sedimente de un loess.
Microinterstadiul, care a um1at faza rece Dryas I, a fost l;onstituit din doua faze calde (la inceput $i la
sfaf$it) cu o etapa mai rece la mijloc. Fazele calde au contn buit la acumularea sollurilor fosile embrionare.
in acest timp in land$aft au capatat o raspandire mai mare decat in perioada precedenta padurile de
conifere amplasate in vai $i pe pantele expuse soarelui, ia,~platourile erau acoperite de vegetatie perena
mai consistenta. Vegetatia relativ abundenta din timpul verilor mai favoriza viata hergheliilor de cai,
p:rezenJa sezoniera a renului migrator, dar nu mai era sufic 1ent'.i pentru erbivorele mari, a$a ca mamutul $i
rinocerul la.nos. Aceste specii din cuatemaml tardiv devin rot mai rare ori clisparcomplet din zon;i (David
$i al. 2003, 85-96). Oasele izolate de mamut $i piesele din filde$, depistate in une:le statiuni din aceasta
perioada (Cosauti, Molodova L niv.sup., Molodova V niv.3, 2, la, 1, Coste$ti I etc.), posibil, reprezinta
achizitionari accidentale din depunerile anterioare, unde ek se pastrau lesne, datorita inghetului multianual,
despre care mentioneaza unii cercetatori (I1BaHoBa l 987, 123; Haesaerts $i al. 2003, 163-168).
Resturile faunistice erau colectate $i utilizate de catre ,:>mul preistoric pentru confectionarea unor
artefacte $i constructia locuintelor (I1tt.LJ.OIIJIJ1lIKO 1976, 46-138; Soffer 1975, 127-139). Despre
persistenta padurilor amintite, precum $i existenta stepei periglaciare cu o vegetaiie erboasa ne vorbesc
spectrele polinice, determinate pentru interstadiul Bolling (Oirciumaru 1980, 65-94; IIalllKem1q 1987,
140-144). A durat acest interstaclial intre circa 13.100 12.700 BP.
Orizontul superior de sol fosil din cadrul oscilatiei Hollmg de la statiunea Cosauti a fost acoperit
cu un hlei de tundra cu permafrost, care demonstreaza o noua degradare a climei, care in literatura de
specialitate a capatat denumirea de Dryas II. Pe parcursu. acestui microstadial s-au acumulat depuneri
de loess. El a fost mai rece dedtt perioada Bolling,$ in continuare relativ urned, dar cu vanturi
constante, care mereu diminuau umeditatea astfel, ca vegeta1;ia nu capata o dezvoltare prea abundenta.
Confonn estimarilor cercetatorilor C. Mihailescu $i S. :vteclianic, land$aftul era reprezentat de stepa
rece periglaciala cu comunitatile de Compozitae $i Grarnina.e pe platouri $i pmcuri izolate de bradete,
pinete $i mestecani$ pe pantcle vailor $i pe terasele ,;u expozitie sudica $i protejate de vanturi
(MemrnttK, MttxaKJiecKy 1992). Umiditatea relativa cste documentata p1in prezenta in continuare
in spectre le polinice a sporilor de mu$chi, licheni, ciupcrci (IlaruKeBH4 1987, 142). A durat aceasta
riicire relativa intre circa 12. 700-- 12.300 ani BP. Cuve1tura de loess fom1ati1 in Dryas II la limita de
circa 12.200 - 11.000 ani BP din nous-a acope1it cu un 01izont de hlei, car~ semnaleaz~l o noua
incalzire temporara, cu aceleru;;i caractenstici temporale, pct leobotanice, paleozoologice $i paleogeografice
ca $i din perioada Bolling, care au capatat den um ire a de A Herod. in sedimentele locale aceasta perioada
este marcata de depunerile solului embriobar din unitat,~a stratigrafica ,,Cos::iu[i II" (Haesaerts $i al.
2003; Borziac $i al. 2006) (fig. 2). Pe parcursul ei s-rn extins din nou padurile de conifere (faza
pinetului, dupa M. Carciumaru 1980, 224), clima devemad mai calda $i mai urneda, fapt ce a favo1izat
acumularea solului emb1ionar. dar ~i o prezenta masiva 111 spectrele polinice a I11U$Chilor, ciupercilor,
lichenilor, care continuau sa tie o hrana suficienta pentrn turmele de reni, care iama migrau in zona din
Campia Nord-Europeana (6op31rnK. Ofoun 2001 ). Pri 1tre resturile faunistice de la statiunile umane
] I) RC\'i.1 ru A rhcologir.:d. Si:rie nouc,

din aceasta perioada mai figureaza caluL exl!e 111 de rar fi ind depistate res turtle faunistice ale bizonului
~i elanului. care reprezrnta un indicator al cl1mei umede ~i al land~aflului cu sectoare inmla~tinite
UhtBIIJJ I no, 38, AneKceeBa 1987, 154: Da\ id~] al. 2003, gs-96).
Ultima racire considerabila a clirnei $i ca urn1. ire-- o oscilaJie negativa in rnediul arnbiant a avut
Joe intre circa 9 .200 ~i 8.400. care a capiitat denunmcci de Dry as III. In secventa de la Cosauti ea este
rnarcata de depune1ile de argile, gipsometric plascitc intre unitatilc sedimentare ,.Cos:iuti [1" $i orizontul
Bal solului din Holocen, sau solul de cernozem, c,1re a inceput a se acumula dupa limita de 8.200 ani
BP. Aceasta racire a mai conditionat p{1strarea in Iand~aft: a stepe1 reci periglaciare cu specificele ei
vegeta\ie $i fauna, caracteristice, in linii genera le. pentru intreaga epoca a ultimului Pleniglacial wi.innian.
0 stabilitate relativtl genera la constanta a favorin1t, cu unele inte11s1tati ~1 discontmuitii.ti tcmporare
(Djindjian, Kozlowski Otte 2000: Haesaens ~i al. 2003, 63-88: Borziac $i al. 2006, 192-195),
prezenta in zona Carpat~l--Nistreana a populapei g•avetiene tardive (on epigravetiene), care tirnp de
peste 10 mii ani a reLt?it stt se acomodcze ~i ~.~l se adapteze esen(ial la mediul arnbiant,adaptare,care
a condit1onat o sincgetic.i spccitica referitoarc la co.nponentele vita le ale rnediului. Aceasta sinegetica
includea nu numa1 posibditatile naturii de a acord,·1 resurse cornestibile accesibile, dar ~i capacitatile
adaptive ale onrnlui dl: a le achizitiona ~idea le utlliza cat mai rational ~i mai eficace, pii.strandu-~i,
totodata. locu l <xupat \'n spatllll geogratic al zone1

Statiunile l!mane din zona Carpato-\'istreana in perioada tardiglaciara


Pcntru c.1..:n111 narc a ;t',tiunilor din zona studiat:'. care au o varsta tardiglaciarft, vorn utiliza datele
;a.Jinrncrnl ci cx,1ctc. c, :- relative geostratigraficl'. precum ~i uncle observatii tehnico-tipologice,
ck:ctualt' ck :,ui pc parnrsul studiului unnr :,tapuiii, de ascmenea- unele repere paleozoologice $i
fxdcohotan 111: care. ck a It fcl. sum mai sigure doar pentrn detenninarea fazelor finale ale tardiglaciarnlui,
dar nu 11e11tr t ! cd1: inqia k.
A. PCiu1K,cu. in urrna 1m estigariilor personale din zona subcarpatica, precum $l conform datelor
publicatc de: 1.:Mre C.S. N1colaescu-Plop?or ( 1958 ). M. Brudiu (1974), V. Cii.pitanu, M. Bitiri (1972),
M. Carc1um:1ru ( 1 t);--,(): i 987). V Chitica ( 1989) etc., auibuie ,Jazelor gravetiene VI ~i VII", care se
sincromzcazil. cu etap,, tard1glaciara. un ~ir de statiuni, printre care nominalizam aici pe cele mai
informative ;;i rnai sigt:r datnte: Poiana Ude$tL atn buita fazei VII de evolutie a gravetianului local,
Bicaz-Ciungi (faza VO, Bistricioara-Lutarie, niv. V, VI, vn. (fazele VI, VII), Ceahlii.u-Bofu Mic,
niv.II, Ceahlau-Cetatica. niv. IV. Dartu, niv. IV, V, P,>di~, niv. IV, V (fazele VI-VII), Poiana-Cire$ului,
niv. sup., etc. (Paunescu 1999).
Douii. situri din aceasUi zona sunt de tip sv1den,.m -Ceahlau-Scaune ~i Bicaz-Cheia (Paunescu,
1998, 112). Atribuirea tardiglaciara a statiunilor enumerate este efectuata in baza amplasarii nivelelor
de locuire in argilele ultirnei cuverturi pleistocenan~, datelor mai tirnpurii decii.t inceputul perioadei
tardiglaciare., in baza t1pologie1 uneltelor de munca. Fauna este reprezentata doar de rare oase de
ren. Numai la sta·;iunea Buda au fost depistate in aglorneratie oase de bizon. dar nivelul de locuire
depistat aici, posibil, este mai tirnpuriu ~i poate t'i corelat cu a~a statiuni, ca Bol'$aja Akkarja
(CanoiKHHKOB 2003)
in zona Prutului Mijlixiu, etapei tardiglaciarc i'i sunt atribuite statiunile: Cotul-Miculinti (niv. 1-3),
Crasnalcuca-Stani?te, terasa. niv. sup., Manoleasa-Prm (Paunescu 1999). Coste~ti l (fpHropbeBa,
KeTpapy 1983, 24-28), Branzeni L niv.11 (Boniac 1994, 19-40; Chetraru, Covalenco 1998, 57-67).
AP. Cemii$ in treapta a 6-ea de evolutie a paleoli1icului supe1ior din lune a Nistrului, care in opinia
sacorespunde paleoliticulu1 final, sincronizata de I. Ivanova cu etapa tardiglaciara din evolutia procesului
natural (11BaHoBa 1987, 128), include un ~irde stapuni, printre care mai infonnative $i mat multilateral
datate $i documentate sunt: Molodova 1, niv. med1u $i superior, atribuite paleoliticului superior,
Molodova V, niv. 4, 3. 2, I, - ~i 1101 vorn ma1 adaug;i -- : nivclele epipaleolttice I ~i la; Babin I, niv.
sup .. Ataki I, niv. l, Voronovita L niv. sup .. Corrnani IV, niv. 2, 1, precum $i un intreg ~ir de statiuni ori
IUu1111u JI,.\,:/-} 11

("
.I

18

20 21

Fig. 3. Picsc din sikx din imcntarul stati1m1i tarc1gravctlcnc Costqti I. 1-3.8-lame bord a
ahatlu. pusibiL viirfun de ~a gqi; -+- 7-piese din lame cknt i, ulate - elemente pentru uneltele compozite
de lip krestr;\u: 9, I0.12. l t,-pie~e de tip "'patrnlatcr ,ilur. ;it .. : 11-15-piese alungi1e de tip "trapeze"
,rnpice: lJ-l--Ll 7-25-g-r,iluarc arondatc ;;i latcrnlc, c 1racteristice pc::ntru pa,eoliticu] final ~i
cpir·,,:lcolitic (dup5 '\. Clil'lraru ~if. Bo11iac J
12 Re,'ista Arhcologicd. Serie noud

l 2

5
(Q) I

14 15
' ,.,,
l .. 13

flt;. 4. Pies.: !in siicx Jin nivelul C <'.i ,::roc:i Buran-Kaja cu piese micro!itice trapezoidale
(6-13) (dupa Chah1i. 2004 ).

puncte care au furnizat rnatcriale rnai rnodestc, dcr care, posibil, pot fi atribuite fazei tardiglaciare
(lfrpHbiilI 1959. Idem 1968a; Idem I 973; ld=m 1977: Idem 1982; Idem 1987). De asernenea,in etapa
finala a paleoliticului pol fi tncluse statiunile Lisicinichi (Krukowski 1939; EopHCKOBCKIIIi 1953),
Balamutovka 11, llI, \(ironovita Ill, JV, Gruscvti !lL IV, Ataki V, Com1ani II etc., care completeaza
esential tabloul dernografic al prezentei omului la a,:easta perioaclii tn zona (lJepHbII.ll 1973). Evocam
aceste statiuni putin cercetate pentru a concretiza situa\ia demografica din zona la etapa paleoliticului final,
caci unii speciali~:ti (de exemplu, Haesae1is ~i al. 20(13, 39; Djindjian. Kozlowski, Otte 2000) considerii
ca in etapa tardiglaciara Europa Centrala, inclusiv ~i 2011a Carpato-Nistreana, era extrem de slab populata.
Astfel, insurr,,and aceste date, observam cii in zo:1a vizata, la etapa actuala de studiu sunt cunoscute
mai mult de 50 (?) staftuni umane, care cu o siguranta :mai mare ori rnai redusa pot fi datate cu etapa
tardiglaciar~l. Totoclata observam ca. practic, majoritatea !or sunt atribuite gravetianului (ori
epigravetianului). Deci, este cazul sa vorbim despre o continuitate constanta in prezenta acestui
tehnocornplex pentru o perioada de timp extrem de lunga in accasta zona. Dupa ultimele episoadc de
apari!ie in terito1iul vizat al aurignacianului tardi v( on al ,,graveti:mului epiau1ignacian", dupa denurnirca
nu prea reu~ita a lui, lansata de catre 1. Sapozm kov (2003, 277), reprezentat de statiunea Ra~cov VII
(Covalenco 2005, 36-44: Borziac 2005, 6-16). in opmia noastra fonul cultural gravetian a fost oarecurn
zdruncinat doar de infiltratia (ori procesele genetic:~ initiale de constituire-?) la etapcle sale finale de
evolutie a unorrealitati tipologice atribuite de noi sviderianului (Borziac, Burlacu 2006).
111/1111111/ II ,\1: 1-2 13

Statiunile enumera11e sunt arnplasate in dtfrrite situat1. pa eogcografict:': pe terasele lnalte ale vailor
premontane (in zona premontanii a Carpatilor--Brudi11 1987). platourik bazale ale vaii Nistrului
(Babin I, Voronovita r. etc.). pe coluvii ~i promontori., ce reprezinta treceri de la terasa a trcia la
ternsa a doua a Nistrnlui ~i Prntului. pe terasele acestor ra.tri ~i ale afluentilor !or. In zona subcaqxitica.
statiunile umane din aceasta petioada, in majoritatea caz.trilor. ocupa locurile utilizate ~i mai anterior
ca dislocatii umane in etapele rnai tirnpurii ale gravetian1 Jui ~i aurignacianului (Paunescu 1998).
Posibil, amplasarca lor a fost conditionata de de ua particularitati sincgetice ~i traditional
comportative: 1)in locurile de concentrare a renilor inainiea purcederii !or la migratiile sezoniere spre
Nord ~i, posibil, 2)tn apropierea locurilor, unde erau dezgoliri naturale de sare, rolul ciireia in
alirnentatie, prepararea produselor. fara indoiala, a fos cunoscut de ba~tina~i la accasta etapa. Nu
este exclus ca sursele de sare din zona subcarpatica sf1 fi j ,)st descopcritc initial d~ animale, servind ca
locu1i de concentrare a !or. Omul, venind pe aceste locuri 1;u scopul vanatorii. a descoperit ~i sursele de
sare, care au fost utilizate mai pe larg 111 neolitic ~i peri .>adele istorice ulterioare (Ursulescu 1977:
Monah 1991, 387-400; Stoica, Gherasie 1981 ). La ctap.1 actuala de cercctare, '.nca nu dispunem de
dovezi concrete despre utilizan:a sarii 111 paleoliticul dir acesta zona ~i presupunerile noastre poarta
un caracter ipotetic. Este insa c:unoscut, de exernplu, ca mi male le, fara interventia ornului, uti lizau
sarea. In zona ,,Marelorcanioane" din statul Colorado. Sl fA. rnastodonii arnericani ~i mamutii inca cu
mult timp inainte de aparitia omului pe continentul Nore-American au sapat 111 uncle locuri galerii ~i
pe~teri in depunerile sedimentare, care contineau sare (( iraharn, Kay 1988, 227-235).
In zonele Prutului ~i Nistrului statiunile din aceasta p.:rioada erau, la fel ca ~i in zona premontana,
amplasate in locurile traditionalc de a~ezare a auri,gnacienil, >r ~i gravetienilor din pe1ioadele lor anterioare
de evolutie. Dar arnplasarea de acum era conditionata de pr,;:zenta trccerilor peste rt\uri ale traditionalelor
rutc seculare de rnigratie a tunnel or de anirnale, in special a renilor (Borziac, Obada 2003, 3-6. 9). Vom
remarca ca, posibil, statiunile din zona subcarpatica repre2 .nta tabere ale vanato:rilor de la sfiir~itul iemii
~i prirnztvara timpurie, cele de pc terasele Prutului ~i Ni ·-:trului -- a~ezari ternporare ori sezoniere de
toamna., iar statiunile unde printre resturile faunistice dc·mina a~a spccii de fon, care vietuiau pe tot
parcursul anului in zona, precurn calul ~i bizonul, pot fi considerate ca statiuni de vara. Dar noi nu ne
pennitern cu aceia~i prorntitudine., ca de exemplu, I. Sap1).zmkov (2005, 17). sa divizam atat de sigur
statiunile in dislocatii tipice sezoniere, cu toate ca pentru z, ma noastra aceasta divizare ar fi, posibil, rnai
docurnentata, avand un numar mult mai impunator de stati1. ni, o multitudinc de date complementare, dar
~i diversitatea conditiilor paleogeografice de arnplasare al ,x in cadml land~aftului. Noi presupunern ca
populatia gravetiana catre aceasta etapa de evolutie ~i-a deZ\ oltat o plasticitate consiclerabila, o .,rnimicrie"
adaptationala extrema vis-a-vis de rnediu, imprejurari car.: ii pe1m1teau nu numai sa utilizeze resurscle
locale, dlar sa exploateze ~i unele, afl ate la distante cons id .:rabile de locurilc traditionale de arnplasare.
De exemplu, sursele de silcx de calitate superioara de pe Ni-:trul Mijlociu, Prntul Mijlociu erau cunoscute
aurignacienilor ~i gravetienilor din valea Bistritei (Bor;;iac, Chi1ica 1999. 67-70!, din deprcsiunea
intrarnontana a Ungariei (Dobosi 2003 ). Posibil, ~i cihlimb.trul depistat la Cosau1i in nivelul 5 de !locuire,
provine din zona ora~ului contemporan Zitomir din LJkrn na (Borziac 2006, 33 ). Descoperirea noilor
resurse rnate1iale, situate la distante cons1derabile de locuri ~ traditionale de arnplasare, incl us iv ~i a celor
anterior necunoscute, avca loc in cadrnl pericghezelor van.itore~ti indepa11ate. care, in cazu1ile cand ele
erau soklate cu rezultate poziti vc, erau unnate de rnigratii urnane rnai rnasive. Aceaslll strategic sinegetica a
ornului din paleoliticul superior a fost analizata rnai pe lar:.: de catre 0. Sofer ( 1985, 127-215). Aici noi
vom expune opinia ca, posibil. unele statiuni din zona Nord-Pontica in fauna carora predomina bizonul
(Anetovka 11, Bol'~aja Akkar1a, posibil Buda, din zona p1 emontana a Carpatilor Orientali) reprezinta
statiuni de vara ale gravetienilor. care migrau spre est in ti npurile anului, c{md 111 wna, in lipsa renului
resursele alimentare erau !imitate. Pos1bil, in unna utilizar i acestei stratcgii, unele colcctive ,gravctiene
tardive au rnigrat din valea Nistrului spre est ( Vladimirovkl) ~i. posibil, la distante ~i mai rnari spre sud-
est. atingilnd te1itoriul Crirneii (5116m:crn. C-1,111r:o. Koe 1 1994, l 29-1."i0).
1-l R,'\ :1ru .-J/'/1cologic(1. Serie nou(i

Staiiuni le dm etap:1 hnala a paleolit1culu1 din wna Carpato-N1strcanz1 au fost studiate pe diferite
suprafetc, in confor1111tatc cu di\ crsc rnctodc Jc ccrceL.ire. ~1 au furn1zat coleqii de materiak
diferitc. Accasta sc r,~J'cr{t atat la caldicarca lir ca sursa informati, ..1, dt ~i ca cantitate, care
permitc C\ aluarea s1tuafie1 dcmograficc locale a ctapa paleoliticulu1 final. Aceste particularitati
implica dificultap scnoase pentru proc,:sul l:c examinare teh!1ico-tipologica, planigrafica,
stratigrafica, a strncturn inventarului - proccdun ,:xtrcm de necesare pentrn detenninarea vcctorului
t,:ndintei c\ oluriw gc1:,~ralc sprc finalul palcolit1-·ulu1. Dar, in pofida celor mentionate, considen1m
ca totu~i este p,Js1bi![1 cercctarea presupmc1 tr:111sformari locale a gravetianului in mezolitic,ori
mai concret. determinarea posibd1tii!ii ori 11npo:-1bilitati1 in baza lor, a studia tranziJ:ia nemiJlocita
de la gravetiar,ul r.arJ1v (ori epigravctianul) L1 mezolitic, dupa cum afirmau unii cercetatori
( Llep111,rw I 973; Idem 1975; .Kcrpapy 1973 Cova Ienco 2003 ). Pentru a efrctua aceasta
opaaiie este nccesar de a analiza principal de ,'.;rupe de piese din spectrelc tipologice ale celor
mai informativ,e statiut111 tardiglaciare din zona.

Tehnica de debitaj, particularitatil,i structurii ~i tipopogiei inclustriilor


paieoliticului final din spatiul Carpato-r'i'istrean
lndelungata cvolut1c a gravetianulu1 local nu n,.unai presupune, dar :?i denota o evidenta evolutie a
tchmcii prelucrz.ni prnnare ~1 sccundare a pietre1, . 1 movatitlor ~i cl1spantiilor din repertoriul pieselor
t1pice ale unelteior de rnunca ~i annelor din pwtra. os, com. fildq--particularitati intiparite in cadrul
rcstant al stat1umlor umane. Se considera, ca pc par,.:ursul evolutiei s-a perfeqionat tehnica lamelara de
percutie, ~1, ca rezulta1 - au sufrrit escntiale ~.chnn:,an fom1ele ~i principiile de a~chien~ (rupH 1997;
Borz1ac, Chirica, Vale.mu 2003, 31-4.'i ).
Tel111ica de perc11fii'. Pe tot parcursul cvolutic1 tehnocomplexului, inclusiv ~i din zona Carpato-
\: i:;ln:anC1. in domen1ul pcrcutici a pcrsistat tehnica cvaziparalela de debitaj, pnntrc nuclee la inceput
e1au ma1 fre,..:vente cclc politalonare, umiate de cele b1polarc cu taloanele fnclinatc (ori oblice vis-a-
\ is de frontul de pcrcupc) ~i extrcrn de rare crau mLclcele conice. Nu erau prezente deloc in industrii
cclc cpuizate p1ramidJk. !vlai tarziu a ap[1rut molialitatca Jc ingustarc a prcsupusei paJ1i dorsale a
rni-:k·ului pnn desprinck:-n bila1crale transvcc:,ale :,1 proccdeul de rotatic ~i schimbare consecutiva a
fro11tulu1 de percuti1:. Prin inlaturarea muchie1 ast fcl ascutite, care la inceput servea pentru fixarea
nucieului, se capatau din nou lame inguste ~1 lun,!1, iar pnma dmtre ele era lama a crete. La etapa
tinal:1 a gravetia'.1ilui dm zona au aparut unek prni..:edec cvolutive de perteqionare a procesului de
obtincre a lame Ior ~i, 1'r ~;pccial, al larnelelor. Pn nul dintre ek cste utilizarea a~chiilor masive in
calitak de nuclcc. A:;;cht\~rea !or de pc o latur:-1 long1tudinala pentru obbnerea lamclor ~i larnelelor
ingust,? ~i subtiri poatc f considerata o inova\1e. Cil"C a inceput sa tie 1mplimentata dupa circa I 8 mii
ani BP ~i care a evolupunat p[m{1 la fine le palcolttic1.1lui superior. Au aparut astfol nucleele secundare
dtn a~chii. A doua parti,, ularitak a proccsului cvo. um de pcrcupc este modalitatca de utilizare mai
amp la ~i ma1 frecventii m prncesul de pcrcu-;ie an 1ediatoarelor. Aceasta particularitate, chiar ~i in
lipsa rncdiatoarclor d11; \:okcpi, poatc fi urrnar11:i prin prezenta unui nurnar tot mai avansat de
seallfabncatc cu taloanele punctifonnc (pan11la35 'Ye drn numarul tolal al !or), dar ~i prm absenia
,,strc~inilor'' de pe mariDnilc taloanelor nuclcelm, care mdica o 1ehn.1c[1 de pcrcutie prin lovituri
direclc. Acestc pa11icu:aritati 1110\'aponale sunt caracteristicc pentru toate complexele tardiglaciare,
inclusiv ~i pcntru ct'le. considerate de catrc A. l'cn1;}s ca apaqinand de acum mczoliticului timpuriu
(l.Jepr11,nu I 973: Idem I <)75 ). Numai in comp1.cxek cp1palcoliticc sunt prezente uncle nuclec epuizate
pirarnidale (in foi-ma ck (.:reion), ctar elc ind1 nu ati:ig pcrkqiunca celor din complexelc mezolitice
rropriu-zisc din zona.
i"Jo1 cons1der~1m ca ,.1(a numitclc ,,c1ocant: hln;{tcoapl:''. din con.le rcn, evident de frccventc in
mdustriile grdvctic1nulu1 11h}diu ~1 t[1rziu din zo11::1 inn 1a1oritatca !or au fost ut1 hzate in calitate de mcdia-
toan.?. L111eori arnwtc cu,·,_ 111 parncnt au\tl1ar dur din ~ iln ( t 1~ -l ).
i'H11111u1 JI, Sr 1-2 1S

Tahcl. Grupelc principal1.: de picsc din sta\iunilc palci liticului final~!. cpipalcoliticului dm :;pa\iul
Carpato - Nistrcan.
-
- >-.
,;-·----

~uri
<'l
... -... ,•r,

-.
N
...
d
,,

' C:
' ,.

..: ..: ,..,.


:,;: ;.. ,.
:: :: :: •-

' ~ ~ .,. :=
.s
;.
j .§ §
:,J
:.i B -~
~
Grupe\ .::: ;,. I
f "'"
~ ]
·~ ~ I
: a
s s
a ;:; '-'
de pie~.e \"" .,..
,,,., .:::
~
:
·-
.~~
.,:;
~

2 ::;
0
I '
: '·
;.., :.,, ,-.,
~
Jc
~ 0::
Cf; u
0

I 2 i 3 4 :i 6 i 8 9 10 I: I
L: 13 14
-,
Ciencral pic-sc 5:i83 17525 !' 8032 45 1):i 6050 4125 I - l03 410 141 387 601:2 1283 740 16740
:-:uclcc 187 598 ! j"P .;.._"'! 160 l 18 189 81 21 17 )(J 5<16 74 : 16 1435
,,\,' I
C1azirrilma,:ce 12 397 121 1:,2 % 142 54 3 42 I 408 51 9 997
3 3 2 3 !
i
Piramidalc
Lame.l2mclc.
6 II 2 ·' I 6 I
'
hagmc11te 1729 5971 1605 1253 589 950 --04 134 39 76 ,~-3 237 225 i 437
I
/\~chii 3423 10365 6309 2286 41 l 1 213 I l 118 255 112 292 :i I Ci:i IS4 ! 586 10470
! I
Piesc cu prelu-
i care sec undara 244 576 267 2:11 24.?i 304 02 28 12 39 3-;9 l 12 ' 138 i 462
El urine: 126 286 18:, 141 131 179 44 1:, 8 9 I :4 55 18
'1
132
-de urw11 61 14S 79 S7 8I 111 I 7 3 3 89 37 i 7 47
"
-lat.rctu~ate 58 112 93 27 37 46 2 7 5 6 ::7 II 8 64
-pc spartura
Ciratoar,2 ·
7
45
26
80
ll
37
17
32
I3
39
22
48
,,
3
3 2 7
i.l
95
9
12
2
29
21
171
-S1mple-Iame 23 42 19 23 24 30 9 2 3 4 67 7 16 94
-Simple-a~chii 7 12 4 3 2 2 3 I 12 2 2 46
2 3 5 2 ·; 5 20
-•\rondc.te 3 6 3
3 13
-inalte
-Latcrak
2
6
·''
6
6
3
l
2 5
.,6 l
3 -2 5 24
- .,
-duble l 4 2 I 2 - . , -I I l

-Unguiforme . - l . j . 3 I 12
C}ratoare-burine 2 7 . I I 2 2 2 14
\'arfuri Gravette 6 5 8 6 2 2 - I 3 12
\'iirfuri Svider - - - j 2 - 2 3
I
\' arfuri-triunghi - . - - l -
I
\'iirfurr - lame
Segmeme
4
-
2
..
3
.
2
.
4
2
-,
.
-.-, 2
2
3 , 3
i
5

Trapeze - - -
,, ,, .
I -

Rectangle 3 8 I
l . . 2 . 2 9 3 11
Lame a dos 47 24 I9
I 20 22 6
I
8 4 . 22 3 30
l(
I 18 88 12 •3~I 89
Lame retu~ate 28 13 30 9 20 36 I
4 i

r
T runc.drcpt 8 2 . . 2 ')
i I 5 2 I
. 6
Trunc.oblic 5 3 - 2 l :; i I :< 3 5
Piesc a ('C\Chc -, _,,
I
14 8 4 8 . 12 ! - I 3 (j 3 : 5 39
Strapungiitoarc 12 3 I . 2 2 i I
)
6 i 3 ! - 12
Picsc Tranche _l -- l-
l -- - . .
! - .
-'~- ~I- '
*In acest tabel sunt reprcz,:ntak industriile de pe .\iisu JI Mijlociu. care rnai in,ens au fost antrcnate
in discu1iilc referitoare la "microlitizare··. ''gcomctrizartc'': i tranzitic a gravctianult:i local la mczolitic.

Microlitiz.area ca proces evolutiv in prelucrarea secu .1dara a p1etrei. Se considcra, ca spre: finalul
evolutiei lor mdustnile paleol itice din zona au o vadi ta te11dinta spre ,, micro!iti::are .. (liepHi111 1975 ),
care se rnanifesta atat in producerea semifabricatelor brut, :, dar ~i in a]egerea lor pentru confeq10narca
uncltelorde munca, 111 dirnenstunile rnedii ale uncltclortip ce.
Yorn rnentiona, di princ ipala premiza in procesul de rnicrolitizare ~bincinrcles in cadrul
pos1bilitatilor !imitate obiecti, de panicularitatilc fizice ak silexului). a fost perfeqionarea ~i adaptarea
continuii a rnanii omului ca instrument intermediar intre 1 atiune ~i obicctui muncii. A doua premiza a
fost acumularea practicii de rnuncii, perfcqionarea ~i stai 1dard1zarea uneltelor de mun ca, care, nu in
ult1ma instanta, in ansamblu, erau model ate de partict.lantatik utilizarii !or traditionale A treia
16
Revista Arheologica. Serie 11011d

g~
14 15

&~~~~~

a~~~~v~~~~
&~•vat~~~e~
24 25 26 L,.., _ _.__.._____,J
27 28 29

Fig. 5. Piese «geometrice» din unele situri ale pakoliticului superior ~i epipaleoliticc din Europa
Ccntrala ~i de Est. a) t\ 1velul inferior al statiunii Corpaci, Moldova; b) Statiunca Zverginiec, Krakow;
c) Statiunea San-Marino, cultura Uluzzo. Italia; d) Statiunea Telman'skaia, Kostcnki; c) Statiunea
Pavlov, Cehia; t) Statiunea Iva~covo; g) Statiunea Tarinca; h) StaJiunea Osocorovca, niv. 3v. (spatiul
Nord-Pontic, dupa Grigor'eva 1983).

premiza a fast trecerea treptata la utilizarea pieselor s1:andardizate pentru efectuarea anumitor tipu-
ri de operatii, ori ai aplicarii lor la prelucrarea anurnitor materii prime ~i aici, standardizarea ~i
limitarea nomenclatorului uneltelor de munca din paleoliticul final local este deterrninata de necesitatile
vanatoarei ~i prelucrarii produselor, provenite din v.:lnatoarea, cu precadere, a renului (Borziac 2006).
Darnici la o stati,1ne, atribuita paleoliticului final, dimensiunile uneltelornu ating o limita minima,
care ar prilejui constatarea trecerii de la paleoliticul final la mezolitic. Dimensiunile unor grupe de
unelte este redusfi ( de exemplu,a lamelelor cu retu~e fine pe laturi ~i cu laturile retu~ate abrupt) din
cauza utiliziirii lor ca aplicatii pentru uneltele compozite. Acest tip de unelte a aparut inca la
faze le initiale ale paleol iticului superior european (Palma di Cesnola, Dini 1971) ~i nici de cum nu
este neapara1: necesar de legat aceasta particularitate de trecerea la mezolitic, cu toate ca anume in
mezolitic astfel de unelte au ajuns la etapa !or de cea mai larga raspandire ~i la cea mai mare diversi-
tate tipologicii.
Din tabel!ul prezentat aici se vede, ca la toate statiunile paleoliticului final din zona, ca ~i in
perioadele precedente de evolutie a gravetianului local, burinele, practic, peste tot sunt rnai
numeroase decat gratoarele, precum $i decat alte grupe de piese tipice. La eta\;ele mcdii a lui de
ViJ!11t11ui JI. N,: 1-2 17

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

~ - D ~~~) ~D ~-D
9 10 11 12 13

67-D~-D ~D~-v 15 16 17

26

25

30

Fig. 6. Piese alungite de tip "segment de ccrc" ~i bnc ~i lame le retu~atc di nivclul infcror
al statiunii Corpaci (dupft Borziac ~i al. 1981).

evolutie (23-16 mii ani BP) printre ele predominau ci:le lateral retu~ate, la etapa paleoliticului
final-cele de unghi. Multirnea llor printre unelte este, p1 ,sibil, determinata de intense le procese de
uti lizare ca materii prime pentru confectionarea uneltel1 ,r de munca, armelor, pieselor de podoaba,
accesoriilor pentru vanatoare., transport etc., a mater1alelor animale dure, i,i, in primul rand, a
filde~ului ~i, in special, al cornului de ren. Disparitia ,1cestor materii prime odata cu instaurarea
Holocenului a schimbat evident structura acestor grupe de piese in-industrii. In mezolitic peste tot
gratoarele numeric predominti celelalte grupe de unelre tipice. Din tabelul prezentat se vede, ca
la toate statiunile in coleqitlc de piese litice gratoarek s1 mt in pozitie secundarti fcqa de bu1ine.
Microlitizarea in tipologia paleoliticului final se nanifesta prin miqorarea dimensiiunilor
gratoarelor din lame, prin apari1ia in numar considenh1l al gratoarelor din a~chii (ca evident
exemplu-colectia de gratoan: de acest gen de la starimi,.~a Costqti I (fig. 3) . inclusiv a gratoarelor
Revista Arheo!og1cli. Serie nouri

laterak din a~chii. Dar aceasta tendinta, de as, menea este in mare masuril, posibil, dictata de
pa11icularitii.tile ftzice a,,: pie ii or de ren, care spre, lem;ebire de cele de bison !~i cal sunt mai subtiri ~i

!\

3 5
6

' I

7
1a

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Fig. 7. P1,,:sa ,:ompoz .ta-maner din corn de rc11 cu o lama "a dos" de la statiuhca gravetiana
1

.
nlu1 islrati\!rafid P,Jdc:_un
'-' ...
I. 1,2-varfuri de tip "Co~auti ·: 3--l 9-piese de tip patrulate1 alungit din nivclul 5
rnenta c, prel ucrare rrni m1m1t1 orbil, deoarecc gr:h11 ,wa ~src in n i:n. 1cr nc'm 11 lucll l ll r:ldfic inil1: b ![1--
nIi anLnaldor, care, spre d,:u::,ehire de cea a cduiui ~ bi?C111ulu1 ncct;:'ii!a'l o 1~htr:.ir(' im:1et[1. dar ~i

\ /
~,;"
w/1
II

t
l!Jl
\
I I
I

C: \i

tig. ;s, P:c~~c din '11L:>-. '.l l'.t)[llp[\,'\L.: ~;td\iun1r t '·Ip~ k, lil,,_.. \L ._'ii,~'1 ..: ,,, ' .i • \. l.'J!1L1t1 ldupZ1
\1Lul;ic,;1_,1-Pklp;;(>J llJ<;\.i.
::o Revista Arheologicd. Serie noua

suficient fixata in pielc pentru a fi utilizata pentru confeqionarea imbracamintei, accesoriilor pentru
donnit, etc. Si aici putem emite ipoteza ca ,,caracterul aurignacian» al industriilor litice ale unor
statiuni ale paleoliticulu1 superior din stepele nord-pontice, datate cu varsta rnai tarzie decat 20 mii
ani BP a fost conditionat de ocupatiile perrnanente. Prezenta gratoarelor de forme inalte, carenate,
a
nucleiforrne, museaux etc., s-a consolidat timp de rnulte secole, datorita utilizarii acestor fonne de
unelte la prelucrarea peilor de bizon ~i cal, devenind cu timpul traditionale componente ale industriilor
lttice. De altfel traditi,:malismul, developat sub diferite forme ale culturii materiale ~i reprezinta,
in fond, continutul fiedrei culturi arheologice.
Ne vorn referi, in speranta de a nu suprasatu ra spatiul rezervat, la a~a particularitate frccvent
controversata a evolul tei industriilor litice la eL1pa finala a paleoliticului superior ~i tranzitie1 la
mezolitic ca ,, geometriwrea" unor tipuri de picse. Vom ment10na aici, C2l pe parcursul evolutiei
paleoliticului superior european se evidentiaz:i cateva etape de debut a procesului de ,,geom-
etri~are ".
- Prima tentativli de incepere a procesului numit de noi geometrizare este identificata in
industriile de tranzitie de la musterian la paleol1ticul superior al culturii Uluzzo, de pe teritoriul
peninsulei A.peninc. In ele., paralel cu racloarele, varfurilc musteriene, piesele denticulate se intal-·
nesc piese de ti pul ,,segmentelor de cerc ", des tu l de grosolane, dar destul ~i de distinctive, ca tip
definitivat ca form~i Modul !or de utilizare fste neclar, dar a fost expusa ipo1leza ca ele se
inmanu~au in rnanere de lemn (Palma di Cesnola 1971 ). Tot la etapa timpurie a paleoliticu-
llll superior unele piese de forme geometrice, ,,patrulatere" ~i ,,trapeze" au fost depistate in
nivelul Cal stafiunii Buran - Kaya III din Crim,:ia, datat cu vfrrsta de circa 31-33 ~i 35-3 8 mii
ani BP. Acest nivel ck locuire a fumizat o serie de . ,trapeze" din a~chi1, cu laturile prelucrate cu
retu~e plate, aidoma celora, cu care sunt prelu,:rate piesele de tip ,,esquailles" (7lfa6ai-i 2004,
275). Nu cste exclus, c.a aceste piese se utilizau in calitate de armatura pentru uneltele com-
pozite cu m,inere. Nivelul Cal grotei Buran - Kaya este at1ibuit ,,szeletianului" crimeian. 0 astfel
de ... geometrie" in cultunle paleolitice ulterioare din Crimei, dar ~i din alte zone ale Europei nu c-a
mai depistm (fig. 4).
- 0 alta incercare de geometrizare este semnalata in unele industrii gravetiene medii din Europa
Centrala. De exemplu, segmentele de cerc au fost d,;:pistate la o statiune a gravetianului mediu din zona
Krakoviei. Polonia-b:vierzyniec, impreuna cu va:furi bifaciale (]a.Kozlowski, S:1ches-Kozlowska
1981, .35-41 ). Si la stapunile gravetianului ,,orienttl" cu piese a nan de tip Pavlov--Predmosti au fost
dep1state unele ,,segmente de cerc'' alungite :ii unele triunghiuri asimetrice cu laturile retu~ate abrupt
(Klima 1976, 66; Svoboda, Klima, Iaro~ova. SkrdL12000, 197-217) (fig. 5). Statiunile culturii Pavlov
sunt datate circa 25.000-23.000 BP (Svoboda, Lozek, Vlcek 1996).
-- Segmente de cerc au fost depistate ~i in paleoli1icul superior din lunca Prutului. Astfol, la statllunile
Corpaci, niv. inferior, Rip1ceni-lzvor, niv.2a, Trinca- Izvorul Jui Luca au fost depistate ,,varfuri alungitc''
cu o latura curba. retu~ai:a abrupt. lnventarul accstcr statiuni mai contine forme bifaciaie, racloare, ~i
lame a dos, lame le abord abbatu. accidental-- varhiri gravetienc. Nivelul inferior al stai;iunii Corpaci
<lre data 25.250 ~= 300 (GrN--9758). ln baza unor estimari tehnico-tipologice !/i de coroborare aceste
sta\iu111 au fost unite in cultura Prut, evidentiata de noi in cadrul tehnocomplexului aurinacian local
(Borziac 1994, 19-39: Chi1ica, Borziak, Chetraru 1996, 33: Borziac, Levitki 2003, 28-53) (fig. 6).
- Pc parcursuJ gravetianului final, ori epigravet: anului. in zona Carpato-Nistreana (mai evidentiat
decCn in alte zone de rftsp;1ndirc a gravetianului oriental) a mai fast efectuata o tentativa de geometr:izare.
care a fost legata direct de evolutia uneltclor compo:-ite cu rnanere din com, os :?i, posibil, lemn. Astfel
de rni\nere se intalnesc ck acum in nivelul 7 al statiuni: Molodova V, undc apaqi ·'vaifo1ile trapezoiclale".
~i ,,la1nele cu doua capi:k retu~ate" (YepHbllU 19:~7. 52-56). Piesele de configuratii geometrice-
rcctanglclc. patrulat,:rek: alung:ite. uneori cu capet,?lc rctu~ate u~or, oblice, ori ~i cu o latura retu~ata
dbrupt capiit:'i raspund1rc in nivelek 6-1 a ale :iceski stafitmt. ~i impreunft cu m,1nerele longitudmale
Vo/1111111I fl, .Yr l-2 21

GD 22

Fig. 9. Piesc din silex din statiunca cpipaleolitica ( sv1dcriana-?) Scli~tc ( dupa Borziac, Burlacu
2006).

di11 os (Borziac, Beldiman 1996. 52-56). ln nivelul 1 :-i Ia al acestei statiuni aceste rezultate ale
,,geometrizarii gravetiene anterioare" sunt anuntate dt: catre A. c:emiis ca m~1rturii ale demararii
mczoliticulu1, 01i ca elementc. care confinna evolu(ia pali:oliticului local final i:n mczolitic (C£epHblll1
Revislll ArheologicCJ. Serie 11011a

l 9~7. 5U-80J. A~tld ck' "rcctam:le'' sc int[dncsc 1n uncle niveluri de locuire de la statiunea Podgori I,
I... ' "-'

u11tk a fost dep1stat ~, un mfrner di!1 corn de rcn cu o lama de acest fcl pastrata in corpul manerului
(Bo·-zwc ]! 99\ 173 .J 82) (rig. 7). lnsa o ernlu(1c evidenta aceste piese au obfinut-o 'in nivelele de
lucu1re ale star,unii C1.,s{iuri. unde clc sunt depist,.ne in fiecare nivel de locuire. Cele mai reprezentative
p1e-e ck acest tip au fost depistate 1n ni\eklc 7 ·· 3 de locuire gravetiana.

19

)
I

24
25
I
,,

23
I

Fig. 10. Pi1~se di 11 si lex din ni I clul ep1 pal,>.il itic ( sviderian-?) la al statiunii Molodova V
iduraCcrrii~ J():~~').
Vi.1/11m11I 11, N,: 1-2 23

Deci. reie~ind din cele relatate, avem posibilitatea sa 1:onsideram ca geometrizarea nu numai ca nu
este o caracteristica exclusiva pentru industriile ~i t1pologia mezoliticului, dar ~i ca, in zona,
geometrizarea care a existat in gravetian nu a capatat ev ,)lutie in mezoliticul local.
Concluzionand aceasta etapa a expunerii noastre putem constata, ca nici tipologia principalelor
grnpe die unelte ~i structura !or, nici "microlitizarea" ~in .ci "·geometrizarea" din paleoliticul superior
local ~i inclusiv din cadrul complexelor tardiglaciare, cc1re au evoluat i'ntre 14.500 ~i 10.000 BP n-au
conditionat tranzitia locala la mezolitic. La finalul paleo Iiticului superior din zona, conform opiniilor
noastre., a capatat o oarecare implicare in cadrul cultural lo-:al ~i sviderianul, cultur~l epipaleoliticii cu mai
multe diviziuni teritoriale ~i temporale din Europa Central.l, de Nord ~i Europa de Est (3anmmi:K 1989;
Idem 1999, 37-62). In unele complexe din ,,mezoliticul t1mpmiu" din zona Nistrului (llepttim 1975),
precum ~i din zona subcarpatic{i sunt mentionate prezen1 ele tipologice ale sviderianului ~i, in legatura
cu aceasta, dar ~i pentru elucidarca mai completa a prol:lemei prezentei sviderianului in zona, vom
aborda ~i aceasta problema, aducand, credem, unele cmltributii in acest sens.

Episodul sviderian in epipaleoliticul di 111 spafiul Carpato-Nistrean


In anii 1967-1972 I. Rafalov:ici ~i V Lapu~nean au studiat o a~ezare neohtica, una medievala
timpurie ~i doua necropole, apartinand perioadei La T,:ne a epocii timpurii a ferului ~i nomazilor
tardivi, plasate pe un promontoriu de langa satul Seli~te, nionil Orhei, in dreapta vaii Rautului. Printre
materialele litice din a$ezarea neolitica, in opinia lor (Pa1:paJ10B11Y:, J1anyw1urn 1974, 104-140), noi
am evidentiato colectie de peste 300 piese care, conform tehnicii de debitaj, tipologiei pieselortipice,
pnecum ~i prezentei patinei au fost atribuite mezoliticului ( i5op3l15IK 2001, 36). Printre ele a fost depistat
~i un varf ti pie sviderian cu peduncul confectionat din lama.. Cercetarile ulterioare din 1974, 1984,
1986, 2000, 2002 ~i 2004 ne-au pennis sa depistam la ,,uprafata promontoriului de la Seli;,te inca
peste 400 piese din silex de fac:tura mezolitica, printre care un fragment $i un varfintreg sviderian,
materialle, care, in ansamblu, ne--au permis sa determinam acest facies al epipaleoliticului (ori al cultu1ii
svideriene) ca prezente ~i pentru teri1toriul dintre Nistru ~i Pn it (Borziac, Burlacu 2006). Anterior, A.Cemas
a sernnalat prezenta unor astfel de piese relevante $i la une le statiuni din paleoliticul final ~i mezoliticul
timpuriu din lunca Nistrului. Astfol, el confinna prezenp. singulara ori in numar de 2-3 exemplare a
varfurilor de sageata svideriene la Sanatauca I, Oseliv,:a I, niv. sup., Molodova I, niv. mezolitic,
Ataki VI (inclusiv 2 vatfuri triunghiulare), Babin III (qt:pttiw 1975, 58-114). in anul 1975 unul din
autori (I. Borziac) a avut ocaziia de a examina materiakle mezolitice din coleqiile lui A. c:emas,
stocate la Institutul studiului Ucrainei, din Lvov $i a depista: in nivelul I al statiurnii Molodova V 2 varfuri
svideriene, nivel atribuit de d1tre A.P. Cemas mezoliticu lui timpuriu. Acest nivel de locuire are data
radiometrica de 10. 940± 150 ani BP, este sincronizat cu inc eputul oscilatiei pozitive Aile rod (l-faattoBa
1987, 122) ~i ne poate servi ca un bun reper cronologic 111 expunerea noastr~l actuala. Impreuna cu
aceste v:'.irfuri au fost descoperite industrii, care i'n fond pol fi considerate ca epipaleolitice timpurii, dar,
posibil, existente in zona anterior celor de tip Grebenniki. Industriile de tip Grebenniki au de acum un
evident caractermezolitic, ~i, in opinia noastra, nu au o pr1)ve111enta locala. in acest mod se contureaza
un ~ir de statiuni epipaleolitice, epigravetiene in fond, dar c11 unele elemente (mai pronuntat cu varfuri de
sageata svideriene cu peduncul)., caracteristice ~i relevantc pentru cultura svidetiana (fig. 1), care pot fi
interpretate in mai multe moduti: a)ca puncte tempo rare de prezenta a sviderienilor in zona pe parcursul
migratiei lor spre sud-est, cand au ajuns pana in Crimeia ( BeK11J10Ba 1965; Idem 1971; Ett6HKOB,
CrnttKo, KoeH 1974 ); b)ca situni, unde perife1ic au ca patat raspandire w1ele tipwi din masivul sv tderian
din zonelle mai nordice si; c)ca zona, undc a avut loc i'nceputul constitui1ii svide1ianului in bazagravetianului
local; particulaiitate care in mod explicit ne-ar da posibil1tatea. de exemplu, s21 presupunem plecarea
gravetienilor spre nord. 111 urrna zonei de retragere a renil >r la etapa epipaleol iticului, cand a demarat
constituirea culturii svideriene. !v1ajoritatea cercetatorilor .~onsidera ca la constituirea svideria11ului au
luat parte elementele tipologice ak gravetianului (epigravetic nului) din Europa Centrnla (incluciv te1it01iul
Revista Arheologicr1. Serie 11011a

zonei Carpato-Nistrene, care la la etapa paleoliticului final avea cea mai consistent.a populatie gravetiana
din Europa). Majoritatea cercetatorilor consider:\ ca sviderienii (de altfel, ca ~i gravetienii) erau, cu
precadere, van5tori de reni. Care din aceste explicatii, conform mate1ialelor cunoscute pana in prezent,
ar fi nu numai mai verosi mila, dar care ar ~i facilita explicarea, retrajerii populatiei tardigravetiene din
zona ~i inlocuirea ei cu populafie mezolitidl'? Accept::ind data de circa 11.000 BP pentru declan~area
,,fenomenu lui sviderian ··., sau al culturilor cu varfun de sageata din lame, incl us iv pedunculate in Europa
de Est (zona Est-Baltica, Campia Nord-Eurnpeana ~i Est-Europeana, data relativa, sincronizata cu
inceputul oscilatiei pozitive Allerod, dar ~i cu data cxacta a nivelului I de locuire de la Molodova V), noi
consideram ca aceasta 1poteza a noastra, on model de schimbare a populatiilor din zona, are pozitii
destul de rigide. Nu sunt lipsite de sens nici alte ,lou:1 explicatii ale prezentei sviderianului in zona
Carpato-N istreana, insii toate impreuna merita o abordare speciala.

Aprecieri, discutii, concluzii


Noi, um1fmcl opinii le unor cercetato1i, cares-au ocupat cu studiul proccsului natural al cuaternarului
tardiv din zona (Asvadurov, Bitiri, Vasi lescu 1972, 66; Carciumaru E., Carciumaru M., Vasilescu 1986,
141-152; MBaHoBa 1987. 94-124), dt ~i dill ani mai larg (Heihurn1n 1957; Idem 1961;
ry,1e.rrnc 1961; Mau,EcB01~i 2000. 380-38,i ),consideram ca evolutia paleoliticului final a coincis
in timp cu etapa tardiglaciara ( circa 14.500-- 10.UOO BP), epipaleoliticul, cu etapa de destabilizare
a procesului natural (circa 12.000- 10.000 arn BP), etapa, cu cares-a finalizat ultimul Dryas.
Dcci, epipaleol ticul reprczinta, de fapt, o conti1111are a evolutie1 paleoliticului final in noi conditii
cli materice. Mezo Ii ticul, in form a ori i pcstaze ie culturale \'ntftlnite in spatiul Carpato-Nistrean,
evidentiaza de a::urn lcnomene din eta pa de c 1:olu11e timpurie a Holocenului ~i; din punct de veclere al
stratigrafiei depunerilor, 1egitim, ar ocupa locul in scdimentele de la inceputul acumularii orizontului
Bal solului Je tip Ct~rnuziom. Reiqind din acestc considerente, c:onchidem ca acele statiuni umane
din zona, la care in firnnn mai persista resturik rcmuti, s.unt atribuite de noi epipaleoliticului, ori, in linii
jenerale-paleolinculul final. In aceasta etapc'i de ,;voilutie sunt incadrate toate statiunile, industriile
c.:irora au fost m1:n\ionale in tabdul prezentm mai :,us, dar ~i multe altele, care nu au nici o stratigrafie
certa, nici fauna, dar ak caror materiale sunt sim1 lare acestora. In aceasta grupa, :rar~i indoiala este
incl us ~i nivdul fI al grotei Branzeni I, care in baz,1 unui os de mistret ( care putea sa apara in colectia
faunei din nivelul epipaleolit1c accidental Jin ni vel ul de cernoziom de mai sus, care con tine resturi ale
cultu1ii mate1iale din epocile mai tarzii (Cheirarn 1970) ~i un varf cu latura curba retu~ata abrupt (tip,
care se intalne~te in complexele epipaleolitice (1 {epHiw 1975)), a fost atribuit incorect, in opinia
noastrii, mezoliticului ( KeTpapy 1973, 142--143; Chetraru, Covalenco 1998, 57).
Microlit1zarea treptaUl a industriilor din epoca cuprinsa fotre circa 20 ~i l Omii ani BP, avand ~i alte
explicatii mai verosimiJ.e, decat evolutionisrnul imem al lor, despre care am opinat mai sus, in zona
studiata de noi, n-a dus la fonnarea industriilor mezolitice locale. Nus-a finalizat acest presupus
anterior proces (l..fep111,rlll 1973, 43-105; Idem 1975; )J:orryxauoB 1977, 13-16; Idem 1979, 152;
)J:oJiyxattoB, naillKCBW-I 1977, 134-144; CrnuKo 1992, 18-27) nici in urma tentativelor de
geometrizare, ap21ruk: in diferite industrii ale paleoliticului superior din Europa, inclusiv ~i din spatiul vizat
de noi. Apariiia in industrii.le din paleoliticul superior a microlitelor ,,geometrice" a fost examinata intr-o
lucrare anterioara de catre G. Grigor' eva ( 1983, 55-6 l ). Observatiile utile, facute de catre acest cercetator,
trecerea in revist:i a statiunilor cu micro lite in industriile paleoliticului superior din Europa (Eop:maK,
fpttropbeBa, KeTpapy 1981, 64-75) sum pentru noi evident importante ~i noi le acceptam pe deplin.
Totoc!ata avem ~i w1ele rezerve vis-a-vis de concluzii le expuse in aceasta lucrare. G.Grigor 'eva remarca:
,,se poate de constatat ca segmentele au fost o parte componenta a industriilor htice pe tot parcursul de
evolutie al paleoliticului superior, i'ar la finalul lui -- ~i trapezele" (f'p11ropheBa 1983, 55-61 ). Noi am
detenninat, ca segmentcle in diferite industrii au apiirut doar sporadic: - ele au avut fom,e, proportii ~i
utilizari diferite ~,i, in fond, reprezinta o exceptie, care nici intr-un caz particular, concret, n-a dus la
Vi1/11nl!I! JI, :Vr 1-2 25

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i I
I
:I
j
I
1r
I' ',,
I'

0
I
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1'

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-o

-,I

Fig. ll. Piese din cum clc ren. ci-; ~i silo: din sta\it 1ca pluristratigrafica cpigravctiana losauti,
111v, 3. 1-2-ekm.:nte ak arcului cornpozit (cc~11-.ulu11 .lm mai multc scgrnc11tc) ('.') din corn de rcn;
3-b-vfirfuri de sttgcaUi d 1,1 os; 7-12-varfuri d1..· s{i§!,:t:1 din s ikx, posi bi L pres\ ideriene.
26 Rc:1·i.,w Arheolugidi. Serie 11ow1

aparitia industriilor ,,de tip azilian" cu scgrncnte care. in opinia noastra, nu--~i au originea nici in
Europa de Est, nici i'n Europa Centrala. inclus1 v <tn zona Carpato-NistreantL Industnile ,,aziliene"
cu segmente in componenta lor au aparut in Eur,)pa de Est (de exemplu.in Crimeia) (fa1611KOB,
CTaHKO, KoeH 1994, 202-205), sudul Europei C:ntrale ('?), ori 01ientul Apropiat, unde ele dateaza
in circa 14.000 BP (Bar-Yosef 1984, 233-290) Pcsibd ca la baza evolntiei !or au fost industriile de
tip C:lisura de pe leritoriul Greciei (Boroneant 2000, 362). De asemenea. se poate de constatat, ca rarele
segmente din unele industrii locale de la finalul pak, >liticulw superior, uneon considerate ca mezolitice
timpurii (faxobeni, Brfmzeni I, niv. sup.) (Borziac 1% ~: Covalenco. Chetraru 1999, 15-22), sunt o expresie
a infiltrarii in zon:i a unor grupe izolate de vaniitori d.: pe Dunarea l\110l ocie (Boroneant 2000, 366 ).
Noi consideram ca curmarea de fiecare data a evolutiei !ors-a produs datorita schimbiirilor
ciclice in mediul ambiam, care detem1inau 11oi dire,:pi de activitate sinegetica, ~i deci, utilizarea unor
altor tipuri de unelte. insa, nici microlitizarea ~i :1ici geometrizarea n-au pnlejuit transformarea
paleoliticului final di:n aceasta zona in mczolitic.
Confo1m unor aprecie,ri, paleoliticul superior "n:prezinta epoca vanatoarei colective specializate a
erbivorelor mari in cadm spatiilor deschisc (tundra-:,tepii rece) din Europa periglaciala", iar mezoliticul
,,reprezinta e,JOCii vim{it.ri I indi v1dualc. nespcciali? Jle, cu ajutorul anne!or distantionale (al arcului ~i
sagqilur) in cadrul spar .ilor ..inchise". 1rnp:idurit, ·· ( 3ani'3H5!K l 99S, 224-230). ln opinia noastra,
aceste apn.·ci,;::ri s 1111 pr,.'a generak pent·,: :it I i11 rn:"t ·;urn neccsara corecte. In primul rand, paleoliticul
surx:nor a cvolu1101nt t11np 111lLlungat in ,Jikritc :one chmaterice ale Euroasiei, inclusiv ~i calde,
montane ~i prcm,1nt,,:h' :,1 des tu I de imp,i,hlnt,:. cu precadere, in pcrioadele interstadiale. Fauna din
statiunile palcoli! :cc. incl :Jsi \' eek situat,: t:11una pu1glaciala, cste reprezentat2l de restu1i osteologice
Jc anirnak·, cc ,i~·tui~tL a:;oc1mc in tunnc .,clLl duc:au un mod de v1ara, cu precadere, solitar. In al
drnka ri"md. annclc cllsrnn1Hmalc (arcul ;,1 'c,tta. pmpulsoarele pemru darde) au fost pe larg utitizate
Lk ac LLrn i11 paku:1tic. lll , upc1101 ( n pct1... ,, ·u i i~~2. 23:2.-233; Idem l 99 L 44; Borziac 2004, 50--54).
Varfori de ~,i.;;eat<i dm ch ~i s1k:\ au fn:;t i:-.r., ,c Le; sta1iunea Cosfmii in nivele de locuire cu o virsta
de peste l rnu ,.un ifr' {l:1orzwc ilil/L r,'1. rig. ·~--8.10.11), la stapunea Anetovka II (CTaHKO,
rpmopLeJ:ScL 1-1.. dctJ!E<J I Y89. 46-48 ,: ,. c1re 1nfirrn{1 aprec1enlc arnintite. Epipaleoliticul, 'in
opmia noastri't, de altld ca ;;i mezo1it1cuL 11l'~1,' LA n'prezinta o continuare a evolutiei paleoliticului in
cadrnl unornm cc,ndqi1 climatcnce cu caracter \,'.lub,d, cauzate de metarnnrfozele rnediului ambiant $i
consecintele acestor rnd2:111orfo7e pentru lumca vcg,:::taU1 ~i cea animala Ca $i in paleotiticul superior,
in mezolitic a continuat t'.\ olu1ia economiei bazate pe vaniltoare $i cutes, pe parcursul lui nus-a modificat
tipul antropologic al populatici.
Apare intreb.:1rea, u,: '":e trecerca de la pakolitJ,: la mezolitic ~i, in continuare, la agricultura $i
viUi.rit n-a avut lo,: in etapele anterioare de incalzin: ~i schimbare a cadrului natural, de exemplu, in
perioada interstadial ul ui Arey (Denecamp )-K,:ssel t . Breansc-Dofinovc a? N oi considerarn ca aceasrn
trecere n-a demarat datorita faptului, ca populatia elm Eurasia din acea pcnoada inca nu acumulase
acea cantitate de cuno~tint,e, inclusiv practice des pre rnediu, care i-ar fi p,:rmis un nou salt calitativ in
procesul sinegetic de adaptare la mediu. Aceasta a ft,st posibd doar dupa trecerea prin asprele conditii
de viata din ultimul Plernglacial, cand s-a produs saturarea bagajului de cuno~time despre mediu !/i au
fost acumulate noi imponante calitati adaptin:·.
Se considera, $i uneori explicit, ca la etapa paleoliticului final popu1atia din zona periglaciala a
Eurasiei a suportat o acuta criza economica, fa\ onza1 a de ingustarea ~patiulut geografic vital, saracirea
evidenta a vegetatiei ~i rarirea ori chiar disparitia unor ~pecii de animate care constituiau baza alimentar[1
a omului. Nu in ultima instanta aceasta criza a deven:t posibilf1 ~i ca rezultat firesc al maririi numarului
populatiei $i exterminan:a consecventa de catrc om al unor specii dt.: animale din cuatemarul tardiv,
carejucau un rol important in alimcntatia populatici locale, a$a ca manrntul, rinocerul Janos, bizonul.
Aceste considerente au fost de rnulte ori afinnate ;,i pentru teritorird 1onei de sud al Campiei Est-
Europene (CTaHKO 1980, 5-2 L Idem l 983. 4~'-.''i 1: Jdcm l lJ90. 11-13) ~i in multe aspecte
27

c,.::rcethtoni, posibil, au dreptate. Dar noi vom indica u 1 $ir intrcg de fact01i cornpensatorii ai c1izei
,> .,nurrnce amim1te, care au a1. ut atat caracter obiectiv, .:at ~;i subiectiv.
t~a fadori compensatori1 obiectivi pot fi enumerati:
Lirgl!'ea spatiului vital in dependenta de regresul s.,re nord al zonalitatii arctice $i, in legatura cu
a,::es t. lenc,men - refluxul popuiiaftei in noile spat ii $i cles,;omprimarea s ituatiei demografice:
- lmbogatirea eficienta a florei $i faunei datorita inc, Jzirii $i maririi gradului de umiditate:
- i nrnultuea spec1ilor de animale de padure, ce due eau un mod de viata cu precadere solitar, ca
c,.nnpensat1e al rcduceri1 e~.ential,e a animalelor de turm.i $i a renului migrator;
- f·,)rrrwrea, in unna top mi $i retragerii ghetarului a bazinelor acvatice, a spatiilor lacustre $i
rn la~timlm, care evident au favonzat inmultirea speci1 ior de pa sari. cc puteau fi vanate cu ajutorul
,n Lt,di ;:i sagqiL utilizarea i'n ,llimcntarie a puiloqi oualor practicarea pescuitului ,:a sursa de completare
a pnida~eiur alirnentare . intrnduccrea in rationul alime 1tar al mamiferelor acvatice ~i a molu~telor,
:t ,;t av, ,1t1ce. d.t ~1 a celor tcrestre:
!_., li zarea mult rnai larg.'l ~;i ma1 multilaterala a lern.11ulm in activitatea gospodiireasca (constrnctia
locuin1cfor_ uneltelor de mu11d1, uistensilelor vanatore$1i $i pentru pescuit), lemnul, devenind treptat
rna1 \ '.Uta ~.i rnai accesibil ckdt comul ~i filde~uL dar ;.i mai U$or de prelucrat:
· · Dez-,,.elire:a in urma top1ri1 ~i retrngerii ghetarului, 1,Jpirii inghetului multianua! a noilor surse de
ill::tu ,, pnma dur~t pentru co11tecrionarea uneltelor de mur1ca, incltLc;1v $i a galetelor din soclurile teraselor,
spLi.iats: 1k ape. dm albi1le rau1ilor, care devin mult mai a.xesibile ~i mai U$or de capatat, etc.
Ca factori subiect1 vi compensatoni ai crizei econ on tice de la finalul paleol1 ticului superior pot fi
cinsichcrati.
- Ir,bot;~ttirc:a si diversifo drea cant1tat1va $i calitativ:, a cuno$tintelor des pre mediul ambiant, care
sir\ ean ca instrument eficie1 tt in prncesul adaptarii la m.:diu $i unei noi orientar, sinegetice de via ta in
n.:-ik' c,Jrn11pi ,de prncesulu1 natural;
. Curwa)terea rn<',i profunda a proprieta1ilor mate··ialelor utilizabile $i marirea coeficentului
u :liUi111 repertoriului ttpologic de \melte, inovatiile in dolileniul uneltelor compozite, inclusiv u.tilizarea
pc t,1rg a 2,rcuiui :;;1 sagetu, propu:soarelor de suli{e, dar,Jc, care au fost inventate inca in paleoliticul
:,upcnor:
· L,"crciirik tirnpuni ck domestic ire, on ut1lizare pri1 .1ar~, a unor speci1 de arnmale fara sac1if1carea
1u: -- d ,.~·r .ilui \ Borz1Jc 199 3. 36-49 ). a calului (Pora 1es 1957. 79-157), incercari care in etapele

J.,; mc,~prn ale necd11iculu1 s-a<.1 soldat cu ptimele domesti, iti etic1ente ale animalelor:
St:;~rxntarec.L cokcii vcl.,r umanc. care devenind rrn,i mic1. rnai mobile, au capatat posibilitatea de
;i ,,c'-'JJCn in cautarez, sursclur pemru ex1stenta sp,qi geograficc mai man ~1. astfel, au capiitat

1t,: ltarta de a rccurgc 1.1 o mai ampla $i ma1 dive :sa incruci~arc genetica care a stabilizat ~i
,,ultd:faa1 gcnofondul populape1;
·· Dar 1.Tle ma1 compens,Horii masun de amhilarc a,. rizei ccunomice au fo~t procesde de treccre
,L: [,i , U1J[ua1c ~i cults la a~niculturc\ :ji cre$terea premt ditata a vitclor, proces(~ cares-au manifcstat
c1 un c!i:-;puns adapta11v la provoduile ostilc irnpuse d . : mediul ambiant. Trecerea la agricultura ~i
,'1L1L1 au modificat esenttal smeget1ca omului din ep<,ca vech1: a pietrei, redandu-i noi vcctori de
1.:1 ,11\ltit:' ecnnornica $1 soc1a!:i, dar $i un caracter de evo utie progresivii ireversiblla.

i,1,·;rnt~itc Jc ,;:onduz1i n:,11 evidente care in opmia n-)astra decurg din expunerea de ma1 sus. vom
i l]l,;li~l() 1,t

.. L, uluiw lentl dar pcrperuii. a gravetianului tardiv (or1 epigravetianului) dm zona Carpato-N istreana
· Ltn11. cc: noi in cultura tvLilc,do\ a --Cosaup-Cotul M cul inti ( \1CCiv1) a afo:,t afoctat{1 de infiltrari
c11ugrn,: in doua rfinJun: - la dapa mipala de const1tu:ire :1 entit~itii culturale d,;? catre pw1atorii cultuni
F: :i~i'·J' c1., .~aral'tn epiaung1 .:1cian (la limita de 21--19 m I an1 BP/, care a sun enit din bannuil Dunarn
,k \h1 i oc - A I hL'rndorf ( Bae I mer, Mateici UCO\ a. Tnic,'1 1996. <:n-119) (? ), $ i a doua oara -· Id finalul
c. 1 1u, •,: ,',. c:itrc 1,urtftllrii culturi1 svickrien.::. Dar ::sk posibil $i un alt sc.::nariu aici. l1Keputul
Re,·isra Arheologicd. Serie nowi

constituirii sviderianului a avut loc pe N istrul M 1j lociu, de unde s-a raspandit spre nord-est (Podi~ul
Volaniei, Campiile Nord- ~i Est-Europene) ~i spre sud-est (Crimeia):
- Evolutiile cantitative ~i calitative in domenitd prelucrarii silexului. inclusiv al tipologiei, n-au dus
la generarea din gravetianul local a unei culturi ori a unorculturi mezolitice locale:
- Populatia autohtona gravetiana la etapa de t recere de la pleistocen la holocen dispare din zona,
creand astfel la inceputul holocenului un hiatus dcmografic (posibil partial). care a durat 500-800 ani,
pana la infiltrarea 111 zona a populatiei tardenuaziene de tip Grebenniki. Oricum, aceasta perioadii,
care ar fi fost ,,predestinata" pentru mezoliticul timpuriu, este extrem de slab cercetata ~i documentatii.
Din aceasta cauza, 1101 nu negam completamente posibilitatea existentei mezoliticului timpuriu in spatiul
Carpato-N istrean, dar pentru elucidarea ~i defirn ti varea lui mai completa inc:a nu dispunem de date
suficiente.

!Vote
1. BP- date calibrate de la actualitate in vechime.
2. Permafrost- argila de culoare albastrie- verzue, v;i.scoasa, care retlecta prezen\a in depunerile tardicuaternare
a inghetului rnultianual.
3. Paleogeograful A. Ciepalaga, care a examinat depunerile pleistocenului tardiv de pe locul sta\iunii Cosauii
considera ca nivelul consistent de nisip fin cuar(itic (circa 3.5 m) s-a fom1a1 in condiJiile unei abundente spaliiri de pe
pante ti depunerea lui pe krasa a II - a, legand acest proves de "Mare le Potop universal"- procesul de trecere de la
Pleistocen la Holocen. Noi consideriim ca nici pozi\ia gipsometricii ~i mci perfecta stratificare in lipsa materialului
grosier, nu permite o astfel de interpretare. Consideram cii nisipul fin cuar(itic din secventii are o provenien\ii eoliana.
4. Dry as·- pro vine de la denumirea plantei Dry as Oct. >petala, polenul c,ireia este destul de frecvent in depunerile
din accasta perioada.
5. Bolling - denumirc de la o localitate din Olanda.

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HettIIITaJJ,T 1957: M.11. HettIIITa.[(T, l1CTopm1 necoB H na.rreoreorpa<pH51 CCCP B ro-
nouette (MocKBa 1957).
HeifIIITa)lT 1965: M.11. Hei1IIITaJJ.T, HeKoTopue HTorH H3y -iettm1 onro)KeHHtt rorroue-
1

Ha H na.rreoreorpa<pH.H H xpcmorrorH.51 BepxHero rrrrettcToueHa H ronou,eHa no .naHHhIM


pa.i:i:11oyrnepo.i:i:Horo MeT011.a (MocKBa 1965).
IlamKeB11'-I 1977: r.A. IlawKeBJ1t.I, I1a.rr1rnonorw1ecKoe Hcc:re,r:wua1rne pa3pe3a CT0-
51HKH KopMaHh IV. B c6.: iv1HorocnoiiHa51 rra.rreoJmTuqecKa51 CT051HKa KopMaHh IV (Moc-
KBa 1977), 105-111.
IlawKeBHq 1987; r.A. TTawKeBHq, IlaJIHHOJll 1rwqecKa.H xapaKTepHCTHKa OTJIO)Kem1ti
MHorocnoi1Hoi1 CT0.HHKH tvfono.i:i:oBa V. B c6.: M Horoc.noi1Ha51 11a.rreom1T11qecKa51 CT051H-
Ka MoJIO,[(OBa V. J1IO)lH KaMennoro BeKa H 0Kpy)tcaKHll,,rn cpena (MoCKBa 1987), 141-151.
IlH)lOilJIHqKQ 1969: 11 .r. lJH)lOilJIHqKo, Il03WferraneoJIHTHqecKHe )KHJIHlll,a H3 KOCTell
MaMOHTa Ha YKpairne (KneB 1969).
IlH.LlOilJIHqKQ 1976: l1 .r. I1HJJ:OIIJIHqKo, Me)KHpHqecKHe )KHJ1Hlll,a H3 KOCTett MaM0HTa
(KHeB 1976).
IlpacnoB 1982 H.L(. rlpacnou, 0 BpeMemr 1-no6peTeHH.H rryKa. B c6.: Tpym,1 XI-ro
Konrpecca HHKBA, T. 26 (MocKBa 1982), 232-2 n.
IIpacnoB 1991 H.Jl:. IlpacrroB, Opyn:H..H oxoTu B rrarreomITe. B c6.: IV K00pJJ.HHau.Honnoe
c0Bew:am1e no H.3yt-IeHH.IO MaMOHTOBoii cpaynhr. Te mcbI noKJiaJJ.oB (Jlemrnrpan 1991), 44.
Pacpa.rroBHq, Jlanywtt.HH 1974: 11.A. Pacpar:ro1mt.J:, JI.A. Jiarrywmrn. MorHJihHHKH 11
pattHecnaB51HCKoe ropo.um:ue y c. CenHwTe. AHM B 1973 r. (KHrnHHeB 1974), 104-140.
Pornqeu 1957: A.H. PoraqeB, MnorocnottHhte CT051HKH KocTeHKOBCKo-EopuueBCKo-
ro paifotta Ha L(otty H npo6J1eMa pa3BHTH51 Kym,TyphI B :moxy uepxaero rraneo:rmTa Ha
PyccKoii PaBHHHe. MHA 59 (MocKBa 1957), 79-157.
Carro)KHHKOB 2003: H.B. CarrmKHH.KOB, Eom,waH AKKap)Ka. X03.f.lttcrno H KYJihTypa
no3JJ,Hero rraneonnrn cTerreii YKpaHHbI (K11eB 21103).
CTaHKO 1980: B.H. CraHKo, Ilo3JJ:HHH rraneo. mT 11 CJI0)Kett11e Me30JIHTa B cTeirnx Ce-
BepHoro IlpHqepttoMop1>5l. B c6.: CeBepo-3ana lH0e l1pHqepHoMOpbe B Jrroxy nepBo-
61,ntto-06mHHHoro CTp051 (KHeB 1980), 5-21.
CTaHKO 1982: B.H. CraHKO, Mnpiwe. flpo6J,eMa Me30JIHTa cTeneii CeBepttoro flpH-
qepttoMoph51 (KHeB 1982).
CTaHKO 1990: B.H. C:TaHKO, HeKOTOpbre acr:eKThl 111yqeHH5l 3K0H0MHKH HaceJieHHH
Crerrnoro IIpaqepttoMopb5I B no3JJ.HeM naJJe0JIHTe. B c6.: Ilpo6neMbI nepB06bnH011
apxeononrn CeBepHoro l1pHqepHOMOph51. Te3ttc1,1 .U0KJ1a1..1,ou. q_ II (XepcoH 1990), 11-13.
CranKo 1992: B.H. Cramco, flaneoJKonon1q,~cKa5l c1nyauHH B Me30JUITe CeBepttoro
fip114epHOMOph5I. Studia praehistorica, t. 2 (KHeB 1992), 18-27.
CrattKO, rp11ropbeBa. ll1BaI1KO 1989: B.H. C1 amco, r.B. rpIIropbeBa, T.H. llluattKO,
flo3;u1enaneomuwqecKoe 11ocenem1e AHeTOBKa [I (Knes 1989).
4a6ai1: 2004: B.£1. qa6ai1:, Cpe1..1,H11tt rraJreo.:rn r KphIMa (C11M<peporronh 2004).
lJepHbIW 1959: A.11. qepHbIW. 11o3)lHHii nancoJmT Cpe;~Hero IloLmeCTpOBhH (MocK-
Ba J959).
4epHhIW 1973: A.fl. 4epHhirn, llaneomn H :,1e30JmT Tip11w1ecrpoBh5l. KapT.bI 11 Ka-
ranor MeCTOHaXo)Kri:eH1u'i (MocKBa 1973).
34 Revista Arheologica. Serie 11oua

l.JepHiw 1975: O.I1. l.JepHiw, CrnponaBHe 1-iaceJreHH51 TTonHicTpoBh51 B .ao6y Me3oJiiTy


(KHiB 1975).
lfepm,rw 1977: A.IT. l.JepHhIUI, MHorocJJOHHa51 naJieoJrnTw-IecKa5l cro51HKa KopMaHh IV
Hee MeCTo B naJreomne. B c6.: MHorocJI0111-raH naJieOJII1TJ:Il-IeCKa51 CTOHHKa KopMaHh IV
(MocKBa 1977).
l.JepHbIUI 1982: A.TT. qepHbIW, MHorncnottHa5I naJieOJIHT11qec1<:a51 CT05IHKa MoJiono-
:sa I. B c6.: Mo:10;10Ba I. YH11KaJihHoe MyCTbepcKoe noce}1ett11e Ha CpenHeM )])IeCTpe
(M ocKBa 1982), 6-102.
l.JepHbllll 1987: A.TI. qepHbIIll, 3TaJIOHHa51 MHOrOCJIOHHa.5I naneOJII1Tl11-!eCKa5I CT0.5l.H-
Ka MoJIOJIOBa V. Apxecmonrn. B c6.: MH01 oc11ot!Ha51 na.r:reoJI11T11qecKaJI CT0.5l.HKa Mono-
;lOBa V. JI10n11 KaMe1moro BeKa II oKpy1Kah)Wa51 cpena (MocKBa 1987), 5-91.
516JIOHCKHTe-P11MaHTette 1971: P.K. 516noHCKI-ITe-P11MaHTeHe, I1aneomn II Me30JIIIT
JIIITBbI (BI-IJibHIOC 1971).

!lie Borziac, doctor fn istorie, Universitatea Libera Internafionala din Moldova. str. Vlaicu-
Parddab, 52, Chi,~incru. e-mail: paleostard@m,.1il.ru
Vasile Chinca, doctor fn istorie, lnstitutul de Arheologie al Academiei Romane, Filia/a lasi. st1:
L.Catargi, /8, la,~i, Romania. e-mail: vchirica@yahoo.com
fo!umul II. Nr. 1-2 35

HEOJUITHqECKAH KEP Al\ lHKA II OCE.JIEHIUI


T3T3P3YKA HOY3 XV
(K npo6JieMe ucqeJHOBCHHH KYJibTypbX JJ 1rnettHO-JICHToquoii l~epaMHKH)*

Onhra JIAPHHA, KmmrnJy

"Ceramica neoliticii din a~ezarea Tiitiiriiuca Noud '(V (cu privire la prob/emu dispari(iei culturii
bandliniare) ". In lucrare este analizata ceramica neo!itid1, uescoperita in re:::u/tatul sapaturilor aheologice din
emu/ 1997 in situ! atribuit culturii Bugo-Nistrene Tatarauca ,>Toua XV (raionul Dondu$eni, Republica Moldova/
Caracterul colecfzei este complex, fzind reprezentat prin 1ase aparfinand culturii Bugo-Nistrene, culturii
bandliniare, Strumel-Gas(jatin $i culturii neolitice vol_vne·1e. Drept consecinta a interacfiunii purtatorilor
culturilor nominalizate se constilUie un tip sincretic de cerm·!ica. Deasemenea s-a stahiht ca populatia culturii
bandliniare era inclusa in sistemul gospodarie de consum a .:omplexului cultural Bugo-Nist']ean.

Pa6oma /1OC6J/~e11a Q/l(L1U3)! Heo;1umul/eCKOU Kep(L\tUKl< no.1yl/ell/LOU npu ucc;1eooew1ur noce.-1eJLWl Ey20-
)l11ecmpoecKOU K)l}lb111)!pbl TJnDpJyKa HoyJ XY µ011<JJOlUClll,'.K020 pauo11a Pecny6.'IUKU Mo:1r)oea 6 1997 2. Xa-
r
paKmep KO,HeK4uu CROJICILOKO 'l-t/1O/le/l/11/lblll, npeocmae.?ell l 'JCJ(Ja.wu Eyzo-JJ,11ecr11po11cKOU Y.-1bl11J'Pbl, J1UJ/eu-
llO-JlellmOl/llOU Kepa.iiww, CmpyMe.1b-I'acmJ1mw1, u Bo.n,111, Kou 11eo11wnu'-lecKou. B pe1y.1b111ame e3auJ11ooeu-
cmeuJ1 Hocun1e;1eu Boc1ullcKoz1 Heom.1mu4ecKou Ky.1bmypb1, K 1/1bmyp,,1 ;1u,1eu11O--.1ei1mo'-111ou Nepa.HuKu BoRbmu,
u, l/acmul/11O, Ey20-,L(11ecmpoecKou KYRbi11Jlpb1 noJ16J1J1emc;~ c. !IIKpemu.l/eCKWI Kepa.1wKa. Ycn1a11oeJ1e110 6KJ110l/e-
11ue 11ace.-1e11uJ1 Ky.rlbmypbl J1U1teu110-.-1e11mo'-l11ou KepaMuKu e c ,icme.wy npuceauemou,1ezo xo1J1iJcmea E,:y20-J/,11ec-
mpoec1.:ou KYRbmypbt.

"The Neolithic pottery at lorntion Tiitiireuca Nouii XV (the problem of the disappeared c~lture band-linear
pottery)". The article publishes the ceramics materials of the lat ..: Neolithic period, which were di$covered during the
excavations of the multi--layer site ofTiitareuca Noua XV in the Dondiu~eni district of Republic Moldova.

flpo6neMhI no5rnnemrn H HC'-le3Ii0BeHH5I Ky;rh ryp 0JJHH H3 caMhIX cno)l(Jfleihrrnx H B3a-


lIM0CJB5I3aHHhIX B apxe0JIOnrn. OHH aKKyMynHp:,"IOT B ce6e, KaK rrpaJBHno; uenhllfl K0Mn-
JieKC rrp11'-Il1H 11 o6CT05ITe;1bCTB, Ba)l(HeHllllIMH cpe1ll1 K0T0pbIX, oco6em,lo )J;Jrn paHHHX
]TarroB qenoBe'-leCKOH HCT0p1111, BhilleJIHM np.Hp• l)lHbie H KflHMaTII'-IeCKHe !ycnOBH5I per11-
0H0B, K0T0pbie ".lll1KTYIOT" 1-rnce.fleHHIO np0H3B(1)lCTBeHHO-X035IHCTBeHHYJIO rrpaKTHKy; H
lIH0KYJibTYPH0e 0Kpy)KeHIIe B 30Hax K0HTaKTa, o6ycnaBnHBamwee oco6~HHOCTl1 Kynh-
TypHo-reHeTH'-:leCKlIX rrporiec:C0B KaK Ha Haqa_rrhHbIX )Tanax CTaH0BJieHml KynhTYP, TaK
I
H BpeMemI HX HC'-:le3H0BCHI15L
f e:orpaqrnqecKH B0CT0'-!Ha5I nepmpep1rn KYJI bTYPhI Tll·UieiIHO-JleHTO'-lijrott KepaMHKH
(KJ1JIK), npenCTaBneHH,rn naM5ITHHKaMH YKpai, HhI, PyMhIHHH 11 Moni10Iih1, pacnanaeT-
C5.! Ha )lBe 30HhI K0HUeHrpau.Hu. Cesepna5I men oqaeT BoJihIHC:Km:, Bepx~-ie- u CpeLme-
ru-ieCTpoBCKHe YKpaHHhL H)>KHa5.! 0XBaThrnaeT n lMHHlIKH PyMbIH~IH 11 l\1omJOBhI. Enu-
Hble B CBOeI1 H3HaIIanhHOli reHeTW-IeCKOH I10)]0( HO Be, 0HH pa:rnH4aIOTC5I i11c1opnqecKOH
cy,'lh6ok
H,rn6onee '-leTK0 oco6e1rnocn1 KysrhTYPHOH rpaHc(popMauaH onpe11d1eHhI HJI51 10)1(-
HOH nepmpepirn BOCTO'-IHOH KJ1JIK (pyMhIHCKm n Mo.1;-1;aBCK11e naMJITHHku). 3n.ech otta
CB513aBa c JBomouaoHHhIM IBMenemieM cTaTyc2, rrpmienrnero qepe3 p511I 3Tarro:s u B3a-
l!MODeHcTBI-Il1 C KynhTy'J-1aMI1 llY1lell1Tb, D05IH K no:rnJJemIIO KYHbT)'])h[ rjpeKyKyTeHb I.
()yar ee q>OpMHpOl3aHirn npHypoY:eH K 1oro-B0Cl D'-IHOti TpaHCHJibBaHHH, )303M())KH0, ce-
Bepo-3anamwii MyaTe1nnJ n K 1arra;rnott 11 uem pa.nhHOH 11acT5IM 1ar,pv1ckott
• I
MoJUlOBhI

_" ___________________________

,, Pa3pa6on,11 Bhmo,,11e1n,1 npn COB\IenmJii no;i;1ep;,i.;Ke :>f"I-l<t> n AHM ·· rpa11T 06-01 QRU.
36 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

(Marinescu-Bilcu 1981, 15-18). TI03JJ,Hei1wMe rral\UITHHKH TipyTo-TI01rnecTpoBh51 (Pe3H-


Ha, fypa-KaMeHqei1: VI, ChIH)l(epei1: XL <l>nopewTh I) qrnKc11py10T 0Tro110cKH Ha 1-ianh-
Horo 3Tana rrpouecca, I.ITO 6hIJI o6yCJIOBJieH 3arraJJ,HbIMH 11 IOf0-3anaJJ,HbIMH. BJIH5IHH5IMH
(J1a plrna 1999 ., 102).
,Ll,aHHhIX 0 K0HTaKTax C BOCT0I.JHbIMH coce)J,51MH, HOCHTemIMH :6yro-)],HecTpOBCKOM
KYJibTYPhl (E):J:K)., B ripyTo-TIOJJ,HeCTpOBbe HeMH0fOI.JHCJICHHbl (a1ap1rna 1999, 103). Oirn
paccMaTpHBaJJHCh o6bII.JHO Ha ypoBHe IIMrropToB KaK B cpeJJ,e E)],K (CopoKa V, Ea3bKOB
ocTpoB), TaK H Hao6opoT (HoBbie PycewThl) UlaHHJieHKO 1969, puc. 16; 19; MapKeB11I.J
197 4, 116-117). Tio3)1(e npouecc B3a11M0Kom aKTOB Jwyx KYJihTYP 6hrn npocne)l(eH Herroc-
peD,cTBeHHo 11 B HX apeanax: Ha rroceJieHH51X KJIJIK MattHoBa Ean1rn H rypa-KaMeH'-Iett
VI (Jiap11Ha, IleTpeHKO, CarrO)KHHKOB 1999; JiapttHa 1999, 81).
B HacTcrnruee Bpeivrn:, rrpu 113yqeHHH noce. remrn: E)],K TH3p3yKa Hop XV, rrony':IeHhI
HOBbie M3Tepnam,r, pacwHp5IIOIUHe B03MO)Kli0CTl1 l1HTepnpentUHH oco6eHHOCTCH B3aH-
MOlleHCTBH51 D.BYX KYJibTYP· I1MeHHO 3TOT acrreKT K0HUeHTpHpyeT TCMaTHKY pa60TbI.
Hcmop111111.ccJ1edo6,m1111. TiaM5ITHl1K o6Hapy)KeH H 11ccnen0Banc5I B 1996-1997 rr. B paM-
Kax rrporpaMMhl no 1,nyI.JeHHIO rrpoueccoB HeOJIHTH33UHH TipyTo-)],HeCTpOBCKOrO perH-
OHa COBMCCTHOH HCMCUKO-MOJIJJ,aBCKOH 3KcnellHUHeH 1 • B pe3yJihTaTe IIOl1CKa B ceBep-
H0.11 30He MoJLJJ,OBhI, Ha cpenHeM )],HeCTpe y ce.rrn T:n3p3yKa Hoy3 6bIJIH HD:CHTmp11u11-
poBaHbI JJ,Ba rryHKTa 6yro-JJ,HCCTpOBCKOH K)'JlbTYPbl (JiapHHa H 11:P- 1997, 107-109). Ha
o;J;HOM H3 HHX - T:n-3p3yKa Hoy3 xv --
B 1997 r. 6bIJIH npoBeJJ,CHbI orpaHHlfeHHbie apxe-
o:1orHI.JCCKHe HCCJ1enonaHH.S1 (Wechler u.a. 1998, 131-166).
Mecmonommcmue na.,1u11mHuKa. T3np3yKa Hoy3 XY pacrrono)KeH Ha neB0M 6epery
peKH )],HeCTp, B 1,6 KM (20°) OT uepKBl1 O,'J,HOHMellrnoro cena (48°l 9'29"c.w. 27°58 '56" B.JJ,.
Tatarauca Noua, com. Tatarauca Veche, raionuI Donduseni) (p11c. 1). OH 3aimMaeT rrp11-
6pe)Kny10 qacTb lllHJ)OKOH 100-150 M IIOHMeHHOH TeppaCbl (BbICOTa Hall, ypoBHeM M0p51
60 M). C IOra Teppaca orpaHHI.JeHa KPYTbIM KOpeHHbIM 6eperoM peKH c rrepenaJJ,0M Bbl-
COT JJ,0 100-130 M. Pyrno Ha 3T0M yI.JaCTKe o6pa3yeT Meannp B HarrpaBJICHHH 3-B, 6eper
pa3MbIBaeTC.SI l1 p,npymaeTC.51. HH)KC no TC 1JeHHIO B )],Hecrp BnaJJ,aeT pyI.JeH,, BbIMbI.BaIO-
WHH KpeMCHh HH)l{Hero TOpTOHa. B npH6peiKHOH 3aB0,QH 0611raJIH M0JIJIIOC:KH YHH0Hl1-
Thl. Bee BMeCTie rrpenorrpeJJ,eJIHJI0 Bb16op MCCTa ITO)], 3aceneHHe 11 C00TBCTCTByeT HeKoe-
MY cTaHJJ,apTy pa3MeiueHH5I naM5ITHHK0B EJlK Ha )],HeCTpe (p11c. I).
PacKOU 61,m 33JI0)KeH BJJ,OJib TeI.JCHH5I peKI[ C yI.JeT0M MaKCHMaJibH0ro BhIX0JJ,a MaTep11-
aJI0B B 06p1,rne 6epera, JJ,JIHHOM 50 M (3-B) H m11p11Hott 3M (C-IO). Ha rmoruan11 150 KB.M
Bhl51BJICH 31 o6beKT pa3JIH'-IH0f0 BHJJ,a, THIIa, KYJihTypttofi npHHclJJ,J[C)KH0CTl1 nepH0JJ,0B
HC0JIHTa, 3He0.JIHTa H paHHero )KCJIC3Horo BeKa 2 •
lbyI.JeHHhiti Y'IaCT0K 51BJI5IJIC.SI rrepm:peptt,~ll rrpOH3BO,QCTBCHHO-X03.SIHCTBCHHOH 30Hhl
HCOJIHTHI.JCCKOfO rroce.JieHH5I, npeJJ,CTaBnemmro TOJibKO H33CMHbIMH o6bCKTaMH. O6u-
Jrne M0JIJII0CKOB B lIJ)CBH0CTH rrpenorrpeneJUU1H 11 oco6eHHOCTl1 KYJibTYPHbIX HarrnaCT0-
Bam111. Ha 90 KB.M n.noruaJJ,H 6bIJIH CK0HuempH]JOBclHbI 1] HaKomre1mii paK0BHH B BH)J,e
K)' 1I, C0,lCp)KaBWHX OT 500 LIO 2,5 ThIC. CTB0 poK Unio, pa3JJ,po6:reHHhlX KOCTeH )KHB0T-
Hl,IX, H3JJ,CJIHH H3 KpeMHH, KepaMHKH. Me)K,W HHMH pa3Meruannch cneu11a.ntt311poBaH-
m,re yqacTKH no o6pa6oTKe KpeMH51.

1 <PHHaHCllpOEamie OC)'IUeCTB,'ULHOCb 33 cqeT cpe,UCB, BbI,UeJieHHblX CBOOO,QHb!M Ym-rnepc1neTOM Eep;m-


Ha, pyKoBomnenh rrpoeKTa /!OK. rrp11BaT-JlOUeHT K.-fl. Hex..m:p, BTopol'i pyKoBo,1:inem, c Mo.1,uaBCKOJ1 cropollhI
JlOKT.xa6.B.A. )],epra 1 1en
2 MarepmUihI 2003, 57-80;
nepx1rnx c.meB naM5fTH!1Ka npe;xcraKk:HhI B pa 1pa6ornax rro 'JHeon11Ty (Jlap1rna
Bap3apb, fle)KeMcKm1 200J. 81-88): n pamreMy ,Ke.1e3110My BeKy (J1ap1ma, Kawy6a 2005. 212-239; Jlapmia
2005, 240-267; Bap3aph. f]e)KeMCKlll1, J1ap1ma 2005. :sl-386).
vo/u11111l II, Ni· 1-2 37

P11c.l. noce;reHHe T::n-ip3y:rn Hoy3 XV. MeC'ropacnoJJO)KCHHe Ha MecTHOCTH II B l].ttecT-


poBcKo-EyrcKoM Me)K.nypellhe.

Ha11111--me paK0BI1H Ha HeOJII1TWieCKI1X rroceJ,emrnx '.HOH 30Hbl o6hP-IHOe jj_BJieHI1e I-I


BblCTynaeT CBoero po.na "BI131ITHOil KapTOlfKOtt' 6yro-.nHeCTpOBCKO~I KYJihTYPhI (E)lK).
Ho HaK0I1JleHI1jj_ npOI1CX0D;lIJII1 Bl1)],I1M0 I1 B 3HtOJ1HTHl.fCCKl111 rrepH0,U cymecTB0BaHHjj_
14
naMmlmKa, 'ITO qrnKcttpye:T C (JlapHHa II .LlP- l 1)97, 109).
Crpan1rpaqrnqecKHe D.aHHbie yKa3hIBaIOT 1-rn Ha;1wme tte6oJihl11HX speMeHHhIX rrpo-
Me)KyTK0B npH o6pa30BaHHI1 KYJihTypttoro C:I05l HO Bee B npe.=lea1ax 0J~Horo JllIT0JI0rn-
4CCKoro nma - aJIJIIOBHa.;U,HbIH. )KeJIThIH. rrecqa1-rn.:Thlfl rpy1-n peL!HblX OT.10)KCHHH. C BKJII0-
1.fCHHeM I13BeCTKOBOH. K!)0lllKH. EMy rro;xcn-rna1DT TeMHO-cepO-)Ke;ITbil1. rrecqaHHCTblH.
rpyHT 11 rrorpe6eHJ-Ia5l Kopwrneso-qeptta5l nyroMrn no,rna '-IepH03CMHoro THrra.
(/Jouo UCl1101/UUI-W6. OcHOBOlf pemeHH5l I10C1 .:lBclCHHbIX 3a,Ja'-I CJiy)tafT pa3BepHyTa5l
xapaKTCJ)IICTHKa HCOJIHTH'ICCKOl1 KepaMHKH c or peHCJICHlICM KYJibTYPHOH. K0Mil0HCHTbl
ee C0CTaBJl5llOWHX. O6uuirr cpottn no Te~1e npe;xc· -aBJICH 600 (59 l) cpparMCHTaMH OT np11-
MCJ)H0 50-60 cocynoB, o;J,HaKO l10'-ITI1 I10JI0BHHa ,-IX Hl1X -- )TO 1--2 q:,parMCHTa.
A1-rnm13 crattnapnro 0CH0BaH Ha pacCMO'rpe1 IHI rpex 0CH0BHhlX npI13HaKon: TCXHH-
KH II TCXH0JI0flIH il13f0T0BJ1CHH5I (HCXOi'.lHOe Cbl] lbC, Ka'-ICCTB0 o6)t(lif'a, o6pa60TKa rro-
Bc:J)XIIOCTH; Mopcpo.rronrn ( cpopMa cocy )],OB); CTl1.n l-ICT.HKH ( opHaMCHTH Ka).
Texuu,w-mexuoJlOZll'leCKUe oco6eHJ-IOCTH K0JI: .CKillill pa3Hoo6pa3HbI H MH0f0BapHaH-
Tl!hl, Y'-ITCHbI Ira ypoBHC Ka)Kll,0ro cpparMeHTa. ; ~ Kal.fecrne HCX0:U-lOI'O Chlph5l, cywr no
qlparMCHTaM 6e3 CIICUHcl.clbHb!X no6anoK ll C HH!I H, HCII0Hh30BaSIHCh rJ[lIH0 lIJilI lIJI0II0-
,'l06HbIC MaTepIIaJIJ!,I, C0}(CJ))K3BlIIHC CCTCCTBCI[H::m nepepa6oraHHYI{) opraHHKY paCTH-
H:JlbH0ro npoHCX0)KJlCHll5I C 0T,'lCJibHblMH BKJII0 !CHH5lMII paK0BHH M0j[JIIOCK0B H )KCJie-
3ilCThJX COC)],I-IHCHI1H B BH,Ie KposanuKa reMa n1 ra. TipII o6)1G-II'e o6pa3oBaJiaCh OlJ:CHb
il<CCTKa5I K0.MK0BaTa5l CTpyKTypa C MH0I'04HCJICJ-UI ,IM!I MlIJ--rnaTiopHbIMII nycT0Ta~m OT Bbl-
lOJ)CB.lllCH opraHHKH. KpoMe Toro, )TO TCCT0 Bl :mo4a;10 3HcllHfTCJlhHb!C paCTlITCJihHb!C
38 Revista Arheologica. Serie nouii

5 l 2 c:1y 'IaCB. Ha3CMHbIC 40 Cj[.) 11


!B0,,]Hb]C \1l1Hcpa.IbHbIC (ma~10T 494 en:., HCCOK 138 CI.,
paK0Bl!Hhl 17 CJ., rpacimT 3 CJI.) ,'{OOaBKlL
C:pemi HI1X se;1yuu1e Il03Hll,IIH 3aHaMaCT npH~!CCb TOHKOl13MCJibt.ICHHOI1 pacnuem,-

HOCTlI. ma;\10r H necoK. Ha nonepx1wcnr H B 113:10Max cocynoB nepna>I Bhrcrynan B


Bll,ClC KOpOTKIIX O"IJ)C3KOB B Bl1)1C lliCJl)'Xl1 vi Hl1TC/B0J10COHOi(O0HbIX 0TI1C 1faTKOB OCTCM
paneH1111. JJ:J15I nepe[(a 1 rn: ee oco6e1-rnocre.H paHhme MhI 11cnorrh30BaJm TepMHH ''roHKo-
Tepe6;1e1rna51" (Jlap1rna 11 np. 1997). B.H. MapKCBWI L{Jl51 KepaMI1Kl1 copOKCKUX naM51T-
HlIK0B npeJl[I0JI0)£-;H.1, t.IT0 3TO M0L~a 0hlTh JUIKa51 TOHKOCTe6e;1bl.faTa51 Tpasa TI1IJa
Festuca (MapKCBHl£ 1964, 96).
HamH Marep11a.:n,r npoai-iamnaposaJrn cneumtJIHCT-6oraHHK H.H. Ky3bMHHOBa. 1
llpHMCCh onpene..:1e11a e10 KaK B0JJ,Ha5I. TaKo.H KepaM11K11 - 6onee 86 %1. B1nyaJ1hHO cpe-
,,'IH cpparMCHTOB C ''BO)],HOtt'' paCTI1TC.ribH0,:TbJO YCH0BH0 BhI)1CJIIIJIJ1 IIOCy,,~y C OTHOCH-
TCJlhH0 He6onbWHM (280 3K3. = 4 7,3 %) l1 3Hcllll1TCJihHhlM (232 3K3. = 39,2 S;;i) K0J1Ht.ie-
CTBOM TaKOI1 npHMCCH.
JlHWh C)111Hll1IHble cpparMeHThI TOJII:,KO C BOUH011 rrpIIMCCbI-0 (15 err.). Bee OCTaJihHbie
LIOfIO.HHHTCJlhH0 C0D.Cp)l(aT waM0T (351 = 62. 7 °/ri), W3.MOT 11 rrecoK (129 = 20,0 %1); ropa3)10
pe)Ke npo6_TieHyIO paK0BIIHY (13 = 2 %1), paK0BIIHY l1 rrecoK (2 = 0,3 %); rpacp11T (2 = 0,3 %).
]VhrnepaJ1hHOr1 npaMec11 HHOI)la TaK \IIHOro, 1 [TO KpymmKH lliclMOTa, rrecKa, KpynHhIC
pet.iHbIC f3J1CI.JKI1 pa3MepoM no 0,8x0,3 CM; I ,2x0,5 CM ChII15ITC5I np11 pa3J10MC qeperrKa, II
'IaCHI y>Ke He CTbIKYHHC5I upyr C ;:rpyroM. '.Jn1M 00b5ICH5IIOTC5I cnmKHOCTl1 peKOHCTpyK-
wrn c!)OpM.
npot.i11e THIThl (j)OpMOBOt.IHhlX Mace ellHHl11IHhl: Jll1lllh B 40 err. = 6,7 % KaK no6aBKa K
rmrne !1Cfl0J1h]YCTrn Ha3eMHcl5I paCTHTCJlbHOC fb B BIIi..(C KpynHhIX (rro cpam-iemno C BO,~Hoti)
0TneqaTK0B HX H33eMHblX t.iacrdi B Bll.::(e creforeti llil1.ill1 J1[1CThCB. CCM5IH, a HHorna B KOM6H-
Hal..(llll C BO,ilHOH pacnITCjJbH0CThl-0. OcHOBH,UI OTOWaIOll(a5I rrpHMeCb -· maMOT (6 CJI.).
Kepal\HIKH 6e3 pacnITCa1hHOH npH;\feCH Bcero 29 = 7,3 %. Mettee l10JIOBI1HbI (19 en.)
OT cocynos IB q11cTofi TOHKOOTMYl..fCHH011 LUIHhI, 0OJ1bllla5I t.iaCTh KOTOpbIX (16 en.) 011-
peJie:IeHI-IO CB5!33.Hbl C KJlflK. OcTaJibHhIC C0L(ep>KaT npHMeCh, rrpeHMywec:TBeHHO, ma-
M(JTa. mal\rnTa H mx:Ka. necKa. paK0BHH, rpacp111a.
B HTore, onpe)'!e.r[eHo no 20 THnos 4iopl\10BOt.iHhrx Mace. Om1 61,rn11 opraHH30BaHhJ B
LJCTbipe, no HameMy MHCHIUO, 3Hat.il1Mhle TeXHOJIOfH'leCKHe rpynnhl. Bez1yw11ti npHIIUHil
opralnI3aumr <)CH0B.2LH Ha HaJHI'-IHH (II-IV) J] lI6o OTcyrcTBv!H (I) pacTHTCJihH011 rrp11MeCI1.
f1epBa5l, (I) ofrhemrn51eT CCMh THI I OB TCCJ a 6e3 pacnne.1hHOH npHMCCI1, HO C BKJ[I-Ot.ie-
HI!eM c11160 lll2.MOTa. rnaMOTa H l1CC!Gl, I1CCK2. paKOBHHbl, paKOBHHbI H necKa, rpacpaTa.
BTopa51 (II) HaaiSonee \taI10t.IHC1eHmrn l' Be,uywe11 npHMCCbIO Ha3eMHOt[ pacTHTCJ!b-
H0CTH, BK.:not.iaeT IlBcl nma TecTa (ml3e\ma SI + ma!-.IOT; Ha3eMHa5! -1- BO)lHa5I + waMOT).
TpeTb}! (1111) B Ka -[CCTBC MapKHpyiomd\: llplIMeCH HMCCT OTH0CHTeJibHO HeMHOf0l..fl1C-
1

:1emrym B0}lHVI0 pacnnenbH0CTb, BKIH0l.faer mnb TIUI0B TecTa: (paCTl1TCJ1bHOCTh; pac-


nne.1bH0CI h + ura\[lH; pacnITe;JbH0Cih + 11CCOK: pacTIHCJihH0CTI, + necoK + W2lMOT;
pac nne:IbH0CTh + paKOBl!Ha).
lJernepnrn (IV) llpC;JCTaBJICHa 3Ha 1nnem,HOI1 nplIMCCbJO BOIU:IOU paCTHTCJibHOCTH B
lUCCTH THnax 1ecra (paCTIITCJlbl!OCTh:: pac mTeJibH0CTh + IJJaMOT; pacnneJibHOCTh +
necoK; pacnncJ1hH0CTh + necoK + 111a\10T; pacnITe:rhH0CTh + rna\10T + pa:i-:os111--rn; pac-
nne:1 hH0CI h paK0Bl:Ecra: paCTHTC:JbH0CTb + rpa(jmr).

· !1p1rn( 1,:11!\1 r :1y6oi;uyBc1A,ae!\1oi\ H. I-l.Ky:.iL ,111110r.oii cep;re'IHYJO 6:rnro;:rapHocTb.


Volumul lI, N1: 1-2 39

0oJICU2 cocynoB rnaBHbllM o6pa30M He!10J1Hbll :. B H3J10Me qepenKJI qaw_e llBYXCJIOV!-


Hbl (TOHKH11 Hapy)l{Hbll1 C:1011 BbICBeTJieH, BHyTpe:II-Il1l1 'IepHbifI), pe:iKe TpexcJIOHHbl )],J151
60.r1ee T0JlCT0CTeHHI,IX (Hapy)I<:Hb!e T0HKHe BbICBe 'JieHbI, a ueHTp 1IepHbIH). Texmrnor11-
Y:eCKl1 3T0 npenonpenerreHo HH3K0TeMnep,rrypm M ofoKHfOM H KpaTK0BpeMeHHOCTblO
Bhwep1KK11 cocyJJ,oB rrocne ofoK11ra. TeMrrep,nypa cyn51 no HeBblfopeBwe11 paKOBHHHOH
np11:Mec11, He npeBbIWarra 750°.
OfoKHr rrp0I13B0l(IDIC51 npem,1ywecrneHHO B B0CC7 aHOBHTeJihHOH cpe,].e ( 6onee 70 % ). U:aer
Hapy)l{HblX fIOBepXHOCTeh: 1 - '!epHO-KOpH'!HeBbIH C KpaCHOBan,I'.\111 1151fHaMH (10 l}f:, ); 2 -
KOp11'!HeBo-cepbII1 (34,2 % )4 ; 3 - cepbIH C 6e)l{eBhlM,I II p030BbIMI1 01TemcaMH (25,7 %) raM-
Me, Meuee 30 % cpparMe}[TOB ueneHanpaB,'1eHHO DfoKiff3Jll1Cb B OKHCJ1l1TeJibHOH cpe,ne.
Cpemr Hl1X rrpeo6naJJ,a101 ropwKH: 4 - BhICBe1.11e1rnoro 6e)l{esoro c moaHcaM11 (ceph111,
pcnOBhll1, opaH)KeBhIH) usera (24 %); 5 - HaChIWeHHt)fO KpaCHOro 11 opamKCBOfO MeHee 6 %.
Ha rrpocpIDI51X pncyHK0B C0CYL!0B BhICTaB.'1eHhI CO0TBeTCTBYIOWHe l1X usery HOMepa.
llmiepxHocmb. Cocym,1 c np11Mec1,10 pacnnen bH0CTH rro'!Tl1 acern:a (oco6eHHo cHa-
py)K11), 110KphIBaJII1Ch CJIOCM )Kl1)],KOH fJ111Hbl Tl1TI3 aHr06hI. IToBepXHOCTb JJ,0TIOJIHJ,ITeJib-
H0 JIOUJ:I1JiaCb, 11Jll1 rrpOCTO 38.TI1panacb "3aMbIJIH Banac1,'' MOKpbIMH pyKaMH. I1o3TOMY
OTMe'le:HHaSI np11MeCh (pl1KC11pyeTC51 rrpe11Mywec1 BCHIHO BHYTPH, m1:60 Ha CMbITblx/pa3-
pyweHHhlX Y'IaCTKax 11 B pa3pe3aX 'IeperrKOB. Hi [OC].a MeJih'laHillaSI, 0611JibHa5I paCTl1-
TeJihHa51 11pm11ech 11rpaJia poJrh caMOCT05ITeJihH0 1·0 JleKopa, He cKpbIBanach noJJ, aHro-
6oH II CO'!eTaJiaCh C npyn1MI1 3JieMeHTaMI1 opHa\1eHTa. BuyTpH cocynoB IIOBepxHOCTI1
yn;10TIUIJII1Ch TWaTeJibHbL\1 CrJia)Kl1BaH11eM.
KaK 11CKJII0'!eHHe, B 11 CJiy'!a51X (,neB51Tb cppan1eHTOB OT pa3HhIX CDCYll0B II OCTaTKII
JJ,BYX cocyJJ,oB) 3acp11KCI1posano rrpIIMeHeH11e 3y6qa [hIX pa6o'!HX l1HCTpyMeHTOB TI1rra rpe-
6eHOK. I1crrOJ1b30BaHhI rrp11 BbipaBHHBaHHH KaK J,HyTpeHHHX (7 CJI.), TaK l1 (pe)l{e) BHe-
WHI1X noBepXHOCTeH. 3TOT TeXHfflJ[eCKl1ll np11eM Il,)3B0mieT o6bC)],I1HI1Th Bee o6pa6oTaH-
Hhie TaKl1M crroco6oM cpparMeHTbl == COCYllbI B OllH) rpynny. OKa3aJIOCh, 'ITO 0HH OTHOC5IT-
C5I K rrepBOH TeXHOJIOfH'leCI<:oPr rpynrre 11 (3a l1CKJI 0'leHHeM OllHOJ"O) m: C0JJ,ep)l{aT paCTl1-
TeJ[bHOfi rrpHMeCH. EJJ,11Hl1'!Hh1C C MIIHepaJihHOli IlpHMeChIO rrecKa, ll13lMOTa, paKOBHHhI.
TioKa3,rrenhHO, 'ITO B 3Toii rpyrrrre TaK:>Ke oKa3aJ1ccc1, "-J.aCTh cocynos KJIJIK (p11c. 5, 7).
Ea1a auanu1a. I1p11 y•re1re rexH11Ko-TexHonon 4ecK11x oco6e1rnocreH KorrneK1.1,1111, HO
y:>Ke Ha YP0BI-Ie cocyJJ,OB H l1H(pOpMau110HH0-3Ha 1 l1MhlX <pparMCHTOB, K0JIII'!eCTBeHHhie
f10Ka3aTeJIH HeCK0JibK0 rreperpymrnpoBaJil1Ch: Ki Teropl151 cocy;J.OB C BCJJ,yll(ell BO)],HOH
rrpMMeCbIO COCTaB11Jia 63,8 % [113 HHX: TeXH0JI0fH'-l ;;cKHe KaTerop1rn: III - 47,2 % (34 en.);
IV - 16,6 %, (12 en.)); c Ha3eMHOH rrp11MeChK> II Ka~ erop1111 -4,1 % (3 cJI.): 6e3 pacnITeJib-
HOM rrpHMec11 I KaTeropHI! -- 31,9 % (21 en.)]. l1M( HH0 3Tl1 llaHHbie pa60TaIOT ,iJ,aJihille.
</Jop,'Wbl cocyi>oB. )lJI5I cpopMoo6pa3oBaHIUI HCL0;lh30BaHhI 0CTaTKH 43 cocynou. OHl1
rrpe)J.CTaBJieHI,I B 0CHOBHOM rrp1rneH'll1KOBhlMl1 1-Ia,:TSIMl1. pe:>Ke JlHHll(aMH 11, C0BCeM peJJ,-
K0, l.(eJihIMH <popMaMl1. no JJ,Hl1WaM l1 f1]Jl1,iJ,0HH1,IM qacTSIM onpeJJ,eneH0 Tp11 crroco6a
oq::iopMnemrn 0CH0BaHl151 cocynoB: OCTpOJJ,OHHble 0K]JyTJIO)],OHHbie; yrr;10weHHO···IlO,i'lO-
Kpyrnhre. B 60JiblliHHCTBe cnyqaeB l1HTeprrperau1:51 tjlOpM ,lJ,HHW ocraeTC51 OTKpbITOH.
I1ocne:JJ,m1:e, yrrnowerrno-no,noKpyrJihre, xapa KTepHhI wrn cocy.aoB OKpyrnoTenoH/
IllapOBH,QHOII 4>opMhI. B K0JIJICKU11H TaKoe mnnue npeJJ,CTaBJICHO Jll1lllb 0lIHI1M cpparMeH-
T0M K~1J1 K. Cno:>KHOCTb HX Bbl'l.leHeHH51 CB513aHa He TOJihKO C TCM, "ITO \1aTep11aJI CHJlh-
H0 cpparMeHTHJJOBaH, HO II C oco6eHHOCT51Ml1 K0,ICTpyHpoBaHl151 caMHX OKpyrnoTeJihIX

4
Bepmrmo llMem-10 cocy;:ibr TaKoro UBeTa ( I 11 2) B H .,'.la,11L1el!KO o6o3IIa4,Ul KaK "6ypb1e'·
40 Reiista Arheologidi. Serie noud

cocyl(0B. I1x CTeHKH rIJiaBH0 rrepexown B y1rn0I11CHH0e HJIKaK He Bbipa)KeHH0e ,UH0. OHO
He yromuetto, Her pc6pa nepexo)].a 11rn1 3aKpaHHKH (p11c. 5, 9). ITpeD,rronaraeM. YT0 ra-
KHM crroco6oYI H ObL111 0¢op~rnettb1 ,'l,m1uu oKpyrnoTeJILIX (''60M60BI1LJ,Hh1e'', aMcpopo-
BHJ,Hhie, mapoBIIllHble) cocy,noB (nm VI, X-XIII).
Y t.Il1TbIBa5[ cppan1eHTI1JJO BaHH0CTb K0JI; JCKIUIH, rrpe.[1)10)KCHHa5I THITOJI0nrn rrp<rnep5I-
J1aCb rrepeKpecTHbI~1 cpaBHeHHeM cpopM, Tex H0J[0r1111113r0T0BJieHI15l H opHaM.eHTaMH. Bu-
3YaJibH0 orrpe,ne~1eHo 12 THIT0B.

-, I
·J ::.:_,~
,,,, -----r
2

C!ZJ~t]O~Ll0
I 2 3 4 5 6 7
YcnoBHb1e o6o3Ha4eHvrn coaasa Tecra:
1-so,riHa51 pacn-nenbHOCTb; 2-Ha3eMf-a51 pacr1-1renbHOCTb; 3-waMor; 4-necoK;
5-paKOBl-1Hbl, 6-rpa(j)1-11; 7-raneYKvt pe4Hble

Puc. 2. TToccj1em[c T3r:ip·:1yKa Hoy3 XV. Ocrpono1rna2 KcpaMHKa. CocyJlbI nmoB: 1-


3 nm L 4 - nm IJ: 5. 7 -- nm II L 6 - nm 1V.
Vo/1111111/ II, Nr 1-2 41

Tun I (4 3K3.) (pHC. 2, 1-3). OCTpOD:OHHhie cocy, (hl, llBOl1HOKOHHLJ:eCKOl1 cpopMhI, C HaH-
6onbWHM mraMeTp0M B sepxaei1. nonomrne (1pe H) ropwKa. BepxH515I 1-1acTb rrpellCTaB-
0

mreT Ul1JIHHll, C qyn, HaKJ10HeHHbIMH BHYTPb I1fHIMbIMH !1JIH I10KaTbIMl1 CTeI-IKaMH. HmK-
H515I LJ:aCTb cocyna 6onee npon.onn)BaTa51, l.JeM aerxmrn; cTeHKH rrJiaBHO cxo)15ITC5I K ocT-
poMy llHy. <l>opMa I10llTBep)l(,[(eHa llBYM5l IJ,eJILIMli cocynaMH. O1-rn BhIJieI1J1eHhl '"OllHOH
pyK011" B ellHHOH TpanHU.HH Tec1a H opttaMeHTau,rn (pHc. 2, 1-2) . .IJ:na llPYrHx rrpencrnn-
J1eHL1 TOJibK0 BelP-IHKaMH l1 TaK)Ke MoryT 6hITh C '(apaKTepH30BaHbl B Il0H5ITIUIX "'o.LIHa,
HO y)Ke npyra51 pyKa". Bee Kpym-Ibie I1 ll0CTaT0l.JH D T0HK0CTeHHh[e (0,4-0,6 CM) BbICOTOH
;:w 30 CM. TeCTO C0)],ep)l(HT npHMeCb paCTHTeJihHOi:::TH H maMOTa~ B )],Byx cny1-1a51x il0IT0JI-
HeH0 3Hal..J:HTeJibHbIM KOJ111'-ICCTB0\.1 MCJ1KOro necica H B03MO)KH() rrepe1epTOH .LIO IlhlJIH
paK0BHHbl (?) (cepbie KpymrnKn). (TeCTO III Tex HOJIOrH:LieCKOH rpynm,r). )KecTKHe Ha
oruyrrh. CHapy)l(H ITO)lJI0U(eHI,I, UBeT Tpex B TCMH,JH raMMe: K0plILIHCHble C KpaCHbIMH 11
cepo-qepHblMH I15ITHaMn. BHyTpH qepHbie. ITp11 ~tfOM 06)1(Hf rrpOlBBC::llCH TaK, LITO qep-
Hhlll IJ,BeT I13HYTPI1 KaK 6bI rrepeXO.LIHT Ha BHCllll-.il111 Kpaii BCHl-JIIKa, 0K0HTyp11BaeT ero.
qeM llOCTHraeTC51 llOITOJIHHTCJihHhIH .LICKopaTI1BH bill cHp,¢eKT. On:11H, opHaMeHTH]JOBaH-
HhIH 3y6Y:aThIM llITaMITOM (pI1C. 6, 4c), CBCTJIO-cepblH., KaK cocyn1,r KJIITK.
OpHaMeHTHpoBaHbl J111lllh sepXHHe IT0JI0BHHhl cocynoB HaKonaMH U llITaMITOM. ,2],Ba -
0TTI1CKciMl1 5IM0I-JeK I10llOB3lJ1bHOH q)OpMbl (BbICOTa 3-4 MM), KOT0pblC opraHI130BaHhl B
06era10m11e ropH30HTaJibHbie If CBHCa10mne BepnrKaJihHbie P5IllLI no 3-5-6 HaKOJI0B IIOll
BeHLIHK0M H no TYJI0By . .IJ:onOJ1Hl1TCJibHO Ka)l(Ll,bii! HMCJI Ol{HO KOHW:IeCKOe CKB03HOe OT-
BepcTHe LIYTh HH)Ke Kpa51 BeHLJ:HKa (pnc. 2, 1-2). Tpenrii -- p5I.UaMn 1-1acTbIX. HaceLJ:eK-HaKo-
nos KpaeM CTBOpKH paKOBHHhl (pHC. 2, 3), 11ocrrermni1 - 3y61-1aTbIM llITaMITOM.
Tun II. (1 JK3.) (p11c. 2, 4). B )TOT THII OTHeCeH cocyi:1, (BepXH5151 'c!aCTb) TaK)l(e 3aKpbl-
TOli, sep05ITHO llBOIIHOKOHHI-JeCKOH ¢opMbI, KaK II B rrepBOM THITe. Ho OH 0TH0CHTC5I K
HHOH KYJibTYPHO-TeX.HOJIOrifiI-JeCKOH Tpan11u.nu: MiLCCHBHhIH (TOJIIIJ,HHa CTCHOK 1 CM), Tee-
TO co 3Ha LIHTeJibHOfi rpy6oii npHMCChl-0 Ha3eMH0 ;\: paCTHTCJibHOCTH. HMeeT 1-IYTb Bbll{e-
neHHbiii :rnocTpeHHhIH Kpafi BeHLJ:HKa. OpHaMCHTHpOBaH OTTl1CKaMH 3y6LJ:aTblX WTaM-
[I()B: c1-rnpy)KH pa3p5I)KeHHbie OTileLJ:aTKH II5ITI13yti4aToro, BHYTPH P5IL(bl IIOBepXH0CTHO-
ro OTTHCKa WTaMrra C TpCM5I IT0llTpeyroJibHhlMH 3) OKaMH (pHC. 6, IV, a,b). Cocyn HaITOMH-
HaeT KepaMIIKY rpynrrhr CTpyMen1,TaCT5ITUH (Te11e1 !1H 1985, p11c. 47). AHanorn1-1HbIH mTaMrr
¢uKc11pyeTC5I .LIJI5I KepaMHKH BepxHero CJI05I CopoK 1, c.nofi 1, rop. ''a'', KOTOpbre B.H. Map-
KeBH"4 CB513blBaJI C 1.1,HerrpO-LIOHeUKHMH TpallHIJ.11:sl.M n (MapKeBHl..J: 1974, pnc. 27, 5.8),
Tun Ill. (4 JK3.) (p11c. 2, 5. 7) ITpencTaBJ1eH cpeUHIIMH I.JaCT5IMH T)"JIOBa 0CTp0LI0HHblX
cocynoB, HO c o6paTHO rrponopu.110HaJihHbIM coo moweH11eM 1-1ac:Teii TYJIOBa, LieM B rrep-
B0M nme. Ha116om,WHH l{I1aMeTp npHX0llHTC5l Kl H!1)1(HEOIO TpeTb cocynos. Tor,aa KaK
BepXH5UI I-JaCTb 6onee BhIC0Ka5I If He3Hal-JHTCJihHU H:lKJIOHeHa K YCThlO IIJIH B03MO)KH0
HMCJia BepTI1KaJibHble CTCHKH. ,IlJrn HUX xapaKTC]rn0 HeK0TOpoe cy:,KCHHe ··- 11por116 Ty-
JlC)Ba cocy.aa y pe6pa nepexoi:i,a B oCTpoe .LIH0.
3To TaK)Ke OTHOCI1TeJ1bHO KpynHhie 11 T0HK<~C;'CHHhle C0CYllhl c MaKCHMaJibHblM l{Ha-
MCTpOM TYJIOBa OT 20 ll0 28 CM. TeXHHKO-TCXHOJIOrHLJ:eCKHC II0Ka3,lTCJIM Bap11a6eJibHbI:
BLJCBeTJieHHblH cepo-6e)KeBJi,IH UBeT OKHCJIHTeJihH0r0 ofoKHra n KOpHLIHCBO-cepblH II5ITHH-
CTbIH -- BOCCTaHOBHTeJibH0f'0 npe.ucraBJieHbI nop0BHy; HCIIOJib30BaHO TeCT0 Tpex TCXHO-
JI0rnLieCKIIX rpynn II, Ill, IV (C 60J1hWHM K0JII11'IC1_:rnoM OT01ua1oweii MHHepanbHOH npn-
MCCH maM0Ta, rrecKa 11 npecBhI B 1mne raneK). ,llJ,5I 1rnyx ¢uKc11pyeTC5l npoqepI.JeHa5I n11-
Hdhrn51 opHaMeHTa[(lrn, Ha 0llHOM - B C0'-leTamrn ,: H0rTeBhlMH OTITel.JaTKaMH (pHC. 2, 7).
Tun IV (l JK3.) (p11c. 2, 6). ITpenCTaBnea sepx11e11 rro.nos11Hoi1 Kpyrnmro cocy.ua Tima
llIHpOI<OYCTOH BhICOKOH 0aHKH, TOHKOCTeHHbill (0,5 -0, 7 CM). O6)Klff rrpeHMyIUeCTBeHl-l0 BOC-
CTaHOBHTeJihHblH, B pa3pe3e ,1nyxcn011Hh1e. Tec10 III rpynrr1,1. UseT nmHHCTbIH rneTno-
Rev1sta Arheologicd. Serie 11011d

TeMHO KOpI14HeBbll1 C qepHbIM, BHYTPII qepHblll. OpHaMeHTHpOBaH He6pC)KH0 rrpouapa-


naHHbIMl1 JII1HH5I\UI: KOCblC I1 Ofl05ICbIBaIOllla5:I no 1y11ouy.
Tull V (5-6 3K3.) ( pHC. 5' 11-13 ). .C~rnr;101IOHHbie COCY.ilbl BbIT5IHYTOH 5II1U,CBHD,HOl1
qpopMbl cpCLlHCfO pa3Mepa. ct>opMa Bh1DeJ1e1ia TOJ1bKO no O.ilHOMY ue.10My COCYJlY pa3Me-
pOM 0 u.=14, h=l 7,5 CM. 0CTaJ1bHblC npe.;Jc l'aBJICHbl OKpyrnhIMH L(l-UIIUaMH 11 BCHLIHKOM.
YlJHThIBa5I He60JihWOH llHaMeTp, LIOCTaT0 1.J HO TOnCTOCTCHHbl -- 0,6-0, 7 CM. J.faroTOBJJe-
Hbl H3 TCCTa DI TCXHOnorWICCKOH rpynrrhI, ,.l OJ:U-IH BCHY]1K 113 TCCTa l (C rrpHMCCblO paKO-
Bl1HbI). Tipenc1a1rnCHhl B tllHHOH TCXHOJIOI HH BOCCTaHOBHTC:JhHOro ofo1rnra. Beny1m1i1
L(BCT TIOBCJJXHOCTCl1 TCMHO-cephIH C nepeXO,laM11 B qepHbIH, KOIJHlIHCBhIH 111160 cepo-
lWpwrneBbIH. 06)K]JT TIOlJTl1 TIOJ1Hbllf C HCJ lpOKaJICHHOH cepe1111HOH qepenKa. Tipocne-
)KCHO J10lilCHl'.IC. Tpu opHaMCHTHJJOBaHbI npoYCJJlfCHHhIMH TOHKHMH J1l1HlUIMH, .[l,Onon-
HCHHbIMH B OL(HOM CJiyqae 5IMKOH "ttoTott". Ha Il,HHil{aX .LlBYX HCranIBbl OTIIClfaTKOB
IIO)lQBaJ1hHOH I1J1M IIOJlKBanpaTHOH cpopMbL B03MO)KH0 11MlITI1JJYIOlll(HC 3eptta (pHC. 5, 11).
Tun VI (4-5 3K3.) (p11c. 5, 14-15). Bhu1,ene11 TOJJbKO no 6oKOBbIM mapoBH.Z:(HbIM qa.CT5IM
TYJIOBa Kpyrrm,rx TOHKOCTeHHbIX (0,5-0,8 CM) ,,;ocynoB, BH}IHMO, co CDl.HYTbIM J1H6o Bh!T5IHY-
ThIM YCThCM. Y 11JIOWCHHbIC llHHLUa 3acp11KCI1po BaHbI no OIJ,HOMY cpparMeHTY HenocpeD,CTBCHHO
)]Ha. YlfaCTKOB CTCHOK c rrepexo.[(OM B ,lHO HCT. 3TH COCY)lbl HanOMHHaK>T BapHaHT 6oM-
6oBI1.[lHbIX B KJIJIK. HanpHMep, Tpern11 THII tjlOpM KYXOHHhIX (J1ap1rna 1999,. 56, p11c. 53).
0HH OlJCHb Kpyml.hle 0T. 26-35 CM. Bee OKJ11,:J1I1TCJihHOro ofo,rnra, UBCT 5:IJJKO-KpaCHO-KO-
pwrneBaTbIH J1II6o BhICBCTJICHHbIH opamKCBbl 11. TeCTO III rpyrmbI. TionepXHOCTH BCCX Tll{a-
TeJlbHO 06pa601am,r: Jarna)l(eHbl HJIII 3aJ10UICHbl ITO attro6y. OpttaMeHT3UJUll rrpoqept.:ICH-
Ha51 J1HHeHHa5I rrpoCJ!e)KCHa Ha LIByx: reoMeTpIILICCKHC I10CTpOeHH51, JIHHl1H HHorna C 51MKa-
MI1, H3I10MI1HcLIOUll1MlI ''HOTbI" (puc. 5. 14). TioaqepKHeM HCCOOTBeTCTBHe: KpyrrHbIC KY··
XOHHbIC cpopMbI H "crOJJOBhIH"opHaMeHT, npaB.lW, Bee B npe,JC;'IaX KJIJIK.
Tu11 VJJ (5 JKJ.) (p11c. 3, 1-5) . .D:ocraTO'IHO roMoreHHbIH no Kalfecruy 1ecra (see IV rpyn-
na) H I1CTI0.11HeHHIO. Ho npH '.HOM B03MO)l(Ha5l peKOHCTPYKLU15I cpopM Bapmrnnia: OT O.Ba.Jih-
HO-BbIT5IH)'TOti cpopMbI C OCTJJbIM Il,HOM no o~;pyrno-onaJihHOH. C ynrrcnueHHbI:\1 OCHOBaHII-
e:\1. UenbIX cpopM HeT Tipe,[(CTaBJICH cocyna:vrn C rrp11MepHO OJ1I1HaKOBOH rrpocp11m1poB-
KOll BepxHeH llaCTl1: l:fYTb BbI,[(eneHHhIH np5I:1,1011: KOJJOTKHH BCHlJHK llJiaBHO rrepeX01lllT B
lfYTb pacm11pe:HHOe TYJJOBO. Cpen11 HHX BhL~CJ1llJll1 LIBa IIOLIBapirnHTa.
VII a (1 3K3.) (pm:. 3, 1). Cocya C 60.nee KPYTbIMH IIJ1ClfHKaMH II, COOTBCTCTBCHHO, B03-
MO)KH0 C 6orree OKpynllbIM TYJIOBOM, YCM OCT,U1bHble cocym,1. QqeHb K)))'IIHbIH (0B=28 CM),
TOHKOCTCHHblll (0,5-0,7 CM), CBCTJ10 cepo-Kopwrnesoro UBCTa. Hapy)l{HbIH Kpaif BCHlJH-
Ka OKOHTypeH qepHbJM UBCTOM, nepeXO;J,5:llll.111\1 C BHyTpeHHCll rronepXHOCTH (KaK B nep-
BOM TIIne). 06HJibH,U! paCTIITeJ1hHa5I npHMeCb HC CKpbITa non aHro6oH. TIOlffH IIOJIHO-
ro 06)1(11ra. TTpH )TOM ITOBCJJXHOCTh HCJJOBHa}l, co cnenaMH MO)ICJrnposamrn, KaK 6b!
LIYTh rocpp11p0Ba1rn (a.ccou11auII11 c "wH(pepoM"). YKpameH cttapy)KH rna6o nporna)Kett-
Hh[M .JII1HeiiHo-reoMeTpIIYCCKllM y3opoM: OJ [05:ICbIBaK>UlHH I10Jl BCHlJHKOM H reoMeTpH-
qecKHH no 1ynosy. Ih1y-rpu, non caMhIM KpaeM BCHlfHKa, HaHecem,r Herny6oKHe 0Tne-
q;nK11 Kpyrrnoro nonynyHHoro wTaMna (pm;. 6, I a).
VII 6 (4 3K3.) (pm:. 3, 2-5). llpOD,0J1)1,:aeT '} y )KC cpopMy, HOC MeHee BbIIIYKTibIMH m1eq11-
Ki:lMH, KOpOTKHM BbIJleJieHHbIM BCHlJHKOM, fIOlJTH O)lHOrO pa3Mepa (0B.=20-22 CM), TOH-
KOCTCHHbI (0,5--0,7 CM)., BOCCTaHOBI1TCJ1hHOro o6)KJira. TioBepXHOCTll KaK aHro6upoBaHbl
(puc. 3, 2.4), TaK II Her (puc. 3. 3.5). 11x opm1MeHTaUH5I, mt nepsbn1 B3I'JI5Ill, pa3Hopolura:
nporJ1a)KCHHbll1 mrndiHo-reOMCTpHLICCKHlf (p11c. 3, 1.3-5), BOHHllCTbiti (pHC. 3, 2), HaKOJlb-
lJaTblll (pm:. 3, 4-5); 1llTaMI10BaHHbIH (p11c. 3, 1-2). 06be.I1)1H5!CT )KC HX nepeKJIHlJKa :rneMeH-
TOB opHaMCHTbIX CHCTCM H TCXHlIKa HCnom !CH115I. HanpliMCp. l1CI10J1b30BaHhI unaMITbl
I10XO)KCI1 cpopMbI (pHC. 6, III a. b ), .11rnefiHo-noMe,rpHqecKHe H BO:lHHCTbIC nporJia)KCHHbie
Vo/1111111! fl, ;,.;,._ 1-2 43

4
---~ '\
\ \

I -)·~·: (/,-- - -- -
'
'
..,...
(j)
I ...... ,
\ (J) J t::::::=---, I
6 ~-· II I I
I I I
I I I

(•01~
\ I I
\ I I
\ I I
\ I I
\
(D ,' /
._____,___, '' I
I
I

7
''

Puc. 3. ITocenemre T3nJnyKa Hoy3 XV. KepaMHKa IV rexHonorn:qecKoti: rpyrrrrhr. Cocy-


.llbI rnnoB: 1 - nm VII a; 2-5 - nm VII b; 6 - nm Vl II.

JIHHI111 11 HaKOJibI mmeceHbI nByx H Tpex3y6hrM KP yrrHhIM rnTaMrr0M Tmrn rpe6eHKH. B on-
HOM c;1yqae HaKOJibl 5IBH0 HaHCCCHbl C ''npoTaCKll Ba1rnev1", lfTO xapaKrepHO 1lJI5I caMlfHH-
CKOH qpa3bI E)lK (KoroBa 2002, 13).
IlpuAte'-WHUC. Co6mOJ(a5I )KCCTKO rrpoue;1ypy, :popMaJrhHO, K nmy VII 6 Heo6xO)lHMO
OTHCCTH He60JibWOI1 cocyJJ: ill THna TeCTa, C Bblll,:JieHHhIM BCH'UiKOM n BbIIIYKJiblMH rrne-
'4HKarvm opHaMeHT!IpOBaHJ-IbIH ,1HHCI1HO-rrpo1!ep 1 [CHHbIM opHa:M.eHTOM no TYJIOBY (yc10-
BOH "KJIJIK") H HaceLJ:KaMH no BepxHeMy Kpaw BeHLJ:HKa (pnc. 5, 6). Ho OH TaK 5IBHO
Bbr6mrneTC5I 113 BbIWC0I1HCaHIIOro coo6mecTBa, HO 6yJICT paCCM0TpeH Hl1)KC, B p33Jie-
Jie CT0JIOBbIX.
C:1euy1omae 5 nmoB q:1opM (VIII-XII) no pa JMepaM oTHeceHbI B KaTernpmo cTono-
BhlX. OH11 He60J1blUOro pa3Mepa, 11 K T0MY )KC HCl(0T0pbIC 113 HHX nepeKJU1KaIOTC}[ C qpop-
MaMH/opHaMeHT3Ml1 ,il0CT0BepH0 CT0JI0BbIX B KJ!JIK. B ]TOH rpynrre rrpeo6na.uaEOT MHC-
K006pa3Hbie H 06pa3y10T ee I10'4Tl1 BCe C0CYLI.61 .1epBOll TCXHOJIOn1t.JeCKOI1 rpym1bI (6e3
pacnITCJibHOI1 np11Mec11) (pHC. 4, 2.7; 5, 1-2.5.7- ! 0), LJ:aCTWIH0 rpeTbel1 (p11c. 5, 3-4.6) H
YernepTOH (c BOllHOH pacnneJihHOCTbIO) (pHC. ::, 6).
Tun VIII (3 3K3) (pHc. 4, 1-2) npo6neMarw1e1, npeL(CTaBJieH u.eiuparrbHbIMH L[acrnMH
HC0O.lbllIHX 0KpyrJI0TC.'lblX cocyJI0B. BhlllCJieH TO IbK0 Ha 0ClIOBaHHH HX B03MO)KHOJ1 0CT-
p0JI0HH0CTH, TclK KaK 0TMCY.aeTC51. H3n16 CTeH0K l,IDKe MaKCHMaJihH0ro JII·IaMeTpa - I10Ka-
3cLTCJil, Cl1JlbH0 3ay)KCHH0['() HJlH 0CTporo .uaa. M.\ 110BepXH0CTl1 TWaTeJibH0 06pa60Tam,1
44 Revista Arheo!ogicd. Serie now'i

JI0lileHI1eM H CfJlcliKJ,-!BaHHeM, o6iKHf BOCCTaHOB1rreJ1bHbll! (4epH0, cepo, ]K0pH'IHCBblC).


O.mrn yKparneH r1poL[ept.JeHHhIM ''Bomo10B1,1M·· (p11c. 4, l-2).
Tun IX (7 )K3) (pm:. 3, 6; 4, 3-7) 3K.1eKTJ141,'.H. O6beLieHCHbl C0CyT(bl He60JibUUOro pa3Mepa,
B 0CHOBH0M MHCKoo6pa3H6Ie (0 B. 12-15 C\:1), l(HaMeTp 60JibUJe HJII1 paBeH Bb!C0Te. y 0T-
_J,e.r.IbHbIX t.JYTb Bh[J:(e;reH HeBbICOKHH BCHliJ,-l], (pHC. 4. 5-6). 0mm 6aHKOBHL(HbII1 (p11C·. 5, 6 ).
B ~wyx cnyt.Ja5IX 0T~1et.JaI0TC5I 4CpHa5I 0KaH, 0BKa (pHC. 4, 3.5) 11 HeCJOJ[blllHe Ha!1}1b!Bbl no
BHeurneMy Kpam BCl-l'-mKa (pHC. 4, 4.5). Ofot-Hr, rrpeHMymecTBeHH0, BOCC:TaHOBHTeJibHbiii.
fiosepXHOCTH CBCIJIO- 11 qepH0-K0pHYHeBhie, cep1,re. Op1rnMeHTaJ..(Hfl npeOOJiaL(aeT Ha-

P--~ ~rLr- \~\

j <t1\ \.) ~ a0,


'~- 1
.___.__, ~ 2

I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
,'
~ I
I
I
I
I

~
())
I
I .I
I
I I I 4
I
I 0/ I /
J
----
--:::::~
~
(\
/;(
+ ~
7
6

Puc. 4. Iloc:eJICH11e L1Dp3yKa Hoy3 XV. C-roJ1<.JBall rrocyna: 1-2 .- nm VIIl; 3-7 -- nm IX.
ViJil/mui II :\r 1-2 45

KOJlblldTa5I: CTBOpKOH paKOBJ1clbl C HaCCYKaMH l[ f ~3 -- 2 C.I. (pHC. 4, 3.5), KOHUOM pa3M0-


112neHBOJ1 nano'-!KH '"Kom,n1w-'?'' (pHC. 3. 6). B 01,HO:vl c1y1:1.ae OTMe 1 Ia~TC51 6op031~P-IaTOe
crmnKHBaHHe BHyrpeHHefi mrnepxHOCTH. a ee Bel-- YHK rro.1rpatteH (pm:. 4, 3 ).
Tpvl cocyna 6e3yc.10BHO CB5IJaHhI c Tpa;:um1rnM n KJ1J1K (puc. 4, 6-7; 5, 6) qepe3 optta-
l\1em bL II Jll1Wb OJ,llH 113 HHX no cyn1 (pHc. 4, 7).
Tun X (2 )K3,) (pHC. 5. 1.4) npeJCTaBJICH rny6oKr1MH no;~oBaJ16HO-KOI-HP-IeCKHMI1 MHCKa-
Mlt ( 1-lallIK006pa3HblC) ue60J1hlll0IO pa3Mepa: {) B. : 5 11 10 CM, BblCOTa Y:YTh MCHhrn:e 3THX
3Ha1.Jem111. 06a B Tufi HJlH HHOH crerrem1 CB5BaHhI -~ Tpa.u111J,H5IMH KJ1JIK. TTepBhIH 11M co-
OTBeTcrnyeT no:1HoCTht0 neCTo l rpynnhl), a ;i,pyi 011 (recro III rpynm,1) .rnwh qepe3 op-
m1.MeHT: yr:IOBOlI Ha Ty:10Be 11 5L\1KH-HaKo;IbI Ha np,rneH1lIIKOBbIX nmnrnx (pHc. 5, 4 ). llepe3
opm!.MCHT 11 TCXHO:JOnFH'.CKlIC oco6eHHOCTI1 OH •)lfeHb 6:nnoK cocy.z:ry J,CB5ITOfO THna.
TipITYC:Vt o6a C 1-race 1IKaMll no BepxHeMy Kpaio BE Hl.JHKa ( p11c. 5, 6). 0HH 5IBHO C.[(erraHbl
~' "' ..._, 'le

Ci}IHOH pyKOH .
Tun XI (2 3K3.) (puc. 5. 7.10). AMcpopoB11;:IHb1e .:ocyn1:,1 c Bh1nenemw11 BhICOKOH roprro-
B1m01111 oKpyrm,1\1 TynoBOM KJ1.'IK. Cpe;:urn:e no 11a3MepaM 0 B. -- 14--16 CM. TeCTo l Tuna.
Ofoirnr BOCCTaHOBIITCJibHhJH, nosepxHocn1 TU[a', eJu,no crna:>KCHhI. Ha OllHOM npocne-
)Ke1rn opHaMe1naumr Jll1HiUIMH .H no,::npeyroJibHbl \1H IIOBCJ)XHOCTHhIMff HeperymrpHbIMH
mne 1-!aTKaM11, l1MlITHpy1-oumMH HOTbl (?). BHyrp1I o6pa6oTaH opyL(HeM nma rpe6eHKl1
(p11c. 5, 7). Ha BTOpOM coxpam,IJIOI HaKOJI-5IMKa.
Tuu XII (I JK3.) (pac. :5, 3) npe;:i:CTaBneH craKa1rno6pa3HhIM cocy,r:iy1KoM c 1.JYTb CT51Hy-
rr.IM ycTbeM 0B.=3 CM, H=6 CM. BbmonHeH c Tp; -1mum1x KJIJIK 113 TOHKOOTMy1 ceHHoi-i
fJ[]lHbl C BIGllO'-!eHHCM Kp,)BaBHKa, nonHoro BOCC' 1'aHOBlITeJihHOI'O ofo:K11ra.
OPHAl\1EHTAIJ,lUI pa3Hoo6pa3Ha, MHOroB.Lp11auTa 11 51B;rnnach wnpoKo pacrrpoc-
Tpattem-1011 Tpamumeu Ha na\15ITHHKe. OrMe11em llJ15l 70 % cocynoB. OpmtMeHT pa3Me-
1mtnc51 B OCHOBHOM CHapy)f(H B BCpXHeH IIOJIOBHI- e cocy;:ia. KaK l1CKJil0l.£CI-ll1e, OTMe'-IeHa
opmu.1e1rra111151 nepxHero KpaII BeHl.JHKa -- 3 CJI. ( 4 %). BHyTpem-rero Kpa51 BeHl.JHKa - 2 cs1.
1
(3 '. 10) H IlHHlll cocy,noB -- 2 CJI. (3 1/r).
TTp11 attaJIH3e I1CI10Jlb lOBaHbl BCe KaKI1\1-:u161) CIIOCOOOM yKpaweHHbie uerrbie cpop-
Mbl 11 cpparMeHTbJ, IIPClICI3BJ1eHHbIC 53 C1. (30 Cl CYllOB JI 23 cpparMCJHa). Ha Hl1X rrpo-
CJJC)KCHO 87 OpHaMeJHam,HhlX 3:IeMCHTa (pHC. 6) flo MHOf'Ol.JHCJICHHOCTH BC.Il.YlllHM 5IB-
JU!CTC5l yrny6nem-IbIH (94 /1), :1po1:rne CD,HHII'-!HbI: iLiaCTH'-teCKHi1 - 1 en. ( L2 %1), KpacKa -
1
1 CJL (J.2 :'1), CKB03Hble OrBepCTll5I - 2 CL (2.4 ). OTl1C'--IaTKH HOIT5l- le.JI. (l,2 %)
no mwy H cnoco6y 1c.:rnecemrn H yr:1y6ncttao ,1 onpt:neJicHo 5 mw,oB opHaMeHTaim11.
BeayuOIM 5IBJI5ICTC}l ;Im-:!ellHbIH npoyepYC!IHbll1 11 npor.:1a)KCHHbl]J, npe.ucTaBJlCHHbll1
4·; 3.lCMCHTaM!l ( 54 i\/;1). 3aTe:\-1 rne,1yeT HaK(IJlbl.J.3.Ti,IH, npencTaB:ICHHbll[: HclKOJibl O,UHHap-
11/i1), lllTaMllbl ;1yHOBI1)],Hbie H 3y61.Ja-
IIhlC 17 Cl. (19,5 (l,;1). l-IaKCUbl rpe6eHLiaThie--4 Cl. 4,5
TblC (3 5 u<,). Hace 1n;:K-OTTJ1CKIJ rpeoeHLiaTbIC - 6 C . (7
':/ir): BCCIO 32 3.ICMCHTa (37,3 %).
JhmettHblU np04Cp'-ICHHbIJJ H rrporJia)KCH!Iblll rpe,UCTaBJlCH Ha 39 (J)p, 47 3J1eMeHTaMH
oprn1MCHTa. no cnoco6y 1iaHecemrn (Tommrna) Bbl ie.11:.norc51 rpu no:rnmrn: TOHKHe llO 1 MM
-- 18 C.l. (21 °/;1); cpemu1e OT 1 JlO 2 :\-1M -- 22 CJ!. (25 '.~r); nrnpOKUC OT 2 no 5 M:\1 - 7cn. (8 °/i)).
Cpe,J,II HHX CCTb: np51Mb!C _'[IIHHH - 27 Cl. (57,4 l%), ;; KHIIH B yrnOBbIX, KOCbIX l1 poM6111.JeCKl1X
1
cwrnamrnx -- 11 en. (23,4 1/n). ·'Bo.ri1mrhr'·: Bo.:u-1Hc1 ble 11 .:ryromurnbre .:11rnmr -- 7 en. (15 %);
K<lHHe:nopOBH,']HhIC - 2 C[. (4.2 'k ),
Bee row1m1urne :11mrn1.. 'LlCTHYHO cpe:11me 11 pe.aKo. B KOMOHHamrn, CB5I3aHbI c op-
1rn~1e1na\111, Hano:--nrnaro:.urnvlll TaK:He B KJIJJK (1 poY:epLJeHHhie 06enuow11e napaJu1enb-
Hb1c l!OL!, BeHL!llKOM ( OT 1 ~].L) ::, ): yr:10B1,Ie, KOCbie : [ BOJ!lOTOBbie no ry.-JOny). TaKa5I opHa-
Metn awrn np11c:y1m1 11acn1 cocy;.10B. H:ffOTOB:te1 HbIX in Tec-r a nepBOH, BTopou H Tpe-
nt'fi iCXl-lO.lO!lll[CCKIIX rpyrn1 (pm:. 2, 5-7: 4. 1: ~ l.J-4.5-7.11-14).
46 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

t7]0(Jt~,@® 2

11

~ 10

''<:~-~

15

Puc. S. Iloccncmre T:n3p3yKa Ho> 3 XV. KepaMHKa KYJibTYPhI JrnHettno-


KepaMHKH (1-2,5 Hee 11CpHB,lTbI (3-4,6-15). 1.4 - nm X; 2 -- nm XII;
JJCHTO'-IHOI1
5 - nm Vlll; 7,10 - nm XL 8, 11-13 - nm V; 14-15 -- rnrr VI.

CpeLl,mie, WHpo1rne rrporna)KeHHbie l1 [Jp0 1-IeptieHI-IblC J1!1Hl1!1 (OT 02 )],0 0,5 CM) !1C-
IlOJ1h30BaHbl B OCHOBHOM rrp11 opHaMeHT<I UHH COCYI(OB '-IeTBepToi1 TCXHOJIOfl1'-ICCKOH
rpynrrhl, lJaCTO C 11pHMCHeHI1eM rpe6eHKH. YTO COOTHOC!1TC5I y)Ke C Tpa;.urumIMH E)],K
/:(ml HHX TaK)KC xapaKTCpHO 30HaJ1hHOC IlOCTpoe,rne Opl-IaMCHTa: 06eramw,11e napan-
JieJibHbIC 2-3 Jll1Hl111 non BeHlJ.HKOM L(OI10JIHeHl,I, B O,UHOM CJiyYae, ,HMKaMH (pHC. 3, 5), B
Jlpynix reoMeTp114CCKHMH (BllHCaHHble LlP:> r B ,1pyra TpeyrOJ1bH11Kl1, KOCbie napaJ[JICJib-
HbIC) no HJIC'-IHKaM H BepTHKaJibHbIMH KaHHc,110pOBH;J,HbL\Hl no Tynoay (pm:. 3, 1-5 ). KaK
HCKJllO'-ICHHe, BepnncaJibHOC IIOCTpOCHHC c,pmtMeHTa OT Kpa5! BCHLJ.HKa 113 nporJia)KCH-
HbIX rpe6eHKOH BOJlH11CTblX ,1!1Hl1H (pHC, 3, 2).
B LI.BYX cJiy'-Ia5!X J1l1HlH1 CKOMOHHl1JJClBaHbl C 5!MKaMl1 OT OTTHCKOB Tpex3y6oi1 rpe6eH-
Kl1 (p11c. 3' 3.4 ). 3nn Bl1ll OT HOCI1TC5! K c:1e;1,y1ou~e11 rpynne optrnMCHTOB.
I i1.l11nutl ll, ,\'r 1-2 47

y·cnoBHo ero M0iKH0 u6o3Ha,.11·1Tb KaK .L'.1n1.1t f-l110-111:u:.o.1biwmb1ll (32 en.). ITpe,rrcraB-
.1eH B 0CH0BH0'.\1 BCCB03:Vh)'iKHbl:\1H HaK0;l.aMH (.~ 1 ::1. ), ropa3J,0 :\1eHbllle 0TllellaTK0B 0T-
ll!C1'0H una:vma (5 c.1.) 11 1-iaceqeK 1(6 c1.) (pHc. 6).
HaJk:0.1L1taTbiii (21 c:1. l. BbUCJICHO ;om B11,,Ja: 1 aKonvrnThIH o;:urna p11b1:v1 (pHc. 6, I) 11
m1yx .. Tpex:i;y6b1M wrnMnoM nma rpe6eHKH (p11c. 5, 11).
TiepBblH npencTaBneH B 0CH0BH0:\1 MeJ1KliM1· HclK0J1aMI1 0JJ,HHapHoro lllTaMna rro-
)1,)Ba:foHoii cpopMbI pa3Mt:p0M OT 2-4 MM (5 CJL) (; l!IC. 6, I a.b); 6onee KPYIHlbIM HaK0J10M
(4··5 .\1M) TI0,1lOKpyrnoH E rIOiJKBa,1lparHOH qmp~ bl nma ''K011bITU" (3 C.1. Ha CTCHKaX
cocy1ioB) (p11c. 6, I c.d) 11 rma Ha nmuuax (pHc. 6.1 e . I1MemTrn TaKiKe Mem,Lia11urne ( l-2 MM)
lLlK0Jlbl "'clmaiKKOBH[lHOii" cpopMbl (2 C1.) (p11c. 6. l f).
Kpo:V(e roro, BhCIC.1Ci[bl 5!M091KH nma "H()T" I 5 Cl.). OHH KOM0HHHpyIOTC5! C Jll1HCH-
HbIM npoqept.ICHHblM, 1Ipe..1cTaBJ1CHbl B 0CH0BH• )M MCJfo'-laihlll1MH (0, l-0,2 MM, pe[lK0
0.4 M:Vl) 0Tlle'-!aTKaMlI H HaKo.rraMJ1 no,z:npeyronbi IOI!, OKpyrnoH 11.:m rIO)JOBaJ1hHOH cpop-
Mbl (l_lHC. 6, I g).
rpe6eHllaTbIC HaKom,r (p11c. 6, TI) npe)lCT:1B ICHbI 0TI1Cl.!aTKaMl1 T0"IC'IHbIX (I MM),
m:pyr.1b!X (2 MM), I10il0Ba.J1bHb!X H no;:upeyron1 Hb!X lllTaMrI0B Ha 2-3 (?) 3y6a (4 en.).
(pm.:, 6, II a-d). Bee nepC'll1CJieHHbIC BHL(bl HclK0:Jh'-!aToro optta:v1eHT8. CBO}ICTBCHHbl ]l."15!
TCCT;i L U1-IV TCXH0JIOIWclCCKl1X rpyrm.
IllraMHOBaHHblii npe,:icrnuneH I15!ThIO sap~rntt ·aMH (III-V). Cpen11 m1x BhI[lem1.111 0T-
THCKH ".1\'1106W}f/020" WTaMna h= 0,4 CM (2 c:1.) (p1;c. 6, ill, a.b); Tp11 Bl·Ula 3}'61./G/11blX WTaM-
noB Ha TpH, I15!Tb 3y6LI11KOB (3 en.) (p11c. 6, IV a.b.c, 1111ace -tKU-ftaKOJ1b1 (6 err.) (p11c. 6, V a-f).
1

Ch-m npe.QCTaBJ1CHbI ( 4 CJ!.) Kpym-Ib[Ml1 '-laCTblM11 (h = 1,011 1,3 CM) 11 MC.J1KHMl1 (h= 0,5-0,8 CM)
C rne":IaTKaMH CTB0p0K paK0BHH ( Cardi um). Pa· mrqar0TC5! rro IICIT0JIHCHHIO. )],n5! llBYX
11 crro.:u,3oBaHhr oTne'-laTKl1 enec-rne1·moro Kpa5! .JaK0BHHhI, n.:rn npyr11x. ~ rrp5!Mhre yKo-
· P04CHHbIC YT0JlWClIHbIC 0Tpe3Kll CTB0pKH C l.[eTJ HM 3Y0'-IaTbIM CJie[l(>M Ha [{He 0TTIICKa.
'.)n1 rl0C.Tie[lHHe HaH[lCHbl BHe pacKona, B 6eper, )B0M oopbIBC.
B .:lByx cnyqa51x HaCC'IKH [10Kpbrnam1 Bepx1-rn 1. Kpaii BCH'-!HK0B cocynoB, opHaMCHTI1-
poBaHHbIX npIIMepH0 B crm1e KJ1J1K (pac. 6, Ve f). Hx l\10r.J1II HaHeCTII 11 KpaeM CTB0pKH
H TCM :,i-,:e opy,IJJICM .. '-!TO ,YpHaMeHT 170 TYJI0By.

KoMH0'3HUHOHIIOe no<:Tpoe1rne opHa!\H'.HTa H ero JaKOHOMepHOCTH


OpHaMeHTaHbHbie 3_;1,::MCHTbl nma Hcn:cnbl C rnopK011 paK0BHHbl l1 3y611aTbIC WTaM-
11 bl -- caM0CT05!TeJibHbl. KoMrIOHIUl10HHO C00TH )C5ITC51. T0.1bK0 J.pyr C J.pyrnM, 06pa3y51
op1En1ema.1bHble 1rn;:u,L HSIII pa3:\1C1Ua5!Cb CI--iapy Kli ll BH)'TJ)lI cocymt (pHC, 1. 3-4; 4, 3.5).
lvfo;KrW npe,J.II0JI0)Kl!Tb CB5!3h :\Je)KJJY '3HD.1H JB (l\15[ nma:--.m opHa:\1CHT0B (ttace:LIKH pa-
M)B)ll-!Ol! II 0Tlle'-I,HKH ,y6LiaTblX 1UTa'.\1f10B) 'Ief :3 Ka'-1ecrnem-1yIO ('reXHIIKO-TCXHOJ10I'll-
'lCCK\ 10) 0llH0p0llH0CTb cocy;J0B. Bee 0Hll, Kpo '1!C oz:uwro, H3r0n)B.:1CHbl H3 Tecra BT0-
pofi H 1'\)CTbCH TCXH0JI0IH4CCKl1>~ rpynn.
B03:\10)KH0 Cal\IOCT05!Te:IJ,Hbl MH (?) 5!B;H!J0TC Heperya7.5!pHblC mlK0ilbI '·'KOI1blT1Ja" (?)
Ha ccicyJ.ax 1 1ernep101i rex1-[onon1qecKoi1. rpyn 11b1 (p11c. 3, 6-8), a raK)Ke perysrnpHhre
'lCTKHe HaK0;Ib[ nonoKpyr.:IO-OBa,1hHOH cpopMbl, ,,:ollCTcllOIUliCC5l T0:1bK0 co CKB03HbIM OT-
Bqx:111C,\I (p11c. L 1-2).
no 11my cpopM cocy,cioB. )Hl opHa:v1eHThI coo ·Hoonrn c cocymtMH I--II,VIIL IX Tanon
1. Bc,1ywei1 Karerop11e11 TflCTbero (6 m 8 cny•rnt B) II YeTBepToro THII0B TeCTa (2 1n 8).
').1CMCHTL/ op1rnMe1na 11 HX 1rn,,rnOJIIUHOHHbiC CO'le'I amrn.
T1n11:t1e 11 0T'rnc111 cpem-rei1 ro.111111111,1 ( npc LJeptieH!Ib1c) ;rnmm c0Yera1orc:>I npyr c
,ipyrnM B re0Y\1CTJ)lllleCK;L\ l! B0.l!0T0BblX K1YdIIO :I\1Ul5!X. B I15!Hl c:1yqa51x 0HH nonomreHbl
iJ lllt''idTKaMI1 }!MOK "tml ". peiKe ttacet.JKa \Ill [1() cpa10 BC:HLIJIKa (2 CJ! ) H Hepery.151pHblMH
48 Revista Arheologica. Serie nouci

OTl1C'-laTI,aM!I 110,]0B<l.:1bHO-BhlT5:!HYTOfl H !1(,,1KBa)lpaTHOI1 ¢op~1hl Ha OCHOBamm OKpyr-


_-1bIX 1UH!lll (2 C1.).

M=l:l

;~ga ~~~:b 00:J' "fm~e


KOJ'!··EO

D,
I 0
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H

a -Y-0-ll--E0-+--••2--t---J----2---t-, f
. , (>
f
--2~...;;..t----2--+-~5--+---+-1~7'.'""r.1~9"'!.5~o,-I
------------------ ,------------+---~---t

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K

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a b C d
·-----------+----1~,...,..,~_.5~%~
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·------------1-----1~---1
11.!raJ,m • "l'l)IHO.Elt!II-Cl,ll'I''

m ]
J:OR·EO 2 2.3%
H

a
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IV
f {. f lb }3c ]
I" .,_:KO
__-n--10-+--l,_I_ _...,_ _1_ _...,_"""'!'1--+------------------+---+"!'l-,-l~."!"5%~

lt

V ((( )))
a \.\\ b
l:XJR·EO ti 7%

n VI 18 21%

lt
K
1----11---,------------,----·--------------1-+--1
~ VII 22 25%
H
--t--------------------------------t---,i----t
lsI ......
e
vm: ' 8%
i._IX---1,_(..i..·).a:;_;a;;.,....\~--/,-=b~(i.:_{~c_;~,-~-.:.d- - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 ~
It I<:OR·EO 2: I 1 I
e OTEef> :"Iltt )'?top HOI'<mi, 5 5.7%
Ecao 87 100%

Puc. 6. lloce:rc1mc T:n3p':lyKa HoyJ X\ . 'JncMCHTLI opmlMCHTa H nx BllfJ:bI.


Volumui JI, N1'. 1-2 49

KaK l1CKJIIOl.J:eH11e, 0TMel.J:CHbl 0TIIet.J:aTKU HO[ rn 11 0Tfiel.J:aTKH TOHt.J:aiiwero 3y6t.J:aTO-


ro qm;DKKOBl1,llHOro HaKoJia.
Bee nepet-UICJlCHHblC :JJICMCHTbl I1 K0Mfl0311Ulil1 C00TH0C5ITC5l C cocynaMH 1, a TaK>Ke
qacnI I1 Hill TeXHOJ10fH1-ICCKHX rpynn. B CBOe11 ,)CHOBe CB5I3aHbI C TpamIUIUI.MH KJ1JIK.
TiporJia)KCHHbie: I1 pe)Ke npo'-ICpl.!CHHbie JII1HJ :11 cpel.l,HCH lI 6om,mei1 11!11pI1Hbl C00T-
H0C5!TC5! B 0CHOBH0M c cocy1~aMll CC,l.l,bM0ro THnJ. IV TCXHOJIOfl1l.J:CCKOl1 rpymibl. bOJib-
ma5! l.J:aCTb 3TlIX opHaMCHT0B Hattece.Ha 3y6l/atllbl.l•tU ( zpeueHl/QnlbV,tu) WTaMITaMll Ha ,l.l,Ba-
Tpll 3y6a. B eJilIHHl.J:HOM cnyqae 3aCBl1,l.l,eTeJihCT}lOBaHo l1CITOJlb30BaI-me rpe6e.HKU C '-Ie-
TblpbM5! 3y6uaMH (p11c. 3, 9).
OTMCl.J:CHO COl.J:CTaHlIC c cepn0BJ,i)lHblMll OTDe lfaTKa\rn; OKpyrm,IMll HaKOJiaMH Tpex-
3y6oro llITaMrra (rpe6eHKa ?) no Hapy)KH0MY, BepxHeMy lI BHYTPCHHeMy Kpa10 BCHl.J:HKa.
UlHpoKne H ot.J:CHb 11I11p01u1e JIHH1111 Hattecem,1 , >pyn11eM co cna603y6'taThIM oq)opMJie-
m1eM pa6oqefi qacTH. Ha nne, y KpaeB rrpoqep 1IeHHhIX yrny6nem1tt THrra KaHHemop1,1
np0CJlC)KCHbl 6op03,l.l,KI1-BbICMKI1 (plIC. 3, 10). fle11Cl.J:11CJICHHhle K0MIT03l1Ul1l1 xapaKTCpHbl
J]Jl5l opttaMCHTOB E)J:K.
fpe6eHKa K T0MY )KC WHp0K0 I1CITOJib30BaJracb I1 rrpll ll3f0T0BJICHl1l1 cocynoB nepsou
TeXHO.flOrH'leCKOH rpyrrnhl, 'IaCTb K0T0pbIX CB5l.iaHa C Tpa,l.l,I1Ul15IMI1 CTOJIOBOH KJIJIK.
Bo-rrepBbIX, B npouecce M0)lCJII1p0BaHI15! cpopM (B 10 CJ1yqa51x l13 23) 1rnyTpeHHl1e II0Bep-
XH0CTH 06pa6aThrnan11c1, 3y6t.IaTbIMll opynm1Ma nma rpe6eHoK (p11c. 5, 7), a B II5ITI1
CJryqa51x ,l.l,OITOJIHI1TeJibH0 l1 CHapy)Kli. KaK B Bli,l.l,C napanneJibHbIX npepbIBliCTbIX npo-
lJlCpt.J:eHHbIX Jll1Hl1H,, TaK H B Bli)lC nerK0f0 BOJlHHCT0r0 crJia)KI1Bamrn-nepeMCllICHI15l Cbl-
poiI r.JUIHbl no IlOBepXH0CTH cocy.ua.
TipuMeHeHHe rpe6eHKl1 ,U..151 KepaMHKll TpCThCH TCXHOJ10fl14CCKOH rpyrrrrhI JI0CTOBep-
H0 He II0.D,TBCp)K,l.l,CH0. XoT5! Ha 0T,UCJibHblX cppar \1CHTax CTCH0K Jll1Hl:[ll Bblil0JlHCHbl l.J:CT-
K0, napanJICJlbH0 I1 O.D,HHaKOBOH T0JlllllIHhI.
TlllUhl cl>opM H opHaMeHTlbl. OnpeneneHI1e K;al1M0COt.IeTaeM0CTl1 cpopM I1 opHaMeH-
T,UlbHbIX CliCTCM H03BOJrneT Bb151Bl1Tb OT,l.l,CJlhHblC 3aK0H0MCpH0CTH.
Cocy111,1 I I1 II TliII0B (oCTp0110HHbie) Tuna yhpallICJ-lbI npe11My11~eCTBCHH0 IIOJl0Kpyr-
J:IO-0BaJibHbIMli HaKOJiaMH, HaKOJiaMu CTBOpKOH paK0BHHbl, H 0Tnet.JaTKaMH 3yf:iqaToro
rnTaMrra. l1cTOKH nono6aoro co'-leTaHI15l np113m,KOB cne11yeT ucKaTb K ceBepy Ha Bon1,1-
HH l1 K ceBepo-BOCTOKY OT mmrero nawITHI1Ka Ha Cpe,'lHCM ;::I:tterrpe - CTpyMem, racT5l-
THH (TeJICfliH 1985, 172 H CJI.).
Cocy111,1 Ill I1 IV (OCTpO,l.l,OHHhIC) - liCKJIIOlJlW, em,H0 C T0HKHMH I1 cpe.D,HI1MI1 npoqep-
'-[CHHhIMH Jll1HI15IMH B B0jU0T0BhIX I1 IIp5IM0JII1HCl iHhIX K0MII03HUH5IX C ll0nOJIHCHHCM OT-
net.IaTKOB HOrT5l. ()qe.Hb 0CT0pO)KH0 MO)KH0 np,:nnoJI0)KlITb BJ1I15!HHe KJIJIK Ha optta-
MCHTlIKY 3TUX cocynoB.
Ti,mhr cpopM V J.I VI (oKpyrnolt0HHbre, yrn1omettHo-0KpyrnonoHHhie) 1aK)Ke yKpawe-
HhI l1CKJIIOt.Il1TCJibH0 T0HKHMH l1 cpe,l.l,HI1Ml1 rrpotit pl.!eHHblMli JllIHH5IMH: np5IMOJllIHCHHbIC,
)'TJl0Bbie B C0t.IeTaHllll C 5IMKaMI1, I1Ml1TI1py1ouJJ1MH "HOThI". )J:oIIOJIHCHhl TaK)KC 0TI1Cl.J:aT-
KaMn 5IMOK ITO,l.l,OBaJibHOi1 I1 IIO)lKBanpaTHOH q:1opMb[ Ha 11,HUlllaX. HaJ16onee 4CTKO 311CCb
Ilp0CJIC)l<HBaeTC5! K0MTI0HCHTa KJ1J1K.
Cocy,l.l,bl VII nma 0pHaMCHTl1p0BaJII1Ch npe11Mylllc:CTBCHH0 C l1C110Jlb30BaHHCM rpe-
6eHOK B rrporJia)KCHH0-npoqeptieHHbIX K0Ml103l1 Ul151X B C0tieTaHHll C naKonaMH 11 nony-
JiyHHhlMli OTTHCKaMH, 4T0 C0OTBCTCTByeT Tpam1um1M E)J:K.
VIII THna HanoMlrna:roT Tpa.n11u11a K.IJIK (BomoTOBhIH IIpo 1-1ept.IeHHb1fi).
Cocyn1,r Tip11
3T0M 11u11ma cocyLlOB VII H VIII THIT0B cKopee 11cero ocTponoHHhlle.
MacKoo6pa3HhIC IX nrna He lJMCIOT tieThHX CTattnapnrn 0pHaMeHTaUHH. OHa
rrpe;lC"faBJieHa 0TTJ:!CKaMH CTB0p0K paK0BHH; pa ,M04a;1eHHOH naJI04KH nma "KOfibITI{';
50 Rcvista Arheologica. Serie nouci

yrny6.fJeHJ-1H.-HaKOJIOB B C0Y.eTamm C Bpe3HJ,IMH Jll1HIUIMII: KpaeBbil'vI yrropaM (p11c. 4, 7).


llrn coorneTcrnye-r pa3Hopom-rhrM 1JieMeHT,l:Vt KJL1K E,DJ( II BorrhmCKOH,
Cocy.LihI THTI0B X--XI1113roTOBJICHbI B Tpa.m1Um1x KJ1J1K, HO yKpaweHbI MI1H11MaJ1b··
HO: npoqepqeHHhlMlf mrnmIMH. TO,/lhKO B ,(BYX rnyqa~IX B COl!CTalHUI C 5IMKaMH-I-IaKO··
naM11.

Pa36poc KOJl.'Ieli:u,uu no JJ33MepaM COCY)lOB


Ilo pa3MepaM n11aMeTpos BeHY.HKa m-160 r-yrroBa cocynb1 pacrrpene.rurn11cb B 3 rpyrrrrhL
flpeo6rra11a101 B K0JneKUHH C0CYllbl tteiSOJlhl uoro pa3Mepa. ,IJl-IaMeTp0M no BeHY.11KY 111160
TyrroBy OT 3 )l0 16 C\1 (23 3K3. = 53,5 %). Om1 rrpencTaBJlCHbl BbIWeorrncaHHblMH THITaMH
yrnoBHo CT0J10Bh1x V[II-XTI. C10na )Ke BXOWiT cocy11h1 51fiuem11moi':i: 1:popMhI -- nm V.
BTopa5I rpyrrna cocy110B pa3MepoM OT l 9 n.o 22 CM (12 3K3. = 27,9 %) o6pa3oBatta
rrpeHMyw:ecTBeHH o cocy naMH I-IV, VII THTI o B.
TpeTh5I rrpe,LICTaB~UieT 0Y.eHb KpyrrHbie C0CYJJ:bI pa3MepoM OT 26 110 34 CM (8 3K3. =
18,6 %i), B 0CH0BH0M, VI 11 OTlleJihHhie Ul nrnoB.
t].n5I 3HaY.11TeJ16HOI1: qacn-1 rrepBOH l1 TpeTheH rpyrrrr pa3MepoB cocyD,0B, C00TBeTCTBeH-
H0, JJ:Jl5I caMbIX MaJieHbKI-IX I-I 60Jlhllll1X, K0IICT::l.THpyeM npeo6Jia;:i:am1e TpanI-IUI1l1, CB51-
3aHHhIX C H0CHTeJrnMH KJIJ1K H, Bl1)111M0, BoJibIHCKOH., Tor11a KaK C0CYllbl cpe,LIHHX pa3-
Mep0B xapaKTepHhL npettMyw:ecTBeHH0. nm1 Tpa;:i:mrnfI EJJ:K, BoJihH-ICKOH H C1pyMeJ1h-
raCT5!TI1H.
KyJlhTypHaH KOMllOHeHTa. Ilp11 BCeM pa3HOoo6pa31111 cpopM, OpHaMeH1au1m, Texm1-
K0-TeXH0JiorwrecKIIX oco6em-roc1efI, cBoeo6pa311e KepaMHKH TH XV 3aKJIIOl!aeTC51 B
rreperrrreTeHHH Tpex- 10IeTbipex 11HllHBI111YaJJ.b HO npocJie)KII BaeMhIX COCTaBJ151IOW:11X.
llepBWl, HaI16orree K0MfiaKTHa5I no CB0eMy np051BJ1emno cpopM, TeXHJ-IK0-TeXH0JlOfH-
qecKHX H CTHJIHCTHt1eCKHX TpanHUHH, rpyrma KepaM11KH npencTaBmieT co6oi1 Ha6op
cocynoB, xapa1KTep1ny10w:Hx EJJ:K 11 ee 0Kpy)Ke1rne (pttc. 3, 1-5.10).
B uee Bown11 6on1:,rna51 qacTb cocy,z:i:crn IV THna 1ec1a, npe11craBrn::ttHhie 3-4 cpopMaMH.
Ott11, 11pe11Myll(eCTBeHH0, cpe1rnero pa3Mepa roplllKH lJ:B = 20-22 CM, HO eCTb H Ll,0 28 CM,
T0HK0CTeHHbIC (0,5-0,7 CM), OBOl11IaJ1bHOH BhIT51H)'TOl1 q:>opMbl mI6o nonoKpyrnon, B03-
M0)KH0 C 0CTpbIM HJIH yrrnoll(eHH0-TTO)l0Kp)TJ1bIM LlHOM. )],JI5I HIIX xapaKTepH0 30HaJib-
H0e noc1poett11e opBaMeHTa I-13 cpe,LIHMX 11 LLIIlp0KI-IX rrporJia)KCHHbIX H rrpoY.epqeHHbIX
mrnuii (w11p11Ha 0.2-0.5 CM). li:Be Tpll rrapa.1.,1eJII:,Hble I!Oll BeHl!HKOM .UOI10JIHCHbI reoMeT-
p11Y.eCKl1M no nne 1 rnKaM; KaHHemop0BH.iU-Ibll\lH o7H6o B0JIHHCTblMH no TYJIOBy. qaCTb J1H-
Hl1l1 11 0TTHCK0B HaJ-receHbI rpe6eHKaMH Ha 2-4 3y6a, B 0]l,H0M CJiyY.ae C npoTaCKirna1rneM
(pac. 3, 2-4.9). OTMe -rneTC51 opHaMeHTawrn . [yttoo6pa3HbIMl1 0TTHCKaMll B C0Y.eTamm C
1

B0JllUiCTbIM rpe6eHLELTblM H nporJia)KCHHbI\I reoMeTpHY.eCKH\1 (p11c. 3, 1-2). B Ha6op


BX0LI51T II MeJIKile CT0.10Bhie, MHCKoo6pa3HbJe, opHaMeHnrpc>BaHHble 0TT11CKaMlI CTB0p-
KH paKOBlIHhI (c HaCe'IKaMH) (p11c. 4, 3).
KynhTYPHO-XpOHOJIOrl11ICCK11l1 perrep 31\H'0 Tilna KepaMHKH Y.epe'.3 opttaMCHTbl co-
OTBCTCTBYCT C3.M 1 IHHC:KO}I cpa3e EJJ:K. mm Hcl'-IaJ1Y nepBoro )Tarra (nepH0,il la) ,D,nerrpo-
)lm1eaKOl1 Kynb Typ1,i (.ZJ,amrneHKO I 969.: Km oBa 2002, 31 ). TaKoMy fI0jIO)Kett1110 He npo-
nrnope1I11T H nepernacoBKa 1 iepe3 Mo1111qrnwtponaHHhie opHaMeHThI II cjmpMbI (p11c. 5, 6)
C Tpa.nHUl151Ml1 KJin K.
Bn10paR cocra:s,1moll(a51 npe;:i:cTaBJieHa 0.ilHHM ocrp0Ll.0HHbL\1 C0C)'[l0M, 6e3 C0MHe-
mrn, r-pyrrrrbI C1pyMCJib-racT51TIIH (11 nm cp,JpMbI). fpy6hll1 TOJICTOCTCHHhlll, opHaMeH-
Tl'.ip0BaH BHYTPII II c1-1apy)KH pa3pe)KeHHblMll 0TIIC'IaTKaMII 3--5 3y6Y.al'Of() WTaMrra ( rpe-
6eHKa ?) (pile. 2, 4) (Tener1111 1985. 172, J)HC. i7). 1JJC/1lbf/ - C0CYWlMJ,l B Tpa~THllH51X KYJIL-
TYP BonhIHH H I10:1eccb51 Y Kpamrhr.
l r>,um d il. J\'r 1-2 51

Bro pa}( 11 TpeTh~l rpyrmb1 Jt{epaMHKlL 'IaCTl! rn J 06p:ny1ow,ne Ko1v1n11cKc TH XV, no


TCXJ--l.lIK0-TCXH0D0f'IIlICCK[f \1 ll0KU3(lTe.U!'.\l Bb!LIU IT pa3H0po;UibD.1l!, O0bCLUIH>ICT )KC HX
0CTp0J,OHH0CTh H opIIaMCHTamrn I-IaK(-1:JbYaHHlJ La'.\UI0BdHll0ro nma: HaK0Jlbl, 0TTHC-
Kll., 3y61.J.aTbIC WTaMTihl.
BeKTOp K0HTaKTa C TaKOH KepaMHKOit BCCb~ta Wllpm: (ecm tia6:no,n,ne:IhHbll1 nyHKT
Tl] XV): OT cpeJJHero )],Henpa (K11rno-)l(mmrnr ~Koe ffo;1ecc1,e) Ha cer1epo-B0CT0Ke gQ
acroK0B B11cnh1 11 HeMaHa aa ceBepe. Patt1,we 3 rn .nBa Ky.crhl)'JJHbIX 5IBJ1emrn (BHK 11
CrpyMeJih-facT5ITHH) KaK pa3 II paccMarp1rna:mc , B'.\1ecrc KaK o;:XHo H3 npoHBJICHHH aa-
Y,LibHbIX q)a3 )lHenpo-)],oHeUJKOll O0lilHOCnl (Tc: erHH 1985, 174). CeH'-!aC pa3H0C5IT no
pa3HL1M Tpan11UH5IM (Te11enm, Tmosa 1998, 24 ). I [o xp01rn:10n1'-1ecK11 ax npoHBJremrn 6e-
3yC.10BH0 C0TIOCTaBHMbl KaK MC)IGY co6oiL TaK H .: 1v1arep11aJiaMH E,QK. ;:i:m:cottam:a HeT.
l.Jemeepmw1 cocrnBnmoma>1, :no rpynna Kepa: !HKH rpamuurii KJ1J1K. Otta ttaxon11T-
C5i ll0'-ITH B KOHe1.J.HOI1 crnmm TpaHccpop:-v1au1u1 11 noTepa 0CH0BHhlX KYJrhTypoo6pa3yIO-
WHX rrp113HaK0B. TaK, L{0CT0BepH0 "LJ11cra5(' (I Tl n Tena) npe,:inaBJieHd m1Wb 7 CT0Jl0-
BhIMH cocyLl,aMH H Ml1.HHMaJibHOli ''HOTHoiC 0pH,h1CHTa LI.HCl1 ( OlUfH cny,rnA H L{Be lf-IeCHM-
:-v1eTpH'':lHbre 5IMKH )],.rm Tpex JIIIHHI1:) (pHC. 5, 7 l. K 'X0HHiUL y)Ke B ,npyroi1 TCXH0Jl0fl11.J.eC-
KDli Tpamrum1, CBC)lCHa .uo O,lHOtl cpopMbI (nm '.'I). Ee cneump11qecKHii 0pHaMeHT yTe-
p:u1 H 3aMCW,eH yrrpow,eHIU,IM ''HOTHb!'.\1"(pnc. 5, '4).
TpaHccpopMaum1 opHaMe1-naJ1bHb1x '.3;"IeMeHT0 ~ KTTJ[K TH XV 1meT B cooTBeTCTBHH
C TCH1.lCHU115IMH, 0TJvtel.J.CHHbIMH .J:[5I Il031.lHCl1WHX na\15ITHllK0B KJ1J1K I1pyTo-EyrcKoro
a pea.rm: 5IMKH Y:MCHbWaIOTC5l LIO llaK0J'10B pa3MCJ OM 1-2 MM, 1rnpywaeTC5I "nop5I.1l0K" H
cmvtMeTpH5I B pa3MCW,CH!lll opmlMCHTanhHblX cm TeM. B TCXH0JlOnrn H3[0T0BJ1CHH5I 0T-
Me1.J.aeTC5[ yBeJlHYCHHe HCfI0Jlb30BaH115l aeopraH [LJeCKHX np11Meceti. l.Jyrb paHbllle 3TH
3aKoHoMepH0CTH np05IBHJIHCll> B ),rnTepHanax no. :ec'1emrn KTTJ1K Mai1H0Ba Ea.,crKa, pac-
no110:iKeHaoro B )],HeCTpO-Eyr'CKOM MC)K,Uype1.J.LC, 'j aK)KC y)Ke B apea:'Ie E)],K (J1apHHa 1999,
8.5; Jlap1rna, TieTpeHKO, CaTIO)KHHKOB 2001, 10--2] ).
J1 KaK JI0fl11.J.CCK0C 3aBepmeHHe )Tana TI0TC]JH 3TH0Cy'lll,H0CTH BhICTynaeT IlJmwe cna-
rae:tvtoe K0JlJICKUHH TH XV. no cyTH 3T0 CHHKp1 TH'IeCK0C 5IBJieHHe L:eM0HCTpttpyeT rre-
pem1eTeHHC llBYX-Tpex (?) reaenFICCKH pa3H0p0J,HbIX B CBOC11 0CH0Be 5IBJlemrH: JJlCMCH-
r,:rn opHaMCHTHKH KJ1J1K l1 HOCl1TCJ'Idi 0CTp0, 01' PYL'IO,/lOHI--IOlI Kepa:-vrn1rn ill nmoB TCC-
T.l. K.'1J1K Tep5IeT CB0H )TH00npe;le.15ll-0lilHC nr lBHaKH, K0T0J)ble C pa3HOJ1 CTeIICHbIO
J1HTCHCIIBH0CTI1 npo5IBJ15IfOTOI B :i.pyroiI/D,pyn1x ?) TpaJHUH5IX.
Haa6o.rree nocT0Bepuo, no u2m1eMy MHeHmo, ;:rn 1J)op!v! cocy;:lOB nma III, V, VIII npo-
5IBJrn1orc5l Tpamru1m Kym,ryp 60.:-ree ceBepHblX Te 1p11rop1111 )'KpamrbI Bom,rna H Tionec-
CbH. Eonee '-ICTK0 cpen11 mfX npo>IBJ15le1or Kt)Mn )HCHT BHK. Ee Be;.wll.la5I ponh B 3T0M
TaH,UCMC orrpe)lCJieHa TCXIUIK0-TCXH0,l0rWieCKHM .1 ll cpopM006pa3y10 llll1MH TI0Ka3aTeJ15I-
l\111. 'L-tK, Jl)rn HCC xapaKICpHa T0HK0CTC!!l-la5I KCJ cl'vHIKa xoporuero (){))liJ1ra C rrpHMCCblO
paCTl!TCJlhH0CTll, necKa 11 pC)l-.:C waMora. no pa~ \siepaM cpeJHHC (0- 20-25cM) H MeJlKHC
(t::MKO,.:ThIO )],0 2-3 JI) (OxpiMelIKO 2002, 14). OcHO ll:!bie <JlOplv!bl npeJCT.:lBTICHbl ropwKaMH:
OKpyn10TeJ1bltt (5IttlJ,enonofon,II1) H BhIT5lHYTLlX I porropUHH 6HKOHIP-l•XKHI1 npoqnumpo-
BclHHbIM, HJllI I1p5IMOCTCHIH,IM umpoK0 OTKpblTbII ' KaK xapaKTCpHa5I '{CpTa ll0CYJ.lbl BbIC-
Tynaer ee cna6a5l op1rnMcHrnpoBaHH0CTb (Te:1er LI-!, THTOBa 1998, 2:4-27, pac. 21). KoTo-
paH B TH xv BHllHM0 3a\1ew.ae1c5I/Bocno.11rnerc I KclK pa3 Cl1CTe'.\1011 yrrpOlUCHHOl1 opHa-
:;11::HTarum MOLIHqmu11poBaHH011 KJ1J1K. 01-rn IIJ ,e;_xc1a1ueHa 1.;1eMeHTaf'vm 1.1eKopa: npo-
t1cpqc1111h1H B B0JII0T0Bb[X, reo:-v1erp11LieCKllX KO 11103H:J,ll5IX, B CllllHl[l.J.1-!blX CJiyqa51x )lO-
li'OJIHCil HMKaMII 11 H0rTCBbIMH OTflCY.aTKdMH (]Hl :. 1, '5-7; 5, 11-13).
H 3Ll,CCb 6e3yCJlOBHO BiDKHO onpe;1e.IIITb 1103,lfl,Hl{) Ma I cpHaJJOB KJI.nc TH xv El npene-
.r1ax c:nwii KJIJIK BoCTu'rnoii nepmi}epm1 pa,.::n )UC tpaHemrn.
52 R.:, i.11a Arheologicu. Scne 110u,I

I1CTOKH 3HIX M,HepHaJI0B Ha Cpem-Ie:\1 /].Hecrpe Mbl CK.;lOHHbI CB513bIBaTb He C H0CJ1Te·-


Jl5IMH KJ1JIK I1pyn1-)~Hecrp0Bb5I (Most:10B1,r), a c nepeMernem1el\1 Hace.:1emrn 1n C3 apea-
;ra KynhrypbI, c BepxH:ero )],HeCTpa HJIH, cKcpee Bcero, Bo:1hIHH. MapKepa:\m Bhrcryna tor
0plrnMeHTbI: 1-laK0m,LI,aT0-UBeT0LJ:Hbie K0MI103IIU!1!1, pocrmcb Y:CpHo{i KpacKo(i Ha Bom.,ll!-
CKl1X rraM5ITHHKax KJIJIK (OxpiMeHKO 2001, p11c. 18, 3-4: 40, 1) H B TH XV (p11c. 4, 6 ). )lomn-
mueJ1hH0 l1 BeC0M0 B 110Jlb3Y TaKI1X napaJrnenefI CBH,[(eTeJibCTB)'eT TeXHWICCKHM np11e\1
o6pa60TKH ITOBepXHOCTeH COC)'ll,OB rpe6eHLJaTI,IMll pacLJ:eCaMH, umpoK0 rrpirMeH5IBU1HI1-
C:5I B BonhIHCKOH 1-iecJ1111r11LJ:ecK011 K)'Jihryp,,: (OxpiMeHKO 2002, 14) 11 on1etreHHb111 ~urn:
KJIJIK TH XV (pHc. 5, 7).
Tio5IBJieHI1e Bcero KOMIUieKca KepaV!HKH Cpil3Y H 0;:IH0M0MeHTH0 B npe;re:rnx na'.\rnT-
H11Ka, HaM Ka)KeTCSI, MaJ10Bep05ITHhIM. CKo::,ee CJiellyer rrpe,ano:IO)Klfl'b HeCK0JU,K0 B0}1H
J,lHq:JHJlbTpau,HH Hace:nemrn Ha IOr H3 CeBepI-ibIX pattOHOB BOJihIHH H no.:-iecCb5I, He'.ma'-H1-
TCJihHO pa3n:eJieHHbIX BO BpeMeHH. II01rnne1-rne >Ke Cl1HKpeTW-leCKOH KepaMHKH CBSI3aHo
B0'.3M0)KH0 )')Ke Henocpe,uCTBeHHO C TH X\', n1e q:JHKCHpyIOTC5I npoMeiKyT0l.J:Hbie :nam,1
npouecca MOLlHq:JHKaL(l1l1 pa3HOpOD,HbIX :rne\1eHTOB. TipwieM TpaHcq:1opMall,ll5I HLI,eT HC B
nonb3Y KJ1JIK. Otta mar 3a waroM repHeT CBOH JTH006pa3y1owHe rrpH3HaKH, rrepepa6a-
Tbrna5I/rrp11HopaB.flI1Ba5ICh K rpa,uau,H5IM llpy1 IIX KYJibTYP- Harrpm,1ep, TaK>Ke K E)],K CaM-
qmrcKott q:ia3bI (HJIH Hao6opor- ?) (puc. 5, 6).
Hamr'-n1e TaKoro KOMTIJieKca ,uocTaToY:110 Heo>KH,llamrn )]JUI Cpe;rnero )lttecrpa, HO
0Tpa:>KaeT l1 TIO,[(TBCJ))I()laCT HaJII1LJ:He HCKOern Kpl13HCa B O[CTeMe BCeH KJ1J1K BocTOY:-
HOH nepmpepJ.rn, Bbipa>KeHHOH ITOKa Hal16cnee CHJlhHO L(:UI Kpa11HeBOCTOLJ:HOH ec tJ:acrn.
Apxeonor11LJ:ecK11 OH 1:p11Kc11pyerc51 "pacrro~naHlleM" Marep11arra (pnc. 7).

Teu)],euu1rn 111cqe3uoseuust Ky.rihTYPhI


TaK, BTopoe, B0C:TOl-lHOe, HarrpaB11e1-rne ·'11cxo,ua" Hacenemrn KJIJ[K 113 Bo:1bIHII or-
MeY:aerc5I s apea:1 L{Herrpo-noHeu,KoH Kyrr1, ryph1. OHo rrpenCTaBneHo Liepe3 rraM5ITHIIKH
B )K11TOMI1pCKOM fio:[eCCbe (<PacoBaH) 11 B KHeBe (BHTa fIOJJJTOBa 2) )IO p. threnp (Tene-
fl1H 1979, 232-233; f'a.cKeBHl.J: 1998, 11-13).
HarroMHHM 11 TpeThe, OTMe4eHHoe MafomBOH oanKoi1 i:1,n>1 1oro-BocTotJ:Hoi1 rpym1Lr
KJIJ1K l13 U:eHTpa.1bHhIX pa110H0B Mcn.aoBbI B apean D)lK.
MaTepHaJihI ~ce~, '.ffl1X rraM51THHK0B B n,w 11Jm HHoii c-rerrem1 ,r.1,eM0HcTp11pyKH yTpa-
ry KYJihT)'pHoro CBOeo6pa3H5I, l-lTO rrpe:;wrrpe,lleneH0 BKJIJ0L[eHIIeM HX ~IOCIITe;lCH B l1HY10
KYJ1hTYPH0-3KOJ10r!fl[CCKYIO CHCTeMy, K0TopaH 06yc.f10BJ1e1rn BC.UYIUIIMH 11pHCBaJrna1ouu1-
Ml1 OTpaCJ15IMH X035Ii1:CTBa: OX0Ta, pbI6HcUI J!0BJUI, co6HpaTCJibCTBO. I1 BH)].IU\10 JIJI5I T0I'C)
BpeMCHH 3TO IDbU H,UI6onee pau,110HaJI6HhliI cnoco6 BhDKI1BaHI15I.
)lorn pyMhIHCKHX naM5ITHHKOB (1oro-3arri .;:rHa5I qacn, BocTOLJ:Hofi rrepmpep1rn) onya ·
WHI He CTOJlh KaTac:TpOq:JI14Ha. 3,uecb 0Ha (B513aHa C )B0.,1mu110HHhIM I13MeHeHIIe!\! cra-
Tyca, np11Benmero l{C]PC3 p5IJl 3TaTIOB I1 B3aI1MOUeHCTBHl1 C K)'.IhTypal\m Ll,y,aernTb. Eom1
K n05IBJleHmo KYJILTYPhI TI peKyKyTeHb I. OuHaKo Ha qzu10 3Toro npouecca 6br.:m no.ao-
)KeHo H0CHTeJ:i>1MH rro3L{Hett KJIJIK, ;:r.rur K0T0pbrx TaKiKe 3acBH/LeTenbcTB0BaHo nepeMe-
meime HaceneHmI H3 u,eHTpaJihHbIX pai'.ioH< 1B PYMbIHCKOl1 :Moc1;:J,0Bbl B lO)KHbIC. HcL1.1Y,·
HaikKHe (Mynremrn, Onremrn) (Ursulescu 2000, 339-344). oo.:1ee Torn. 3T0 rrepe:-.1ewe-
m1e orMe4eHo BnnoTb no oocq:iopa. MarepuanhI rr03;U1ett KJIJ1K nocT11ra10T rpamm
Ma11011 A3HH, rne o6Irnpy>KeHhI B rpeTbeM c.1oe re;i.;rn 5Ip11M6ypnn (rnponciicKa51 4acn,
Typ1~1111) (Ozdogan u.a. 1991, Fig. 3).
HaH6onee Ba}KHbIM B 3T0M BapnaH1e ''110Tep11" KYJibTyp1,1 c1e;.1,yer np1BHaTb coxpa·
HeHIIC I1 C0BeprneHCTBOBamie rrp0IBB0Jl5Illl,,IX cpopM X035IJJCTBOBa!H:U1 C BT0J)li 1 rnol1 PO··
Jlb!0 l!DHCBaHBaJOLUliX OTpacnei-L
I ()lU/111/l l/, NI'. 1-2 53

I I I
/; /
1
pacnpoCTpaHett11e KJlJIK

KJIJIK
B HHOKYJlbTYPHOi~ cpene

HarrpaBnemrn
nepeMew.emrn MaTepnanoB

., CTOJI 11 Ubl rocy nap cm

I1oceJiem1e TH-XV

4ep1-we Mope

Puc. 7. BocnY'IHhIH apeaJI KJIJIK 11 MaTepH: JJhI KYJihTYPhI 1a ero rrpe,uenaMH.

gmI fipy10-)J,HecTpOBb5l B03MO)KHbl llBe TeH1lCHUl111 B I1Ct.Je3HOBeHHI1 KYJihTyp1:.1: rrep-


l:l,UI .~ 3'To BK~'1IOLieHHe (orroK) Hacenemui: B c11cTe~·ry 1panccpopMaum1 ICy.r1h1yph1 no 10ro-
32,na;:uwl\1y 06pa3uy c coxpattem1eM OCHOB rrpc l13BOJlHW:ero xo3HHCTBa. BTopa51 TeH-
ncmu1;1 6onee ,UOCTOBepHO fIO)lTBC]P)KllCHa HCT0 1IHJ1KaMH, CBI1JlCTCJibCTBYl:OW:I1MI1 0 BKJIIO-
LfCHI1H 1 iacT11 Hacem:mrn KJIJ1K B c11cTeMy E)J,K. ·\ 3TO np11Beno K Kapmrna.rrhHOMY cno-
~1y KYJibTYPhl, n0Tep11 ee OCHOB np11 rrepexone Ha 1rny10 CHCTeMy X035llfC'rBa C senyr.UHMH
np11rna11saIOW:llMl1 OTpacmIMH np11 BTOpI11.:!HblX II pOI13BO)l51W:I1X.
54 Rc'11s1a .-lrhco!og,in1. Serie nuud

AHa:IOn-ILIHbllI rj pouecc on1e 1 1aeTcH xu ceBep!!b!X Bo:rbIHCKHX 11 ;:{HecTpOBCKHX ua--


M5r rn11K0B KJ1JIJ-::. Hap5C1.Y c B'3ctll\JOJ.~:iicr u1c:\1 c f;JU( ~10:+:Hu roBop11Tb o BK;IIOlJcHlrn
HX HOCl!Te.1efr B IIHY!O X035llicrnem-1y10 Cl!C, e,,!y H~lCC.'.le"Hl [5I ,]Hl.:'CTpci-Eyrc1rnro II Jhr,:cr-
po-LlttenpOBC:KOro apea:ra.
C:ro;1b Ba:KH1>1e KYJlbTYPHbie nepnyp6,.u1rn 0LFrn xapaKTepHbl He T0,lbK0 ;:rm HOl>
TO'-IHOtt nep11i}ep1rn 1GTJIK. HO ox..Bau1.·m ..:o6oi'i :ma,une;11>Hh1i1 apea.1 U:eHrpaJ11,1101~i 11
]f(),KHOH EBpOTibI. Chm 0hIJII·L KaK ce11Yac ycTaH0B:IeH0., 06yC.'[OB:1CHU rrp11p0D.H0-K.IJl-
Man1qecKHMl'.I oco6eHHOCT5IMII 1103)1HC10 H:.:o:rn ra H CB5I3aHbl C 11ccymettHeM K;ll1;-.Iara l1
~!Ha4HTeJ1bHhIM rI0XGJI0JWHl!eM B IIpC;lCcla:, cepe.J,JIHhl-K0HUa \ Tb!C .•10 II.J (bC3YCbKCJ,
KoToBa 1997, 146; Crn1p11JJ:0H0Ba. Arrern11H1Ka51 I 999, 13) 1-ho II np1rne:10 K CT0.1b Kap:w-
uaJ1bHbIM Ky;11>TyrH bIM c.:-io;1.,rnM B 1rnrp0Ko\1 apea;1e KpaiIHcil BocH>'JHoii nepw.~epirn
KJIJIK. Ho K 3T0MY upeMem1 y>Ke 6hFr 3an: mett MexaHH3\I B03HJ1KH0Bemrn Ky:u,Typ HO-
BOro 3HC0.iH1Tl1'-ICCK0ro o6m-IKa.

bllIO:IHOrpa<jHfH
Bap3apb, TTe:>Ke\teKm1 2003: A. Bap3apr,, /l. fie)KeMCKHi'::. f1a;1e<HHTporronon1Lrec-
KI1tt MaTepaa.;1 H3 no3mreTp1mo.:11,cKoro K1lMrL1eKca T3T3pJyKa Hoy~) XY. Interferente
cultural-cronologic:e in spatiul nord-pontic (Chis1 nau 2003 ), 81-88.
Bap3apb, Ilen:e.MCKHH, Jlapmrn 2005 A. Bapmph, )],. fie>Ke:>.teKHti, 0. Jiap1rna, f1a.:1eo-
a1-rrponos1or11:.recKHV rvraTep11a:1 II03D:He'lepr10:reccKoro K0MnrreKca T3T3p3yKa Hoy3 XV
(flpeJ.Bap1ITeJibHOe 3aKJ1IOL£e1rne). Revista Arheologica, SN. Vol. I, l, 2005, 381--386.
bC3YCbKO, KoTC>Ba 1997: n.r. bC3)'CbKO. H.C. KoTOBa, Ky;JbTypa Jll'.lHCHHO-JICHTO'-I-
HOlr KepaMHKH Ha YKpa1rne 11 ee rrpupo;:rnoe oKpy)Kemre. B c6.: ApxeoJ1onrn a 3THo:ro-
nrn BocTO'-!HOI1 EBponbr. MarepManr,1 a I1Ci:a1e;(0Bamrn (OJJ:ecca 1997), 125-135.
faCKCBH'-l 2001: ,U:SacKeBH'-l, PeriOI-Ia;"lbJii OCO0JHiBOCn )' HC0:1iTH3dIJ.ii nlpmr'5ITCbKO·
ro TI0J1icc5I. B c6.: ricraphI'-IHa-Apxeonor·i•rnhr '36opHiK, J\'"0 16 ( MiHcK 2001 ), 36-49.
,llamrneHKO 1969 B.H . .UamL1eHKO . Hee .IHT YKpaHHhI (KM.eB 1969).
,llamrneHKO 1985 B.H. ,llattHJICHKO. Eyri >-,llHecTpOBCKa5I KYJihTypa. ApxeoJ1onrn ·yK-·
panttcKOH CCP. T. 1 (K11eB 1985), 118-126.
KoroBa 2002: H.C. KoroBa, Heo.:HlT113a1JH5l YKpa1mh1 (.1yraHcK 2002)
llapHml n n:p. 1997: O.B . .1apHHa, K.-f I. Bex.1ep, B.A.D:eprnlfeB., C.H.KoBaJieHKO,
B.~f.6HK6aeB. HoBhle ll0JICBbIC HCC.le]l0BallH5I flcl\15:ITHHK0B ;-.,1eJ0J1JHa-Heo;nITa B :v10:1-
D:0Be. B c6.: Vestigii arheolog1ce din Moldova (Chi:,inau 1997). 62-1 J 0.
J1apMHa 1999: 0 . B. Jiap1rna, Ky:Ihl ypa . [HH;?lfHO-:Iein ,)lJ:HOii Kepa\HJKJI n py-ro--)lHC·
CTpoBcKoro pernmrn. Stratum plus 2, 1999, 1-1-::LO.
Jiap1rna 2003: 0. B. flap1ma, Tio:mHeT]JlffiOalhCKOe norpe6ei-me rop.JJ1HClilTCK0fO nma
Ha jlttecTpe . In: Interferenre cultural-cronologicc in spatiul nord-pontic ( Chi:?inau 2003 )., 57-80.
Jlapmrn 2005: O.B. }Jap11Ha, IlpomBOJ.':TBCHI!O-XO:rniicTBeHl{blli K0MILICKC ncn;nic-
'-!epHOJICCCKOII Ky.;-r1,1yph1 TJTJJByKa Hoy3 XY. Revista Arheologicii, S:\. Vol. L l. 2005.
240--267.
]1ap1rna, Karnybi::L 2005: O.B. napmra, \1.T. Karny6a. rio3dHeilurne noJatteL£t·p110-
;1eccK11e MaTep1ranbr rroceJ1CHH5l T3np3yKa Hoy1 XY. Revista Arheol.ogica, SN. Vol. L l,
2005, 212-239.
Jlap1rna, fleTpeHKO, Cano:+:HIIKOB 1999: O.B. Jlap1rna, BT. [IcrpeHKO, H.B. CanoiK1-111-
K0B, KyJ1bTypa ~111 Hei:l:uo-:1e1rroYHO:V'. Kep ar--rn Kl! D:Hecrpo- 5yrcKoro \1e:-K;ly peyr,51:.
C1apo;+:in10CTi rii-rnHi'IHOf'O I1pw-1epHOMop·5t i Kpirny, BbUI vn
nanopmKbe 1999), 10-21.
MapKCBWI 1964: BJ1. MapKeBWI. l\1aTC[:l!a}]bI K KapTe He(\j)ifl JlllCCKHX IIaMJITHfIK0B
flpy1n-;1HeCTpom)H. KCOIArvJ rn 1962 1. (Onecca 1964). 86-87
Ji 'f!U.Jlii/ ;J 55

TvL,DI-TBll . 974: B l L l\:lap1,emF1. Kyro-JLH.:c1poncKa5I Ky:1b1ypa Ha 1epp1nopHH


l\Lu;t Ln: .it, K,1tu1rneB I 9·~4).
()xpL':1L·rn--:o 200 I: r
B. OxpL\k:HKO, Ky.1LT'.','lXl .T r1efiHo-npil1KoB011 KepaMHKH Ha Bomrni
(. ·1 \1 l hi, l },
O,.pi\11:Th:ti ?01C. Li. OxpiMe11Ko, Heo.'11 r Bommi. ABropc<pepaT Ka1-1,cr11na1a
ic [Op,P1e,:,,,:x. 1::tyK Km; 2002)
Crmp1110H0Hd. A;1euJ,m1cKa>1 I 999: E.A. Crrn JHJJOHOBa, A.C A.m~rn11HcKa51, riep110-
;11nawrn f!e( ·nr t,1- :Heon, ra l'.Bpone?icK011 Pocc1n rIO ;JaHHhIM nan11HoJIOflfLICCKol·o atta-
:11 r n. PA : . ! l)<lt)

Te !Ci liH 19 : JlJ1. ·1,: le'! lilL HoBbIC J13M>l.IH 1Kll Ky.·H>ryp1,1 .Il1HClIHO-J1CHTOlIHOil Ke-
p:;l\ilil-ll 1u \'i;pa:u-1c. Ci\~~- 1979
Tc1errnr 1985. ,iLB i e1er1m. jl1-re11po-jl0He1 .K,rn Ky:11,Typa. B c6.: Apxeononrn YK-
p:1,rnchofi CCP(Kuen l'.J:s",). 156-[75.
Tc1c1m1 T1n,JBa }(J(J-.;· 215L Tea1CrIIH, E.H. -,HTOBci. TToce.:1cHH:>l. ,lHenpo-JloaeuKor1
LHO!,'.,HL-r~, t'11r,11r u .Hi mux11 Hcomna (Ku :B 1998).
!VL.ct mc)c u- B1 !cu t 9l5 l: S '.vlannescu-Biku, Tirpest1. I rorn Preh1storie to History in Eastern Romania.
HAR J07 (London l 981 ). '·,-76.
(lzdo;cgan u a. l 9i) l ~·1 C)zduggan, Y. Miyake, N.C '. Dede, An Interim Report on Excavations at
Yanrnl,Jr,pz Tnptcpe n. Fstem Thrace. Anatolica XVII (Istanbul 1991), 59-121.
Ur"rksct, .200:..:. N. Urs tlescu. Contribtii privind e 10lutia culturii ceramicii liniare pe teritoriul
i\ l,J!do, e1. Cl ,rnnbup. pt 1\ md 11eolit1cul ~i eneliticul din regiunile Est-Carpatice ale Romaaniei. Vol. I
(ia~i 2 J0:1.\ 1

\\lcch1cr ;, . l ')9' K.-!' \e"'.hler. \'. Dcrgacev, O. l .aiina, >h~ue Forschungen zum Neolithikum
· s,: de:· ,·noldaYisch--deutschen Gel. .ndearbeiten 1995 und 1997. Praehistoiische
_;n- 1\cw York 1998), 151-166.

0.7hc',; .Ju:, 1:1,1 ,!ui,lii, /J UCl/10/Jlill. l]enmp ap:n nOZUU, f111cmumym KJ'.7bmJp1LOZO 1/QC/te-
chUI. A J;{l(/C \111>1 1w11. }J,n,Jue1,i. r 1. Af11111pono.1wna b'·:J//y.1e,·Ky £0001111 35, A1]l-2012, Kuwu-
11 ;1.1·, F'C('U\'0 l!U,'U :\1 }'!,)(lfi1'
56 Revisra Arheologica. Serie noua

)lHHAMHKA PA3BHTH51 )lOMAlllHEfO CTAJ~A HEOJIHTA - liPOH3b1


IOf'A BOCTQqHOH EBPOflhl KAK B03MO)KHbll1
HH)lHKATOP KJIHI\1ATH 1 IECKHX 113MEHEHHM TTPOllIJIOfO*

BaJieHTHH ,[(EPrA lJEB, K1-mmHJ)'

,,Dinamica .rJezvoltiirii $epte/u/ui din neolitic - t·poca bronzului in sudul Europei de Est in calitate de
verosimil indicalor al schimbiirilor climaterice din trecut". Articolul include analiza izvoarelor arheozoologice
ce apar{in 11eolitic11/u1-cpocii hronzului din sudul Europei de Est in vederea evidenfierii eventua!elor
lransformari c!imateriff i~z perioadele respectii·e. A11ali::a evolufiei cre 9terii anima!elor domestice in zona
vesticii, in care predomina tipul de economie agricol!:. Ji 111 zona esticii, cu predominarea tipului de economie
pasto,·a/6, scoatc in evulen{a existen{a o doua perioade de crizii in cre:jterea animalelor domestice in regiunile
de silvostepii Ji stepi,,i din sudu! Europei de Est, determinate de modifzcarile radicale ale climei. 0 perioadc1 de
criza revine neoiiticului mijlociu (4500-4000 BC), iar cealalta preponderent epocii bronzului timpuriu (3500-
2800 BC;. Cercerarea e(cctuata conjirma posibilitatu1 utilizarii date/or arheozoologiei pentru determinarea
1ransformiirilor climaterice din preistorie.

C111a111bJ1 11oceJ1we1w a11a.w1y apxeo100.10z11 11ecK11Y ucn101J11UKOB 11eo.,1u111a-6po1i3bl 10,'a Boc11101J11oii Eepo-
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6'00C/118(l .1ecoc111e1111b/X 11 Cll1Cllllb/X pe?UOl/08 IOZll Bot17i0'11/0ll Eep011bl, onpeiJe.?ell/10 C8J/3{l/ll/b/X C pe3KWit1/ K,111-
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e111opo11 - 11a nep1100, z.W@'bl.lt 06pmo.11, paw,eii 6po1131,1 (3500-2800 BC). Jfcc.1eooea11ue nodmeepJ1crJae111 eo1-
_\lcu1c11oc111b uc110.1b306amiR om111btX apxeo100.10c'llll d.1,1 011peoe.1e11uJ1 K.-111.1wmu1JecKux u1.11e11e11uii npow.wzo.

"Dynamics ofthe daelopment of house herd ofa neolith-bronze ofthe south the East Europe as the possible
indicator of climatic changes of the past". This article is dedicated to analysis of archeozoological sources of the
Neolit!tic-Bron::.e period of tlze South of the East em Europe for the purpose of exposure of climatic changes of the
past. The analysis of ernl111io11 of domestic herd in the w,st cultural .:.one ( mainly agricultural) and in the east one
(111ai11lv cattle-breeding) re1 1eals two main crisis periods of lii•e stock forming in the forest-steppe region and
steppe region of the south of Eastern Europe. These crij isses were associated with sharp changes in the climate.
The .first of them took place in the period of middle En, olith ( 4500-4000 BC), the seco11d -· in the early Bro11ze
penod (3500-2800 BC). Tizis work confirms the possibility of application archeo-::.oological facts with the purpose
of definition of cli111at1c changes of the past.

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Rerista Arlieologicll. Serie 11011d

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(Gorsdorf, Bojanztev 1996; Mantu 1998; Bern 2001; Telegin et al., 2002: om1 )Ke 2003; lfrpHhIX 11
2000: 11Banosa 2005: I1ycTOBaJ10B 2005 11 MH. IIp.).
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CXCMbI). B CHJIY muneTTbHOH 0CCIIJl0CTH HaCe:HeHl15I ll HaJil1Y.l15I MH0)l(ecrna MHOfOCJ10l1HhIX
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C•I MUN- PRUT
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BC TENIA steppe

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(]{ B0CT0KY OT KapnaT) HC0IIUT H pa3BIITHe iKHB,)TH0B0,1CTBa Ha'-HIHaJ10Ch KaK pe3yJib-
Ta r np5lMOH 1rnrpo;ryK11m1 - 3a c 1 1e1 paccenemrn 1oc11reJ1e11 KY-'IhTypht Crnpqeso-Kp11w
i,n 60.nee JO)l(Hb!X perH0H0B 1:;aJIKaHo-Tio,aymlBb>. B BOCTO'-IHOii KYJII,TYPHOH 30He 3T0T
npouecc pcamfloBaJIC51, L'IaBHbl\1 o6pa30'.YI, 3a Cl, ~T 0TI0CpCLl0BaHHh!X BJ1H51HHH J{))l(HblX,
6unee pa3BHTbIX o6weCTB Bocrolmoro Tip11Kap1 an,5l, KaBKa3a II, B03,\lOiKH0, 0T'-lacn1
II IOro-BocTo'-IHoro 3aKa1~mur. 3so.11omrn o6umc c1eil 3ananttou Ky.,1hrypH01130HbI, JK0-
H0MHKa K0TOpblX ()bJ.:Ia 0CH0BaHa Ha c6aJ[aHCll )0BaHH0M pa3Bl1Tl1l! 3eMJieJleJ1h'-!eCK0-
)K l!B0I H0B0lllfCCK0I 0 K0~1IL1C:KCa, CB5l'3clHa LW.Bl b!M. o6pa30M C ;1ecocTeTIHblMl1 penIO-
HaMH KapnaTo-rIO,lHCCTJ)OBb5l, no6y)Kb51 l1 }lCB( 1 6epe,i<b51 .U,Herrpa If, B MeHbWel'i CTeTie-
HJ[, co CTem1b1MH pattoHaMH Cesepo-3anamwro IT pw-repH0M0pb51. 3somomrn )Ke 06w-
Hoc1eii BOCT04HOH KyJ11,1ypH011 30HbI, :-JK0H0MIIK L K0TOpbIX (s orny cneuJ1qmKH Tipttpo,u-
HblX ycJIOBIIH), H3Ha4cl.1lhH0 opHCHnrposaH!W5! Iia npe~L'v1ywecTse1mo CK0TOB0,LJ,'-IeCKYIO
0CHOBY' B paBHOl1 crene1rn CB5!3aI-rn KaK C JICC0C-J em[hIMII, TaK lI CTeIJHhlMl1 penIOHaMH.
Ho, Ha paHHHX 3Tanax CJIO)Kt:HH5l K0MlFICKCa )KJ1 lOTHOB0ilCTBa 'HOT npouecc 3LlCCh 0bIJ1
npaypo'-JCH np110pHTCTI{() K .1CC0CTCIIHbn1 perH( aa111, a. C ,\10,\1CHTa 0Tpa60TKI1 HaII60-
J1ee a,:ieKBaTH0 C00TBCTCTBYK)lUHX CTICUlHlH1'-lCCKJ'1\1 YCJIOBl15lM CTenH -- )KHB0TH0B0LlCTB0
Ill !Ip0K0 BHCllp5leTC51 II B CTCI!Hhle perH0HbI.
J.1 fl()CJ[e,1ttee. vJ 3ana.JHa5t, W B0CT0'-1Ha5l Kym,rypHb[C 30Hh[, )lC:\IOHCTp11py5l LI,JU1TeJ1h-
H)'I0 OTH0Cl1TCJ!bH0 HCITpepbIBHYK> npeeMCTBCHH0 1:Tb B pa3Bl1THH cnew1qm'-IHbIX LI.JUI Ka)K-
,[(011 113 HHX HCX0)lHbIX Tpamurnii, JIHlllh ,UBa:iK,J,bl iia npcn 51.)KCHHI1 6e3 \13..aoro Il5ITH TblC5I-
4C:o'1CTJ1H o6Hapy)KHBaKn B CBOeM pa3BHTI111 pe31 :He. Ka'-1ecTBeHHhie pa3pbIBbI. B 0JJ:H0M
c.n:yqae JT0 rrp11xo;lHTC5l Ha cpellHHH JHCOJHIT, Kc rna naM51THHKH -raK Ha3bIBaeMoro Ho-
B0D,aH:nnoscKoro nma (npennaBJieHbl JJIIWb KYP ·aHHhl\111 KOMIL1eKaCl\1l1) rrry6oKO BKJIH-
Hl1BaIOTC51 B apean 1eM. 1e.::iem,'-!ecK11x Ky,1.hTYP sn 10Tb ,J.o uettTpaJl.hHbIX EanKaH H TToni-
0

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HClfC3H0BeHHe Kyn1Typ1,1 Bap1-ra). BTopoi'.i cc1.y4ai TipaxomITc51 Ha nepm),u patttteii 6poH-
3bI, Korna MaCC0Bb!C MHI ]XlllH!I HOClITCJICil 5['.v1HO!, KYHbTY pbl TipHBOJl5lT K TT0JIHOMY HC'-!e3-
H0Bemno KJ1aCCll4tCKliX pa1rne:-ser,L1e,ile;11L£CCKH\ Ky.'11>ryp Kapmno-Tio;:i,yHaBh5l Jl0 Tex
,Ke llCI-iTpcU1bHbIX Laal.Ka!L 10rnc1aBCK0I0 fam,n L lI Bepxaero f10111CbJf (pHc. 1 -- TclKHe
K),,lhTYPbT o6o3HalJeHbl l' ;_tsycropoHHe op11eHTIIJ 10Bam1bL\m cTpenKa\1H).

oaJa ll3HHI.IX
Jl,:rn peam13auirn 3a:1y!'v1att11oro aHamna. aHopoM 6Lrrr11 co6pam,1 ;1aHHbie 6011ee
lJCM no 400 apxeo300JJOI H'-ICCKI1M K0:LlCKUH}!\L 1!3BCCT!fhl\.1 Jl;l.51 fl3.l\151THHK0B paccMaT-
p1maeMoro Bpe:-,.1em1 11 !Ip0CTpaI-ICTBa. 0,J,IIaKO l1HCpopMauirn II0 MH0fHM K0J1JICKlll151M
cjlpan.1e1napHa. BH.:lOBOii COCTaB MH0fllX 11'3 K( iL1t:Klllll1 onpe1J,eJ1CH :rnUib TIO K0CT51.M.
JXe:ro B TOM, llf0 no '.vrneHmo ue,.·1010 p5IWt cne1 11a.•mcToB-apxeo3oonoros, noKa3aTerni
1[0 oco651M nponrnope'-!llBbI, He06bCKTl1BI-!l:,J [ II0JT0MY !IX 0Tipc,ueJieHHe l1'3J111lllHe
(Morales, Antipina 2003; AHT!IlilIHa 2003 ). Me;r:;1: TCM, HtC0CT05lTCJlbH0CTb :Horn MHCH1151
onponepraCTC>l p,npa6urKaMH B.11. Lla;1Kl1!-Ia . 1956), KOTOJ)h[II 11)cXCl1'1CCKH 0ll11H H3
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>,.:ipar,:rep HX cooTHorneu1rn 6hi:u1 ca1\1oc1 o,ne, hI-W 06ocH0BaH1,1 B 1-1arneM cneu11an1,-
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60 Revista Arheo/ogica. Serie 1101111

MHOro1.rncneHHble [IC) K0CT5IM BlUlbl, I,aK npas1rno, D:RJOT Cl1J1b!i0e 3aHmKeHJIC 411CJJa oco-
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1
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:mre11eti CTporo ofonaTeneH, H, B0-BT0PLI C l.[T() 0UCHKa :rna4HM0CTH BH.na Ha HHTep-
npeTaUH0HH0M ypcrntte D:OJDKHa npOB0)ll1T.:,C5! He no '-IHCJIY KOCTCH HJ!l1 oco6e11, a no !IX
cpenHeapmpMCTH4eCKHY1 31-Ia'-ICHH5!M. HMel!HO llOJTOMY i.l,JI5I JlaHH0fO l1CCJIC).lOBaHml Mb]
orpaHH'-IHJIHCb JlHUlb TCMH apxeo30JICfl1'-IeCKHMH KOJIJ!CKIJ,l151MH, BHJJOBOH C0CTaB KOT0-
pbIX 113secTe1-1 KaK no 1.rncn:y Koc1ei1, TaK 11 no '-IHcry oco6e11.
B o6meti CJI0:>KH0CTH Ha.M yn:aJlOCb coCpaTb ll0JIHbIC llRHHbie 110 242 KOJIJieKUH5IM
O6o6meHHbIC D:clHHble rro BCeM JTHM KOJIJICK1ll151M rrpeD,CTaBJICHbI B CBOD:HOH Ta6mme 1.
a HX JIOKaJll13aUH51 -- Kaprn l (rrOJIHl,Jll crracoK Y'-lTCHHbIX Ko;neKUHll H pacumcppOBKa
HCTO'-IHHK0B -- CM. j:(epraqes 2006).
KaK cnenyeT 113 Ta6JIH'-IHOro .MaTepI-Ia.Jia H KapTbI, B BbI60pKe OTH0ClITCJII,H0 npo-
nopllIIOHaJibHO npe.ncTasneHbI o6e :mrrepecy1ow11e Hae KYHbTYPHbre 30HbI: 3arra;ma51 -
126 KOJIJICKUHH (rn6rr. L CTOJI6. 4) II BOCT0'IHa5! - 116 KOJIJICKIJ,1111, XOT51 npOT51)KCHHOCTb
rrocnenHe11 pa3 B rnecTb 6onbllle neps011 (KapTa 1). BMecTe c TeM,, BbI6opKa s611paer B
ce65I KOJIJICKUHH KaK necocrerrHhlX, TaK 11 CTCIIHbIX pen10HOB Ka)K,0,0IJ: II3 KYJibTYPHb!X
30H, HO B 3TOM c;1ylrae HX '-IHCJICHH0CTb no o6eHM 30HaM 5IBH0 CBH)leTeJibCTByeT B Il0Jlb3Y
JICCOCTCTIHbIX perII0H0B.
B npocTpaHCTBCHH0M OTH0111CHIIH o6pawaeT Ha ce65I BHI-IMaHHe JI0KamBauirn K0:1-
JieKIJ,1111 B BOCTO'-IHOll KYITbTYPHOH 30He OT)lC.1bHbIMl1 OTH0CHTeJibH0 KOMilaKTHbIMH rpyn-
na.MII (no CpentteMy II HII)l(HeMy I10,wenposb10, CeBepttoMy Ilp11.a1osb10, s CpemreM
llon:ottuoshe, BepxoBb51X JJ:otta, Cpe[(He.M lloBOJI:>Kbe II/mm IOro-3anam-toM ITpIIypa-
Jibe), KOTopa5r, no cyn1 csoeti, oTpa)I<aeT o6myro KynhrypHo-repp11TopuaJibHy10 crre1rn-
cp11Ky pa3BlITirn ]TOfi 30Hhl.
Cononqunetttthre 3an:a1.Ja.M IIccnenonam151 H orosopettttoi1 Bhrme npouenype atta;rn-
3a )l3HHbie no apxe0300JIOrH'-IeCKl1M K0J1JieK1imrM B ra6rr11ue l (11 B IIOIJ:TCKC:Te K KapTe 1)
opraHH30BaH6I TIO KYJibTYPHbIM 30HaM. B l,IX xpoHOJIOHI'-ICCKOI1 nocnenoBaTeJJbH0CTa:
no JnoxaM II nepno,Ja.M, HO BMCCTe C Te.M H C yLJ:eT0M H HX per110HaJ1bHbIX -- rrpHp0,IlHbIX
np05IBJICHHH. Ka)K,],blH II3 rrepH0D:OB B6Hp; leT B ce65I 0ilHH, a npu HaJIH411lI )laHHbIX --
I(Ba KYJihTYPHbIX 6noKa, npencrasneHHbIX KOJIJ1CKUH5IMII TO mI OD.HOH, TO JlII i1BYM5I HJ1II
HCCK0JlbKIIM KOHKpeTHbIM apxeonorw1eCKl1 M KYJihTypa.M, Jl0KYMCHTHpyIOIIUIJ\111 pa3Hble
B npHp0Ll,H0M 0TH0UICHIH! perII0Hbl TOJ1 ihC KYJ1bTypHoit 30Hbl (B 0JlH0M cnylrne neco-
C:TeI1Hbie, B npyroM - CTeTIHbie).
K npnMepy, no :iarraD.HOH 30He (rn6n. l, cron6. 3, N2N2 1-3) paHHm1 aeomrr npeI(-
CTaBJ1eH Kom1eK1u1.HM11 scero m1mb o.::mofi Ky.111,Typ1,1 (Crap -1eso-Kp1uu), CB5I3aHHoii c 1

necOCTCI1HbIM perH0H0M. A II03Ll,HH!1 He0JIH [' - ,JBYM5! KYITbTYPHbIMH 6noKaMH (mme11HO-


JICHT04HOI1 Ke:paMHK111 II D05IH), HO rrepBbIH H3 HHX )l0KYMCJ·ITHpyer JICCOCTCIIHOI1 pen10H,
a sropoti - CTerrHoii (HII30Bb5I JJ:yHa51). JJ:pyro11 npHMep no BOCTO'-IHOII Kym,TypHOfl 30HC
(ra6n. 1, CTon6. 3, J\·0.~? 14-17). Paam1ti Heom1 r npeL1,cTasne11 D.BYYI51 KYJihTYPHhIMII 6noKaM11,
ofrbeJIHH5IIOWHMH 1<orn1eKllHl1 rrnyx pa:mbIX, 0TH0CHTeJibH0 o;umspeMeHHbIX KYJibTYP· Ho
0).lHa 113 HHX CB513aHa C JICC0CTeTTHbIMII perHOl-Ial\111 (Eyro-J(HCCTpOBCJGlH l ab). a BTOpa51 co
CTCI1HbIM (CypcKaH I-II). A BOT B c.r1yqae K)'J1bT)'pHbIX 6JIOKOB II03JlHCro Heomna (rn6n. I, CTOJ16.
3. M!NQ 16-17) nepBbli1 113 6JIOKOB, 11pe)lCTaBJ151 i01IU-II1 necoCTerIHbIC pernOI-[bl, aK!KyMy,11 rpyer B
ce6e naHHhie no K0JneKIUI51M '-IeThrpex pa3Hbl'<. KYJibTYP (no·31rnei1 Eyro--j~Hee11,onc1<m1. paII-
Hei1 ,[(Henpo-/J;oHeL.o,:oiL CpenHe-Bo.mKcKoii 11 paHHe11 Arn,1enbcKoIJ), a BTopoh 6noK,
npencraBJI5IIOl.Ul111 CTC!IHOli pen10H - IklHHb!C TIO K0JIJleKIUUIM nsyx pa3Hb!X KY:IbTYP (no-
'3DHdi CypcKOH 11 pa1meil MapHynonhcK011). K0He1.rno. ;Ji:l'lCKO 1-1e KaiK.Ub1i1 H3 BbJJlC:le'!lHbIX
Vo/11mul 11, Nr. 1-2 61

Kapra 1. Apxco100;10rw1ecKHe K0MnJieKChl 11eomna - 6poH3hI 1<1ra Bocro<111011 Esponb1.


Yc,OBHbie 06011rn'-!eH11ll. I - rpan11ua neca II J1ecocrem1. II - rpa1,11ua necocre1rn II crenn. III -· rpa,rnua crem1 11 no,1yny-
CTb11111. I - K0MflHeKCb! 3aria)lHOII ('3eMJie)leJ7b"ICCK011) H 2 - K0MflJl<.KCbl BOCT04HOl1 (npe11MyLUe,:TBCHHO CKOTOBO)l4CCKOH)
K)'JlhTypHblX JOH. KyJJbTYPhl II naMllTHHKH no 3flOXaM H nepHO)laM.
HEOJIHT (pa1rn11ii 11 no1nm1ii). fil;rrg!vo-Cri,i;. 1 - Pogora~ti, 2 - Ba ~. 3 ·- Gliivanc~ti Vechi. 4 - Valca Lupului, 5 - Trcstiana, 6 -
Sacarovca I, 7 - Scli~tc. Ky.1LTypa .1u11ei\110-.:1e11TO'l11oit Kepa'1mm: 8 -· Trai. n D.F .. 9 - Rogojcni, IO - Florc~ti, 11 - Tira, 12 ·- 3aCTasHe,
13 - fOHblWCB, 14 - fHl!)laBa, 15 - PoBHO, 16 - rupKa ITOJIOHKa. 17 - ] ,ypm1KIIB 51p. 18 - 6aCHB Ky,. ]!oian: 19 - lzvoarclc, 20 -
Tangiru. 21 - Radovanu, 22 - Casciorclc, 23 - Var~ti, 24 - Coslogcni, 25 - \ adiccasca. 26 - Bogata. 27 - Sili~tea Conac, 28 - Lunca, 29 -
Galati. furo-1I11ec:rposcKa11: 30 - Sonx:a I-Ill,\'. 31 - I1e4epa. 32 - CoKom m I-ll. 33 - oa3hKOB Oc-rpos I-II, 34 - ComyroB Ocrpos I-
II. 35 - flyra4. 36 - fapn. ~ : 37 - CypcKHii Ocrpos l-5, 38 - l1rpe1;b 5. 39 - Wy11aea OcrpoB. 40 ·- CeMeHOBKa I. MapuynOJu.c-
KilH I {A30so-1I11enposci,:a11. HH')l(neaoncKJ!.!!.l: 38 - l1rpeHb 8. 40a - YanaeE ;ca. 41 - Pa:inonbHoe. ~.:lll111eu15a11 I: 42 - 6y3bKH, 43 -
Me11;oxoB Eyrop.CpennesomKcKan: 44 - l1sa11oscKall, 45 - B1L1osaTcKall. illli1.e.1bc1~an I: 46 - My,1J1HHO I-II, 47 - ,[laBIIemKoso I-IL
3HEOJIHT (paHHHH). Precucuteni-Tomom.e_A_: 8 - Traian D.V, 9 - Rogojcni I. 10 - Florc~ti, 48 . Tirpc~ti, 49 - Tirgu Frumos,
50 - Putinc~ti 1, 51 - Alcxandrcuca I. 52 - ls.1cova II. 53 - Solonccni 1. 54 Hokrcani I, 55 - Rusc~tii Noi. 56 - Carbuna, 57 - EepHOBO
flyKa. 58 - fleHKOBUH. 59 - flyKa Bpy6neseuKall. 60 - 6epHaLUeBKa. 61 - Ca6arnHosKa IL 60.1rpu:Aldeni II, 62 - Succvcni, 63 -
Li~cotcanca I, 64 - Lopa\ica, 65 - Cocoara I, 66 - Vulcanqti II, 67 - I,o,~,pa;i, 68 ·- O3epHoe. MapuD1!),.1bcKa11 II: 40 - CeMeHOBKa
II. 41 - Pa:i,.toJihHoe 2. 69 - Co6a4Kll. 70 - Cpe;IHHii Cror. .ll!!ffiru:t:Ll,_,fil]!!;:an ]1: 71 - f"pHmesKa I-II. 72 - IToropeIIOBKa. 73 -
.nucory60B1<a. 74 - Ty6a 2, 75 - HoBOCC,10BKa. 76 - Crnpo6e.,bCK, 77 - 3aHOBCKOe l. CaMapci,:a11: _44 - l1BaHOBCK3ll, 45 -
B11.~0BaTCKaH. 78 - .ne6ll:.KIIHKa !IL ,llJ~lbCKan__ll;, 46 - My,lJll!HO Ill 47 ·- ]las:1e11KOBO Ill.
3H!EOJIHT (cpenHm1 H no3ilHHil). !Ju:uteni A-Tp11110.1be Bl: 48 - T -pc~ti, 53 - Solonccni 11, 55 - Rusc~tii Noi, 61 - Ca6amHoB-
Ka I. 79 · Dragu~cni Ostrov, 80 - Tru~c~li Tugucta. 81 - Bal\a\i. 82 ·- Duml ;ti. 83 -· Jlo;11manos 51p. 84 - EepeJoscKall f3C ~
AB, B-Tp1mo.1be B. C 1: 4 - Valca Lupului. 8 - Ttaian D.F.. 85 - Ghcliiql 86 · Cuculcni Ccta\uia, 87 ·· Mitoc, 88 - Iablona 1,13,15, 89
- Caracu~cnii Vcchi I, 90 - Brinzani IV.VIII. 91 - Kmmrnosuu, 92 - Cyxoc aB. 93 - KyH11cosu11. 94 - CTrna. 95 - Bopow1rnosKa. 96 -
B;rnnmrn:posKa. 97 - Ko;10M.11ii11.urna. 98 - Xa1enbe. 99 - Crnpb1e 6e3pan:1411, 100 . l10,'lrnpu11 2, IOI - 4anaesKa. 102 - Cb1puu, 103
- EBMHHKa I. Gumelnita A-B: 20 - Tangiru, 104 - Draganc~ti Olt. 105 - G 1mclnita, 106 - insura\ci Popina, 107 - Bordu~cni Popina, 108
- Ni\vodari La ostrov. 109 -- Luncovi\a. ; IO·- Carcaliu. Cernavoda l: 111 - .:emavoda L Xsan1,rncKa11: 44 - l1BaHoBCKall. 45 ·- BnnosaT-
CKall. ~emmit CTor: 43 - Men;oxos Eyrop. 70 - Cpenm1ii Crnr, 112 - f1,1eKcaH)lp1rn. 113 - [lep1111sKa. H. Muxait,1osKa - Koncyan-
I![!!fillliJL, 114 - M11xafi.TJOB~a H.C .. I 1 5 - KoHCEIHTIIHOBKa.
3nOXA 6POH3bl (paHHHii uep110,1). Horodiste-Foltesti-Tp1111,,,,ru,_e__Cy 2: l 00 - I1onropm1 1, 116 - Horodi~tca, l 17 -
Erbiccni. 118 - Coslc~ti IV, 119 - Ca11,1paKH. 120 - ITaso,104. 121 - Tp-.RHOB. 122 - fopo,1cK. 123 -- Stoicani, 124 - Foltc~ti, 125 -
MallK11. 126 - Ycarnso. Cernarnda 111; 111 - Cernavoda III. 51mial:!_;_I 14 - Mu:rniinosKa s.c .. l 27 - ,[lccllrnHa.
3I10XA 6POH3bl (cpenH1111 nep1wJl) . .Glina 111-Tei-Monteoru: 128 -- Glina. 129 - Popqti, 130 - Sarata Monteoru.
,h:araKoM611a11 131 - Marnees .nee. MarneeBKa 1, 132 - K11poso. 1 :3 - .ilnseHuosKa. 134 - A11eLU11H Py4eii, 135 - MeiKpy-
4ciiHoe I 36 - KaiL:1aw1mo. 137 - !1ec4aHoe 2. 138 - Cepe6pllHCKOc
3IIOXA 6POH3bl (no3n1111fi 7ep11ou). Kll.iiaposo-Trezcinieck: l ,9 - M:nono.wseuKoe 2-3. ,Nou,ll 4 -· Vaka Lupului, 140
- Piatra Ncami. 141 - Ratqu Cuzci. 142 - Draghqti, 143 - Barlad. 144 - Garbova(, 145 - Cavadinqti, 146 - Slobodca $1.rliu\i, 147 -
Pdru~ani, 148 - Odaia. 149 - Ghindqt:,. !:,a6an11iosKa: 132 - K11poso. 150 - Mereni. 151 -- Gura Galbcna, I 52 · lllYllKOe, 153 -
B11HorpanHL1ii C1,'l. 154 - GyrCKoe 1-2.4. 156 - Crenosoe. 157 - Bop lHOBKa II. 158 - ITepecanosKa. 159 - ,[lpeMafinosKa. 160
- H0B0K11CBKa. 16 I - H11KOHaeBKa. 162 -- 6e3blMHHIIOC 1-2. !:.JujiHaH. J.MQ.!il:. I 6.1 - .TT11MaH ()3epo, ](,4 - Yeo so O.Jepo. I 65 -
Ka111na110so l. 166 - l1rn,114esKa 1-2. 167 - H11Ko,,:1esKa. 168 - [[116pasa I. 3. 169 - 'iKe;noe. !'10 -· CrenauosKa. 171 -
AneKC<rnnposcK. l 72 - ITposaJrbe, 173 - Moco.:wso. 174 - PaJ/10.11.H le. 175 - Canosoe 6. np111Kal.fil!cKaH: 176 -· Ea~bIMcKall.
177 - Arn6acBcKall, 178 - CTern1ot: O3cpo, 179 - fy;1bKnHCKall. !:Ju1i11an., 'lJepKacKv.11,cKa11 11 /lJI. {Cpe1rnee llosoJl:.Kbe ITp11-
,;:p:wLe): 7R - Jle6ll:.KI!HKa V. l 80 - 5eKnrnKa. 181 - Llau1L1oso O .epo. 182 - AKTYWII. 1R3 - MoeYHoe ()3epo 1-3. l 84 -
Ca'IKOBO, 185 - CycKal!CKOC 1.. 2. 186 - lfo[l/!a!ICKOC, 187 - C'bCTiKee, l 88 - Y,:11e11cKoe. l 89 - MaKCK•TOBO, I 90 '" 1'.leyKOBCKall
I. 191 - l1'3~1a11;1eficK,u, 192 - Yp.tiaeso l. 193 - 'iKyKoBCKa~. 19-1 - K1111<:.1bc,ne, 195 - H113c;1rn.
62 Revista Arheo/ogicd. Serie 1101111

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H1>1e CTperrK11). 0Ho OPieTrrHBO o6Hapy)KmiaeTc5I Ha nepexoue OT no3L(Hero Heomrrn K
paHHeMy 3HeO.TII-fTy. KOI'}:.(a OObe~1 JlOMalIJHI:IX BHJOB pe3KO COKpamaeTC5I C ypOBH5.[ OKO-
J[() 82% no 68%,., II H .aarrhHetimeM. c He3HaY:ine.;1bHhlM yse.,1JF-re1rneM, y11ep)KHBaeTC5I
BHJIOTh 110 no311Hero 3Heo.,HTa, nocJie '-Iero caosa pe3KO nporpecc11pyer Ha nepexo.ae K
Jnoxe 6poH3hI.
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npe.anono)Kem1e KaK--6ymo 61,1 rro11rnep:-K;:rac-Tc5!. nocKOHhKY Ha ypom-1e 3Heomna 06Hapy-
)K1-rna10rc5I YeTKO BblJXl)KeHHhle KpH3lICHb!e 5IBJ1emrn B pa3BHTHH llOMarnHero CTaD,a. nocra-
paeMC5! pa3o6paThCH ,ileTaJJhHCe B Bbl5IBI!CHilbIX TeI-I)leHIU15!X. /1.15! JTOrn o6panIMC5I K no-
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peHHbIM no KaiKD,o{i lB KYJibTYPHhIX 30H B I, 11 x xpoHorrorw1ecK011 H3MCHYHBOCTH (ra6rr.
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I ,iun·u· II. .\'r J-_' 65

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PERIOD

1 -_ __.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _3HEOJWIT
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3nOXA 6POH3bl

Puc. 2. ,[l,HH3Ml~Ka pacnpCJlCJ1CHl!51 KC'MIIJICKC<l JlOMalllHl[X il<HBOTHblX no


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JtOMaurnero cTa;ia npaKnt'-leCKH aa BceM upoT5DK,.:m111 Heomna-6pm-I3bl BblcTyna10T Kpyn-


11b111 poraTbll1 CKOT' MeJil-:HH poraThil1 CKOT 11 CBHdb5I, npH BTOpOCTeneHJIOM 3Ha'-!C:Hl111 J10-
l!la1l]I. ,[~,151 BOCT0 1 IH011 30HbI BC.!lYW.HMH 51B.151IOT( 51 JIOWallb, Kpyrn-11:,11111 MeJIKHli poraTbrti
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1
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UTHOCHTCJlbHO 6.,1lBK11e ll-Ia'-ICH!Ul (B n11ana30HC JT 40 HO 58t;,<1), TO CBHHb5I no :mna,r:rHoti
:lOHe .nan OKOJlO 79"/o npOTHB 21 % - B BOCTO'-IHOl I, a JIOlllcl)lb - IIp51~.10 npon-rnononmKHbIC
Wcl 1 H:'HH5l . COOTBCT1..::TBC!lll0 OKOJIO 25'1/.1 B 3,ma,Ui-)11 npOTIIB 75°/ii - B BOCTO'-IHOi1 (Ta6n. 1,
l!UCJCiJJ!lle JUle ClpOKH). J/J[m,IMH C]I0BclMl1, B lief BOM c;ry'-lae Mb! HMCCM LlC.110 C TaK Hcl3bI-
llcK"Wll <<06uJ,ecsponc1lci;:oii Tpml;J,011» (KPC + \1PC + CBHH65I), a BO BIOpoM cnyl1ae -
t.:Boro co6cTBCHI ryio, 01rnFmTes1uiy10 - «soc1 oq1 JesporreikKy10 Tp1rn;_ly>> ( KPC + MPC +
. IOlJL::L'lb), B t.!CM co6crneHHO It Bblpa:>KaeTC5! I ;1a1: lfOe, IIIJH!lllJ1mrnJibHOC pa3Jll14He OCHOB-
l!l)l'l) K0'.'.1!L'1CKCa 1WM<lllJ[!ero c1ana 3a11a_:_ilioi1 II BOCT0 1-II:!011 Ky:IbTYJJHblX 'lOH.
66 Re\ iS!C/ Arhcologica. Serie 11()1/ll

Cocpe;:ioTOlfHl\ICH Ha 1rnrepccy101m1\ Hck Kp11311cH1,1x >rn:1ernrnx 01-m 0 1 1eBHD,HbI ;JJrn


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He C"LJ.!ITa5I HcPia [bH0ro -- paHHCro HC0Jll!Tcl. KOTOpbliL 04CBIUH0, crre;lyeT paccMaT-
p1rnaTb KaK rrep!IO,] a;:.i,;111TaI~llll H Bb!pa601 Kil TlXl,HllUI0IIIWr0 K0I\HL1CKCa !l;0MaUJHero
crana, pa3BIITHe uwadHou 10Hb1 Ha 11pon111~nmll no3.'lHCfl) Hccrnna H pa1rnero 3Heomna
xapaKTep113yeTC5I CTct6JI:ll,Hbil\1l1 BbIC0Kll'.\!H ma '!CHll5IMH KPC (0K0J[0 60'1/i1) np11 0TH0CI-1-·
TCJ1bH0 Hl13Kl1X 3l[a -1emrnx OBUbl!K03bl l! CBH!{hlf ( 0KCt'Il) I 5-20'~ r,). A ,1,nee, C nepexo,J0M K
1

cpe~1He:v1y JHeomrry. :10:rn KPC pe3K0 c0Kpa1uaero1 no n1r no H:.l 2()l>;, rrp11 o;urnBp~MeH--
1 1

H0 HC3Ha111ITCJlbH0'.\f YBCJIH11CHIIH 3WlLJCHl!5I .]BYX ,1pyn1x Bl!,108. )],a.nee., B nepH0,1, il03;JHero


311eo;una, c1nyaLlWJ KaK Obi Bbmpas:rn,~ICR. Hoc 11epexo1w:-.1 K paHHeii 6po1ne npo11cxo-
;:u11 0'-lepe;:u-roc pe~11,:c,e coKpau1eHllC KPC (c '.' 1'>;, .Jo 32'>o) 11 CBHllbH (c 17 no 5''.lr,) npH onHo-
spe:-.1eHH0l\1 0L£CHb pC3K(.)'.\! YBCJI!I'·ICIIIIII .:w:rn OBLU,r!KOJbl (22 ,::{0 49 1;1i1). noc1e qero Hane-
pexoz1e K cpenttetl 6poK:e C11Tyauwr CHUBa Eocc1a1-Ern.urnaeTc5:I (pe3Koe yBen111reH11e KPC
H 0;JH0Bpe:-.ieHHoe c:cKparnett11e MPC). TanM 06pc130:-.1. \lbI w,1ee\1 .ue.10 c llBYM51 K])IITH-
qecKnMH CIITymurn:-.rn. Bhlpaih:a!0UU1MIIO[ B p,:JK0l\1 lfl'.\!CIIernrn Bll.;J0B0ro coc-nrna Jl0MallJ-·
Hero cra;.i,a. Ou,Ha 1n :in1x c1nyaulfii np1 rx0.'lJ!TC:5:1 Ha cpe,1HHl1 :meo,rnr. K0r)Jla pe3K0e co-
KpaweH11e )J0JIH KPC K0MneIIc11pye1c51 HC3, ta c11ne:rhHhL\ol ysc.:m11em1e:-.1 ,,1,on11 CBHHhH 11
0TYacni MPC. A s1opa51 -- 11a rrepHo;l pamie :i 6poH3hr, Korm1 peJKoe c0Kpa11Je1me KPC 11
CBHHI,H nocn11 rro~11wcThI0 nepeKpbrnaerc5:1 pc3K0 B03pocimrM JHa 1eHHeM 1 KPC (p11c. 3,
JieBa5I CT0p0ml - BepTl1KclJ16Hbie CTpe:JKli).
BocmOI/H{lJ,! 30llU (pHC. 3. npaBcl5l CT0pOIM). B O"LU1LJIIe OT '3arJaiJ:HOI1., BCLlYW.11Ml11lJI51
nmrnurncro CTaD,a Heo-:meoJ1Hrn ':lTOii 30Hhl Bb1nyna10T _c10m,w1, 11 KPC. Ho BDJI0Th JlO
cpe;mero 3Heomna :rna,1eH1rn .10111aJH HenpepbIBH0 nporpecc11py101. a 3Ha11eHI15l KPC.
Hao6opoT, He11pepb!BH0 C0Kpam,aIOTC5!. 3TI1 TCH.J:CHUl1ll pe3K0 Bl11l0l13MeH5IIDTC51 C nepe-
XO.ll0M K I1031lHC'.\1Y clHC0,rnTy. Korna 3H,Fiemrn :10111a.;JH pe3K0 na;raIOT (c 57 J!0 0K0JIO
11 11:,). a B3aMeH - pe3Ko Bmpacraer 3Hai1,;:HH( MPC (c 15 ,::{0 58~/;1). A c:1e;l0M, Ha nepexo}Je
OT lI031lHero JHeomna K paHHCli 6pmne -- i1pOilCX0,J51T 04epeIIHbie pe3KHC H3MCHeHirn.
Ho B HOM c1y1.rne pe3KOe coKpamem1e ;Jomt MPC (c 58 Ll0 oKoJro 30 11~1) conpoB0)K,'.laer-
c.H CT0Jib iKe pe3Kl1'.\! YBCJIIFICHHC'.\1 3lialJCHliH He jJ0IIJa;ui ('rpanHUHOHHOM .IIJI5:1 tteo-:rneo-
JIIITa). a KPC (c 18 .'10 52°;;,).
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DepKL5l H3 HiiX CB513?.Ha c nepuo;10:-.1 nepexc rn ,)1 cpe.1Hero K 1103.nHeMy 3Heon1ny, Kor-
mi pe3Koe C0Kpamnrne '-lllC1CIIH0CTll :lOUJa;ur K0MllCHCllpyeroI pe3Kl1\1 YBCJII1LJCHI1CM
MPC. A BTopa5I npMX.0D.HTC5:I Ha ncpmu 1 epexo.1Ja OT no:inHer·o 3Heon11ra K paHHeH
6poH3e. Korna JIOM11H11pyromrn1 ,10 3Toro lVI PC 01ett51eTCH KPC.
HoKa3clTeJibHO ll npHHUllIUic:LlbH0. 0.:IH,:!K0, BOT no.
1 Opa CBOl,'lC1BCHHLIX ,U:15:1 '.HHX
30H pa:in1111m1 BH,J,0BUro C0CTaBa. 130-IICpBbl x.. B o6eux :wuax o6e KpH3IICHblC CH"rya1u111
11omu:1a10T B 0DHH II Te ih:C lIJUl C0IIp5DKCHllb IC MC)IGIY c:06011 KYJlhTYPH0 XpcrnoJion111ec- 00

KHC rrcp11011b1. CTepBd5l c11ryawrn. B c:1y rne 1anai1H011 30HhI nona,1aeT Ha nepaoJJ. cpe.LI.-
0

Hero =iHeon1na. B c:1y 1-1ae JKe Bocro<rnoir - H:.1 11ep1rn:1 nepexona OT cpeaHero K 1103.nHeMy
3Heomny. A sropaH. II B 3amLlHOi'-L II B Boe· ro 1 mor1 30JictX - Ha 11epexo;1e OT no3nHero
3Heo.runa K paHHe!l frpOH3C. 11 BT0Jl0C Bdih:l l0C O0CT05il e.'H,CTB0. 11T0 B noc.11em1eM cny-
qae (KaK B 3a11aJlllOfr. raK ll B BOCTOLJHUII :3UHcl\) 0CH0RHblC l13MeHemrn CB5I3aHbl C pc3-
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. nEPl-10Abl I PaH. I no3A I PaH lcoe_13__J no3,U I_~aH. ICoeA._I no3A, I PaH. Ino3A, I PaH. ICpeA.1 no3A- I PaH. !CpeA.1 no3A ..
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H llocroL1Hoi1 KYJib ryp11b1x :mu. CrpcnKH - 13pcM51 octtoBHhIX KpH3HCHbJX CHTyauHi-i.
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68 Rc1·ista Arheologiu1. Serie nouci

30H: B 3ana,111-w{1 l1 BOCTOlJ.HOl1 pa3Bl1T!Ie B ropo11 113 KpHJllCHbIX cmyau1111 conpmKeH0 C


pe3K0 B03pocwIL\1 :n-lcFiernreM om1oro 11 Tern :iKe mi;rn I MPC); y6emnenbHO noKa3brna-
IOT. 'HO 3TII c1nya1um 6blo1H BbI3BaHbl KaKJIMH-T0 o6Jl!ll'v1H, e;U1HbIMH rrpwunrn:v,rn. A Ta-
KHMH np111..urnaM11 Morm1 661Tb m1wb l'.[l:VteBeHH5l npnpo1rnoi1 cpeD.bI, 0Jll-[0BpeMeHH0 mrn c
HeK0T0pb!MH pa3JII!'!l15IMI1 BO BpeMCHM 0XB1Tl1Blll11Mll apea:lbl o6eHX paccMaTp1rnaeMblX
K)'JlhTYPHhIX 30H.
HTaK, amuun ,'_(lIHaMllKll Bll)l0B0fO conaBa Ll0MamHero CTa)la 3ana)ll-[Ol1 lI B0CT0 1-I-
HOI1 KYJlbTYPHbIX 30H, C 0/(HOH CTOpOHbI, I: 0flHOCTbIO lIO]lT Bep)KnaeT Hanwrne, no Kpai1-
Heli Mepe, LlBYX 3H::Pll1TCJ1bHbIX KpI13l1Cl-:lbP: CHTyaUH11 B cro .Jm1TeJ1bHOl1 HCTOpWICCKOl1
3B0J!IDUHH, a C JipyroH, - YTO 3TH KplB11CbL BC])05ITHee Bcero, 6b!J1ll BbBBaHbI KaKHMli-T0
O0W11:V1H npHpO)lHh[MH KaTaKJ1l13MaMH.
l\1e:iKLlY TeM, 3TH rrpensapHTC;lbHb[C Bbl BO,'lbI JlC[K0 no1rna10TC5I BepmpHKau1rn qepe3
aHaJUI3 IlOKa3aTeJie:~i Tex )KC BH)lOB, HO paccMOTpCHHbIX no npHpOLlHbIM penIOHaM, CBOl1-
CTBCHHbIM K3)K)l0l! IB KYJlbTYPHbIX 30H B 0 rneJibH0CTH. ':hH noKa3aTeJIH, KaK y)Ke OTMC-
YaJI0Cb, oTpa)KeHbI B Ta6:111ue 1. K co:iKanem1ro, :v1b1 He scerna pacno.rraraeM naHHbIMH
no 0TD.enbHblM nepuonaM Toro HnH HHon1 np11po11Horo peracma . TOM. HnH HHOH KYJib-
rypH011 30HbI. Ho 3T0 npen5ITCTBHe JierK0 rrpeononeBaeTC5l 3a CYeT o6wetl: TCHJICHUHII
lIJlll «no aHaJIOfl111>.o C coce)lHHM penIOHOM.
3anantta5I 301-rn. :\iihr pacrronaraeM nonHhIMH nam-IhIMH no naJieocpayHe scex HCTopn-
YeCKHX rrepHOJlOB, npHMCHHTCJlbHO K necocn:rrHll,IM perH0H3M 3TOI130Hhl (Ta6JI. 1, CTOJI6. 3,
KYJibT. 6noK{,j: N~·N2 1-2,4,7,8,10,12-13). Hx rpacpHLfecKoe 0To6pa)Kem1e rrpencTanneHo Ha
pacyHKe 4 (nesoe none). )ln5I crenHoro pen1omt naHHbie no :no1130He HerronHbie (Ta6n. 1,
c-ron6. 3, KYJihT. foroKH N2N2 3,5,6,9,11). OTcyTcrnyIOT ,naHHbre no paHHeMy HeonHTY (H3-3a
110JIHOf0 0TCYTCTBHH rraM5ITHlIKOB), cpenm::v1y l1 II03JJ,HeMy nepHOJJ,clM 6pOH3bI. Ho B CJiy-
Yae cpenHero rrep110,o:a MbI ycn0BH0 M0)KCM rrpHH5ITb 110Ka3aTeJIH no 5IMHOI11 H KaTaKOM6-
HOl1 KYJihTypaM BOCTOYHOH 30HhI, a B c11y1.iae II0311Hero nepuona - noKa3aTeJIH no ca6a-
THHOBCKOH KYJibType, rIOCKOJibKY 3TH KYJTHYP,bl B paBHOl1 CTene1-m CBOHCTBCHHhl II llJl5I
CTene11 TTpyTo-)lHeC'rpOBb5I. fpacpHLfCCKOe OT06pa)KeH11e noKa3aTe.rre11 no CTCITHOH 30He,
c Y!..fCTOM OTMe!..feHHbIX OfOBOpOK, OTpa>KeHli,I Ha TOM )KC J)HC. 4 (npauoe none).
KaK cnenyeT H3 COCTaBJICHHbIX rpaqmI<OB, pa3B1ITHe ,U0Maurnero CTaD,a H JlCC0CTen-
HbIX, H CTCITHbIX penIOHOB 3anaD,H01[ 30Hbl CB5I3aHO C 0D,HH:vfH H TCMH )Ke OCH0BHbIMll
BHJWMH (KPC, MPC H CBHHb5I). D,Ba)IKJhI 11crrhrTaBU1HMJ1 pe3KHe K0JIH!..feCTBeHHbie rrpe-
o6pa3oBaHHL B !ICCOCTenHOH 30He :nH H !MeHCHl15I rrpHX0D.5ITC5l Ha rrep1rn.n nepexoJI.a
OT paHHero K cpe;JHeMy 3HCOJIHTY, a ]aTeM Ha nepexo,:ie OT cpe,::1,Hero K II03,1J,HCMY 3HC0-
_rnry (pHC. 4, -1ICBa5l CTOpOHa). B nepB0M rnyirne )TH lBMeHeHH5I Bbipa)KalOTC5I B CTI0H-
TaHH0M, pe3K0M COKpaw:eHHll D,OJ1l1 KPC (,_: 6S 110 42%) np11 0,'lH0BpeMCHHOM B03pacTa-
IH1H 6onee LfCM Ha I 0% D,OJIH CBHHbll. BTopo11 CKalJ.OK Bbipa)KeH B 0THOCHTeJibH0 pe3K0\1
C0Kparuem111 D,0:111 CBHHbH rrpH 0,i.U-IOBpeMCf1H0M JaMeTH0M B03pacTamrn KPC H, 0TLJaC-
TH. MPC. 11 :no cooTHOU1e1-me c HeKoTop.b!Mll He3Ha!..f1nenhHhIMH Kone6m-urnM11 coxpa-
HHeTC51 BI1Jl0Tb JJ:0 K0HUa 6pOH3hl.
DOJiee D,HHaMH'HH,Ie lI Kap,IlHHaJibHbie IHMeHeHH5I BI-monoro C0CTaBa ,::J,e:M0HCT_pHpyeT
CTerrn.a5I 301-Ia, 0CB0eHHa5I Jlliillb C ll031IHCro HCOJIHTa (pHC. 4, rrpaBa5l c1opom1). Ho H 3)lCCb
ocH0BHbie H3MeHemrn npaxo115ITC5I Ha nep11t)Jlht cpeD,Hero I-I no3JJ,Hero 3Heomna, a TaK:>Ke
paHHMH nepH0D. 6poH3bI. )lJI5I nep110,,1a nep,:xo,J,a OT cpeLLHern K n031JHeMy ·meomITy OHM
Bbipa:>r-:aroTC5I B pe3KOl1 CMeHe np11op11TeTEocn1 KPC B3aMeH MPC. A w1 nepexoJie OT
·rneO."IIITa K paHHei\ 6po1-ne Olll1 o6Hapy:>r-:HBaIOTC5I B pe3K0M C0Kparn:ern1H 110ml CBHHbl1, B
ro spel\rn KaK MPC 06pen1eT :v1aKCIIMcC1bHbie JHa'lemrn (6onee 60 1;1;,). nocne qero CHTya-
lll151 cHoBa sn_r~o1nl\1e1rneTC5I B rro;II,3Y KPC 11p11 pe3K0M coKparucmm ;10rr11 MPC.
69

BoCTotrna>1 301-rn, (pm:. 'i). B cpaBHCHHll c :rnn.1nH011, no :no11 10He Mb! pacnonaraeM
rI0JIHblM!l Jl<-ll!Hb!Mll no rnncoq)ayHe CTCIIH0fO pc [1-10Ha (Ta6JI. 1, CTO.:l6. 3, KYJibT. 6JIOKii
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KHH 2002; Cm1p1rnofJOBa a np. 2001; KpeMeHellKI1i1 1991: OH iKC 1997: Kremenetski 2003;
Bower 2003; Todorcn a 1995: oHa ;+,:e 1998a; 01m 1Ke 1998b: oHa JKe 200:'.; Filipova-Marinova,
Bozilova 2003; Voinea 2005; AneKcaI-ILIPOBCKHll H .Jp. 2003 11 MI-I .. MH. 11p)THe). Enaro1rn-
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LleCCaMH KacrrHi1CKOf0 11 liepHoro MOpeii (llBaHOB 1985: l1saHOB, BaCHJlbCB 1995;
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Draganov 2003; Fi lipova-Marinova, Bozilova :'.003: Todorova 2002: Voinea 2005 H .:.ip. ). Cnerrn-
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Ka:1bHblX naneOKJH!l\IaT!14eCKHX, HO H )rtOXaJibHh!X KYJibl ypHblX npeo6pa3oBamrii
(llepra'leB 2005). A ·no. coorne1crne1-mo. c•3tta•rae r H JnuxcU16HblX l-l3;-.1eHetrn1i o6mei'i
cTpyK1yp1,1 11 coc1ana K0Mru1eKca .'I0.\1rnmrei c, :ii:<1rno1HoBo,1crBa, 11. c:re.1ye1 n01m:-.1;:nh. --
ViJ/11m11I II, Nr. 1-2 75

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lfaamrna 2005). Tion rrepBOH, KOHe'-IHO )Ke, nonpa :yMeBaIOTC5I HOCHTCJIH naMSITHHKOB nma
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a;:ianTaUI·lII 11JII1 npeono;remrn llpeBH.11M qeJIOBeR OM nepHO):ll1'-IeCKI1 B03HI1KaI01UHX npH-
pO)lHbIX KaTaKJIH3MOB, KOTOJ)ble, KaK cnenyeT 113 ,!HaJII13a, Bbipa)KaIOTC:51 B cyw,ecTE:eHHhIX,
nopoi1l J:IOCTaTO'-IHO Kap.nmrnJJhHhIX H3Mettemrnx .m.IJ,OBoro cocraBa noMarnuero cTaJJ,a.

liu6Jrnorpa~mH
AneKcaHnpoBcK11tt 11 .ap., 2003: A. AneKcaH.~poBCKHH, B. liaJiafoma, T. Marn11ua,
'tvfaTepmtJihI K 11crop1111 naneoJJaHJ:Illlaq)Ta Bepx11ero re'-leHH51 peKH l\1apm-lhI B cpeJ:IHeM
roJJoueue ..D:o6pyJ:I)Ka 21 (L~o6p11I.J-C11n11cTpa, 2Ql 14 ), 292-308.
Aanm1ma 2003: E.E.AHTl11111Ha, MeTOlll1'-IeCKl1e npo6JieMbI OCTaTKOB )Kl1BOTHbIX 113
apxeo.r10r11qecK11x naM51THHKOB. B c6.: HoBettrn,re apxeo1oonor11qecK11e uccnen0Bau1151
B Pocc1111.K CTOJieTHIO co ,am1. pmKJJ,eHH51 B.l1. UrnK11Ha (MocKBa 2003), 7-33.
EapblKHH 2002: TT.TI. IiapbIKl1H, KynhTypno-x,J351ttcrneHHa51 Tpam1u1151 H 3KonorH'-Iec-
KHe npor~eccbr cTenHoro lloBOJI)Kb51 B rrep11on 10-5 TbIC. neT Ha:mn. B c6.: BorrpocbI ap-
xeoJrnrnH TioBOJI)KhSI 2 (CaMapa 2002), 50-58 .
.D:epra'-IeB 2005: B.A. ,[(epra'-IeB, Heon11Tma11,H51 CeBepo-TioHTHHCKOH 30HhI 11 EaJI-
KaH B KOHTeKcTe pa3Jil1BOB Mopeii Rervista arheol1 ,gica 1: l, Chi~inau, 4--33.
)];epra'-IeB 2006: B.A. ,/]lepra'-IeB, 0 CKl1IIeTpa ,;, 0 JIOllla):l51X, 0 BottHe (CaHKT-TieTep-
6ypr 2006).
l1BaHOB 1985: I1.B. }iBaHOB, l13MeHeH11e KJIHMclTa E0)KHOH YKpa11HhI B ronoueHe. B c6.:
TTpo6J1eMbI apxeonor1111 T1onHenpoBb51 2 (JluenporreTposcK 1985), 27-32.
l1BaHoB, Bac11JiheB 199:5: 11.B. l1BaHOB, l1.E. BacnnheB, lJeJioBeK, rrp11pona 11 no'-IBhI
Pi,rn-necKOB BoJiro-YpaJTbCKOro Me)Knype'-Ib51 B 1OJIOUeHe (MocKBa 1995).
I1BaHOBa 2005: C. HirnHOBa, 3rroxa pam-rei 6pOI!3bl Tip11qepHOMOpCKl1X CTenett.
Re vista arheologica 1: 1, Chi~inau. 34-43.
KpeMeHeUKHH 1991: K. B. KpeMeHeUKHtt, Ila 1eo3Ko.11or1151 J:Ipe1mettrnnx 3eMJienenh-
ueB H CKOTOBOJJ,OB lPycCKofi paBHHHbl (MOCKBa 1991 ).
KpeMeHeUKlIH 1997: K.B. KpeMeHer~KHH, I1pHpc•nmrn o6naHOBKa ro110ueHa ua Hll)KHeM
j],oHy 11 B KaJIMhIKmr. B c6.: Crerrn 11 KaBKa3 (KyJ1b·1ypHbie Tpanmum) (MocKBa 1997), 30-47.
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Ha3apeT5IH 2004: A.TT. Ha3apenrn., LI,1rn11n113amIOHilbie KpI13HChI B K0HTCKCTe ym1-


BepcanbHOH HCT0pHH (MocKBa 2004).
H11Kon0Ba 2002: A.B. HHKOJIOBa, 0 Mene «pen11HCKHX» naM5ITHllK0B B 5IMHOH Kynh-
TypHo-11cTopn'--IecKoi1 061UHOCTH: HeK0T0pble B0Tip0Cbl HCTOp1rnrpa(l)l1H. B c6.: Tipo6ne-
MH apxeononi Ilo;:u-rinpoB'5I ():XHirrponeTpOBChK 2002), 37-59.
flycTOBaJIOB 2005: C.)K. IlycTOBa.10B, Col{iaJ1bHll.ll Jia.U KaTaKOM6noro cycniJibCTBa
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lHI5I Maf1Konc:Ko11 KYJlbTYPhI B UeHTpcUbHOM I1pe.JKaBKa3be. B c6.: MaTepnanhr no ll3Y-
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Ba.le/i/11U/l /Jepzaite6, om:mop xa6u,wmam UC!11l DUtJeCKUX 1/Cl)'K, aellrnp apxeOflOZUU, Hll-
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Ceprdi ATYJlbHl1KOR l1ropb EPY5IKO, Ba:1epnrr KO)KOKAPY,


K11w11 ~ny /Oaecca/PeHH

,, Torque.ml a'e aur din imprejurimile cetd(ii ;Vovosd'skoe-11 de la Duniirea de Jos ". Pri11 inrcrmec/rnl acestui
articol se introduce in circuit !jtiin(ljic wrquesul (,:0/ien,1!) de aur care a/bst descoperit fortuit la D1111area de Ju 1.
in vecinatatea ceta{ii de li:ingc1 satul l 1lovosel 'si:oe ( r, ciomil Reni, reg um ca Odesu. Ukrnina) Judeclind dup,1
analogiile acestei piese 1!?11.lpa central-europeanii, co•1ca::.iana .~i balcanicc'i), m/turii au ajuns fa cunc/u::.ia cc,
torquesul respectiv poatc fi datat in linii genera le in seco/11! v71 a. Ch,: El prohahll apar(inca 1111e1 popular ii
1racice din epoca hallstattianc'i mijlocie, care foe 1,,ia fn cetatea de la No,mel '.skne fn seco/clc \Ill! -- VII a. Chr.

B c111a111be nv6-n1,.;ytmcJ1 30:10111a51 zpu611a, ,wmo1,a51 6b1.w 11m1de11a 11a Hu ../1c11e.11 /1,yuae ,, m:pecm11ucmHx
,'opod1114a Ho6oce..1bck·o~ ( Peuuzic,.;uii 1wuo11, OiJecc1,aR 06.wcmb, Yi-::paUJl(f; Pacc.\10111pee ,mu.1ch'1<11 Jlll!'li
l',e111u (11e11111pa.11>110-eeprmeiic,.;aR. i;:a5,.;a3c,.;aR u 6a.1k',:llcf.:aR 2py11111,1), .\fbt 11p1111u11 " e1,rn0Jy, ,mw J111y ;pum rr
.\lo.Hello om11upo6a1111, 11 11e:10.\t Vl/ e. do P.X. 1,11ue11a. 6epoR111110, 11p111wc).1e:.;1ca.w q1pa,;:111i1/a.\t :moxu cpea11e,'o
.'Cl./btul11{//11(/. 31110 IWCe,·enue 06uma.10 Jl(l zopoau14e Hoeoce,?bCf.:Oe 6 Vlll-VIJ 1-18. ao P.,r.

"The gold neckring from the vicinity of the hillfort Sovosel'skoe-ll 011 the lower Danube area''. /11 this
article is publicated the gold 11eckri11g ( "gri1·11a ".I 1v/zic/1 wwfo1111d at the Lower Do1111be in I icinitv ofNo\'Oselskoe
hi/lfort (Reni district, Odessa region, Ukraine). Ha1'lng comiclered analogies of this item (Cemral European.
Caucasian and Balkan groups), we came to conclusion that this neckring is able to date by V/1 century BC in
general. The 11eckri11g has probably belonged to the 711racia11s of the Middle Ha/lstalt period This populations
inhabited 011 the Novose,"skoe hillfort during the VJ//. VII century BC.

J1eToM 2003 r. B paifoHe c. HoBocem,cKoe Ha H1rnrneM )lyHae (PeHHHCKHH pai1:ott


OneccKoiI 06nacn1 ~hpaI-IHbI) 6hrna o6Hapy)Ii:eHa 3onoTa5l. rpHBHa, KOTopa5I II 5IBn5IeTC5I
npe,aMeTOM HaCT05Il1.{eH ny6n11KaUIIH.
113nem1e 6Lrno HatiD,eHo cnyqaiiao rrp11 npoKna.u:Ke Tpaawe11 MarIIcTpa.lhHOro ra3o-
npoBo.u:a B 4 KM lO~KHee c. HoBocenbcKoe., B 100-150 M K cenepy or rpaHIIUhI ropo.u:1rnrn
HonocenhcKoe-n --- naM5ITHIIKa, H3Becn-wrn B apxeoirnrII'lecKoti mITepaType (EpyHKO,
5lpoweBII'l 2001). f'pHBHa Haxo)lHrnlLCh n nepeMewem-wM ciKcKaBaTopo:v1 rpyaTe H Ha
M0MeHT ofornpy)KeHH5I npeD,CTaBn5IJia co(;oti ITO'ITH np5I'.\10!1 npy-r. cDopMy, KOTopy10,
BH11!1MO, cne.u:yeT (:1.[Jvl.TaTb 6JIH3KOlI K 113H,Fia:IhHOH, npH)],aJil1 rp1rnHe caMII HaXOL\'-IHKff '
!,,bnen11e rrpe,ncrann5IeT co6oi-I HeCOMhI-IYTbIH, BIIToii (roprmpoBaHHbIIi) rrpyT ce1.1e-
m101 4 MM. OKOH1-IaHI15I rpHBHbl IIJ10CKHC (pacKOBaHHL,Ie) OBaJlbHO-Kan.1eBI1;1HOti (pop-
\161. Ha non,:::pXH0CTH Ka)K)l0f0 II3 Hl[X mrnece11 CWv1.\1el pl1'-IHbll1 nyaHCOHJ-!b]H opHaMCHT
B BHD,e HeCKB03Hb[X TO'le'-IHblX HaK0JI0B. JJ,na 113 HIIX, pacno:10:iKeHHble no uei-npy 0Kpyr-
:1blX OKO!Fialmfi. --- KpynHbie, OCTaJlbHb!e Mc:JlKHe (p11c. 1; cporo). )l11aMeTp rp11BHbl ... 17 C'.\1
Bee - 44A r. rpmrna H3fOTOBJieHa 113 3oni::na 650 rrpo6br 2 .
Y:iKe B npouecce rrepBWIH0f0 OCI\WTp,1 rpIIBHbl B03HHKJlH J-IeK0T0pblC coo6pa:iKCHH5l
0THOCHTenbHO ee ,laTIIpOBKH H Kpyra aHcclOrIIH, B K0T0pOM, 110-BHJI]IMOMY, CleD:OBanc,
6hr Becnr noHcK. Mbr ocraHon11m1cb Ha ::moxe paHHero )Ke:1e:rnoro BCKa B pa'.\1Kax nep--
nol'r flOJIOBIIHbI ('rpen1) I TblC. t'lO P.X. I1 ilCI1CTBHTC.:1l,HO, orp0\1Ha5l no '-lllCICHH0CTll

1
B pnyalbTaT,~ ue:1oro K0.\HLleKca Meporrpmn11ii q11rnna. B i,;011ue K0HU0B. nocTymL1a B pacnop51;,i,;em1,:
C0TPY;:JHIIK0B HII;+;1Ie,:1y11aiicKoi\ apxeoa10f'Ifl!eCK0J l JKC:T1e,111m111. npm10;:urnrneii Ba TOT M0MeIIT paCKl.l11Kl! ~
;;:a11110M pai\olle Ha noce;1e111111 Hcrna51 HeKp,KoBKa· II.
2
8JBe11IIIE,a1me l[ anpo611p0Bam1e IIJ)OBeJ.eJIO I, lOiKII0:-.1 KaJe!!llO'.\I npe;:i,np1!51Tlll! [lj10()11pl!OJ'O ,OI!T]Xl.rn
(r O,1ecca; Aia J\l, (H)()l)0026 or 20.01.2005;.
3onoTa$1 rpv1sHa v13 0KpecrHocreC1 ropOAVlll.\a HosocenbcKoe-11
t1i11m11I II . .\'1'. 1-2 79

P~C.1. 3o.nora.A rpV1BHa l-'13 OKpeCTHOCTe~ ropO,QV1LUa HOBOCE!J1bCKOe-ll


(p1,-1cyHOK ,,.,,C.MV1A8Pb)

1 pynna noxo)KUX 113nem111 6hrna pacnpoCTpattci-m B U:ettTpaJihHOH Esporre 11 B cesep-

1 Oil 1rncn1 EanKaH, Ha YJ,rnasi OT 3I10XH I103,[(Hero 6pOH30BOro BeKa. TaKHe HaXO)lKH 113-

l' t':l'THhl B fepMamrn, TI011bwe, lllaeiiuap1111, XopsaT1111, CJ10BaK1111, Bettrp1111, PyMhI-


1 1t11, Ecrnrnp1111 (Muller-Karpe 1980, Taf. 314-3 l.5.383-384.396.486.488-490.500.515.523;
K,:menczei 1999; Gergova 1987; Petrescu-Dirnbov1ta 1977; Novotna 1975; Mozsolics 2000) 3 .
( );-(l!aKO, !!pH 6oJiee BHHVtaTeJihHOM 3HaKOMCTBC: C HHMH no pa3JIHYHhIM rry6JIHKaUHSIM,
( ra;10 fIOH5ITHO, 'HO np11 6e3yCJIOBHOM, caMOM o6meM Tl1I10JIOfHYeCKOM CXOJJ,CTBe, KOTO-
jlOl' oGecnelIHBaeT npocr:rn cpopMa 3TOH pa3HOBl1J(HOCTH yKpaweHHH, BCSI 3Ta rpyrrrra
(,(','(Cp,Kl!T rpHBHhl, KOTO]Jb!e OTJ1J1l-IalOTCSI OT HdlllCI1 no HeCKOJibKHM, )lOBOJibHO cyme-
l rn,:H Hbl :Vl npH3HaKaM. 06 3TOM BITOJIHe MO)KHO cy,HHTb 11 no pHCYl[KaM, rrpeJJCTaBJieH-
1 LI ,1 r1 ;(aHH011 ny6nHKaIJJil1 (p11c. 2).

' "J pi !BIia» - TCpMIIH, HCJJOJ)b3yel'\lblii I!CK,1IOLll!TeJJl,IIO 1, BOCTOllJll)- If JO)KIJOCJiaBJIHCKHX J!3bJKax.


::!iLL(IIOCB])OTTCIICKO!'i mnep,nype TaK!IC 113.'IC,llrn 1"\'JblBaIOT «TOpKBaMI!» (lO!ljUCS), «WeJ1llblMH
i:l· thll:t,111,, I I-Ial~ringe. neckrini,'.S).
so Rc,·Fhl .·1rheo!ogicii. 5enl' 1w11ci

----·-----------------·-----------

I

1 II I J

6
3

I I I I I

______________
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P~C.2. fpv1sH1-:1 ·1;e~npanbHo-espone,1,;1,c:,o mno : 2 - C.n:)aaK,'q :no: Novotna 1984)"


3-5- B11HtW r:.e ;,~:uc. Konn,3y II 'nu PetrPs:·u-D ;;:!,, i'f"'i; 6-7 · Tm1 II (no Texos
1981 ). 8 - 0JhllJ3H3 (no KoBfl3HPH~C. c,:n;~l,11·1:2015'1, 9 .. OpnOBt:~L(-Te-KnNW (flO
V111b111Hc1<aH 19/5); 1G - -~yM6py.a (,10 \/a~,111ev ID8G1. 1-7."IO - 6pOH3a. 13-9 ·· 3onoro
Vi,/umui ff, Ni; 1-2 81

CkHOBHhie on1111m51 BH.mJ:Tc51 B CJ1eny10urnx npH3@Kax. TTepBb1i1- cpop1,,rn 0Kow-i:att.11tt. BTo-


pm1 - HX opttaMeHT,lJlbHUH KOMIT0311UIUI. Tpen1ti · · IT.:mcKOCTh, B KOTopoA OKOHl·Ial·[H5I rp11-
Bt?H pa3sepHyTbI ITO OTHOl!IeHmo K npyry... qeTBepTbllf - }1Jll1Ha ITepeBHTOll 4aCTH ITpyTa5 .
HeJ\,taJIOe 4IICJ10 uempaHhHO-eBpoITelICKHX '.:tK3eMITJ15IpOB l1MeIOT ueJIHKOM rnaL(Kll}I
npyT. J~pyra5I, no:>!<any11, caMa5I 6onbrna5I no q11e,1eHHocn1 rpynna, BKmoqaeT 3K3eMnn5I-
pbI. y KOTOpbIX npyT nepen11T J11Illib HaITOJ10BHH:,' l1Jll1 Ha L(BC TpCTII ero L(Jll1Hbl. TOJibKO
He:rna 4HTeJ1bHOe KOJ1H4ecrno rp1rneH ( TOpKB) HMe!OT CIIJIOWb BIHYIO TIOBepXHOCTb. IJ pH
. JTOM, 3K3eMTIJl5Ipbl ncex HHX Tpex pa3HOBl1,IIHOCTett OTJHI4a!OTC5I OT ny6milKyeMOlI 3,IleCh
rpIIBHhl, KaK no rrepBOMY rrpH3HaKy (cpopMa OKOlI4aHHH), TaK II TIO TpeTbeMy-yron pa3-
BOp<na flJIOCKOCTli ITO OTHOWemno K rrpyTy cocraBJI5IeT 90°. B pa3pe3e nee OKOH4aHH5I
HMeIOT BH,Il ,IlOBOJll,HO TOHKl1X JllIHHH, 3afH)'TblX B neTJIIO. I1p11 3TOM, CaJ\,UI OKOH1IaHH5I
l\WryT 6bITb IlJlOCKHMH, paCKOBaHHblMH, m160 TOHKHMH, CTep)KHeBH./lHblMH. I1p114eM, B
nepBOM cnyqae, ca\1.hIH Kpaif rrnacTHHbI OKa3hrnaeTC5I 3arHyTblM (Tpy6qan,1M B pa3pe3e),
a na IUIOCKOH pOBHOM n()BepXHOCTH OKOHLJ.amrn '!aCTO mrneceH opHaMeHT (pnc. 2, 1-2).
Ecnn H3 Bcex pattoHoB UeHTpanbHOll EBpOrrhr, r,ue CKOJ-IUeIITpHpoBaHo 6orrhllloe
KOJ!J1lICCTBO HaXO,IIOK rp1meH, Bbl6paTb reorpaq:1H4(::CKH Ha116orree 6Jm3KHH K Hll30Bb5Il\I
):(yHa:>1., TO cne,nyeT o6paTHTb BH11Mam1e Ha o6nacT6 KapITaTo-J:(yHaHcKoro 6acceiitta B
npeHenax COBpel\1eHHOll PyMblHHH. Tio COCT05IHI1 l0 Ha 70-e rr. x.,x B. Bee Hc1XO,IlKH C 3TOII
Tepp1nop1rn co6paHhl B (~JYHJlaMeHTaJihHOH pa6oTe M. HeTpecKy-nb1M6omma (Petrescu-
Di'mbovita 1977, pl. 387-3S8.390.392-396). 3n1 rpltBHbl, l1J[l1 KaK Ha3bIBaeT HX aBTOp MOHO-
rpacplH! - TopKBbI - CHenaHbI H3 6poH3bI H co,:pe,r:i:oTot.JeHbI B ,unyx rpynrrax Kna,uon.
HepKl5I, 3TO rpyITna nhr:rnaHewTH-fH,ull4 (Bilvane~ti-Ghidici) apeaJ1 KOTopofi ox:saThIBa-
er 3ana,uHy10 n 10ro-3aITaHHYIO OnTeHHIO. BTopaJ.1 - rpynna B11uuy ,;:{e )Koc-Baiine:11 (Vintu
de Jos-Vaidei) pacrronaracTC5I B TpaHc11JihBaHm1. 06e rpyITrrb1 06pa3y10T on11tt xpottono-
rw1ecKHH ropH30HT, KOTOpblH ITOMemaeTC5I B ]rIOXY cpe}lHero ram)rnTaTa C a6conIOT-
Hofi naTott VII B. Ho P.X. (Petrescu-Dimbovita 1977, 161-165). 06mee Kon11qecTBO TOpKB H3
:)TlIX KJia}lOB HaC4l1TbIBaeT HeCKOJlbKO ,ueC5ITKOB T1monon1qeCKll see OHH Brrom,:e CTaH-
JJ.aPTHbl. nnaMeTp OT 11-12 }lO 24 CM. IJpyT nepeBHT HaTIOJIOB11HY Hml Ha J~Be TpeTH CBO-
eti D,JlHHbl. 0KOH4aHl15l 0 ~~1opMHCHbI B JlBYX pa3H,JBH,IlHOCT5IX. OuHy H3 HlIX, KOTOpa5I OT-
1

MC4elia Ha e}lHHH'-lHbIX JK3CMIIJ!5Ipax, MO)KHO Ha 3BaTb MOJIOT04KOBHUHOH. BTopy10, KO-


TopyIO HMeeT IIO,IlaBJI5IIO.LUee 60JiblllHHCTBO rpHBeH, o6pa3yIOT KOpOTKHe., neTeJibllaTbie
E, 110·-BHHHMOMY, He paCKOBaHHblC OKOIFiaHl15I. r-nanK11e yqacTKH npyTa - poM6114eCKHe
13 CCLICHHH (pHC. 2, 3-5).
Ha TepplITOpHJI PyMhlHHH H3BCCTHbl l1 ,r:i:pyr He, OT)leJlbHble nyHKTbl HaXOUOK IIOX0-
;1rnx rp1rneH, H3I'OTOBJiemiblX 113 6poH3bl. Jlna npaKTJ1lieCKH O)lHOTHTIHbIX 3K3eMn.r15Ipa
Hai1w~HbI B rrorpe6emrn lJHM6ana (3anpyTcKa5: Mon,uoBa) 11 B o,uHOM 113 norpe6eHHl1
MOn!ITbHl!Ka l..lyM6py.n ( TpaHCI1JlbBaHH5I). 01-w OTJIH4aIOTC5I .Z:(pyr OT .npyra 1:popMOH.
OKOff'laHI1H. B rpmme 113 l1yM6pyH OKOH4aHHC pa,,:KOBaHHOe, TPaneru1eBI1,IlHOe, Kpai-I 3arHyr
B rreT:110 (puc. 2, 10)6 . Ha )K3eMIIJI5Ipe H3 qlIMOaJfo OHO, ITO-B11,IlHMOMy, cn:erna YIIJIOLUeHHOe,

• Xonr, Y'll1Tb!Ba5!, LJTO rp!!BHa !13 HoBocenhcKoro Obli1c Hai1;:rem1 B pa3onryro~ cocT05!Hl1H, MmKHO npe;:(-
r OJ10n:J!Tb, 'ITO nepBOHa'la.%1I0 ee Kpa5! Ob!Jlll o6paweHb[;: pyr K .Zlpyry He TT:IOCKOCT:~MH, a rpall5!MH, KaK 3TO
BH,1110 Ha 60,1rapcKHX H KaBKa3CKIIX a1rn.nonrnx (pHc. 4).
'B UcIIrpa.,lbHOH EBponc lUBeCTl!hl H .:lpyr11e, KOHCTP'.-KTllBHO 6onee CalO)KHh!e THIIb! rp1rneB. B '!aCTHO-
1996, 11 mnepaTypa]). M1,1
CTl!. 3TO T.H. C.-'lBOCI!Hhle 11 cTp,Jem1b1e rpIIBHbI (Zwillings-, Drillingshalsringe [Terfan
l re pac:::1-.rnTpIIBaeM 3.[(CCb 3TI! HaXO;:{Kll. TTOCKOSJbK)' OHll o6p I3yIOT OT,.':(CJibllYIO Tl1fI0,10fH'ICCKY10 rpyrrny.
,, PHCYHOK B35!T Har-,m 11'3 \101!0Tpaqmlf B. BaCIFIHCBil, ~ne IIC yKa-3aHa cj:iopMa OKOH'lamrn B nnane. 3Ta
,.eTa;i1, 110Ka3aiia B CT3Tbe A. Bynhne ( Vulpe 1970, Abb. 9, 31. KOTOpb111 B cB010 oqepe,Il,b, CCbl.JiaeTC5! na nepBy10
ry6:rnKaumo MaTep1rn,10B LJy ,16py;l ill. cJ)epeimn. 3n. Im.,1e;JH5!5! pa6orn ocT:cL1acb WlM 11e,uoCTym1011.
82 Rei is1.:1 .-lrhn1/ogicci. Serie 11oua

11p51MOe·;' 06a mn-UITHHKa C00TH0C51TC}l C p.tHHCCKHqJCKOII 3rIOXoiI: srnpa51 II0Jl0BIUla VII -


Hal.fano VI BB. LlO P.X.
3aMCTHO., l.J.T0 CX0LlCTB0 MC)KLlY rp11BHOl1 M3 HoBoce:IbCKOro 11 a1rn;1on1l.J.HbI:\1H npe:i-
MeTaMH )1011 PYMbIHCK0H cep1rn He C:JIHUIK0M Bem1Ko. a rpHHHbl HJ )T11X KmnrneKC0B
nep1-10na cpenm!f0 l'aJlbllITaTa Tl1Il0J10fWICCKH npliMbJKaIOT K 1-JaX0D,KaM H3 npyrIIX, yJKe
ynoM11HaBllIHxrn, pai1ott0B Ue1upaJ1bH011 EBponbr. Emia n11 He e,'IHHcrneHHbl'.'>I npmaa-
K0M, o6beLll1H51lOLL(HM H.IDKHenyHai1CKHl1 IK3CMT1]15!p C .LleHrpaJibHO-eBpOIIeliCKOii. rpyn-
TIO}i, 6y.ueT npyr, CBHTbIH TIO BCCH CBOCII ;l,JIHltfe~.
)],n51 Hae. B nallH0M cnyt.J.ae, Ba)I(Ha HJ\teHIIO llclTl1]J0BKa :rro11, CT0Jlb M.aCCOB0 Tipen-
CTaBneHHOH rpyIIIIbI T0pKB (rpHBCH) Cywi. TIO CB0llY M. TTerpecKy-2lbrM6omrua, B KJia-
nax 6onee pattc1.ero BpeMeHH C Tepp1noprrn PyMbIHHH f!OLlO()HbIC HaX0,J[Kl1 11 B raK0M
K0JIHt.J.ec-rne He r'l.3BCCTHbl.
Ec111-1 06pann1,01 K .upyn1M, He cm1wK,)M yna11eHHbIM pafioHaM, r;:re 61>1Jm pacnpocr-
paHeHbI TaKHe rpHBHbl ue1upanbHO--eBpOTie}lCKOro nma, TO MO/KHO OTMennh reppH-
TOpmo BeHrp1rn ..MaccOBhIH xapa1crep HHX Haxo.::(oK 3;:i:ecb c0Bepwe1-rno 0'-.!<eBHLieH
6,i:aronap51 HaJlWlHIO CB0LlHhIX pa6(n, TaKl!X, HaIIpHMep, KaK rI0CMepTHa5I MOH0rpa-
q:)1151 A. Mo:>Ko;11JlI (Mozsolics 2000). r pllB!lhL co6paHHblt: B )TOM CB0Lie 0TH0C5ITC51 K
UCHTpanbHO-eBpOIICHCKOMY nmy. Om1 11MCI0T TIPYT, IIepeBHTbIH Ha 2/3 11.;m % )l,'HIHbl, H
paCKoBaHHhie, :iarnyThie 0K0H4aHH51 (Mozsolics 2000, 36-37.53.63 69-70). CornacHo 3aK-
moL£eHmo A. :iv[O)KOJ111'-I, )TOT THI1 TCf>KB >IBJUICTC5I O;JHOII H3 xapaKTCpHbIX cpopM B Kcl:a-
,'laX rpyrmbJ bDKKCeHrnarno (BUkkszentlaszl6), 06pa3y1orn11x rop1uoHT BVIc (HaB3
[Mozsolics 2000. 27] ).
K o603H::l'-IeHHblM BbIWe '-ICTbipeM np1~ 3HaKaM M0)KH0 )l06aBl1Tb eme omm. '.::ho Me-
TaJIJl, B K0T0p0M Bh[fI0JIHCHa rpHBHa. IToll5ITHO, l.ffQ rro.naBJ15Il0lllee 00Jlhllil1HCTBO Haxo-
LIOK cnenaHo I-I:: 6poH3hI. OnttaKo, B Llem pam,ttoH Es pone 11, B 1.1ac:Taocn1, B KapnaTc-
K0M 6acceHHe [13BCCTHbI T0pKBbI, H'.H'0T0BJleHHbIC 113 30.]0Ta. B CB5l311 C )THM BCCbMa
Ba)KHbIM Ka)Ke1c51 1rn6mo.ueHHe, cnenam10,! T.KeMeHueit. OH OTMeLiaeT, t.J.T0, Bo-nepBblX.
no51Bnemi:e 30JI0T61X rpHBeH B Kaprrarc1<0M 6acceHHe coorBeTcrByeT rop113oHTY KJia-
,r~oB Eewfarcer-•l>oKopy (VIII B. no P.X.), a B0-Brop1,1x, rrpo113sor1crno 30J10ThIX penmrn
Hacnenyer Tpa,'ll11.JJrn l13I'0T0BJICHll5!l 6po H30BbIX 113;J,CJII1l1, 6mn1rne cpopMbl K0T0pb!X
H'.3BeCTHbl 3,Ll,CCI:, yJKe B 1103,UHeM 6pOH30B0.\1 BeKe ( Kernencze1 1999' 89). KaK lUBeCTH0, B
caMoM Knane Eern1iacer-<l>0Kopy Haxol1,rn1oc1, 18 BHTbIX ( «Topn11poBaHI-:!blX», no T. Ke-
MettueH) wenH1,1x rp1rneH (Halsringe). 11x oK0HLiaHmI 3arnyTh1 Hapy>Ky. npy-r - cpeD.He-
m160 cna6o nepeBHTbIII (Kemenczei 1999, i\.bb. 48).
Mbr 1J,06aBHJ111 K '-.!eTbrpeM rrpH3HairnM cxoi:1crna n>1 n,rii - \ieTa..:1."I - 11 npHw.J111 K BbIB0-
LIY, '-ITO 113 BCCH rpynITb[ HaX0LI0K B Kapna fCK0M 6acceiiHe, DOiKa:lyli, HaH6onec 6mUKOI1
3K3CMrnrnpy H3 HoHocenbcKoro HY)KH0 C'IHTaTh rp1rnay HJ Pc1Ka:v1a3 (Hampel 1890, 86).
:3Ta CJiytiaHHa51 HclX0LlKa H3 BepX0Bb,;::]3 p. Taca I1pencraB]l5ICT coifo_l:i no:IH0CTb!0 Bl[TOi1
npyT 113 30J10Tc .. C rrnocKHMH WHpOKI·IMH 0K0W!aHlUI\U1 B q:1op:v1e 6illl3KOll K Tpaneu1m.
01-:!li C0CLIHH5II0TCH 1lpyr C npyroM np11 n, )\Wl!Ul '.3a\1Ka-1IHk'lll,K3. 11 opHa\!ClHIIp0BaHbl

) PucyHOK B ny6.:11haum1 HC .J,aCT 'lt'.TKOIC I 1pce1, raIUCl!l!S O r\>up:,1e UKUII'tal!Wl ( \ulpe 1970, Tat. 10).
8 )loBO.J,H J(O ,,::Jnl'JCCKoro 3UBeprnemrn 1,:;raccmtn1KaU110llllYI<J CllCTaHiU!lOWYIO, \10,KJll) )'KdlaTb Ila CU..(C

o:u1y oco6ell!!OCTb B Tl mo;1onm jlcllll!Oli i'PYII lib] Ka:-KC'fOl !IaM ,lO··


Ill 1e;I1 Iii. Bel tt;IIL)CTL, KUTOflUii, Bilj)O'l('.\l. liC
CO.:JJOTJIOti. '3rocn:nellb nepem!TllCTI! npyta. Heq)Ojl\-1,Lfblll). T.e. c 11 lp.sJ;:.u1uii ;w:1d1 cyo1,CKfl!BliOCTII. l\10A>]l0
pa::IJill'la I b CliilbllYIO (1-loBOCt:IbCKOC), CJ1C.illll0k) ( 4y,"opy,1) II ciaoy10 I O:ll,Illd!:d) C .iCrICIII! Bblpa:-Kel!HOCTll :non1
IlplBl!aKa.
Volumul II. Nr. 1-2 83

1999,. cat. 61 ). ,D,11aMerp rp11Btth1 22,2 CM.


npol{aparraHHhIM 11306pa:)l(em1eM JIO,ll,KH. (Kemenczei
T. KeMettuett yKa3bIBaCT, lJTO TIOXO)Ktte 6pOH30Bbie rpttBHbI lI3BCCTHhI Ha KaBKa3e B
IX-VII BB. no P.X., ommKo, rpttBHY tt3 PaKaMa3 Cl..fttTaeT rrponyKHttett Tex )Ke MacTep-
CKHX, '-ITO H EerneHcer-<t,oKopy (Kemenczei 1999, 89). B :noT )Ke pj{JJ: T. KeMettu,e11 BKJ110-
Yac1 lI eme 0.ll.HY fl0,ll,06HyIO HaXOAKY. 3TO 30JlOT,rn rpttBHa C BlITl:,IM rrpyTOM H.3 KJiaD,a

PIIIC.3. 6poH30Bble rp~BHbl ~3 Mor~nbH•tKa Tmt Ill (no: Texos 1985)


84 Rev1sru ,·l rhcologicii. Serie 11011d

B 36epcBaJibD,e (EpaHaeH6ypr), KOTOpE:.111 ra10Ke naT11pyerc5l VflI B HO P.X. (Kemenczei


1999, 88).
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.1(fflIH, Mb! ymrn,e.111 1necb D,eHCTmneJibHO "pai'iHe mo6on1ITHyro Kapnrny. A 11MeHHO,
O'ICHb 6oJ1bllIOe ctHCl O BHTbIX 6poH30B blX I pv!BCH C pacllJIIOUleHHblMH OKOH1.J31Ul5l.M II
COC]JC,'lOTO'-!eHo Hct o;l]-[OM rraM5lTHl1Ke- .'\10IH'IbI-HIKe T.11H (TeXOB ! 981. pHC. 53.99.101; OH
)KC 1985, pIIC. 103.107Jl4.132.133.l36. l38.1-f0.146.i56.158.16:U79.J87.208). TipW-IC:'vL B
OT:Hllll1e OT ueHTpa:u,HO-eBponei-icKOli rpymihl, 3.,JCCb upeo6J·1a11a1:0 r rpHBHhI C ITIOCKlI-
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KOM, o6bCD,l1H5i:IOLlllM rpHBHhl 1!3 :noro MOfIL1bHI1Ka C JK3CMlI.15IpOM lB HoBOCCJibCKOfO,
5IB.iHI.CTC5I TaK)KC I10J1HOCTblO BHTOH npyr. IL 15 rpHBCH JTHM npwrnaKOM 06.:rnnaIOT 13.
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nepepbIBOB. B TaKOM CJly'-!ae. Kpai':i.He Ba)KHbIM c:1e11yeT C'UITclTb BpeM5I MaCCOBOfO rro-
5!BJiemrn rp1rneH B norpe6emrnx :noro .Morm:bHHKa. CoL1acHo E. B. Tcx<)By, Bee 15 yno-
,\15IHYThIX JK3eMIL15!pcm npoucxomrr 1n KO Mr: neKCOB rpym1b1 T;m III -- sropa51 noJJOBHHa
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CTHO BCero 3 IlOL{OOl!hIC HaXOD,KlL 0DJiaKO (J HH OTJ1H'-!31-0TC5I OT 6o;ree 1103L{Hl1X, rrpe)K~Je
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KOMI1JICKCD1 nepHO.'J,3 MHa)]JllCH YpHemjJem.11 - 3an-IyTI,Ie CTCp)KHCBHllHbie, m160 ynno-
WCHHI,Ie rpy6L[clThIC OlKOH'IaHH5I (pHC. :! , 6-7 ).
Ha KaBKa3e BHTepecy1:0ruHe Hae Haxo.m:H H3BecTHhi H B llPYfHX Kyn1,ryptt1,1x rrpo-
BI1HU:H5IX. HeCKOHbKC- 6pOH30BbIX JK3CMl1JI51.f10B OTMeqeHO B BOCTO'IHOM apeaJie K06aHC-
KOH K,YJ1hryp1,r (Ko3eHKOBa 1982, Tafo1. XXVI). l>pOH30BaH B1na51 rpirnHa c pacKoBaHHhI-
MH, opHaMeHTHp•)BaHHbIMH oKOHLJaHWIMH 6hrna HaHL(eHa B KonxH,'le B :v1on-L1hHmce
3 (pHC. 4, :2). riaM5ITHHKH JTOli rpymJbl B u:e:IOM T. Mm:e.:rn.,:ne .naTHpyeT KOHllOM
3pren-I
VIL mm py6e)KOl\f VII/VI BB. no P.X. (Mikeladze 1995, 13-16). A.IO. CKaKoB BK.:11-0YaeT
KO~m;1eKC, B KOTC 1pOM 61rna HaH.)],el-Ia rpHBBa, B rpynrry naM5ITHHKOB KOa'IXll-Illbl BTOpOH
no.noBHHOH VH-- 1epBOH nonoBHHOH VI BB.! CKaKoB 2002 . 143). 3o:IOTa5I rp1rn1-rn c IL1oc-
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9
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p:ny10T rpynny Haxo;JOK, KOTOpble no COBOKYITHOCTH rrpH3HaKOB CT05IT ropa31IO 6;rn)Ke
K rp11BHe H3 HoBoce:1 bCKoro, qeM uempa:11110-eBpondicKa5I ccp1rn. Ke;1epMeccKa5I rpHB-
Ha, K TOMY )KC, l13I"OTOBJICHa H3 30JIOTa.
I1apanneJILHO C pa3BHTHCM TCMhl ;JaHHC1ro coo6uiemrn MO)KHO HCCKOJlhKO KOHKpe-
TH3I1pOBaTh Tl)ql(y 3pCHI15! 0 CXOD,CTBe Kal:l Ka3CKHX H Ut.'.HTpa:IbHO-eBporreHCKHX rpM-
BCH. B HCKOTOpblX CJlY'Ia5IX (CM., Hanp11Mep, pHC. 2, 3-5 11 pHc. 2, 6-7) D.CllCTBHTCJ1bHO
MO)KHO I'OBOpHTb O, rcpaKTWICCKH, a6COJllOTJ1 OM CXO,J,CTBC. 0;U{aKO, B LJ,Ca10M, cepH5I HaXO-
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9
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ana;1onno.
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1

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qecKH. BnpoLieM, B03M0:~h:H0. 3T0 neiiCTBHTCJlb !O .'1!1Wb BHCYaT:JCHHe OT 3WlK0MCTBa.
II0-BHJ111M0MY, C He c:rnaIK0M npencTaB!ITC.:ILHl •![ Bb!0OpKOII \1aTep11,L1a. ropcl3,JO 60-
.1ee oY:eB11D.HbIM CjrenyeT c mTa rL y3K1111 xponc110n1'-1ccK111'i mr,ma3oH, npe::r.1araeMhr11
1

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noJiytraeTC5!, YT0 0Ha \W,e:eT 0hITh ,=i_an1p0B,Hrn 1~ npe;1e:1ax VII-VI BB. )JO P.X.
il,;rn 3r!0XII parnrero >J<eJle3l!Of0 BCKa. T:LKW I of)p~U()\1, fl05IBll.1C5I Cl1lC Oil,HI! !10B0,J
K0HCTaTHJ10BaTb ()l!epe.111oe nmo-xpoH0.T0f H': :CK0C CXO.,JCTBO ~1C'iK1lY ()LiepeJJ!Ol! ce-
fll1Cl1 6anKaHCKI1X I1 KaBKH3CKI1X Haxo;l0K. llpatna. )Ta K0HCraTaJJWL KaK, BIIP0l.feM, 11
BCe I1]JC,1hl.1lYWI1C B 0TH() memm npynIX rpy1111 1 eweH, \ra:ro lfT0 rip05!CIU!CT B K0HKpeT-
!-1011 (He Teopen!l.fCCKO}!) o6yc:IOB]ICHHOCTJI Ta KHX COEma;--(elrnn. B HC:VtaJIOli CTerreHH
ivexamr3M TaKHX TpaHc1:nm11 ocraerc5I \t,E10no l5ITflhIM eure 11 noro\1y, 410 Ha o6wup-
H0\1 npocrpaHCTBe MeJl\,~lY CeBepHblM KaBKa3c•\1 11 Kapna10-Ea1KaHCKHt\1 pen10Ho\1
nmo;1onI'-ICCKH 0Jll13KHC flaX01lK!I T1l100 HC!l3BC( nu,! Boo6we, ,1H0O npe,]CTaBJICHbl 6yK-
Ba.ahH0 CLll1Hl1 1 [HbIMH BCUJa~m.
BoT H B naHH0.M cnyi-1;1e orpo:vmyIO 1epp11rnp1:am,Hy10 naKyHy Me1I<LIY CeBepHhIM KaB-
Ka30~'I H DclJlKaHaMH ()lJehb CKp0MH0 3ano:rnmoT fJBC HaX0JJKJI IB necocTermofr 30HhI npa-
B0ro 6epera I(aerrpa. '~ho KypraHHhIC norpe6eHJ15I KO'-!CB!-lllKOB VlJ B. LIO P.X. y cc. O,Tb-
[[lcLHa H OpJIOBCll (TeKJII!HO [pHC. 2, 8-9]). I1epB1,1i'1 K0MJLICKC 0TH0CHTC5I K H0B0'-!epKac-
CK0\1Y :nany, Bropoii ·- h pairnecnrcpcKoMy spe:,1e1-m (KoBnaHCHKO, CKopb1i'i 2005, 282,
p11c. 13; l1Jibl1HCKa5! 1975, Ta6n. XXV, 23). O6e L)IIBHbl, HaifoeHHLIC E. )TIIX norpe6er-urnx
l!3fOTOB.'1CHbl H3 30JI0Ta . fipw-reM, Ha rpl!BHY I13 OJlLWaH KaK aI[ctJIOrmo lpiiIBHaM nma
IiemeHcer-CDoKopy yKa3dn T. KeMcHue11 (Kemenczei 1999, 88-~9). OnHaKo, WrMaeTc5r,
T:lKOl\ a:m:u1onm 0OJibll[c C00TBCTCTBYCT KaK pal :-JK3C\mmrp l13 OpJIOBUa--TeKJI!IHO.
E1ae oaHa TaKa}I Haxo.J.Ka 6brna c,;::renaHa Ha 3a11a;J,110I1 nepHtj)epl-m apeaJia paHHec-
1<acpcKoi1 KYJibTYPbL B fr1ccefiHc Cpen.Hero )lHe( rpa. 1'13 pacKonoK T. Cy:rm.rnpcKoro B
3ana;rnoii I10,;::ro:11n1 (MonuibHifK y c. PaKOBKar I rrpo11cxo;un 6poH30Ba5! rprrnHa ( I1eT-
peHK0 1989, Ta6:1. 41, 21 ), MCCTO KOTOpon B rm 0JHH'l1LieCKOM plUl\,' ]I(),]()()HbIX inae:mfi
Kapmrro-,Uy11ailcKoro 6accei!Ha ::itioxH cpe.1He1 ,i r.:1.Ibrnrara tEL1.rnaHewn1. BmlllY ,1e
)!Coe, liyM6pyu) nocraTo,rno 04CB11i1H0.
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pam1'Hrnae1c51 pahomlMJJ CeBcpHoro KaBK2na. Ue1npa.rrhHOI~l Enpom,1 Ii KapnaTo-;:J:y-
iraikKoro 6acccih1a. OK~ua.:JOCb, YT0 cyruecrnye r erne omrn 06:iacn. 0TKyD:a rri:xrncxo-
:::HT 1rnrepecy10nme Hae Haxo~IKII. I1pw1c:v1 0H11 .Je:-srnHcrpHpyfOr npw,1epHo TY JKe c1e-
neHh CX0)lCTBa C rpl!BHCill H'.3 Ho1:mce.'IbCKOIO, X(if}I l! 110 Hlibl\l C()lJCT,HIII5IM np1!3HaK0B,
'HO 11 KaBKa'.3o:ax cepm1. 3TO o6JiaCTb ;ipem-1di (J)paKl1l1 (60.1ntp1rn). HaM l13BCCTH0 3
nyBKTa, ClC 0bf.'1l1 CLIC.:JdhlbI TaKJIC HaX0DKlI, rI~·l!MC'rnTe,1bHO, 'ITO BCC 0llll H:ffOT0B;lC··
llbl l13 ,,lparoueHHb!X MCl:l.l!lOB.
1) C. lliepeMCT (TipoBa,]IIl1CJ.:o: 0Kp. Bapmt•' 0 . B 1922 r. 3.JCCh .Jbl,l 0TKpb11 KJlaJ[,
Ct)CTO~BWIIH l13 1 3,J;10 roii 11 6 ccpe6p5IHblX rpHBt'H (TOpKB). T\nmHI,J 1!'3 Wepe\1CTa rnaJJ.··
KHC ll 0 1 ICHb MctCCl!B!-lbTC. vh .'lllaMCTp OT 2J ilU 25 CM. BCC ,J0CTllrcL'.T HCCK0J!bKllX C0l'
r pa\tM0B, a ce1.1eH1,1e npy Id - 7-8 \t\!.

w llkpe:-.1eT- c-rnpoe mnH.1lll!e uace.1eI1l!or·o IIym,:ra., l. l'q:,nrna np1rno;.un. n,•-BII.Jll\IO\l}, eru HOB,l,:
11aimH1:re--B{uz1ca(Gcr,~n\a [IJt"i 56!
86 Rcnsra Arheo/ogicd. Serie 1101111

B nepso11 ny6mrnaum1 KJlana OH 6brn 011peneJ1ett KaK 11pestte6onrapcKHi1 (MH>1TeB1,


1935, 251 ). TT031lHee CTaJ!O ~CHO, t.JTO rpHBHbl OTHOC~Trn K raJiblllTaTCKOH )TIOXe. LJ:. repro-
Ba B IlOMCKax aHaJIC>I'Mll HCTIOJlb30Bam1 6oraTO opHaMeHTHpOBaHHhJe 1K3CMTIJl~pbl 113
1rnana. no OpHa 1,1e1-rraJibHblM KOMTI03HUIU!M crna COTIOCTaBirna HX C cpopMaJibHO pon-
CTBeHHhlMM, XODI 11 He TO)K.[(CCTBeHHbIMH H3XOL(KaMH (Il11<llICMbl, 6paCJJCTbI) 113 paHOHOB,

-------·-------·---------------------,

1'~ \
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1

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PVIC.4, rpv1BHbt eanKaHcKo(li v1 KasKa3cK011 cep1·1~: - KenepMecc (no: Jl K.ranaHv1Ha 1997);
1

2 - 3prern 3 (no: Mikeladze 1995); 3-4 . . WepeMeT (no: Gergova 1987): 5 - "5nbcHara
Morv1ra" (no: Hv1Ko11os 1965); 1 4 - c1onoro, 3,5 - cepe6po 2 - 6poH3a
Volum11/ ll. N,: l-2 87

np1rneraIOIUHX K Cpen:HeMy )lyHaio (CnoBaKH5I, Cep6mr) tt, B KoHeY:H0M 11Tore, rrpenno-


>tnrna n:aTHp0BaTb K0MnneKc rrepHO)lOM Ila pafrnero )Kene3aoro Be:Ka CB <t>paK1111, He
II03)lHee. B a6coJJIOTHhtx JJ.aTax :no rrp11xoJJ.HTC5! Ha VIII - rrepsy10 rrm10B1rny VII BB.
(Gergova 1987, 17.56-57).
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(pnc. 4, 3). )lHaMeTp rpHBHbI COCT3BJI5IeT 25,5 CM, ceY:eJ-rne rrpyTa - 0,75 CM, Bee- 315 r.
llo TeXHUKe I1 K0:\filOH0BKe opHaMeHTau:i,rn Ha OK0WiaHl15IX B C0Y:eTaHHH C l1X Karrne-
HHLlHOH cpopMOH )TOT :H<3eMI1JI5Ip HY)KH0 CY:l1TaTl:, MaKCl1MaJibH0 6JI113KHM rpHBHe 113
HoBocenbcKoro.
2) C. CKpe6aTHO (Hee.pOKOITCKO) B 1937 r. Ha~)leHbl 2 30JI0Thie rpHBHbl (MHKOB 1950,
o6p. 89). BrrpoY:eM, 11x pa3Mephr 3acTaBnmoT cepbe3H0 ycoMHHThC5! B rroixo6ttofi HHTep-
npeTau:1111 . .D:11aMerp 60."lbrnero 3K3eMITJI5!pa - 10 CM, Bee 41,5 r; Menhrnero-- 8,4 CM, Bee
I7,65r(M11KOB 1950, 151).
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CTBO C HarneH. Y Hee rro.rnoCTbl0 B11TOH rrpyT 1l pacrrmon~eHHbie 0K0HY:3Hl15! B Bl1)].e HC-
npaBH.JibHOH Tpaneuirn.
O6e rpttBHbI (6pacneTa) aBTop naTrrpyeT V-IV BB. no P.X. (MttKOB 1950, 153). YY:rr-
ThIBaSI TO, '!TO 3T0 CJIY,-laHHa5! HaX0)].Ka, ony6JmKOBaHHa5! y)Ke na1rno, HCJib35! HCKJIIO-
'-laTb, '!TO nan1p0BKa B L(aHH0M cnyqae 5!BmieTOI C11JibHO 3aBbillleHHOH. OnttaKO, MbI He
pacrronaraeM n:aHHbIMH o nepecMoTpe nan1poBKI1 11 ncmonmneJihHOH 11HTeprrpeTaum1
'.HOH HaXO)lKI1 B KaKl1X-mI6o 6onee IT03)lHl1X rry6m1Kau1rnx.
3) «Em>cHaTa Monurn» (c. EopoBaH). B rryHK re, pacnoJIO)KeHH0M B 3 KM K ceBepy OT c.
E3epo, B pa3pyrneHH0M KypraHe 6bIJil1 o6Hapy)l(eHbI 0CTaTKI1 3axopoHeHH5I, C0BeprneH-
HOro no o6p5U(y KpeMau1rn. 3necb, BMecTe c Be1uaM11 KeJibTCKoro o6nttKa (MeY:,, yM6mr,

P~C.5. naMHTHl-1Kl-1, ynoM1-1HaeMb1e B crnrbe: 1-11 - apean Kna,oos 661nsaHewrn 1-1 Bl-1HL\Y AB >Koc:
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8--KenepMecc: 9-3pr,m1: 10- Tnv,
88 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

YDlIJUl) HaH)leHa ,::epe6p51Ha5I rpHBHa. 1lpy1 110.IH0CTblO BHTOH. OKOH4aHI151 pacKOBaHhl


B Tpaneumo H HMel0T ).l0B0JlbH0 l1hlllHibIM opHaMeHT (p11c. 4, 5). Pa3Mepb1 rpHBHbl He
yKa3aHbl. llpenrrorraraeTC51 )laTHpOBKa KeJibTCKHM BpeMeHeM, T.e. Bep05ITH0, OKOJI0 III B.
LI,O P. X. (HaKorroB 1965, 190). Ecsnr :no Ta K, TO rorna HY)KH0 rrpn3HaTb, 1110 MOD:a Ha
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ro KOMI1J1eKca, H:l.X0l]JIBWeroc5I 110Ll HaCblflblO. He 11CKJII04eH0, 4T0 npenMeT Mor 6hITh
no'.3aHMCTB0BaH Kem,TaMH KaK HeKHI1 aHTl1KBapmn .[(JUI pa3Hoo6pa3l151 CTaHnapTHOf0
norpe6arrbHoro HHTepbepa.
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0CH0BH0M, vu E. }10 P.X. Tip11 )TOM, HeJ1b351 coaepweHHO l1CKJ1104aTb KaK rrpe.UbILlY-
[Uee, TaK ll nocn;:ny1owee CT0JieTI151. Y4HThIBa5I MeCTO HaXO.[(KH, ee MO)KHO CB513hlBaTh
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mt:M5ITHHKa, VI B. .ilJrn na111poBKH rpHBHhI i.;a)KeTc5I Ma110aepoJITHhIM. Crroii VIII-VII BB.
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cjJa3e (£py51KO, >IpomeBW-I 2001, 61). CyLJ.51 [10 pe3ynbTaTaM HCCJie)].OBaHHM, 3T0T rrepH-
0ll 6LU1 0)].HHM 113 Ca\1bIX aKTHBHhlX 3TanoB )KH3He)le51TeJibHOCTH Ha )TOM MHOfOCJIOH-
H0M ropo;mme. He HCKJIIOt.IeH0, 4T0 JVIeCT0 H2LX0Ll,KH rpHBHbl - 100-150 M K ceBepy OT
06opoHHTerr1Hb1x coopy)KeH11fi ropormma - yKa3hIBaeT Ha B03M0)l(H0e pacrro11o)Ke-
1-rne 3)].CCb M0fHJ[bHHKa.

Eu6J1uozp,ujJu11
EpyJIKO, >IpomesHt-I 2001: H.B. £py51Ko, IO.H. 5IpollleBH4, ropoLI.HIUe y c. HoBocerrb-
CKoe Ha Hu)l(HeM ,[(y1rne (Onecca 2001 ).
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3HH, r. I (MocKsa. 1997).
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(VU- VI BB.JJ.0 H.J.) (KHeB 1975).
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1-me npencKHq>CKOro BpeMeHH B naenpOBCK(lH rrpaBo6epe)KH011 }lCC0CTeITH. Stratum plus 3
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(1934), 1935, 230-253.
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Vo/ump/ II, N,: 1-2 89

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90 Revis ta A rheologicd. Serie nouii

0RIGINEA CULTURII GETICE- REPERE ISTORI0GRAFICE

Vasile HAHEU, Chi~inau

ln pre::.ent, bibliograjia privind originea culrurii g<'tice (perioada .$1 modalitatea constituirii) este pe cat de
1111meroasa, tot atdt de comroversata. Pre::entul studiu ,rre drept scop anali::a critica a opiniilor mai generate in
scopul stabilirii unui co11.,ens relati\' in domeniu. Pan,:i nu demult cronologia traco-geto-dacica se racorda la
modelele Central Eumpc11e (Hallstatt, La Tene 1 , fapt ce genera co,!fu::ii in datarea realita(ilor etnoculturale
din regizme. De::icere1 de la acestea .$i abordarea materialului local, inclusiv prin .. decentralizarea" masivului
cultural, permite red,1tarea vestigiilor cu aproximativ un secol mai devreme (opinie practic domina11t11 in uf-
t1mul deceniu), gene::,1 culrurii petrecandu-se in sec. VI/-V a. Chr ca rezultat al unor importante interferenfe ale
localnicilor cu lumea estiu1, sudica !ji din vest, avand drept finalitate cunoscutele transformari culturale.

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"The origins of the getfan culture - historiographical reference point". Currently, the bibliography regard-
ing the origi11s of getzc culture (the period a11d way of establishment) is as 11wnero11s as it is controversial. The
purpose of the current study is to provide a critical analysis of the most general opinions so as to establish a
relative consensus on the topic. Until recently, the thraco-get.ic chro11ology was tied to the models of Central Eu-
rope (Hallstatt, La Tene). 1/zus confusing and generating errors in the et/mo cultural realities of the region. Sepa-
rating from these moc.'els and focusing on local materiel, including through a "decentrali::.ation" of the culture,
allows for an opportwzity to re-date the vestiges (culture) with appreciatil·ely 011e ce11tury (this opi11io11 luzs been
domi11ant in the past c.'ecadc). The genesis thus takes ploce in Vll-V BC as a re::.ult of important interco1111ectio11s
between the local pop.datio11 with the east, south, and H est, resulting in the well known cultural transformations.

Orice intentie de a plasa in timp o cultura arheologica sau alta (tempus-L. Klejn) necesitii ni~te
repere sigure-indic:atori cronologici -pentru datarea anumitor contexte etnoculturale.
Pentru epoca ~i :1realul in discutie ele sunt: izvoarele scrise, anumite piese metalice (arme, pod6-
abe, elemente de harna9ament etc.), monedele ~i ceramica de import (nu numai greceasca). fn acest
aspect majoritatea cercet:itorilor sunt unanimi, diferenta constand in insu~i faptul cum fiecare dintre ei
dateaza respecti vele repere cronologice.
Ince ne prive~te, credem ca reperele nominalizale au parti bune, dar ~i neajunsuri. Ultimele se
reduc la urmatoarek.
Izvoarele sc1ise. pe I§inga faptul ca sunt fragmentare ~i controversate, dateaza contextele etnocul-
turale doadn perioada la care se refera cu diverse ocazii: razboiul scito-persan, conflictul macedo-
nean etc. Vulnerabilitatea izvoarelor scrise a fost amplu analizata in studiul lui M. Tkaciuk ,,Arheolo-
gia numelui'' (Tkaciuk 1998, 60-86).
Mult mai elocvente sunt piesele metalice (am1e, podoabe, elemente de hama~ament etc.) care, in
opinia lui A. Leskov, pot fi utilizate doar pentru so lutionarea problemelor legate de cronologie, nu ~i
in cadrul urmaririi succ(~s.iunilor etnoculturale $i ident1ficarilor culturale (Leskov 1971, 90).
Supozitia este valabi la ~i pentru materialul ceramic de import, ~i pentrn monedele timpurii., pana
la aparitia eel or de tip Hu~i-Vovrie~ti.
Pentru a detcrrnina esenta culturii, originea ~1 radacinile sale, cat ~i apartenenta ei etnic~i, este
neccsar mai intai a preciza, pe cat se poate de exact, perioada, spatiul ~i modalitatea de constituire a
Vi;/umui II, N1'. 1-2 91

ac:esteia. Procedura nu este defoc simpla nu doar in caml culturii traco-·getice. Este destul de dificil a
detennina segmentul cronologtc de transfonnare a trasa1 urilor specifice ~i a comura spatml de inovatii
doar in baza materialului arheologic. Chiar ~i in c3zul dafarii traditionale a monumentelor, in baza
unor grupuri de indicato1i cu referinte sigure de crono]ogie absoluta (varfuri de sageata, spade aki-
nakes-lJli, fibule, psalii, accesorii de podoaba, ceramica greceasca etc.), capiiti'cm un tablou oarecum
static, superficial. Obtinem pilonii, dar nu ~i umplutura. De asemenea sunt 1i scante ~i datarile in baza
unor analogii disparate, indepartate. La acest compart1 ment, pe buna dreptate M. Tkaciuk constatii
intr-un studiu recent: . ,ce inseamna cronologia cultmii retice nu :?tie nimeni" (Tkaciuk 1994, 221).
In ultimii ani s-a incercot abordarea unor noi principii, care de fapt se bazeazil. pe cronologia
relativil., evidentierea corelatiei dintre diferite tipuri de vestigii, niai ales pentm cornplexele inchise.
(Vulpe 1967, 80-91; Idem 1977: Alexandrescu 1976, 126: Babe~ 1975, 125-139; Conovici 1986,
l:'.9-141 ).
Dar aceste scheme nu pot fi utilizate pe larg, deoarece, in p1irnul rand, este vorba despre complexe
inchise (A. Vulpe), care sunt o raritate, ceramicft grece,tsca cu mai mult de doua toarte ~~tampilate de
acela~i fel (N. Conovici), sau se bazeaza pe prezenta monedelor (M. Babe~). In mare masura continu~t
sa fie pe larg utilizata metoda dasificarii tipologice a ves1 igiilor ~i aducerea analogiilor respective.
Dintre rnaterialele traco-getice depistate in majoritatrn siturilor cercetate, un caractcr local sigur are
doar ceramica modelata cu rn:ina (In afara recipientelor cu caracter advenit). Dar inca prin punctul de
vedere emis de catre Vasile P:arvan (1926), ulterior apr->fundat de E. Moscalu (1983, 58-61 ), carac-
leristicile acestei ceramici sunt Ill general amo1i'e de-al ungul unor perioade indelungate din ambele
epoci ale fiemlui.
In asemenea situatie vestigiile ceramice depistate se datau, de regula, in baza unor indicaton
siguri: ceramica greceasca (amfore ~i fragmente ale vaselor de lux), arme, plese de harna~ament
podoabe etc. scitice, frecvente la siturile de epoca cercetate. Dar pe de o parte, ceramica greceasc~L
apare in zona incepand cu mi_jlocul- sf. secolului VI a. Chr. (CepoBa, 1989, 159: Banaru 1999, 174-
175; Vulpe 2001, 490), iarpentru teritoriul din nord-ve.,tul Marii Negre de la sf. sec. VII-inceputul
sec. VI a.Chr. (Canarache I 957, 8-9; JleilrryHcKa51 1981, 5; Amaut 2003, 106). Pe de alta parte,.
vestigiile scitice timpurii, pan~i nu demult, se datau pract c cu un secol rnai tarziu (Me;iBe.UCK,UI 1992,.
86-107). In a~a fel, datarea vestigiilor getice timpurii era artificial franata cu t1iai bine de un secol.
pentru perioada sa initiala, dm care cauza a fost nevoie de ,,inventat" notiunea de hiatus cronologic
intre culturile tracice inrudite ~i succesive: Basarabi-$old~ine~ti ~i getica timpurile (TKaLJYK 1999 .
248). Constatarea respecti vfi a fost formula ta ~i de cittre I. Niculita (H11Kysrnu3 1987, 15).
Abordand problemele perioadei nominalizate, A. Vulpe mentioneazii ca starca de lucruri este
cauzam ,, ... nu atat de lipsa materialelor ... , cit de neputinta de a le organiza pe acestea cronologic'·,.
totodata propunand de a se dezice de etichetarile monumentelor ~i abordarea lorin baza evidenfierii
unor aspecte culturale sincronice sau succesive (Vulpe 1970, 182-213).
A vorbi despre originile culturii getice (in continuan · ,,traco-getice". con~tienti fiind ca o astfel de
nominalizare a cultmii aprion indica apartenenta acesteia) inseamna a incepe cu Vasile Parvan. Oper-
el,~ sale ,,Getica. 0 preistorie a Daciei"(l 926) ~i ,,De cia. Civilizatiile amice din ta.rile Carpato-
Dunarene" ( 1967) au devenit clasice ~i continua a fide ,·eferinta. Nu o sa gre~ir:1 dacal am recunoa~te
cii in principalele probleme ale cultmii (origine, cronologie, caracte1izarea cultwii materiale., relatiile
cu vecinii etc.). Vasile Parvan a intuit ~i conturat corect ;tarea de lucmri, succesorii Jui dar ~i cerceta-
torii aci:uali, dupa cum mentiona Em. Moscalu, urmand ,t structura ~i preciza anumite aspecte, care la
in8eputul secolului XX nici nu puteau fi observate din cauza insuficien1ei fondului de izvoare arheo-
logice. Acum, dupa o suta de ani de investigatii, ne affom intr-o situatie mult mai favorabila. ~i ar fi
cazul s:i filn mai indulgenti (1-hrKyJim~J 1977. 15- l 6. 1:,,-19).
Dar sa revenim la originea culturii getice in opini, lui V. Pilrvan. Protois:oria getica se prcsu-
pune ca incepe inca din perioada bronzului ~i este r;1cordata la schemelc cronologice central-
92 Rev1sta Arheologicd. Serie noua

europene. Autorul estE: con~tient ca o asemene:1 abordare este, in general, nereu~ita, o preluare,
care din start face cronologia ~i periodizarea materialului local eronate. Dar la acea perioada
schemele lui Reinecke :;ii Montelius dominau arl1eologia europeana ~i V. Parvan subliniaza ca ele
pot fi utilizate pentru spatiul carpatic doar cu ,tnurnite modificari. Si inca un lucru: propunand
pentru Dacia prelungirea epocii branzulut panz. la expansiunea scitica (sec. VII a. Chr.), autorul
nu poate sa nu ateritioneze influenta putemica dm vest ,.hallstatiana" ~i ,,veneto-illiridi" (Parvan
1926, 290).
Formarea ~i inflorirea culturii getice autorul o pune in dependenta de ,,patrunderea masiva a celtilor
in zona Dunarii de Jos, Carpati, N istru'' dup:i ani 1300 - 250, cind incepe La Tene-ul getic.
in sfar~it, autornl propune urmatoarea schema. cronologica:
Branz III-<::. 1400 -·- 1000 i.e.n.
Branz IV - c. 1000---7001.e.n.
Fier I (Halls.tatt)-- c. 700-300 i.e.n.
Fier II (La Ten,:)-· c.3001.e.n. - 50 e.n.
insa~i intitularea capitolelor din ,,Dacia" dern ,ta ca autorul acorda o mare atentie interferentelor
culturale, originea 1raco--getilor vazand-o prin pU1 emice influente estice (scitice), vestice (villanovi-
ene) ~i sudice (grece~ti) (1967).
in continuare, penodizarea lui V. Parvan a fos1 pc larg preluatii de cercetatorii romiini, C. Daicov-
iciu divizand epoca fierului in trei perioade: scitica, celtica ~i dac1ca. (Daicoviciu 1945, 41-45).
In primul volum al ..lstoriei Romaniei" (1960. p. 218-248), La Tene-ul geto-dacic este divizat fn
patru perioade:
I. 450- 300 i.e.n. --· perioada fonnilii cul tun i geto-dacice in baza celei hallstattiene locale;
II. 300-- 100 i.e.n. ··· perioada consolid:irii ~i raspandirii culturii getice;
Ill. 100 i.e.n. - ''nc:q)L1tul e.n. -perioada inflornii culturii geto--dacice;
IV Inceputul e. n. -- l 06 e.n. - perioada evolu1 iei acestei culturi la nivelul civilizatiei sclavagiste.
Este o schema care a dominat mai multe decenii i'.n istoriografia ramaneasca de speci alitate, cu
toate ca materialele invocate de la Tariverde (1960. 219), Cemavoda (Berciu 1957, 181-209), Barbo~i
( l 960,224), Frumu~ita ( 1960, 224 ), Balta Verde (Berciu, Com~a, 1956, 399-488) ;,.a. s.e datau in
secolul VI, ~i nu lajum:itatea secolului V a.Chr.
Anticipand anumite titluri, nume ~i opinii, expunem spre comparare o opinie, pana nu demult
unanirn acceptata de istoriografia sovietica 11i moldoveneasca. Cel mai elocvent ea reiese din titlul
lucrarii rnonografice a lui I. Niculita ,,CeBeptthre cDpaKm1uh1 B VII-1 BB. no H.3.", in cadrul careia
gasim unnatoarea i11par1tire pe pe1ioade: secolele VI-V; IV-III; II-I a.Chr.
Necorespunderea consta in aceia ca daca pen1 ru istoriografia sovietica ~i moldoveneasca perio-
ada de inflorire a culturi1 getice era secolul IV-III ,J.Chr., in ist01iografia romana aceasta se incadra in
timpul de dupa secolul II a.Chr., care de fapr este perioada culturii dacice.
0 asemenea cronologie ~i periodizare controversata dintre doua ~coli asupra unui subiect comun
a existat tacit, paralel aproxirnativ trei decenii, abi~1 in ultimii 15 ani datele fiind coroborate.
V Parvan, exagerand rolul celtilor in constitui1 ,;:a ~i evolutia culturii getice, sustinea ca din rnediul
celtic ar fi patruns ceramica lucrata la roatii, in acela~i timp vedea La Tene-ul Carpato-Dunarean
individualizat, getii fiind cei ce I-au dezvoltat (Parvan 1926, 466).
In continuare incepe pe1ioada cand devine dominanta opinia des pre originea ~i evolutia locala a
culturii, inlaturandi.:-se totodata ponderea influentdor straine, in primul rand a scitilor ~i celtilor.
Pioner in aceasta chrcqie a fost fara indoiala I Nestor, care categoric interpreta evolu1:ia culturii
tracilor de Nord exclusiv ca un fenomen culturologic independent de influen{ele straine, avand rada-
cini in Hallstattul timpuriu local ~i mediul sbd-tracic (\Jestor 1937-1940, 178-179).
Pentru regiunea Doorogei D. Berciu (Berciu. ':lippidi 1965. 73-136, 288-324) propune o schema
cronologica in cadr JI ciheia periodizarea este pre.1:l'ntata in felul urmator:
hi1mw! 11. :\"1: 1-2 93

1. 1200-450 i.e.n. - prima epoca al fierului;


2. 550-450 i.e.n. -pcrioada tarzie a Hallstattulu1;
3. 450- 280 i.e.n.
4. 300/280- 100 i.e.n
5. I i.e.n. -1 e.n. -inceputunle stapanirii romane
Prima epoca a fierului e:,te divizata in trei perioade timpurie (Ha AB), m:jlocie (Ha C), ~i tarzie
( Ha D ). Autorul racordeaz/t aceasta diviziune ,,sistemu iui cronologic central-european'"(Berciu, Pip-
pidi 1965, 74-75).
Autorul insista asupra caracterului tracic al cultur i inca de la sfar~itul epocii bronzului. Pentru
mijlocul mileniului I a. Chr. fixand delimitarea rarnuri1 nord-tracice de cea de sud se menfioneaza ca
z:Jna Munteniei. Moldova de Sud, Oltenia ~i Dobrogea sunt unitare in aspect cultural (Berciu.
Pippicli 1965. 75).
Pentru cazul nos1ru, ma1 1mportanta este perioada mijlocie (800-550 a.Chr.), clesenmata drept
Babadag III. In s1sternul cronologic central-european a acea vreme perioada corespundea Ha C.
Pentru Dobrogea se constatii un ritm mai accelerat al e,.·olu~ei comunitafilor urnane, influentat de colo-
n lZarea greceasca a litoralului Pontic. Mentionand ca pentrn faza tfuzie Babadag Ill 111 asortimentul cerdillic
se mai intalnesc canelurile, dar ~i tehnologii Basarabi 111 ex,x:utare ~i mai ales decor, totodata se semnaleaza
~i mormintele plane cu depunere in urna gasite in ora~,tl Cernavoda (Berciu, Pippidi 1965, 88. 89).
Situatia strati1::,rrafica de la Hi stria, fondata in ultirnul sfert al secolului VII a.Chr. (in opinia autorilor
p.1blicapei ~i pentru aceea vrcrne, ulterior datarea fiind precizata- 11.11), in straturile careia ceramica au-
tohtonii este in context grecesc: cu datare sigura, pem1ite a o data la rnijlocul-sfar~itul secolului VII a.Chr.
Tot aici ~i pentru perioada mentionata. autornl de:;emneazii zona respectiva (Dobrogea) drept
.,focar de civiliza"(ie a cultun: getice" (Berciu, Pippidi 1965, 93 ).
Un aport deosebit in eluc1darea anumitor probleme .ile epocii il aduc lucrarile lui Em. Moscalu, in
primul rand ,,Cerami ca Traco·Getica" (Moscalu 1983). Din start autorul face concluzia ca influenta
cimeriano-scitica din secokle VIII- VI a.Chr. nu mod1ficii structura culturii tracice ~i geto-dacice
t1:11purii, pnvita din punctul de vedere al ceramicii (Mo:,calu 1983, 14).
Pe de alta parte, aceasta nici nu era obligat01iu: sciti, nomazi de obicei utilizau ceramica locala. In
ce prive~te insu~i procesul piitrunderii scitilor la vest d1: Nistru $i spre Europa Centrala la rnijlocul --
s tar~itul secolului VII a.Chr, aceasta ipoteza are mai multi adepti decat oponenti.
0 atent1e sporita autorul acorda originii ti cronolo ,:iei La Tcne-ului geto-dacic, pentru care, in
baza tipnlogiei ceramicii, distinge doua faze.
Aceste faze au un continut cultural diferit cu o tipologie diferita: Canlia ~i Sannizegetusa. Automl
msista s:i inte!eaga fenornende culturologice din secolele llI-Il a.Chr., deoarece aspectul Sannizege--
tusa se contureazii deplin in secolul I a.Chr. Autorul sus1:ine in baza investigatiilor, dar mai ales anal--
1zand colectiile ceramice ale tazelor, ca grupul Canlia, 12 sfar~itul existentei sale in secolul III a.Chr. ~1
111 prima jumatate a secolului II participa la geneza faze i Sarmizegetusa. Pomind de la supozitiie lui
\' Parvan ~1 R. Vulpe, care lk asemcnea divizeaza La ·,·ene-ul geto-dacic in trei faze, Em. Moscalu
ptopune unnatoarea periodi:~are: secolele V-IV - 250 a.Chr. - faza inta1; 250-150- faza doi; 150
a Cl1r- l06 p.Chr--faza trei. Caracteristicile acestora sur1t urmatoarele: faza intai-evolutia aspectu-
lui Canlia ( ~i eventual Fen g,le ); faza doi- tranzi1ia in tre cele doua aspecte; ?i faza trei - evolutia
aspectului Sam1izegecusa (I\loscalu 1983, 217 ).
Desemnand faza intai drcpi: o evolutie a aspectelor Canha ~i Ferigile, care corespuncl hallstattului
t5rzi u, perioada in care de fapt s-a constituit cultura tn1co-geticii. se poate presupune ca doar moda
ti rnpului de a desemna cultura getica drept o cu/tura ob/1gatoiur La Time, a 1mpus autornlui o aseme-
n1:a scl1ema, mai ales in ce pnvqte limita inferioar.i
0 anum1ta redresare in ce prive$tC abordarea problerrei originii culturii getice a fost fiicuta odata cu
aparitia stud1ilor Jui Al. Vulpl' i11cepfo1d cu ,,Cercetari pri\'ind sec. VII-I i'.e.n.'' (Vulpe Jl970, 115-213).
94 Rel'ista Arheologica. Serie noua

Caracterul novc.tor, pentru perioada post--Basarabi, ii constituie propunerea autorului de a se dezice


de la ,,denumirea inproprie de Hallsttat tarziu ~i Laten pentru reg tune",- de fapt, anume vechea abor-
dare clucea la necorespuncle1i, pentru a nu zice erc,ri cronologice i'nccpilnd cu V. Parvan pana la .,lsto-
ria Romaniei" (1960). sporadic mai fiind utilizaUt de unii cercetatori pana in prezent.
Pentru Al. Vulpe, limita cronologica superioar[t este marcata de fenomenele care au dus la dezmem-
brarea (transformarea culturala- n.n.) a masi vu! s1i Basarabi, fapt petrecut la sf. sec. VII -1nceputul
sec. VI a. Chr.
Al. Vulpe clateaza faza hallstattiana tarzie in baza necropolei Ferigile, cercetata exchaustiv.
Autorul distinge cinci variante combinatorii incadrate in urmatoarea schema cronologica: Ferigile I
cu fazele 1, 2 (a douajum. a sec. VII a.Chr.): Fecgile II cu fazele 3, 4 (sec. VI a.Chr.) ~i Ferigile Ill
(inceputul sec. V a.Chr.) (Vulpe 1967, 99). Ulterior autorul modifica de cateva ori cronologia
sitului (Vulpe l.97 7, 81--111; Idem 1979, 2261 <'.284 ). intr- unul dintre ultimele sale studii (Vulpe
1979, 93-113)., care este, de fapt, o intregire a monografiei din 1967, autorul precizeaza serios
problemele legate de cronologie ~i periodizar-..:. De fapt, periodizarea sitului se intemeiaza pe
stratigrafia orizontala a acestuia. Evidentierea unor tipuri de inventar in calitate de indicatori crono-
logici (anumite tipuri de vase, placi de centura ajurate, spade akinakes, zabale de tipul Szentes-
Vekerzuk), cat ~i analiza lor statistico-combinaturie a perrnis reconstituirea evolutiei necropolei ~i
cvidentierea a cinci tipuri combinatorii, dintre care prime le patru evolueaza lent-curgator (trecerea
de la unul spre altd fiind greu de sesizat), eel de-al cincilea fiind practic rupt din contextul general
(Vulpe 1979, 96-97).
Divizand cultura geto-daca in doua mari etape de dezvoltare: geto-dacicul I- sec.VI(VII)-III a.Chr.
~;i geto-dacicul II-· II a.Chr.-I p.Chr., pentru I (care de fapt ne intereseaza acum) propune subetape
faranominaliz~tri etmcc: sec. VI-Va.Chr(Ferigile); sec. IV-III a.Chr. (Zimnicea-Murighiol). l'n con-
tinuare, pentru eventual,;~ subdiviziuni autorul propune notiunea de ,,aspect cultural'' (Vulpe 1970). ln
favoarea ultimei, in literatura de specialitate deja exisi:a ,,aspectul Alexandria" (Preda 1959, 251-261;
Idem. 1960, 25-36), ulterior evidentiindu-se ,.a~ pectul Canlia" (Alexianu, Dumitroaia 1990, 125-
133 ). Anticipfmd lucruri le, constatam ca in ultimul deceniu o asemenea abordare de vine tot mai atrac-
tiva (Epy5IKO, TK,FIYK 1994, 27-31; Kasuba, Haheu, Levitki 2000).
Pentru sec. VI (VI])-V a. Chr. Al. Vullpe dist6nge ~i caracterizeaza urrnatoarele grupuri (as-
pecte) culturale: Ferigile, Barsqti, Dobnna-Ra,;na (inclus1v teritoriul Dobrogei), Balta Verde-
Gogo~u, Po[!ile de Fier. Vraca, Ciumbrud, Vekerzuk, Moldova, Podolia, Kustanovice (Vulpe 1970,.
l 89-202). 0 asemenea abordare pare dintre eek mai plauzibile.
Fara a intra in discu1ii de detaliu ~i afilitndu-ne opiniei, tinem sa subliniem ca de!1i clupa aparitia
studiului respectiv au trecut mai bine de trei decenii, in literatura de specialitate se mai utilizeaza
notiuni ca ,,unitate culturala", ,,mono lit cultural"' etc. - notiuni ,,tradi1ionale" care fdneaza anumite
abordari, aduc confuzi t ~i controverse pentru elaborarea unor scheme reale de cronologie i1i pen-
odizare. Constatar~a a fost confirmata ~i de modul de abordare a lui E. Moscalu ( 1983), ~i de studiul
referitor la grupul de pe cursul inferior al Nistrului Mijlociu (Kasuba, Haheu, Levitki 2000).
Pentru a continua cu istoriografi.a romana asupra problemei, vom starui asupra unor importante
studii ale Jui G. Simion, nu numai cu referire la Dunarea de Jos. Primul dateaza din 1976. in care
schematic sunt intuite principalele postulate de ordin cultural, dar ~i cronologic, pe care autorul le va
aprofunda timp de aproximativ trei decenii (Simi,m 1976, 143-163). Vorbind dcspre inceputurile cul-
turii getice in Dobroge.a, G. Simion le plaseaza in ,,hallstattul tardiv, in legatura cu dezmembrarea
culturii Babadag III (srnr~itul sec. VII a.Chr.). fenumen ce corespunde transformarii culturii Basarabi"
(Simion 1976, 143 ). La moment autorul nu leaga :tenomenul amintit de elementul sci tic (Simion 1976,
144). Ultima remarc,i nu este intamplatoare, d,:oarece, ulterior, accstui element i se va ac:orda o
atentie aparte. :$i a~easta are loc odata cu aparitia studiului ,,Geneza c1\'llizatiei geto--dace (sec. VI [--
'V .,1.e.11. )" (01m1on
·c· · 19c·q 1 13 --.:..-
o., __ ')'13 ).
95

Din insu~i titlul studiulu1 reiese opinia autorului in ce prive~te perioada constituirii culturii, care
de~i nu va fi acceptata timp de un deceniu, se va clove,Ji a fi cu adevarat novatoare, in prezent fiind
practic unanim acceptata (d::tr despre asta ceva mai jos ,. Se critica opiniile care neaga sau nu tin cont
de catastrofe, facand salturi in timp, pentru a demonstra c,.mtinuitatea fara intrerupere (pentru Romania--
din eneolitic pana la cucerir~:a romana) (Simi on 1989. 213 ). Tot in acest studiu autorul incearca sa
rnotiveze ~i factorul care a cauzat transformarea masi\ ului cultural precedent-Basarabi. Reactual-
izand descopetirile mai vehci (Cernavoda, Petro~ani. Piatra Frecatei etc.I, dar ~i noi (Celic-Dere,
Sabangia etc.) in care semnaleaza a~a vestigii ca psal1ile, manere de cutit ornate instil animalier,
akinakes-urile cu bara ~i antene, unele morminte, G. S1 m10n opteaza in vederea existentei ,,violente
sau nu" a unei infiltratii scitice (Simion 1989, 214-221 '1. Neexcluzand nici influentele sudice ~i ves-
t ice, autorul conchide fenornenul aparitiei noii culturi ( getice), in baza fondului local tracic, dar ~i in
rezultatul unor importante ime:rferente culturale. In continuare se accentueaza ~:i aprofundeaza aceste
doua importante momente - ::ronologie ~i modalitate de constituire a culturii in discutie- intr-o serie
de alte studii (Simion 1992. 18-47; Idem 1997, 23 l-2S2; ldem 1998, 519-566).
Nu demult bibliografia romaneasca s-a completat cu un studiu destul de serios in domeniu.
Este vorba despre aparitia compendiului in 8 volume a ,,Istoriei Romanilor" (Bucure~ti 2001).
T,ematica in discutie a fost redactata de catre Al. Vulpe, detinand opinii novatoare fata de editia
precedenta (Bucure~ti 1960).
In primul rand, autorul atentioneaza asupra diferenJierii metodelor istorice ~i arheologice de re-
constrmre a epocii, situatie care de fapt ~i crea necorespunderi in problemele de datare.
Izvoarele scrise dateaza evenimentele doar 1ncepand cu sf. sec. VI a. Chr., ceca ce nu 1nseamna
neexistenta mai timpurie a culturii. Este exact situat1a pe care o prezentam ceva mai sus despre
necorespunderea dintre notiunile de ,,etnos" ~i ,,culturJ materiala". Chiar daca prirnii greci apar pe
li1oralul nord-pontic incepand cu mijlocul sec. VII a. Chr., ace~tea nu erau nici geografi, nici istorid.
In continuare autorul acorda o atentie sporita raportului dintre sci\i ~i populatia ba~tina~a, care
este in prezent mult mai nuantata.
Pentru tratarea problemelor originii culturii autorul evidentiaza trei regiuni in calitate de focar al
acesteia: 1. bazinul Dunarii de Jos, inclusiv sudul Moldovei; 2. Transilvania; 3. Podi~ul Central ~i
N ordut Moldovei (Vulpe 200 l, 4 70).
Pentru Dobrogea sunt caracteristice vestigiile funerare clatate incepand cu sf. sec. VII pana adanc
in sec. III a. Chr. (Vulpe 200 I, 4 74 ).
Pentru Transil vania, de a5,emenea se cunosc vestigii funerare, majo1itatea de inhumatie, datate in
sec. VII-IV a.Chr. (Vulpe 2001, 482).
Pentru Centrul ~i Nordul Moldovei sunt vestigiile funerare de la Trestiana, Cimbala Volovat etc.,
la care se adauga siturile de habitat de la Stance~ti, Barboasa, Gaiceana, Bradicqti etc., care se
d2Jeaz~i in sec. VU-IV a.Chr. i:vulpe 2001, 488). Autoru l de asernenea mentioneaza ca nu este oblig-
atrniu, Ln probleme de datare., sii deranjeze aparitia impo1tului grecesc din sec. VI a.Chr. - este o stare
normala de lucruri (Vulpe 2001, 490).
Pentru a sfar~i trecerea in revista a istoriografiei romane~ti la tema, mentionam inca doua studii
monografice de ultima ora. Intitulate cam la fel ~i avand enuntata perioada secolelor VI-II a.Chr., ~i
S. Teodor, pentru regrnnile est-carpatice ale Romanie1 (Teodor 1999), ~i M. Bobi, pentru curbura
Carpatilor (Bobi 1999), ram,in fideli principiilor vech1 de atributare cronologica a situri lor arheo-
logice, datandu-le pe majontatea din La Tene, sec. IV-I II a.Chr.
In istoriografia sovietica postbelica ~i in cea din Republica Moldova se evidentiaza cateva etape
importante in ce prive~:te abordarea 01iginii ~i cronologie1 culturii getice.
in primul rand, imediat dupa razboi se pune inceplltul descoperirii mai multor situri de epoca,
desemnate drept ,,scitice" (Civ1npHOB 1949, 189-202; 1949a, 93-96). Peste aproximativ un deceniu
epoca a inceput sa fie studiaLi de catre A.I. Meljukova, c3lre nu numai ca precizeaza apmtenenta
96 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

culturala a siturilor ,,drn perioada scitica", desemnandu-le drept getice, cu analogii in spatiul Carpa-
to-Balcanic, dar si tirn p de jumatate de secol ac tiveaza in tematica culturii lor materiale, publicand
mai multe lucrari de referinta.
Este, i'n primul rand, studiul fundamental ,,S kifija i frakijskiJ mir"' ( 1979). Din i'nsu$i titlul lucrarii
reiese scopul acc:steia: analiza comparativa a acestor doua lumi - scitica ~i tracica - pe un spatiu
irnens- regiunea Carpato-Balcano-Pontic.a. 0 atentie sporita este acordata epocii prescitice, perioa-
Jei constitui1ii cultunJor hallstattului tracic, evidentiindu-se elementele comune $i specifice $i, implicit,
rolul elementului es tic, nomad in constitutrea culturilor autohtone. $i nu doar estic (care este de fapt
subiectul principal), dar ~i de sud (grecesc:, tracic de sud) $i vestic ( celto-iliric ). Suntem absolut de
acord cu o asemenea abordare culturologica ( interferente culturale ), dar este aici un moment discut-
abil. Tine aceasta de cronologie $i periodizare.
in general, la compartimentul ,,cronologie' · A.I.Meljukova a dat dovada de o ,,consecventa" $i
,,insistenta" de inv1diat. Este, in primul ra.nd, opinia conform careia cultura Basarabi continua sa
existe pana la inc,~put11l- mijlocul sec. VI a.Chr. pe o mare parte a teritoriului Romaniei ~i silvostepa
moldoveneasca (MemoKoBa 1979, 89). In ac:da$i timp, pentru sec. VI-Va.Chr. (din a.550 $i in-
ceputul invaziilor $i influentele scitice spre ve.)t), autorul evidentiaza o serie de grupuri culturale:
Barse$ti-Ferigile (Subcarpatii de Sud), Piatra hecatei (Dobrogea), Podolian de Vest (Romania de
NE). Pentru Platoul Moldovenesc, inclusiv partea Republicii Moldova, autorul ,,nu cunoa~te situri din
sec.VI-Va. Chr" (l'vkmoKoBa 1979, 103).
in ce prive$te m.30 de la Seli~te cu zabale de tip scitic (sec. VII-VI a.Chr.), acesta permite, din nou,
autorului sa const:1te c2t aspectul Soldane~ti (ca Vctrianta a culturii Basarabi) continua sa existe eel putin
in sec. V a.Chr. $i doar vestigiile de la Danceni (sf. sec.VI-i'nceputul sec.IV a.Chr.), Pfujolteni (sec. V
a . Chr.) marcheaza trecerea de la Cultura Basarabi-$oldane$ti la cea getica de sec. IV a. Chr.
Vorbincl dL:spre patrunderea elementelor sc1tice (Parjolteni, Danceni), in contextul discutiei de-
spre limita de raspandire a getilor (sec.IV--111 a.Chr.) spre NE, autorul o fixeaza aproximativ ca $i pe
cea a Moldovei, deoarece mai departe unneazit gmpurile locale Podoliene de Est ~i de Vest?
Necorespunderea este din nou din cauza cronologiei, de~i reie~ind din aparatul de referinte, autorul
cuno$tea studiul lui A. Vulpe din 1970. Si pana atunci, in compendiumul despre armele scitilor(l 964)
pana la ultimul studiu pe marginea vestigiilor din Dobrogea (2001, 120-132) A.I.Meljukova nu revede
cadrul cronologic al problemei, indiferent de starea de lucruri in domeniu in ultimele doua decenii.
in compartimentul ,.,Cultura triburilortracice d111 inte1iluviul Nistru-Prutin sec. VI-Illi'.e.n." A.I. Mel-
jukova ramane fic.ela propriei sale scheme cronologice propuse inca din timpul evidentierii culturii get-
ice din spatiu (MemoKoBa 1954, 59-68; Eadem 1955, 51-71; Eadem 1958, 5-102; Eadem 1960,
129-149). in a$a fol, pentru perioada de pana la mijlocul sec. Vl i.e.n. pentru silvostepa dintre Prut $i
Nistru, 111 opinia autorului continua sa existe purtiitorii culturii Soldane$ti in calitate de reprezentanti ai
hallstattului tracic (MemoKOBa 1989, 84). Treze$tt:: anumite nedumeriri afirmatia autorului precum
cii pentru a douajum. a sec. VI-V i.e.n. $i inceputul sec. IV i.e.n. materialele arheologice sunt putin
reprezentative. Si aceasta pentru anul 1989, cand deja erau publicate in limba rusa lucrarile monogra-
fice ale Lui I. Niculita (H11Kymu.1,3 1977:, Iden1 1987), dar $i repertoriul monumentelor de epoca
(.larry1murn, H11Ky.nnu3, PoMattoBcKa~ 1974). La momentul publicarii studiului intr-adevar
nu erau cunoscute (mai drept spus nu erau evidentiate cronologic) prea multe situri de habitat pentru
sec. VI-V a.Chr., autorul mentionand doar mormantul de la Parjolteni (MeJIIOKOBa 1989, 84), de
parca nu era cunoscma necropola Danceni, Suruceni, Olane~ti-Tudora, ultimul publicat chiar de
autorul citat (Me.110K0Ba 1974, 40-41, fig. 11 ).
Referitor I a o::iiectivele funerare din zona de nord a arealului in discutie: Depresiunea Radauti-
Trinca, cu toata insuticienta nivelului de cercetare (Ca~vana, Satu Mare, Volovaf-Dealul Burlei, Yico-
vu de Sus, Trinca-Drumul Fetqtilor, Cmjeuti-complexele 4., 5, tumulul VI, Burlanqti-- mormantul
de incineratie) au fost posibile o serie de reconstruqii a situa\iei cronologice ~i etnoculturale.
io/1111111/ 11, N1: 1-2

Tumulul 7 de la Volovat-Dealul Burlei din momentul primei publicatii (!gnat 1976, 99) a fost datat
in perioada hallstattiana tarzie, ca ~i obiectivul de la S.itu Nou (lgnat 1976, 105). Ritul funerar este
incineratia practicata pe locul unde se edifica ulterior u:1 tumul melanjat cu multe pietre ~i marcat cu
un ring de pietre mai mari.
Ultelior autornl re vine la ac:est complex, precizand at§ I cadrnl cronologic cat ~i apartenenta Im cultur-
al a. Spre deosebire de T. Sulirnirski, care il desemneaza drept Podolian de Vest (Sulimirski 1936, l 08).
M. lgnat il denume~te podolo--bucovinean (!gnat 1995. 17), ca mai tarziu, fad.nd cuno~tinta cu de-
scoperirile Jui 0. Levitki din nordul Republicii Moldov,1 (Levitki 1995, 254-256; Idem. 1998, 28-59)
sii propuna denumirea Podolo-Moldav (Ignat 2000, 3::, 1). Cronologic complexul este incadrat in a
doua jum. a sec. VII - sec. VI a. Chr. (Ignat 2000, 3':. 7). Jntuind caracterul intrus al purtatorilor
culturii, M. Ignat presupune legatura acestora cu can retii din stepa -- scitii, de~i nu este sigur de
aceasta (Ignat 2004, 8).
Referitorla vestigiile de la Trinca-Drnmul Fete~tilor, d.atatla mijlocul sec. VII - sec. VI a.Chr. ~i care
are mmi similitudini cu grupul Podolian de Vest, 0. Levit:d mentioneaza un aspect hallstattian mult mai
pregnant (Levitki 2004, 369-3 89 ). De~i vizavi de acest grup mai sunt necesare anumite precizari, faptul
cil prezinta o comunitate aparte, distincta ~i just atributat i cronologic este indiscutabil.
In anul 1994 apare studiu l lui M. Tkaciuk in care se ,~:xpune evolutia culturi1 getice in interfluviul
N tstru-Prut (Tkaciuk l 994, 215-256). Pentru autor, regiLmea in cares-a format initial ,,cultura getilor
istorici'' este Dobrogea, la sud de Dunarea de Jos, de und~: ulterior, in cateva etape aceasta se extinde in
pilmanturile Carpato-Nistrene. Prima etapa are loc la sf. sec. V1-V a.Chr. ~i corespunde orizontului geto-
sc itic Parjolteni-Danceni ~i siturilor Stance~ti ~i Butuceni. A doua etapa este la mijlocul sec. V a.Chr.
cu monumente de tipul Recea, Slobozia. In sfar~it, a treia etap~t o constituie ~J. sec. V -iniceputul
sec. IV a.Chr., cand propriu-zis se formeaza cultura .'::etilor de la est de Carpati (Tkaciuk 1994,
22 7-22 8). in opinia noastra, ideea despre caracterul advenit al culturii getice in spatiul Carpato-
N :, strean, la care autorul starnie ~i in alte studii ulteri,>are este cauzata se pare de metoda ,,puri-
ficarii", hiperbolizata de M. Tkaciuk. Metoda respecttva, raportata mai ales la izvoarele scrise ~i
coroborate cu cele arheologice, due autorul la ,,Getica pe care noi am pierdut-o" (1999, 274-304)
~i respectiv promovarea ide1i hiatusurilor cronologice.
in acela~i an 1994, surprinzator, apare un studiu nu prea mare, dar destul de semnificativ,. semnat
de catre I. Brujako ~i M. Tkaciuk ,,Basarabia sec. VII-I a. Chr. Ciclul dialogurilor crossculturale"
(1994, 27-31 ). Aici se stipuleaza clar ca dupa vestigiilc Basarabi-Soldane~ti in regiune, din a doua
jum. a secolului VI a.Chr. apar scitii. Teritoriul Nistru-Dunare este desemnat drept ,,Scitia Nord-
Pontica.", la care se atribuie siturile Cucone~tii Vechi, S ra~cni, Satu Mare pentru silvostepa (proba-
bil avandu-se in vedere $I celelalte monumente de epo,:a- n.n.), iadncepand cu a. 600 a.Chr. $i in
zona de stepa--Ogorodnoe (6py5!KO, TKatJyK 1994. 27). Pentru perioada sf. sec. VI - sf. sec.
V a.Chr. in regiune este semnalat orizontul Pa(jolteni-Danceni-Olone~ti cu caracter :sincretic scito-
getic (Epy5!KO, TKatJyK 199""1., 28). Daca pentru ultima, fara a pune prea multe accente $i specificari
suntem de acord, pentru perioada anterioara avem o alt.t opinie.
Insu~i M.Tkaciuk, intr-un studiu mai recent mentiona c:'.i ,,monumentele scitice timpurii succed
nemijlocit orizontul Basarabi-:$oldane~ti, posibila fond< 1 anumita coexistenta" (TKatJyK 1999, 281 ).
Credem ca, intr-adevar, catre mijlocul sec. VII a. Chr. masivul cultural Basarabi-Soldiine~ti se afla
i'ntr-o situatie pre-catastrofala ( de fapt ar fi mai corect prc-transformationala, 6:rratie evolutiei inteme)
$i anume forta cineticil scitidl (dar $i altele), advenita in ,:onii ca urmare a mi$carii lor spre vest, duce
Ia aceea ca procesele etnoculmrale (transformationale) se intensifica, faciesul cultural modificandu-
se. Realita1ile arheologice vorbesc in favoarea acestei Sltpozitii.
In prezent atestarea scitilor nomazi (inclusiv faza tim:mri,~) la vest de Nistru nu mai este o noutate,
important este ca ei au intalml aici o popula!ie locala. contribuind la transformarea ei culturala.
Pestritimea faciesului cultural de epoca (inclusiv ritul ~i ritualul funerar) este o consecinta. Intruchi-
98 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

pare a Iu1 o vedem in orizontul Parjolteni-Danceni-Olane~ti. Cu aceasta ocazie reamintim posibilul


caracter eterogen de origine a culturii traco-getice (Kasuba, Haheu, Levitki 2000).
fn ultimul dece111u al sec. XX au aparut cateva smdii monografice in care limita de jos de atestare
a culturii getice era fixata in sec. VI a.Chr. (Arnaut. Ursu-Naniu 1997; Bobi 1999) sau sec. Va.Chr
(Teodor 1999).
Aparitia in anul 2000 a monografiei semnatl: de M. Ka~uba, V Haheu, 0. Levitki ,,Vestigii traco-
getice pe Nistrul M1jlociu" (Kasuba, Haheu, Levitki 2000; Karny6a, Xaxey, JleBHUKHII 2003),
anticipata de studiul despre cate Getici poate L vorba (Kawy6a, Xaxey, JleBHUKHH 1999, 120 ~1
um1.), a schirnbat oarecum modalitatea de abordare a cronologiei culturii traco-getice ~i implicit
problemele originii acesteia.
Lucrarea monografica ,,Vestigii ale sec. VII-III a.Chr. in spatiul de la rasarit de Carpaf' (Amaut
2003) con tine o deli1mtare cronologica ~i periodizare a culturii novatoare.
De~i se im.ista, in continuare, asupra prioritati1 evolutiei autohtone a culturii getice, rolul elementelor
advenite (scitii) fond declarat infim, autorul revede serios cronologia acesteia. Trecand in revisti1 situatia
de la Dunarea de Jos, zona dintre Dunare ~i Carpati, spatiul est-carpatic, complexele de pe Mure~ in
baza opiniilor lui A. Vulpe (1967, 99; 1978, 93-122), E. Moscalu (1983, 216-217), V Vasiliev (1986-·
1987, 62-80), M. Preda (1982, 19-24), autorul cone hide ca,, ... cultura getica suprapune stratigrafic
aspectul Basarah-$0l dane~ti ~i se extinde in tirnp in trei faze. Aceste faze prezint "relatii de contem-
poraneitate cu grupurile de monumente Ferigile-Barse~ti, Dobrina-Ravna, Beidaud-Tariverde etc". In
cronologia absoluta evolutia se prezinta in urmlitoarele faze:
I. MijlonJ sec. al VII-lea-primajum. a sec. al Vl-leaa.Chr.
II. A d,Jua j.im. a sec. al VI-lea--p1i1najum. a sec. al V-lea a.Chr.
III. Sfar~itul sec. al V-lea- sec. al III-lea a.Chr. (Arnaut 2003, 166).
La moment se pare ca este cea mai reu$ita, i ndreptatita ~i acceptabila schema cronologica!
Despre apari{ia ~i evolutia culturii getice in 1-egiune predomina doua opinii diametral opuse. Ele
sunt arhicunoscute, fond vehiculate de-a lungul zecilor de ani in mai multe zeci de volume. Doar sumar
le aducern aici intr-o fom1a mai concentrat:i.
Una dintre elc sus(ine ca getii s-au format ~1 au evoluat pe un fundal tracic local, :fara prea multe
influente intruse (Niculita 1987, 20-21 ).
Cel de-al doik:a punct de vedere este propus de catre M. Tkaciuk, care declara caracterul advenit
at culturii getice in teritoriile Moldovei 1storic e ( de la sud de Dunare, sub presiunea tribalilor) in
spatiile ocupate at1tcrior de vestigiile scitice timpurii ~i ulterior de orizontul scito-trac Pirjoleni-Dan-
ceni-Olane~ti (Tkaciuk).
Afirmatii s.imilare au fost enuntate de catre E. Redina (2000, 243-250), iar A. Meljukova, revazindu-
~i opinia despre g~anita dintre geti ~i sciti expus[1 in 1969 (Meljukova 1969, 61-80), afirma de curand
ca aceasta nu numai cit trecea pe Prut ~i Dunare . dar ,,se ~i survola deseori de catre ultimii" (:\1eljuk-
ova 200 L 29--30).
Pentm E. JRec.ina Dunarea de Jos (regmnea cultural-istorica Nistreano-Dunareana) incepind cu
secolul VI a. Chr constituie o parte componema a Scitiei Mari cu o populatie scitica pemtanenta.
Este zona de contact intre comunitati etnice cultural istorice de proportii, unde avem reflectate lega-
turi ample dintre strucmri gospodare~ti diferite: cre.5catori de vite, agricultori ~i eleni (Redina 2003,
243). In opinia acestui autor, pentru pe1ioada de la i'nceputul secolului V a.Chr. in regiunea de stepa
cre~te nurnarnl siturilor ~i vestigiilor scnice, ceea ce nu se poate afirma despre acelea de origine
tracica (Redina 2003, 243).
Ince ne priveste, ne-am expus deja opmia cu privire la manifestarile culturale din epoca hallstat-
tiana tirzie in spa\iul Carpato-Pontico-Nistrean (Kasuba, Haheu, Levitk1i 2000, IO 1-113 ).
Manifestarile culturale din epoca hallstattiana tirzie in nordul zonei circumpontice reprezinta, de
fapt, ultima transformare cultural-generica peutru prima epoca a fierului ~1 care are drept rezultat
l'o!umu! If, l'\'1: 1-2 99

inlocuirea cultuni hallstatt1cne tarzii Basarabi-$oldanqti ( pentru Dobrogea -- Babadag III) cu cultura
traco-getica (=getica timpurie).
Vorbind des pre importamele schimbari in componcn ta culturii materiale dm spatiul Carpato-Dunare-
an, Al. Vulpe sublinia ca ele sunt in strinsa legatura cup 1trunderea in zona a unei anumite ,,populatii de
calareti din est" undeva la inceputul sec. VI a.Chr. (Vidpc 1970. 203 ). Aceas:a lovitura puternica :;i
c!estabilizatoare a afectat nu doar campia Dunarii $i c msul superior al Mure$ului, dar $i Moldova.
0 situatie practic identicli este semnalata de ciHre ,:i. Simion pentru regiunea Dunarea de Jos
( Dobrogea), unde purtaton l orizontului Babadag Ill ~,unt bulversati de acei2$i caL'.'!reti nomazi din
est, urmele carora s-au imona]jzat in ruinele orizontulu, respecti v de la majcnitatea situnlor fortificate
din regiune- Beidaud $.a. i Simion 1989).
Despre geti din punctul de vedere al onomasticii le 1r se poate de vorblt doar incepind cu sfar$itul
secolul ui VI a. Chr., odata ,;u aparitia primelor izvoa e sc:rise des pre ei ( I lerodot VI., 93) ~ i a tune i
doar pentrn spa\iul de la scd de Dunare. Dar daca d.:clanqia cste valabi la pentrn geti ca unitate
etnoistorica, atunci pentru cultura get1ca situatrn estt: oarecum alta. Este deja unanim acceptat ca
masivul cultural getic s-a c:onstituit mult inainte decit norninalizarea lor in izvoarele scrise $i pentrn
spatii geografice mult maiintinse (Vulpe 1970, 200-2112; HHKy:nur:, 1987, 18-57, harta l ).
Nu staruim aici prea mult vizavi de aceste necorespunden: etnos-cultura. ele fiind de curind pe
larg analizate de catre M. Tkaciuk ( 1998, 60-65 }. Cawl atestiirii culturii inca in lipsa etnicuiui $i
rcspectiv a persistarii etnicului deacum in lipsa culturi I este unanim acceptat. ,,Getica" lui Iordanes
constituie o dovada in plus a constatarii.
Am mentionat deja ca irvoarele arheologice acun.ulate pe parcursul um:.i secol demonstreazi:i
aparitia mai timpurie a cultarii getice ?i pe spatii mult ma1 largi, inclusiv spmiul Carpato-Nistrean
(Karny6a, Xaxey, J1eBHilKHH 1999, 120 $i um1..; Kasuba, Haheu, Levi\ki 2000, 101-118). Din
clenumirea primului studiu .,A patra Getica sau aceea?i ", mai reiese ?i atitudinea noastra fa~a de car-
acterul uni-tar al masivului cultural getic.
De~i, cum constatam mai sus, aparitia culturii getice nu are un singur focar de constituire, procesul
e ;te, in general, similar, pro-J'atria fiind una, part1c ulamatile de transformarc de asemenea sunt prac-
tic acelea$i SchimMrile respective au fost posibi le gr atie unor forte cinetice ce deja functionau in
spatiul nominalizat catre mijk,cul mileniului I a. Chr.
incepind cu izvoarele sc rise, dar mai ales odatil cu ;,paritia monurnentalelor lucrari ale Jui Vasile
Parvan ( 1926. 1965, passim.) avem nominalizati part ,cipantii de baza la grandioasele manifestari
( interferente) culturale -- in opinia justa a lui 1. Brujat o $i M. Tkaciuk- ,. a aialogurllor crosscul-
turale" ( 1994, 27-3 J.) - car~: se finalizeaza cu aparitia pe arena istorict1 a ,,celor mai viteji $i mai
clrepti dintre traci" (Herodot IV, 93)- getii.
Este vorba despre purtatorii culturii Basarabi·-$oUane?ti., in calitate de ultimi reprezentanti ai
t;-unchiului general tracic: sct1ii nomazi arhaici. ilmi ~i gn:-ci,. Elemcntul tracic reprezintfl componenta
local a bine documentata in l11e ratura de specialnale (JJ a.nyrnH5IH 1979; Me.110K0Ba 1979, passim.),
celelali:e fond advenite.
Prezentarea ~i analiza atit a elementelor enumerate cat ?i a coraportulu1 di :1tre ele este, 111 opinia
n,)astr{L una dintre abordank care au drept finalitate, unoscutele transforn12.ri culturale ~,i geneza
culturii getice timpurii.
Ince ne privqte, vedem procesul respectiv in felu unnator. Un rol important in aceste procese
cornpli cate, cu caracter intern sau latent, re vine elementului nomadist - ve$nicului factor destabilizator
al situatiilor culturale concr,:te, dar in acela$i timp ~i UJ1 important coautor al transfom1arilor. Ca de
f,.pt ~i in restul cazurilor ce 1 in de cele rnai diverse do nemi (prin analogie evocam fizica., chimia,
b:ologia etc.), schimbarile in cadrul comunitatilor uma 1e, transformarile cuiturale sunt, in mare ma··
sLtra, un rezultat al proceselnr cauzate de lovituri cinet1ce. Tinern sa precizam ca nu suntem adeptul
absolutizarii rolului factoruiu1 nomad1st in opera de transformare culturala, ai,:i fiind prezenti ~i alti
100 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

factori. Prioritar, - ~i ,~ste normal sa fie a~a, - este des tgur indelungatul proces de evolutie a comunitatilor
umane locale, ret1ectat pe parcurs in permanente transformari ~i drept rezultat, schimbarea faciesului
cultural. Dar acest proces este pe cat natura1t, pea tat ~i latent, din care cauza trasaturile care enunta
schimbarea sunt sesizate mai dificil ~i mai disparat.
Elementul nomad, in acest caz, p1in anumite izb1tu1i cinetice (nu obligatoriu violente) ,,destabilizea-
z:i" concretica culturala locala, intensifica procesel.e de schimbare fn majoritatea componentelor cul-
turii (modalitat1 de habitat, rit ~i ritual funerar, inventar special ~i de masa), proces care are drept
finalitate transform~Liile culturale. Repetam, baza a,:estui proces il constituie elementul local, autohton,
care in continuare rilmine valabil ~i pentru culturik ulterioare, dar deja la un altnivel ~i oarecum cu un
alt facies cultural ger1eral. lnsistam, la general, pentrn ca analiza in detalii confirma fenomenul continuitatii
permanente, continuitatc care oricum nu poate fi statica ~i amorfa.

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JlecKoB 1971: A M. JlecKOB, Tipenrn11<purnii nep11on B cTe1rnx CeBepaoro Tipwiep1-10-
Mops5I. Ml1A 177 (MocKBa 1971).
!vle,1BencKa5l 199::: 11.H. MenBe,::i,c1:-:cui. nep110.z:unauirn cKmt>cKoii apxa11K11 11 )],peB-
HHlI BocTOK. PA 3 . l992, 86-107.
MemoKoBa 1954: A.. H. MeJUOKOBa. Pe3)HhTaThI pacKorroK Ha JlBYX rroce;1eamix CKHcp-
cKoro BpeMemr H Monmrn1rn. KCI111~v'[K 56, 1954. 59-68.
MemoKoBa l j55: A.H. MeclIOKOBa, l1Tor11 JByi.remrn: rraM5l.THHK0B CKH(pCKOro BpeMe-
HH B Monnamrn B 1952-1953 rr. I13Becnrn Mosr,n:aBcKoro cpmrnaJia AH CCCP 5 (25),
L955, 51-71.
NlemoKoBa 195~- A.11. Mem-oKoBa, TTa:,rnTHHKH cK11cpcKoro BpeMelrn necocTerrnoro
Cpe;:i_Hero I1ontteCTpOBb5:l. MI1A 64. 1958. 8-110.
MenIOKOBa 1974: A.11. Me.7JOKOBa, Kp ,rypa rn1eMeH )],HCCTpOBCKO-TipyTCKOro Me)K-
iJypel'..!b5l. VIII-I BB. ;10 H.J. B c6.: )lpeBH5!5! Kym,rypa Mon11aB1111 (KmmrneB 1974), 7-52.
MemoKoBa 1S64: A.11. MemoKoBa . Boopy:-Kemie CKH(pOB. CAl1. Bbm. ):~ 7-4 (MocKBa 1964).
Men10K0Ba 1 j69: A.11. Me.110Kosa, K Bnrrpocy o rpairnue Me)K;Jy CKHq>aMH H reTaMH.
:\1l1A 150 (Moc1:~Ba 1l969). 61-80.
Men10K0Ba 1n9: A.11. MemoKona . CKHcpm:[ 11 cppaKHHCK11i1 MHp (MocKBa 1979).
Me:110KOBa 1989: A.11. Me.1JOKOBa, Ky:10Typa cppaKHHCKHX rrneMeH ,[(HeCTpOBCKO-
I1pyTCKOro Me>Kn)'J·C:1'..!b51 B VI-III BB. ,10 1-1. ). B c6.: CTerr11 eBporrettcKOH i.racTH CCCP B
CKHq:10-capMaTCKoe npervrn. Apxem10rm1. CCCP (MocKBa 1989), 83-87.
Mc.110K0Ba 2)01: A.H. Me,110K0Ba. Honb1e .JaHIIbie o cKmpax B )~o6pyn)lKe (K norrpocy
o «Crapo fr CKmpa11.») f epoaora. PA 4. 200 I. 20-32.
Pe,JnHa 2000 E.(l). Pemrna. HmKHH11 ,[l(y1:rn11 B cacTe:\te KJJibTYPHhIX K0HTaKT0B CKH-
(:POB 11 cppaKHHIJeB. B c6.: ApxeoJionrn Ta eTHOJIOri5:l Cxim-wi1 E:npo1rn MaTepnanhr 11
.1orniD.>KeHH5! (Onec~L 2000), 243-253.
CepreeB 1960: r.TI. CeprecB, I1orpe6emrn rnml)CKOro BpeMeHH. Tpynh1 rHKM (K11-
unmeB 1960), 13" 7-140.
CcpoBa 1 j8S: H ..J1. CepoBa. fpe'-[CCKaH KepaM111.JeCKa51 rnpa m KypraHoB Monna-
Bmr. Al111B 1984 r. (K111mrneB 1989).149-162.
l 9,i9: r.n. CI\HIJ)HOB, C:rncpc:KOe ropomnue 11 ce;rnw,e DOITbIJJa5:l CaxapHa.
CrvrnpHOB
KCHHMK XX\'I, 1949. 93-96.
C'MHpHOB 1949a: r.)],. C.\rnpHOB, H1on1 apxeo.rrorHYeCKHX 11cca1emrnaHI1JJ B 1946 rony.
V£3secnrn MosmascKoro cJ>.-uma:ia AH CCCP. T. II (KHWHHCB 1949\ 189-202.
C:\rnpuoBa 2004: LI1. CMHpHoBa. CocTU5!HHe H3Y,-ICHrn1 3anat1Ho-TlononhcK011 rpyrr-
nhI naM5!THJIK0B pallHCCKJ!(jlCK(nO Hp::'MC!Iil B JlecocTem-roh C1-rncp1m B K0HUe xx BeKa.
B c6.: Kirnmero\1'ic Scytowie Sarrnaci. Ksieg:1 poswiecona Profesora Tadeusza Sulimirskiego
(Krakow 2004), 409--428.
Volunwl Il. Nr. 1-2 103

r
TKaLJyK 1998: M.E. T KaLJyK, en1Ka. Apxeononrn 11MeH11. Revista Arheologica. 2, 1998,
60-86.
T1rn1.JyK 1999: M.E. TKaqyK, feT11Ka KOTopyio MbI rIOTep511rn. CKHq}CKHH 1rnanpa1.
Stratum plus, 1999, 274-304.

Vasile Haheu, Centrul Arheologie, lnstitutul Patrimoniului Cultural al Academiei de Stiinfe a


Afo/dovei, Str. Mitropo/itul Banulescu-Bodoni, 35. MD-20/ 2 Chi,$inau, Republica Moldova.
104 Revista Arheologicii. Serie nouii

CERAMI CA ROMANA DIN NECROPOLA DE TlP SANTANA DE


MURE~H'.:ERNJACHOV DE LA BRA VICENI (raionul Orhei, Moldova)

Vasile GROSU, Vlad VORNIC, Larisa CIOBANU, Chi~inau

Prin cercetarile din anii 1977, 1980 Ji 1981 1i1 ne.-ropola de tip Santana de Murer--Cernjachov de la Briiri-
ceni ( r. Orhei) s-au descoperit 177 morminte, dintre care 176 de z'nhumafie $i unul de incinera/ie, $i 53 de gropi
cu caracter de cult. De asemenea, s-a recoltat un bog,u $i di,·ers material arheologic, intre care $i ceramicii de
factura romana. La 3n1nceni, ca Ji in restul cinz itirelor apartinr:ind acestei culturi, vase le romane de fut au fast
utzlizate fntr-o proportie l"edusii, constituind cca 5, 7~), din fntreaga cantitate de ceramica. Gama _fi.Jrmelor ce-
ramicii de import nu este largii, limitandu-se la ci"mi. rnstroane Ji amfore Prm exemplare fntregi sunt reprezen-
tate doar ciinile. care se incadreazci in doua ujmri principale. Amforele se grupeaza in trei tipuri, iar cas-
troanele sunt de un singur tip in ceea ce pri,qte provenienfa, vasele de uz comun par sii Ji fast lucrate in
ateliere situate in unele centre de pe limesul dunarean Ji in ora5ele nord-vest-pontice. ,Marea majoritate a arn-
forelor, insii, dupii c.ite se pare, provin din unele zone de produc(ie de pe coasta meridionala a Miirii Negre.

«Pu,'1c«a11 K,epa.Nu«a uJ 'lepHRX06cKozo ,'10W.1blllJKa y c. EpJ6U'leUb (paiioH Opxeii)». 3a nepuoo no.,1eeb1x


pa6om, npoU3600U6,.l/UXCJ/ 6 1977, 1980 u 1981 22. //a L/Cj)ll}IX06CK0M .it0ZlClbllUKe, pacnO.WJICelt//0.'W y ce.w
6paeu•1e11b Opxe11cFozo pai1011a, nbz.10 ucc.1eoo,wno 177 no2pe6e1w1':t, u3 Komopbzx l 76 6b1.w coeepuieno no
o6pHay 111pyno110;10J/CC/IIIH ll 1 - mpynocO.JICJICC/lU}I, Jipo.W.' 111020 6bl.10 BCKpbl/110 53 1,y.:11,11106:bte H.Hbl. TaKJICe
61,1.1 0111Kpbtm j)Ci3/I0?6pmllb/U apxeo.WZU'leCKUU .\ta/7il:'pUCl.1, 6 mo.\1 L/UC:1€ Kepa.HUK(I 11poew1u,ua.7bll0-pU.itCKO-
zo npozneoocmea. B EpCHiUL/€/lCKO.\t, KQK U 6 0CJl.1CL1b//l,/X AIOZ11.1bl/UKCIX J/110U K_)'.1b111Jpbl, p11.HCKaR u.11nop1n,ta}I
z.mwmaH nocyoa np,Icymcmeyem e ne60,1bwo.11 Ko.111,1ecmee, cocmae.rnH oKo.w .5. 7% uJ eceu Kepa.ituKu Jmozo
na.HH11111uKa. Ha6op rjJop.11 u.1111opm11b1X cocyoo6' 11e omnNaemcR 60.,1b1uu,11 pa311006pa311eM u ozpa11u~rueaem-
rn Kyewww.itu, .wuc.rn.1111 u a.HrjJopcuru. [Je.1butu JK31·.11n.mpa.\tu npeocmae.1e11b1 mo.7i>KO Kyeww1b1, Komopbze
.11ozym 6bll11b nooeJ1?111,1 1w oea oc1we11b1x muna. A.v(jJopbl 6b1.w noopmoe.1e11&1 11a mpu muna, ,1tuc1-,:u 6buu
11auoe11b1 moHbK0 01i11ozo muna. lfmo KacaemcR l/t''tmpoe npo1neoocmea, cmo.we,:rn KepaMuKa pu,\tcKozo
06.w.:a, cKopee 6cezo, 61,•.w u3zomoe.'1e11a e zo11crap11b1x .11acmepcKux, pacno.w;;1ce111ib1x e 11eKomopbtX 11e11mpax
tJy11m1cKozo Ru.11eca u e ceeepo-Janao11btX zopcclax [lpu'iep110.11opbJ1. Eo;1bww1cmeo a.wrjJop, euou.wo, npouc-
xooRm U3 pil0Cl np0u360C)C/116ellllb/X 1.fe/t/11])01/ /O~~Cl/0.?0 no6epe:J!Cb}I lfep!LOZO .lt0JJH.

"The roman pottery from necropolis by tips Santana de i'/1ure$- Cernjachov near village Briiviceni (district
Orhei)". For the per;od o( the field researches made 11; 1977, 1980 and 1981 on Santana de Mure~·-Cernjachov
culture a burial ground. .'ocated at village Braviceni cf distri, 1 Orhei 177 burials have been investigated, from
which 176 it has bee. 1 accomplished 011 a ceremony inlwmation and 1 - incineration. Besides 53 cult holes have
been opened Also th? mnous archeological materials lwve been opened. including ceramics of the provincial -
roman manufacture. .'n B,-civiceni, as well as in other 1~11riai grounds of this culture, the roman import pottery is
present at a small an•oun 1, maldng about 5, 7 %J1·om ull ceramics of this monument. The set offorms of import
1·essels does not diOe•· greater variety and is hmi'tr'd to iugs. bowls and amphora. The whole copies present only
jugs, which can be cfi,·ided into two basic types. Amphori1e hm·e been subdivided into three types: bowls have been
found only one type. As to the cemers qf mmzufacture, the table ceramics of the roman shape. most likely, has been
made in potter's H'orkshop.,, located in some ce11ters Da,rube limes and in nortlnvest cities of Black Sea Coast. The
majority of amphora, probably, occurs from of some the industrial centers of southern coast of Black sea.

A~a cum dovecesc cercetarile arheologice de suprafata efectuate piina in prezent, statiunile de tip
Santana de Mure~--Cernjachov datiind din vremea migratiei gotilor au o densitate mare in spatiul
prnto-nistrean, nunarul lor total depa~ind cifra d,~ o mie. De fapt, cultura Santana de Mure~-C:emja-
chov, raspiindita p,~ o vasta arie din estul Europei, este una dintre eel mai bine reprezentate culturi
arheologice documentate in interfluviul Prnt-Nistru. Descoperirile accidentale, dar mai ales sapaturile
sistematice intrepri 1se pe parcursul ultimelor cine decenii in mai multe a~ezari ~i necropole, intre care
se evidentiaza eek de la Bude~ti (PaKl\taH l 96'i; Vomic 2006), Sobari (P11KMaH 1970; Niculita,
Popa 2000) ~i Danceni (PacpaJIOBMlf 1986}, au Curnizat infonnatii deosebit de impor1ante pentru
cunoa~terea mai aprofondata a continutului acesrei culturi materiale din regnmea in discutie:. Date
l 'J/;.11111,/ 1!, Ar, J-2 105

riintifice extrem de va!oroase s-au obtinut ~i prin ceccetarile de teren efectuate in obiectivele de
,1.:ela$i tip de pe teritoriul Romaniei ~i Ucrame1. dintn care se remarca cele de la Tiirg~or (Diaconu
1965 ). Barlad-Valea Seaci (Palade 2004 ), Mih.:tla~tni (SO\ an 2005) ?i Lepesovka (TuxaHoBa
I %3: eadem 1966 ). Cu toate pro 6,resele notabile inregi-:trate de arheologia epocii migratiilor, suntem
n-~voitt sa consen111am ca problemele esentiale privmd cultura Santana de Mure~-C::emjachov, precum
L:,·iginea, cronologia, apa11e11enta etrnca ~.a., nu au fost l •e deplin clarificate, din care c:auza in literatu-
ra de specialitate se poartf1 inca discutii in contradictor u. Indubitabil, investigatiile arheologice vi1-
toare vor oferi 1101 date $i maieria!e in masura sa contrituie la elucidarea diferitelor chestiuni ridicate
de acest mare complex cultural, format in arealul nord- :est-pontic ce se atla sub dominatia triburilor
gotice. Pentru cunoa$terea mai detaliata ~i mai nuantatfi a diverselor aspecte ale cu[turii materiale din
si:colu:'. IV p.Chr. este necesara nu numai cercetarea ex iaust1va a cat mai multor statiuni datand din
aceast!i perioada, ci $i valorificarea ~tiint1fica corespvnzatoare a tuturor descoperirilor de pana in
prezent, obtinute atat prin sapi1turi, cat ~i fortuit.
Printre obiectivele arhcologice importante de tip Santana de Mure~-Cernjachov din spatiul
prnto-nistrean, explorate prin sapaturi $i inca nepublicate, se numara $i necropola de la Braviceni
(raionul Orhei). C:omplexul la care ne referim este situac in marginea de nord-e1:t a satului, la distanta
ck circa 200 m sud-est de drumul ce leaga Bravicenii d1 · automagistrala Chi~irau - Bal ti, pe un mic
pnmontoriu din stanga cursul ui inferior al rau!ui Raut. A( tualmente pe teritoriul fostului cimitir antic se
afa construqiile unei brigazi de tractoare a gospodarie agricole din localitate.
La fel ca $i multe alte rnonumente arheologice, necro,ola de la Braviceni a fost depistata intampla-
tor, ~i anume in iarna anului 1977, cu ocazia construirii u,mi atelier de reparatre a tractoarelor, cand au
fo>,t distruse cca 8 morminte de inhumatie. 0 pa11e din mate1ialele provenite din mormintele rava$ite
de constructori au fos1 recuperate de Trofim Bracico, dffectorul Muzeului tinutului natal din Orhei,
care a in~tiintat imediat despre aceasta interesanta descc penre arheologii de la lnstitutul de Istorie al
A,:ademiei de $tiinte.
Avflndu-se in vedere importania ~t1intifica a obiecti, ului, precum $i iminenta distrugerii lui prin
lucrarile de construcfte in derulare, s-a procedat, in an ,i 1977, 1980 $i l 98 l, ,a efectuarea de cer-
1

ce.ari arheologice metodice, cercetari care au avut, in hpt, caracterde salvare (fpocy 1978; idem
1981: idem 1982), in rezultatul a trei campanii de sapatmi s-a dezvelit aproape intreaga necropola,
mai exact o suprafata de 4588 rn 2 , identificandu-se l 69 mom1 inte ;,i 53 gropi cu caracteristici die ritual.
L t1and in calcul ~i ,:ele opt rm mninte descoperite fo.n ui L totalul complexelor fLnerare inregistrate i'n
necropola de la Braviceni se ridica la cifra 177. Dintre ,1cestea. 176 mormmte sunt de inhumatie ~i
do,11' unul de incinerafie, relednd caracterul biritual al ac,~stui cnnitir. Trebuie subliniat insa c{1 stratul
de cultura al necropolei a fost puternic afectat de lucran le de mvelare a terenului efectuate inaintea
eel or de constructie, cu care prilej au putut fi distruse ~i unele monninte de incineratie aflate la mica
ad,incime. Chiar daca luam in consideratie ~i aceasta po,ibilitate, disproportia dintre un incinerat $i
cet J 76 inhumati ramane foarte mare. putandu-se fonnuh, concluzia ca ritul practicat cu predileqie de
comunitatca .,cemJachove:111[1-· de la Braviceni era inhun :itia.
Cele mai multe din monrnntele de inhumatie dm nenopola de la Braviceni aveau orientarea fie
pe direqia V--E, fie pe axa I\--S, uneori cu dev1eri. in lcgarura cu mormintele orientate V-E, care
prcdomina in complexul cercetat de noi, este important de remarcat ca inventarul lipse~te complet
sai. aproape comp let. Fenornenul a putut fi obsen at~ i in restul necropolelor de tip Santana de
~,! urq-(:'.:ernJachov, fiind pm pe seama difuzarii cre$t1 rnsmului printre purtatorii acestei culturi
(C::,r:\10HOBI1'-f 1978. 105-116: Ionita 1995.253-269).
Smgurnl mormant de incineratie (nr. 96) descopern in necropola de la Braviceni avea oasele
urnane calcinate depuse inrr-o uala lucrata la roata dm pr 3ta zgrurquroasa, a~ezata cu gura in jos. De
notat ca mormantul respecti, s,~ gasea in marginca de e-:t a cimitirului, intr-o :wna in care lipseau
111onninrele de inhumat1e.
106 Revista Arheologicd. Serie nouc)

in ceea ce prive?te cde 53 gropi din cirnitirul Braviceni, ele aveau fom1a circulara sau ovala $i
contineau putine resturi arheologice ori erau lipsite complet de inventar. Este interesant de remarcat
dt majoritatea gropilor se aflau masate in zona de vest a cimitirului. Astfel de complexes-au semnalat
$i in alte necropole Santana de Mure$-Cernj achov, cum ar fi la Barlad-Valea Seaca (Palade 2004,
137-160), Mihala$eni (Sovan 2005, 145-147.201.202), Bude$ti (Vomic 2006, 140.178), Danceni
(Pacpa.rronIIq 1986, 11) etc., fiind puse in legiitur~i cu practicarea anumitor obiceiuri de ritual.
Materialul arhec,logic descoperit in mom1mte, gropi $i stratul de cultura al necropolei de la Bravi-
ceni nu este prea bogat, dar se prezinta de o mare varietate tipologica, cuprinzand vase de Jut doua
recipiente de sticla, patru monede de argint, fibuk, catarame, fusaiole, cutite, piepteni, numeroase
margele, pandantive $i alte obiecte. De asemenea, unele morminte orientate N--S contineau oase de
animale $i coji de oua de pasare de la ofrande alirnentare.
Fara indoiala, pentru a ne forma o imagine mai ,;;uprinzatoare despre cultura materiala $i spirituala
a comunitatii umane de la care au ramas vestigiile arheologice de la Braviceni este necesara studierea
$i examinarea detaliata a tuturor complexelor $i aintregului lot de materiale descoperite aici. In acela~i
timp, studiul tipologic amanuntit al inventarului Ci!ramic $i de obiecte are o deosebita importanta la
stabilirea cronologi~i relative $i absolute a statiunti, ca $i la determinarea apanenentei sale etnico-
culturale.
in paginile de rnai jos ne propunem sa analizam doar o categoric de materiale - ceramica de
factura romana. Precizam insa ca catalogul pe care il prezentam la sfar~it cuprinde nu numai vasele
romane de lut, ci ~i cescrierea detaliata a complexelor ce contin astfel de materiale, cu reproducerea
grafica a tuturor pie~.elor de inventar.
La Braviceni, la fel ca ~i in celelalte necropole apar1;inand culturii Santana de Mure~:-Cernjachov,
ceramica roman~t de import, fata de olaria de produqie locala, se intalne~te mai rar. Astfel, din totalul
de 104 recipiente de lut imregi sau i'ntregibi le descoperite, de factura rornana sunt doaqase recipiente,
deci 5,7%. Este inter-esant de constatat ca toate accste ~ase piese fac parte dintr-o singura categoric
de vase- cea a canilor. Cinci cani provin din morminte (nr. 34, 49, 87, 158 ~i 169), unde au fost
depuse probabil cu ofrande de bautura, iar un ex,:mplar a fost recuperat din stratul arheologic al
cimitirului. Alte forme de vase romane reprez.entate in necropola de la Braviceni., dar prin fragmente,
sunt amfora ~i castronul. Resturi de amfore s-au semnal.atin mormintele 16, 18, 74, 159, gropile 1, 2,
10, 37, 40, 41, 44, 45, 46, 48, 51, 52 $i in stratul de cultura, iar fragmente de castroane in mormintele
3 ~;i 151 (?), precum $i in strat.
Este important de consemnat ca toate mormintele cu resturi de amfore ~i unul (M. 151) cu un
fragment de vas (castron ?) acoperit cu vopsea ro~ie erau distruse din antichitate. iar cioburile se ga.seau
in umplutura. Data fiind aceasta situatie, nu putem ~ti daca fragmentele ceramice au ajuns intamplator
in morminte (din strat) sau au fost aruncate intentionat, cu prilejul practicarii unor ritualuri de spargere
a vaselor in timpul inmormantarii ori ulterior in momen:tul deshumarii ~i rava$irii scheletelor. in orice
caz, cioburile respective nu provin de la vase de ofranda depuse intregi in morminte, deoarece frag-
mentele sunt putine ~i mici.
in ce prive~te fragmentul de castron dm mom1antul 3, acesta, dupa cate se pare, apartine unui
vas spart ritual cu prilejul inmormantarii. Am formulat aceasta supozitie, bazandu-ne pe constatarea
ca ciobul a fost gi1sit nu in solul de umplutura al gropii mormantului, ci in preajma scheletului, care
era intact.
Spre deosebire de am fore ~i castroane, canile faceau parte in mod sigur din inventarul mormintelor
in care au fost descoperite. Este posibil chiar ca vase le sa fi continut initial lichide, care urmau, potnvit
unor credinte, sa :fie, ,consumate" de cei decedati. Refe1itor la pozitia canilor in mom1inte, notam ca
in doua cazuri (M. 34 $i M. 87) recipientele se aflau in preajma craniilor, in alte doua (M. 49 $i 169) -
in regiunea picioarelor, iarin ultimul mormant (nr. 1:18), care era distrus din vechime, vasul a fost gasit
spart in bucati in pamantul de umplutura.
107

Dispunerea canilor romame de lut in cadrul monn mtelor de la Braviccni in zona craniului ~i a
p 1c1oare lor nu pare .sa fie imfunplatoare, deoarece aceea~i situatie se constata ~i in alte cimitire de tip
S 1nrana de Mure~-Cemjachov. Spre exemplu, la Danceni oenochoe-a de Iut din mormantul 318, care
este singura cana de facturti romana din aceasai necropola, se afla depusii in preajma capului
( Pa1:parr0Bw-r 1986, 91.92). De asemenea, in cimitirul de Ia Bude~ti in doua c.in cele trei monninte
mtacte cu cani de factura romana in inventar (nr. 57 ~i 324) vasele erau depuse langa cap, iar in aI
treilea morrnant (nr. 228)--Ia picioarele defunctului (V(lmic 2006, 86.118. I 36>.
AtM canile, cat ~i castroanele romane de lut din necropola de la Braviceni sunt lucrate dintr-o
pasta relativ fina, cu putin msip ~i flutura~i de mica in continut. Vasele au fost arse, fara exceptie,
01:idant, dobandind culoare ciramizie sau ro~ie. Unele rccipiente, ~i anume cde din monnintele 3, 87,
l: : I ~i l 69, au fost acoperite pe suprafata exterioara cu\ opsea ro~ie de cahtate mferioara, care in cea
1

m ai mare parte nu s-a pastrat.


Canile se grupeaza, in fi.mqie de caracteristicile mc1rfol1ogice pe care le prezinta, in doua tipuri:
Tipu! 1 include canile cu gura trilobata. in cadrul ac,:stui tip se pot diferentrn doua variante:
1a. Cana zvelta, cu gura larga, corpul piriform avand diametrnl maxim in partea inferioara, toarta
cu ~anruire mediana prinsa pe gat ~i umar ~i fundul pe suport melar; sub buza ~i pe partea superioara
a rnrpului are ca ornament dlteva benzi de linii inciza te orizontale (fig. 8, 41. S-a ga:sit ca vas de
ofranda in monnantul 169, care continea un inventar de >sebit de bogat. Oenochoe asemanatoare au
rnai fost semnalate in cimitirele de tip Santana de Mure ,-Cernjachov de la Cholmskoe (ryn.KoBa,
1
:D,)Kees 1984, 63, p11c. 20. 8), Furmanovka (Chil\lOHOBWl 1988, 154, p11c. 10, 2), Cialac
(Lllep6aKoBa 1990, p11c. 11, 4: Vomic. Ciobanu 20(5, fig. 2, 1), Independenta (Mitrea, Preda
L966, 52, fig. 106, 5) :?i MihiiLi~eni (Sovan 2005, 177, pl. 322,210).
ln ceea ce prive~te cronologia, cana de la Bravicen t se afla lntr-un context ce poate fi datat la
m 1_jlocul secolului al IV-lea; subliniem ca ea a fost gasita in acela~i monnant (nr 169) cu alte 14 vase
cr:ramice, o scoica marina ~i o fibula cu picior infa~urat ~:,resort prelung, ce apai1ine fazei C 2 tarzii ~i
c., (lonita 1992, 82).
1b. Cini scunde, cu corpul bitronconic avand diametrul maxim injumatatea inferioara, gura larg
deschisii, toarta din banda cu ~antuire rnediana ~i fundul 1nelar. 0 oenochoe cu astfel de caracteristici
a fost gasita in mormantul 34 (fig. 2. 2), iar alta cu buza p-trtial lipsa in strand de cultura al cimitirului
(fig. 9. 6 ). Ca decor can a din rnonmlntul 34 prezinta pc partea superioarli a corpului linii incizate
on i".ontale. ln tipologia camlor--oenochoe de lut rornane e laborata de V. Vomic ~i L. Ciobanu canitele
respective au fost incadrate in varianta e (Vomic, Ciobrnu 2005, 32).
Referitor la analogii, notam ca o canita cu gura trilobc, ta ~1 corpul bitronconic a fost descoperita in
monnantul 3 l 8 al necropolei 1je tip Santana de Murq-Ce ::njachov de la Danccni (Pacp.aJIOBWI 1986,
92, 1a6:1. XLII, l 0: Vcn11ic, Ciobanu 2005, 27.40, fig. 5. l).
In stadiul actual al cercetardor canile avute in discutie nu pot fi datate exact, deoarece ele au aparut
in i:ontexte arheologice care nu pennit fixarea unei crone logii mai stranse. In linii rnari, oenochoe-le
rmci cu corpul bitrnnconic ~i marginea evazata se dateaz;1 catre treimea mijlocie ~i a douajumatate a
.~ecolului IV p.Chr., adica in lumtele cronologice ale funct1ona.rii necropolei de la Hraviceni.
Tipul 2 cuprinde cani cu g::ttul ingust, tronconic, c, ,rpul piriform alungit, umerii coborati ~i
fundul inelar. ln literatura de specialitate vasele cu o toarta de acest fel mai sunt numite ~i ulcioare
I .\1 :,trea, Preda 1966, 134: Pa lade 2004, 204 ). Dupa dirr ensiuni ;;i unele detali1 de profil se disting
dm.,.a vari:mte:
2a. Aceasta variant:'! este ri~prezentata de o cana de dimensiuni mari, cu iniHtimea de 33 cm, gatul
inalt tronconic. cu caneluri onzontale, toai1a ovoidala in ,ectiune cu trei ~antuiri largi pe latura exte-
rioara ~i corpul piriforrn, cu ornament constand dintr-o banda de linii orizontale incizate (fig. 5, 2;
moTnfmtul 87). Analogii aprnpiate pentru recip1entul re:;pectiv se gasesc printre descoperirile din
necropo la inrudita de la Barl:id-Valea Seaca (Palade 2(,04. fig. n I. l ). Tot unei cani de ace st tip
lOS Revista Arheo/ogica. Serie nouii

pare sa-i apar(:ina $1 fragmentul de buza indentificat intr-un rnormant din cirnitirnl de la Cholmskoe din
sudul spatiului prnto-nistrean (f y JJ,KOBa, i::DoK1~eB 1984, 69, p11c. 19, 12).
in ceea ce pri,e$tC cronologia, cana de factura rornana din rnorrnantul 87 al cimitirului de la
Braviceni se datea:,;a pe baza a doua fibule de argmt cu semidisc, resort dublu $i placa pentagonala la
picior in a doua jumatate a secolului IV p.Chr. fate mteresant de subliniat ca in marea necropola de
la Mihala$eni fibulele de acest tip au fost folosite cxclusiv in faza finala de funcJionare acomplexului,
proiectata de O. L. :$ovan in ultimul patrar al secolului IV ~i la inceputul veacului urmator (~ovan 1999,
ll3 ~i urm.; idem 2005. 186.189).
2b. Cini de dirrensrnni mici, cu inaltimea de cca 14,5 cm, corpul pinform, gatul ingust, cu caneluri,
marginea evazata ~i toarta din banda prinsa cu un cap~tt de gat, iar cu celalalt de umar. S-au descoperit
doua cani apar(:inand acestei vmiante: ptima i'n m Hmilntul 49 (fig. 3A. 2), a doua, cu gura distrusa, in
rnom1antul 158 (fig. 6B,. 2). Yasui din mom1antu ! 49 prezinta drept ornament pe partea supertoara a
c:orpului o banda din striuri orizontale. Cani romane de marime ~i fonna asemanatoare s-au mai identi-
ficat in necropolek: de tip Santana de Mure~-Cemjachov de la Bude~ti (Vomic 2006, fig. 7.3, 14),
Slobozia-Chi~careni (Lazo) (J1eB11HcK11i':i 1999, p11c. 31, 3), Ciocalteni (descoperire inedita, s~ipaturi
A. Levinschi), Barlad-Valea Seaca (Palade 2004, fig. 265, 12) ~i Viktorovka (MaroMeD,OB 1987,
pHC. 36, 7).
Referitor la cronologie, fiind descoperii:e in morminte care nu contin elemente de inventar cu
posibilitati de datare restransa, dinile de la Braviceni pe care le discutam pot fi atribuite, in linii
generale, mijlocului ~i celei de a doua jumatiiti a secolului IV p.Chr.
Dupa cum am c:onsemnat, numarul castroanelor romane descoperite in necropola Santana de
Murq de la Briiviceni este mai redus, limit:indu--se la trei exemplare, dintre care sigure sunt doar
doua. Un castron, c:e la cares-au pastrat mai mulle fragmente, s-a recuperat din stratul de cuhura al
cimitirului (fig. 9, 1:i), alt exemplar, reprezentat primr-un fragment de margine, pro vine din mormi1ntul 3
(fig. 1A, 2), iar al tn~ilea vas, semnalat doar printr-un c10b necaracteristic, s-a gasit in solul de umplu-
tura al mom1antulw 152.
Privite din punct de vedere al formei, castroanele apar(:in aceluia~i tip. Forma lor este cea obi~nuita
~Ji frecvent folosita in lurnea romana, tronconica, cu marginea ingro~ata. indoita spre interior ~i fundul
pe suport inelar. In mediul culturi1 Santana de Mure~--Cemjachov castroane de form~t similara s-au
descoperit la Budqti (Vomic 2006, fig. 34, 16), Cau~eni (AryJihHHKOB, JJeBHHCKHH 1990, puc.
4, 20), Bursuceni (J1ap11Ha, Tiocn1K::i 1990, pirc. 3, 3), Copuzu (M u~eteanu 1986, fig. 4, 8),
Giurgiule~ti (Levitki ~1 co lab. 2005, fig. 18, l) $i ( ·omrat (material nepublicat, sapaturi E. Rikman).
In fine, tot de la vas.e romane de uz comun, a caror forma insa nu poate fi precizata, par sa mai
provina un fragmen: de fond inelar (fig. 10, 5) ~i doua fragmente de pereti cu decor constand din benzi
de linii incizate oriz1)ntale (fig. 10, 3.4) descoperite in stratul de depuneri arheologice al cimitirului.
Amfore. Nu avem nici un exemplarintreg sau intregibil din aceste vase, ci doar fragmente de mici
d1:mensiuni descop~rite ln patru morminte de inhurnatie, 12 gropi de cult ~i in stratul de cultura.
Situatia constatata L1 Briiviceni insa nu trebuie consiclerata ca fiind surprinzatoare, deoarece amfore
intregi se intalnesc mai rarin necropolele culturi1 Santana de Mure~-C:ernjachov. Spre exemplu, in
cele doua mari necrJpole de epoca romana tarzie de la Bude~ti ~i Danceni, recipientele de transport
sunt reprezentate do :II prin fragmente. In schimb, v.:1sele de uz co mun sunt prezente, ca ~i la Braviceni,
atat prin fragmente, i::at rnai ales prin exemplare intregi sau aproape intregi.
Pe baza fragmentelor de buze, funduri. toqi ~i pereti recuperate, amforele de la Braviceni au putut
fi grupate in trei tipuri:
Tipul 1. Majoritatea cioburilor provin de la amfore lucrate din pasta nisipoasa, de culoare alburie
sau roz-galbuie, cu i:: articule negre ~i maronii in compozitie, avand corpul piriform alungit, gatul inalt
~i ingust, buza ingro?ata Ia exterior, tor(:ile cu caneluri sau nervuri pe latura exterioara ~i fundul inelar
(fig. 1B, 2.3: 1C, 2: 9. 8.9.11.12: 10, 1.2 ).
i L,.'1m111! 11, Nr. 1-2 109

Dupa cum se ?tie, acest llp de amfora nu estc unul mitar, ci cuprinde mai .nulte variante, care se
datcaza in intervale cronologice dtfe1ite. Pentru fra;~rne11tek de la Braviceni insil nu se poate determina
L' u ceni tu dine varian:a din care fac pa rte. Se pare ca el, apartin unor amfrm: ,,de tip lnkerrnan ., ( tip F

dup,1 clasificarea Jui D. $elu\'), datate in cursul sccolu ui al IV-lea (UJe.r10B 1978. 19. 20).
Tipu! 2 este prezent printr--un fra,gment din ,gur.1 unci arnfore de dimensiuni mari lucrate din pasta
ro?iatica, zgnmturoasa, cu nisip ~i rare pietricelc (cuar1it?) n textura. Vasul avea 6'1.l1a largft, cu diametrul de
c1:a 16 cm, buza ingm?ata la ,:xlerior, g{1tul larg1t spre bazl ~i toarta masiva, cu capatul superior prins sub
rnargine (fig. 9.10). Tir,ologic esteapropiat de amforeleZ:esr 1()0 sau Delacau. care Slllltdatate in general
ir secolcle IV--VI (3eeCT l lJ60, 120. Ta6n. XXXIX. 1( lO: PHKMaH 1975, 122: Vomic 2006, 232).
rir,11! 3 este reprezentat pnntr-un fund pro\ enil de I,. o amfora lucrata la roata din pasta ro~iatica;
tindul este masiv, de forma aproxirnativ cilindridi. cu ,:apittul rotunjit (fig.·-+. I). Dupa cate se pare,
corespuncie tipului 97 confurrn clasificarii lui I. Zeest. datat fn secolul IV p.Chr. (3eeCT 1960, 119,
Ta6n. XXXVIII, 97).
in sfilr~it, tot w1ei mnforc. a carei fonna insa nu poate ri stabilitii nici macar cu aproximatie, apartine
m1 rest de toa1i[1 bandata, cu o ;;iintuire adanca pe latura iuterioara !ii doua pe cca exterioara. Yasui de la
care provine acest fragment a f1)st lucrat dintr-o pasta nisipoasa de culoare car{nnizie-oranj (fig. 9, 7).

***
Ceramica de factura rornana prczentata mai sus, tlaturi de alte produse de import, precum
1T1on,ede, rccipiente de sticlii. rnargele, pandant1ve ~.a., atesta existenta unor schimbun comerciale
destul de active dintre cornunitatea ,,cernjachoveana' de la Braviceni ~1 lumea romana. Deter-
rninarea centrelor de provementfi a vaselor romane cl,: lut, ca de altfel i1i a celorlalte articole de
import. insiL in stadiul actual al cercetarilor, este extn:m de dificila. Strnctura diferita a pastei ~i
va,·ietatea tipologica a formdor ceramice reprezmUi ind1ci1 dare ca recipientek provin nu din unul,
ci din m ai multe centre rne~t,:;;ugarqti. In ceea ce prive:1te canile $i castroanek\ adica vasele de uz
comun, ele par sa fi fost lucrate in ateliere de olarie situate iTI unele centre de pe limes-ul dunarean
sau ora~;e de pe tarmul nord-vest-pontic. Amforele insa, care erau utilizate mai ales la transportul
umdelemnului ?i a vinului, dupa cate se pare, provin, in marea !or majoritate, din unele regiuni de
pn,duqie specializate in cultura maslmilor ~i a vitei de ,1ie de pe coasta meridionala a Marii Negre
('J;;zgijr J 999, 117-123; Parns,.:hiv 2002, 167.172.177 Vomic. Ciobanu 200:5a. 347).

Catalog
Morman tu! 3. inhumatie (fot. lA, 1). Adancimea 1, 13 m. Orientarea VNV.-ESE. Groapa de forma
rcctangulara, cu col tun le putl:rr1ic rotunjite ( I ,45x0,6 m ,. Scheletul zacea pe spate, cu ma1mle de-a
lun gul corpului ?i picioarele ini:inse $i alaturate. A apartin It unei persoane adul te, cu sexul neprecizat.
Inv:::ntar:
1. Fragment corodat de l<i un castron de factura roIT .ma. cu margin ea ingro~ata ~,i indoita spre
mtt:rior, lucrat din pasta relativ tina, de culoare ro~iatic;i, cu ,11s1p marllllt ~i paiete de mica i:n compozitie.
Pe buza prezinta slabe unne de vopsea ro?ie. Diametul ap1 ox1mativ al gurii-25 cm (fig. IA, 2). A fast
gas ::t langii cotul m2inii drepte.
2. Fragment din peretii unui vas lucrat cu m[ma din pasta grosiera, gasit l~rnga humerusul manii
~,tiingi (fig. IA, 3 ).
3. Os de animal de la ofranda de came, aflat langa fra1pnentul de vas lucrat cu mana.
Monnantul 3 a suprapus pan ea de est a gropii 3. din cace cauza latimea maxima a gropii mom1an-
tulw nu a putut fi stabilita c11 cxactitate.
\llormantul 16. Inhumatic t fig. lB, 1). Adanc1mea 1,25 m. Orientarea N-S. Groapa de forrna
recrangulara. cu colturilc rotunpte ( l ,9x0,65 111) Mom1f ntul a fost rava~it din vechime. In groapa,
inckosebi in partea de n,Jrd. re~;tnri osoase din schelc,. in daordine. Inventar:
110 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

1. Fragment dintr-o amfora romana de import, reprezentand o porj:iune din gat ~i partea superio-
ara a unei torj:i aproximativ ovale in sectiune, cu o nervura ~i doua ~antulete longitudinale pe latura
exterioara; past:\ zgrunturoasa, cu mult nisip ~i particule negre in compozitie; culoare galbuie (lB, 2).

0 3 cm 2
L..l..J....J

A
0]]
3

0 30 cm 0 3 <:m
L....1-L....I
L..J.-1...J

'~ C>
'~c:==J
,i:ll
c,....:i

3
0 30 cm
~.--:1 1
;,a

3
2 0 3 cm
L.L.L..J

0 30 cm

4
Cl' .
.

5
- ,

Fig. 1. Braviceni. Mormint,,:le 3 (A), 16 (B) ~i 18 (C).


~1;,1111111! fl, Nr 1-2 111

2. Fragment de toarta de amfora romana, relativ ovoid.ala in seqiune, cu nervuri ~i caneluri pe


partea extenoara; pasta nisipoasa. de culoare galbuie. c1 l pigmenti negri in compozit1e (fig. lB, 3).
Ambele cioburi s-au gas1t in pamiintul de umplutura d gropii rnonnantului.
Mo1111antul 18. Inhumatie ( fig. 1C, 1). Adanc1mea 1, 1 m. Groapa de fom1a rectangulara cu colturile
putemic rotunj ite ( 1, 7x.0,65 m), orientata pe direqia V- E. Mormantul, care este dublu, a fost rava~it
din vechirne. Oase provenind din scheletul unei persoanc mature ~;i a unui copil 5,e aflau impra;~tiate in
umplutura rnormantului inccp:Jnd cu adancimea de 0, 7 m. In urnplutura gropi1 m01mantului s--au gasit
cinci fragmrnte cerarnice apartinand la trei vase:
l. Fragment de gat ingusi: cu unrest de toarta de la o am fora romana lucrat2 din pasta compacta.
d1: culoare oranj-deschisa, cu nisip ~i particule minerale :n rnmpozitie; toarta este aproxirnativ ovala
in seqiune, cu doua ~fmtuiri kmgitudinale pe partea exkrioara (fig. lC, 2).
2. Fragment din p1~rctclc unui recipient lucrat cu m:ma din pasta grosiera, cu ~arnota mii.~cata in
compozitie; arderea slaba, neunifom1a, culoare cenu~ie ·cafr:nie (fig. 1C, 3).
3. Doua fragrnente din peretii unui vas (castron?) lucr.tt la roata. din pasta fina cenu~ie (fig. lC, 4.5).
Monnantul 34. inhumatie (fig. 2, 1). Adancimea 1,6:; m. Orientarea NNV-SSE. Groapa de forrna
redangulara, cu colµnile rotunjite, peretii oblici, ingustqi spre fund (l ,9x0,9 m). Col1ul de sud-est al
gropii rnormantului a fost taiat cu prilejul saparii unui :1an1 pentru amenaprea temeliei atelierulm
ciestinat reparatiei tractoarelor apat1inanci gospodanei agricole a satului Braviceni. Monnantul a fost
ch ,trus din antichitate, in pozitie initiala pastrandu-se doar oasele picioarelor ~i ale manii stangi.
Judecand dupa orientarea oaselor picioarelor, se poak presupune ca defunctul a av11t pozitia pe
ch.1gonala in groapa. Inventar
l . Canita cu gura trilobatii de factura romana, lucrata la roata din pasta densft de culoare ro~iatica,
cu nisip fin in compozitie. Are corpul bitronconic, cu diam.:trul maxim in jumatatea inferioara a inaltimii,
gura larg deschisa ~i fundul pe suport inelar. Toarta, mod.:latii dintr-o banda cu canelura mediana, este
fixata cu un capat sub margme, iar cu celalalt de umar. Drept ornament prezinta sub margme ~i pe
mnar linii orizontaie incizate. foaltimea-13 cm (fig. 2, 2).
2. Castron asimetric, de forma oarecum bitronconicit, cu marginea inalta, evazata ~i fundul profi-
lat ~1 concavat, lucrat la roata din pasta zgrunturoasa, de cdoare cenu~1e, cu rrisip mazarat in compozitie.
Jnaltimea- 6 cm (fig. 2, 3 ).
3. Oala sferoidala. cu marginea evazata, decor din li:1ii incizate pe um;ir ~i fundul plat, lucrata la
roata din pasta zgnmturoasa avand in amestec nisip cu bobul mare. Este arsa reduci\tor, dar neuni-
fonn. inaltimea- 12,5 cm (11g. 2, 4 ). Vasul a fost gasit impreun:i cu cele de la nr.1-2, in coltul sud-
vestic al gropii rno1mantului.
4. Scoica marina Murex cu o perforatie pentru a fi atamata. Lungirnea-4,:5 cm (fig. 2, 8).
5. Pandantiv executat dintr--o vertebra de pe~te cu o faur'i in centru. Diametrnl - 2,5 cm (fig. 2,6).
6. Pandantiv cilindric in forma de caldarn~a defier. l 'artea superioara estc defonnata. fnaltimea--
-, ') cm
,.,~ ., (t"'1g ....') , .'i.).
7. Pandantiv fragmentar de os, reprezentat de o plac:i circulara, cu o perforatie la o margine ~i cu
o prelungire rectangulara in pa1iea opusa, prevazuth cu ,,lte doua orifici1. Lungimea- 7 cm (fig. 2, 7).
Piesele de la nr. 4-7 au fost gasite i'ntre fernure.
~- Fusaiola bitronco111ca cu bazelc concave, lucrata din pasta fina, cem.1;;ie. Pe ambele registre piesa
prezint.i cate o linie in zigzag ,:xecutata cu rotita dintata, in1rernpta din loc in loc cu alveolle mici. Un rand
lk asemenea alveole au fost rcalizate ~i pe diamctrul maxim. Diametrul-- 3,2 cm Cig. 2, 9). A fost gasita
in zona bazinului.
Monnantul 49. InhumatiL: (fig. JA, 1). Adanc1mea l ,'.' m. O1ientarea NE- SV In partea superioara,
grnapa are fonna aproximatt v cilindrica, cu dimensiun .le de l ,36x 1,24 m. in partea inferioara, pe o
112 Rn,zsta Arheologicii. Serie nouc1

I ~

6
5
O 1cm 0 3 cm
L__J LJ...w
2-4 5 .. 9

~Ji\SSS\\SSSSSSSSS\SSSSi t\\)S\:N b&~

\_ __
:2 3

~
~
8 9

Fig. 2. Braviceni. :Mormantul 34.

adancime de 0,45 rn, groapa- camera mortuara propriu-zisa, are forma rectangulara cu colturile
rotunjite ~i peretii oblici (l ,2x0,55 m). Din .scheletul apaf!inand unui copil s--au pastrat in pozitie
anatomica doar femurele, care erau orientate pe direcfia NE- SY.
Vi)lumul JI, Nr 1-2 l l3

Inventar:
1. Cana de lut romana cu corpul piriform, gatul infust, gura in fonna de pillnie ~i toarta din banda
prinsa de gat ~i umar; drept decor prezinta sub margrne ~i pe umar linii incizate orizontale; pasta
compacta, ro$iatica. Inaltimea-14,5 cm (fig. 3A, 2).
2. Oala sferoidala aplatisata miniaturala, cu rnargi 1ea evazata $i fundul inelar lucrata la roata din
0

pasta fina cenu~ie; are pe umar ca decor o linie lustmita in zigzag marginita de doua linii incizate.
lnaltimea-6 cm (fig. 3A, 6).
3. Oala sferoidala cu marginea evazata ~i fundul pl: 1t, modelata la roata din pasta zgrunpiroasa, cu
nisip mazarat in cornpozi1ie. Assa la cenu~iu. inaltimea-8 cm (fig. 3A, 3 ).
4. Oala sferoidala cu marginea evazata, linii incizhte orizontale pe umar ~i fundul plat, lucrata la
roata din pasta zgrunp.iroasEL de culoare cenu$ie. inaltirnea-9 cm (fig. 3A, 5).
Vasele de la numerele 1-J au fost gasite in coltul de ;ud-vest al gropii, la adancimea de 1,2 -1 ,3 m.
5. Oala sferoidala aplatisata de dimensiuni mici, cu rnarginea evazata, prag pe umar $i fundul
profilat, lucrata la roata din pasta fina, cenu$ie. Inaltimea--7 ,3 cm (fig. 3A, 4 ). A fost aflatii in colp.tl
nord-vestic al gropii, la adancimea de 1,3 m.
6. Fusaiola de lut de forma bitronconica cu bazele albiate, gasita in capatul sudic al gropii, la
adancimea de 1,4 m. Diametrul-3,5 cm (fig. 3A, 7).
Mormantul 74. Inhumatie (fig. 3B, 1). Adancimea 1,95 m. Orientarea N-S. Groapa de forma
rectangulara cu colp.irile rotunjite (2, lx 1,26 m). De jur-imprejur groapa prezinta mai multe praguri de
<:iferita inaltime $i latime. Mormantul a fost distrus din vechime. In umplutura gropii mom1antului--
oase din schelet 1n dezordine. In situs-au pastrat doar oasele picioarelor, aflate intinse ~i paralele.
lnventar:
1. Fragment din piciorul unei amfore romane de cuk>are ro~iatica, gasit in umplutura mormantului
(fig. 4, 1).
2. Oala sferica cu marginea evazata ~i fundul profi lat lucrata la roata din pasta zgrunp.iroasa, cu
nisip rna$cat $i $amota in compozitie, de culoare cem,~ie. inaltimea 15 cm (fig. 4, 4 ). A fost gasita
l{lnga peretele est1c al gropii mormantului.
3. Oala relativ sferica, cu margin ea evazata, nervura pe umar ~i fundul profilat. Luerata la roata din
pasta zgrunturoasa, cu nisip mazarat ~i $amota in compozitie. Ardere reducatoare. l'naltimea 12 cm
(!'ig. 4, 3 ). A fost gasita in coltul se sud-est al gropii.
4. Oala scunda, asimetncii, cu corpul sferic aplati~,at, marginea inalta, evazata :?i fundul inelar;
lucrafa la roata din pasta fina. cenu~ie. inalfimea 8, I cm fig. 4, 2). A fost gasita langa vasul precedent.
5. Fragment de la un vas. probabil castron cu fundul profilat, lucrat la roata din pasta fina, cenu~ie.
Diametrul fundului 6,5 cm (fig. 4, 5). S-a gasit langa vasek de la nr. 3 ~i nr. 4.
6-38. Colier alcatuit din 32 margele mici de sticla. albastrie, aparfinand la urmatoarele tipufl'
2 2 margele discoidale, cu diarnetrul de 0,5-0,6 cm (fig. 4, 7-28); 6 margele sferoidale, cu diametml
02-0,3 cm (fig. 4, 29-34); 2 mftrgele inelare, cu diametrJl 0,4 cm (fig. 4, 35,36):, 2 margele sferoidale.,
cu diametrul de 0,6 cm (fig. 4, 37,38).
39. Pieptene de os cu manerul semicircular $i aripi laterale U$0f oblice lucrat din trei randuri de
pl acute prinse cu nituri tubulare de bronz. inalfimea 8,~ cm (fig. 4, 40). A fost gasit in partea de nord
a mormannilui, langa pereteie estic, pe fund.
40. Cutit fragmentar defier cu resturi de lemn pe peduncul. Lungimea-9 cm (fig. 4, 6 ).
41. Fusaiola (?) de sticH! maronie de forma sferrn dalii aplatisata, gasita in coltul sud-estic al
morm2mtului. Diametrul - 3.7 cm (fig. 4, 39). Piesa nu a putut fi recuperata, intrucat s-a dezintegrat.
La adancimea de 0, 9 min zona de vest a gropii ~i le, 1,05 min zona centrala s-au depistat resturi
de lenm putrezit.
M01mantul 87. Inhumatie (fig. 5, l ). Adancimea 1,71,/2, 14 m. Orientarea NN'V Groapa rectangu-
lara cu colturile rotunj ite (2,3 5)\ 1,25 m) avea pe intreg perimetrnl ei doua trepte: inalte de 0,3 ~:i 0, 15 m
114 Rerisla Arheo/ogica. Serie noua

0 3

0 30 cm
I I

\J I
I

0 30 cm
I I

7 B

Fig. 3. Braviceni. Mormintele 49 (A) ~i 74 (B).

~i late de 0, l-0,3 m; in capatul sudic, pe o lungime de 60 cm, prezenta o scobitura, adanca de cca
40 cm. Scheletul, apaqinand unei persoane mature, se gasea pe spate, cu mamile fntmse i'n lungul
1;,/1111111//l. ;'v'i: 1-2 115

corpulm ~i picioarele incloite din genunchi, cu oasele !!ambelor in adancitura. din capatul de sud al
grnpii. Inventar:

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5
3 7-3 8

39
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Fig. 4. Braviccni. Piese de inventar din rnormantul 74.


116 Revista Arheologica. Serie noui.i

1. Cana de lu1 romana, cu corpul piriform avand diametrul maxim in partea inferioara, gatul ingust,
gura palniforma ~i fundul inelar; toarta dm banda cu sectiunea ovoidala ~i caneluri longitudinale pe

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.Fig. 5. Br:ivic,:ni. Mormantul 87.


Voiumul 11, N1'. 1-2 117

Lltura exterioara, este fixarn cu un capat de gat, iar cu celalalt de urnar; drept decor prezinta sub
1'.1argine $i pe umar cate o banda de caneluri, iar pe giit o nervura in relief; pasta finfi, ro;iiatica; la
exterior urme de fimis de culoare f0$iatica. Inaltimi~:a 33 cm (fig. 5, 2). A fost gasita in dreapta
craniului.
2. Fibula de argint cu placa pentagonala ~i semidisG, dublu resort ~i portagrafa fixa, pe jumatatea
superioara a placii; descopcrita in zona toracica, sub umaml stang. Lungimea-5,9 cm (fig. 5, 3).
3. Fibula similara cu precedenta, gasita sub umarul drept. Lungimea-5,9 cm (fig. 5, 4 ).
4. Catarama de bronz cu veriga ovala, aplatisata; descoperita 111 zona bazin1lui. Lungimea 3,2 cm
(fig. 5, 5).
5. Scoica marina Cypraea, gasita intre genunc:hi. Lungimea - 5,4 cm (fig. 5, 6).
Mormantul 151. Inhumatie (fig. 6A, 1). Adancimea J,2 m. OrientareaN-S. Groapa, de forma
trapezoidala cu colturile rotunjite (2,20x0,80 m), avea un prag inalt de 0,2 m ~i lat de 0,15 m pe latura
estica. Mormantul, apaqinand unui individ matur, a fost: deranjat din antichitate. In pozitie anatomica
s-au pastrat doar oasele picioarelor, care erau incruci~.ite in regiunea gambelor. Partea superioara a
s,:heletului lipsea. Inventar:
1. Fragment din peretii unui vas mare (castron?) d,~: factura romana lucrat la roata din pasta fina
ro~iatica, acoperit cu vopsea de aceea~i culoare. A fost gasit in pamantul de umplutura al gropii, la
adancimea de 0,5 m.
2. Fragment din pere!ii unui recipient de culoare ro~, iatidi lucrat cu mana din pasta cu pie:tricele in
c:ompozitie, decorat cu o canelura (fig. 6A, 2). S-a ga.sit in solul de umplutura al mormantului, la
adancimea de 0,7 m.
Mormantul 158. [nhumatie (fig. 6B, 1). Adancimea 1,4 m. Groapa de forma ovala (l,7xl,l m)
avea un prag din pamant cm(at, inalt de 0,3 ~i lat de 0,3-0,35 m, de jur-imprejur. Mormantul a fost
clistrus. din antichitate. Din scheletul apaqinand unui copil s--a pastrat doar un fragment de craniu, aflat
in partea de nord a mormantului, la adancimeade 1,05 in. Inventar:
1. Cana fragmentara romana din pasta de culoare ro~.iatica cu nisip fin in compozitie, avand corpul
piriform, gatul ingust, tronconic, toarta aproximativ rectangulara in sectiune $i flllldul pe suport inelar.
inaltimea 13,5 cm (fig. 6B, 2). S-a gasit sparta in bucati in pamantul de umplutura a mormantului.
2. Fibula de bronz cu piciorul in±r1$urat, corpul din banda ~i resort scurt lucrat dintr-o singura bucata
die sanna, gasita in zona centrala a gropii mormantului, la adancimea de 1,25 m. Lungimea-3 cm
(fig. 6, 3).
3. Fragment dm peretele unui vas lucrat cu mana din pasta grosiera, gasit in umplutura mormantului .
4. Fragment inform de la o piesa din fier, gasit in zona de sud a gropi1, la adancimea de 1,25 m.
5. Oase de miel de la ofranda de came, gasite pe toata umplutura gropii mormantului.
6. Coji de ou de pasare, g.asite pe fundul gropii.
Mormantul 159. Inhuma\ie (fig. 6C, 1). Adancimea J,65 m. O1ientarea V-E. Groapa rectangulara
cu colturile rotunjite (2,35x l m), avea pe laturile de est, nord ~i vest un prag in alt de 0,05 m ~i lat de
0,05-0, 1 m. Mormantul a fost distrus din vechime. In :-;olul de umplutura a gropii mormantului, in
special. la adancimea de 0,65--0,85 m, 1, 15 -1,25 m ~i 1,45-1,60 m, oase umane disparate. Inventar:
1. Doua fragmente din peretii unei amfore romanc· lucrate din pasta zgrnnturoasa, de culoare
alburie, gasite in umplutura gropii mormantului.
2. Castron bitronconic, cu marginea inclinata in afari1, fa1;ete lenticulare pe piintece ~i fundlul inelar
lucrat la roata din pasta fina., cenu~ie; pe umar prezintii drept ornament o lime lustruita in zigzag,
ddimitata de doua dungi in relief Inaltimea 7,8 cm (fig. 7, 10). A fast aflat i'n partea de sud a gropii,
la adancimea de 1,6 rr1, printre oase umane.
3. Oala piriforma aplatisa.ta, cu marginea puternic rasfranta, cateva caneluri pe umar ~.i fundul
plat, lucrata din pasta zgrunturoasa cu pietricele in c:ompozitie, de culoare cenu~ie. Inaltimea I 0,8 cm
(fig. 7, 9). Descoperita in zona de sud a gropii, la adancimea de 1,6 m.
118 Revista Arheologicii. Serie 1101111

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Fig. 6. Braviccni. Monnintele 151 (A), 158 (B) $i 159 (C).

4. Fragmente dintr-o oala sferoidala cu marginea rasfranta ~i nervura pe umar drept decor,
lucrata la roata din p1sta cu pietricele ~i scoici pisate in compozitie, ardere reducatoare. inaltimea
;'o:'11m11! 11. A'r 1-2 119

aproxrmativa 16 cm (fig. 7. J2). Cioburile s-au gasit in solul de umplutura a gropii morm2mtului, la
t: ifcrite adfmcim1.

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Fig. 7. Braviccni. Piese de inventar din mormintele 159 (1-10. 12) ~i 169 (11, 13 ).
120 Rev1sta Arheologica. Sene noua

5. Doua fragmente din peretii unui vas de culoare cenu~ie lucrat la roata din pastii fina, gElsite in
umplutura.
6. Fragment din peretii unui vas de culoarc portocalie (ars secundar?) lucrat la roata, gasit in solul
de urnplutura.
7. Doua fragmente din peretii unui vas lucrat --:u mana, gasite in p[lmantul de umplutura a gropii
monnantului.
8. Scoicii marintu\.tfurex fragmentara, gasita in prntea de sud a gropii, la adancimea de 1.,45 m (fig. 7, 6 ).
9-10. Doua pardantive piramidale de os, dec:Jrate pe toate laturile cu cercuri incizate cu puncte
in mij loc ~i cu cate o perforatie pentrn atarnare . Lungimea -- 6,8 cm (fig. 7, 7. 8 ). Au fost gasite in
umplutura gropii la acliincimea 1,4-1,45 m, unul in centru, iar al doilea in partea de sud a gropii
monnantului.
11-13. Trei margele polifatetate de sticl2, transparenta: doua cuboedrice, iar una alungita. Au fost
gasiteinzonacentralaamormantului,laadancimeade l,25m(fig. 7.1-3).
14. Fragmente dirntr-un pieptene de os lucLtt din trei randuri de pLaculi1e prinse cu nituri de
bronz, avand manerul semicircular ~i aripi la.terale u~or ob lice (fig. 6C, 2). Au fast ga.site in zona de
sud a gropii, la ada 1cirnea de 1,25 m, printre oasc urnane.
15. Fragment cl~ fusaiola de Jut ars de fo1ma bitronconica, cu bazele albiate (fig. 7, 5).
16. Fragment dintr-o fusaiola sferoidala (?) de lut ars (fig. 7, 4 ). Ambele resturi de fusaiole au fast
descoperite in partca centrala a gropii momdntul ui, la adincimea de 0,9 m.
17. Fragmcntc dintr-un cutit defier, putemic corodate, gasite in umplutura.
18. Fragment dmtr-un obiect de bronz, a carni intrebuintare nu ne este clara (fig. 6C, 3). S-a gasit
111 partca de sud a gropi1 mormiintuluL la adancirnea de l, 15-1,25 m.
19. Coji de ou de pasare, gasite in pamiintul de urnplutura a mormiintului.
20 Trei fragrne:1te de ra~ina gasite in umpluturn gropii mom1antului.
Mormantul 16<~. Inhumat1e (fig. 8, 1). ,1\dan,,:1mea 2, 75 m. Orientarea ~-S. Groapa de fom1a
rectangularii, in pane a superioara cu dim en ~,ium le de 2, 70x2,80 m. La adancimea de 1,5 m groapa
prezenta pe latura cstid1, cuprinzand colturik de sud-est ~i nord-est, precum :1i cate o portiune din
laturile de nord ~i sud, un prag lat de 0,3-0,6 m. La adancimea de 1,65 m groapa prezenta o treapta
asemanatoare ~i pe latura vestica. Pana la nivelul pragurilor peretii gropii erau verticali, de la nivelul
treptelor pana la find-- oblici. La baza groapa avea o farma aproximativ trapezoidala, mai larga in
capatul nordic, cu dimensiunile de l ,4x0, 7x0. 8 m. t.-1onnantul a fast rascolit din vechime. Din scheletul
apaq:inand unui copil s-au pastrat oase disparate, care se gaseau impra~tiate pe toata umplutura gropii.
Inventarul monnantului era destul de bogat, cuprinzand o cana de lut romana cu gura t1ilobata, 4 oale
lucrate la roata din past.1 zgrnnturoasa, o oal.1, ~ap1 e castroane ~i o cana lucrate la roata din pasta fina,
o fibula de bronz ~i o scoica.
1. Cana de factura romana lucrata la roata din pasta fina, de culoare ro~iatica, avand corpul
piriform, gura trilobata., fundul inelar ~i toana din tJanda cu ~antuire mediana prinsa e sub margine ~i
de umar. lnaltimea 15,5 cm (fig. 8, 4). A fast gasita in coltul de nord-vest al gropii mormantului, la
adancimea de 2.,2 m.
2. Castrona~ bit~onconic cu umarnl rotunj it, rnarginea U$or evazata, nervura pe gat ~i fundul plat.
Lucrat la roata din pasn fina, cenu~ie. inaltirnea - - 5 cm (fig. 9, 3).
3. Castrona~ cu ::orpul rotunjit, prag pe umar, marginea evazata ~i fundul inelar lucrat la roata din
pasta fina, cenw;ie. inal1:imea-6 cm (fig. 9, 2).
4. Castrona~ bit~onconic, cu diametrnJ maxim la jumatatea inaltimii, rnarginea evazata ~i fundul
profilat ~i concavat. lucrat la roata din pasta fina, ,;enu~ie. inaltimea -4,5 cm (fig. 8, 10).
5. Castrona;; de forma aproximativ tronconi1.:a, cu marginea evazaU\ ~i fundul inelar lucrat la
roata din pasta fina, cenu~1ie; suprafata exterioara este acoperita cu angoba neagra. fna!Jimea-3, 7 cm
(fig. 8, 9).
~;i,/umul fl. Nr. 1-2 121

6. Olita sferoidala aplatisata, cu marginea evazata, prag pe umar ~i fundul inelar lucrata la roata
din pasta fina, cenu~ie. inaltimea- 7,2 cm (fig. 9, 5).

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Fig. 8. Braviceni. Mom1iintul 169.


:122 Revista Arheologica. Serie nouii

7. Olita sferoidda cu ?1arginea puternic r:isfranta ~i fundul plat lucrata la roam din pasta zgnmµ.rroasa
cu pietricele in tex:ura. lnaltimea- 7 cm (fig. 7, 11).
8 . Oala de dimc:nsiuni mici, cu corpul sforoidal, linii orizontale incizate pe umar, marginea evaza-
ta ~i fundul plat lucrata la roata din pasta zgrunturoasa cu pietricele in compozitie. Iniiltimea- 8 cm
(fig. 8, 5).
9. Oala de climensiuni mici, de form.l sferica., cu marginea evazatii ~i fundul concav, lucrata la
roata din pasta zgnmturoasii de culoare cenu~ie. f nalrirnea -- 9 cm (fig. 8, 8).
Vasele de la numerele 2-9 au fost giistte la ad:'mcimea de 1,65 m pe pragul de pe latura de nord a
gropii momtann1lui
10. Olita de fo:ma sferica, cu marginea rasrranta ~i fundul concav lucrata la roata din pasta
zgnmturoasii, cenu:1ie. Inaltimea 8,6 cm (fig. 8, 6 ). A fost gasita in coltul nord-vestic al mormantului,
la adancimea de 2 m.
11. Castron de form a generala tronconica, cu umarul ridicat, marginea evazatii ~i fundul inelar
lucrat la roatii din p:1sta finii cenu~ie. Iniiltimea- 5 cm (fig. 8, 11 ). A fost giisit in colµil sud-vestic al
gropii momiantului, la .1dancimea de 2,3 m.
12. Castron cu parte:a superioara cilindrica, cea inferioara tronconicii ~i fundul inelar, lucrat la
roata din pasta fina cenu~:ie. lnaltimea-8,6 cm (fig. 7, 13). A fast gasit langa peretele nordic al gropii,
la adancimea de 2,4 m.
13. Oalii lucratii la roata din pasta zgrunturoasii, cu corpul sferoidal inalt, marginea evazatii,
caneluri pe umar ~i fundul concav, giisita langa. latura vestica a gropii, la adancimea de 2,6 m. Iniiiltimea
10,5 cm (fig. 8, 7).
14. Canifa cu co::-pul sferoidal, gura in forma de paLr1ie, fundul inelar ~i toarta aproximativ ovala in
seqiune, fixatii cu u;1 ca pat sub margine, iar cu ceE1lalt de umar. Inaltimea--10, 4 cm (fig. 9, 4). A fost
giisita langa vasul de la nr. 13.
15. Fragmented mtr- un castron bitronconic, cu marginea evazata ~i fundul inelar lucrat la roata din
pasta finii, cenu~ie (fig. 9 . 1). Au fost gasite in umplutura mormantului.
16. Fibula fragmentarii de bronz cu piciorul infa~urat, corpul din banda ~i cu resortul incomplet,
lucrat din doua sau trei bucati de sam1a; portagrafa nu s--a piistrat. Lungimea-3,1 cm (fig. 8, 2). A fost
g2lsita in coltul de nord-vest al gropii, la adancimeci. de 2 m.
17. Pandantiv din scoica de mare Cypraea, g~isit la adancimea de 1,65 m, pe pragul de pe llatura
nordica a gropii mormantului. Lungirnea--5,5 cm (fig. 8, 3).
l8. Cateva pietricele trecute prin foe gasite in castronul de la nr. 12.

Groapa 1. Adancimea 1,3 m. Formii ovalii, cu peretii drepti. Dimensiunile 1,26xl,07 m. in


cuprinsul ei s-au ga,it: un fragment atipic de la o amfora romana din pasta ro~iatica, 5 fragmente
at1ipice de la vase lucratc cu mana, oase de animalc ~i carbuni de lemn.
Groapa 2. Ac!ancimea 0,95 m. Forma ovala, cu peretii oblici. Dimensmnile l ,5x 1., 12 m. In um-
plutura ei era un fragment din pere!ii unei arnfore romane de culoare alburie ~i oase de animale.
Groapa 10. Adancimea 1,4 m. Forma ovala cu pere\ii drep\i. Dimensiunile 1,79x 1,6 m. in
solul de umplutura s-a gasit un fragment din gatul ingust al unei amfore romane din pasta de nuanta
alburie, un fragment atipic de la un vas lucrat la roat2t de culoare ro~iatica (ars secundar?) ~i oase
de animale.
Groapa37. Adan::imea 1,05 m. Forma relativ circulara, cu pcretii vc1t1cali. Dimensiuni 1,5xl,43 m.
in piimantul de urnplutur~l a gropii era un fragment din peretii unei amfore romane de culoare ro~iatica
~i ciirbune de lemn.
Groapa 40. Ada:1cirnea 0,85 m. Fonna ovala . cu peretii drep\i. Dimensiuni 2xl,75 m. Drept
inventar groapa continea un fragment din peretii unci amfore romane din pasta de culoare f0$iatic:a, un
fragment atipic dintr-un vas lucrat la roata de culoa.re cenu~ie ~i oase marunte de animale.
Volumul II, Nr. 1-2 123

s
4 0 3 cm
l...L-.L...J

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OD n- 8
6

7
,

10

11

13

Fig. 9. Braviceni. Ce:ramica lucrata la roata din pasta fina cenu~ie (1-5) ~i de fac-
tura romana (6-13) descoperita in mormantul 169 (1-5), gropile 47 (I 0), 51 (12) ~i strat
(6-9, 11, 13).
124 Rel'ista Arheologica. Serie nouii

Groapa 41. Adincimea 0,85 m. Fomia aprox.1mativ romboidala, cu pererii verticali. Dimensiunile
l ,3x l ,2 m. lnventar un fragment din peretii unc:i amfore romane de culoare ro~iatica, un fragment
atipic de la un vas lucrat cu mana din pasta gros1era :?i un os de animal.
Groapa 44. Aclancunea 1,08 m. Forrna oval~t, cu peretii dremi. Dimensiunilc 2,6x2 m. Inventar:
un fragment din peretii unei amfore de lut romanc de culoare ro~iatic;i ~i un os. de animal.
Groapa 45.. Aclanc1 mea l m. F orma cilindric:1, cu diametrul de 2 m. ln pamantul de umpiutura a
gropii au fost descoperite trei fragmente atipice de la o amfora romana de culoare ro~iatica, un fragment
din peretii unui recipient lucrat cu mana de culoare neagra, oase sfaramate de animale ~i carbune.
Groapa 47. Adancimea 0,85 m. Formi oval ft, cu pererii verticali. Dimensiunile l ,37x1, 15 m.
Inventar: un fragment din gura unei amfore romane cu unrest de toarta de dimensiuni mari, lucrate din
pasta zgrunturoasr, cu nisip ~i rare pietricele (cuart;it?) in compozitie, de culoare ro~iatica (fig . 9, 10);
craniul ~i mandibula unui cal, aflate pe hmdul gropii (craniul in partea de nord-est a gropii, iar
mandibula in cea de sud-est).
Ciroapa 48. Adancimea 1,25 m. Fom1a ovalii, cu peretii inclinati. Di111ensmnile l ,98xl,80111. in
pi'imiintul de urnpluturii a gropii au fost descoperite: un fra,g111ent din peretii unei a111fore romane de
culoare alburie, cinci fragmente din peretii unui vas lucrat cu mana, l 5 fragmente atipice de la vase
lucrate cu roata, numcroase oase de animale (taurine, ovicaprine, cabaline, icpure ~i caine) :~i doua
pi etre de rau.
Groapa_il. Adancimea 0,8 m. Forrnil ova.la, cu peretii verticali. Dimensiunile l,55xl,35 m. In-
ventar: un fragment din partea superioara a unei torti cu un rest din gatul unei amfore de factura
rornana lucrate din pa5Ui zgrunturoasa, de culoare crem-roz (fig. 9, 12).
Qroapa 52. Ad:incirnea l m. Forma ova.Hi, cu pere~i1 verticali. Di111ensiunile l ,82x 1,55 111. in solul
de umplutura a gropii s-au gasit: un fragment din peretii unei am fore romane de culoare bej-carii111izie,
lucrata din pasta CL. msip relativ fin, mica $i alte particule (fig. 10, 6); un fragment din partea mediana
a unu1 castron L1crat din pasta fina cu mica, de culoare galbui-caramiz1e, cu urme vagi de angoba (ars
secundar?) (fig. 10, 7); doua fragmente provenind de la un castron cu trei torti (?) avand marginea in
fo1mii de ,,T' $i fur dul inelar, lucrat la roata din pasta fina, cu urme de ardere secundara (fig. 10, 8.9);
trei fragmente atipice provenind de la doua vase lucrate la roata dm pasta fin a cenu$ie, dintre care
unul prezinta u1me de arderc secundara; un fragment din marginea rasfranta a unui vas lucrat la roata
din pasta fina, c:aram1ziu-cenu~ie (ars secundar). decorat cu o banda orizontaLi lustruita sub buza la
exterior (fig. 10, 10).

Cerami ca rom2na descoperita in stratul arheo logic:


1. Fragment de am.fora reprezentand o portiu 1e de toarta bandata. cu o $an[uire rnediana adanca
pe latura interioara $i doua incizii longitudinale pe partea exterioara; pasta aspra, cu nisip relativ fin,
continand sporadic $i calcar; culoarea caramizie-orar~j; dupa cate se pare, a fost folosit in calitate de
lustruitor (?'), deoarece are un capat cu urme de utilizare (fig. 9, 7).
2. Fragmem de toarta de amfora romanii de culoare bej-deschisa, lucrata din pasta nisipoasa, cu
particule 111aronii, negre ~i albe; pe latura interioara are o litera greceasca (,,lambda") zgaraiata dupa
ardere (graffiti) (fig. 9, 9).
3. Fragment de toa.rta de a111fora lucratil din pasta nisipoasa, cu particule maronii ~i negre in
compozitie; culoare galbuie (fig. l 0, 1).
4. Fragment de toart:li provenind de la o am fora romana; are culoare cenu~1u-galbuie la exterior,
iar miezul este caram1ziu; pasta nisipoasa.; angobii proprie (fig. 9, 11 ).
5. Fragment de g:it de a111fora de culoar,e galbuie-roz; pasta msipoasa, cu particule maronii ~i
negre in compoziti1~ (fig. 10, 2).
6. Fragment de am fora reprezentand o portit.ne de perete din zona gatului: pasta nisipoasa, cu
particule maromi ~i negre; culoarea caramizie--roz, angoba fiind de nuania caramiziu-galbuie (fig. 9, 8).
Volumul II, N1'. 1-2 125

8_D 1
)~ 2
~e\ 3
0 3 cm
LiJ...J

~1 4
-~
~- -.
5
v~
6
6J
7

8 9 10

Fig. 10. Braviceni. Cieramica lucrata la roata din pasta fina cenu~ie (7-10) ~i de factura
romana (1-6) descoperita in groapa 52 (7-10) ~i strat (1-6).

7. Doua fragmente dintr-un castron tronconic de dimensiuni mari, cu marginea u~or fogro~ata
arcuiHi spre interior ~i fundul pe suport inelar; pasta ro~iatica, cu nisip in compozitie. Inaltimea
aproximativa-12cm. (fig. 9.13).
8. Doua fragmente din peretii unui vas lucrat la roata din pasta cu nisip relativ fin ~i mica, de
culoare caramizie-oranj, decorat pe corp cu linii incizate orizontale; prezinfa urme vagi de vopsea
ro~iatica-maronie la exterior (fig. 10, 3.4 ).
9. Canita-oenochoe scunda italic, cu corpul bitronconic, avand diametrul mal(im injumatatea infer-
ioara, gura larg deschisa ~i fundul inelar; toarta, executafa dintr-o banda cu canelura mediana, este fixata
cu un capat sub margine, iar cu celalalt de umar; buza este partial lipsa. inaltimea-10,6 cm (fig. 9, 6);
pasta relativ fina, de culoare ro~iatica, cu nisip marunt :ji flutura~i de mica in te:xtura.
10 . Fragment de fund de vas lucrat din pasta fina. cu mica in compozitie; culoare caramizie-
deschisa (fig. 10, 7).

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rrpH::reraIOurero Ilo,uyHaBh51 B rrepBbIX BeKax ,rnmeil 3pbI (MocKBa 1975).
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, pxeo:1010B ( Moc1rna 1966 ), 1059-1063.
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AllM B 1985 r. (K111mrn,:B 1990), 141-162.

Vasile Gm.rn, doctor fn istorie. Muzeul Nat1onc:l de Etnografie ~i Istorie l\'aturala,


.'.H .\f Kogalnicea11u 82. Chi,1inc1u, Repub/ica Moldc va.

Vlad Vomic. doc/or fn i.storie, Centrul Arheoiogie Institutul Parrimoniului Cultural al Acade-
.1;,1e1 dr.: Stiinte a Moldovei, StJ: Mitropolitul Banulesc,.1-Bodoni, 35. MD-201.? Chi~·iniiu, Republica
i\Ioidora.

Larisa Ciobanu, competitor, Centrul Arheologie, lnstitutul Patrimoniului Cultural al Acade-


n;iei de S1ii11te a Moldovei, St,: Mitropolitul Banulesc1.1-Bodoni, 35. AfD-2012 Chi~·inau, Republica
.t,roldc1'a.
128 Revis/a Arheo!ogica. Serie IIOUC/

MI:STESUGUL PRELUCRARII OSULUI SI CORNULUI LA


\'ORDUL DUNARII DE JfOS i~ SEC. VIII-IX
1

Sergiu
~
Ml_;STEA TA,
'
Chisinau
'

Cea mai mare pa rte a stafiunilor arheologice datfi11d din sec. Vil I-IX de la nordul Dumirii de Jos cup rind l/11
numeros $i variat materi,.rl. care atest5 praclicarea 11,q'fe.1·11gului de prclucrare a oase/or. in acest articol se
prezinta $1 a11alizeaz£1 consecutiv ripologia pieselor c/i,1 os ,~i tehnicile de pre!ucrare. ill cadrul ansambiului de
mare diversitate al p."esclor confecrionate din m descoreriie in a}ezarile mcdiei·alc timpurii din spafiul carpa-
to-danubiano-pontic sc pc•l deoseh1, dup5 dcsti1,a{ia lo1; cciteva categorii de obiecte ~ unelte, accesorii pentru
unelte, piese de podcaba side toa!eta (nasturi, mii1ge1e, catarame. amulete, piepteni etc), piese pentru jocuri
(ar.~ice, zarun), patine ~1 ,,femente cle la sanie. ins/rumen!e mu::ica/e (fluier), arme (varji1ri de si'igeata, elemente
de arc). 0 categoric separate} o reprezinta sem1fahncate/e, care clo,·edesc practicarea acestui me$l'e,rng in a;,e::ari/e
cercetate. Din punct de, cderc tellllologic. proccsul de 01el11crarc a osului pre.rnpune mai 11111/te etape. Prima ar
Ji taierea, a$chierea ri asc u/irea semifabricate/01; dup1 care ar urma nete::irea $i $lefuirea /or. in ca:::ul unor
categorii de piese s-a aplicat stn~jirea, perforarea, fixurea si ornamentarea !or

"Kocm»11b1e u po.?06bli! u1de;m» Kycmap11ozo npo.w1r1c.1a ua meppumopunx ce6epuee HuJ1c11ew lloiJyNa6bR 6


8-9 66." Eo;1btuu11c,;180 upxeo.ao2u1JecKux na.wm111w,08. oam11pnoUfuxcJ1 H. -9. 68. u pacno.10J1ccw11,1x 1w
meppwnopuRx ceeep,iee Hu.J1c11e20 JloOylla8bJi, cooep.J1ccun .ww201Juc.1em11,ni u pa.111006pa111b111 wrnomwpb,
Komopb1ti 00Ka11,18ac111 cyu1ec11111oeama' wupoi,011 11paKm11Ku 06paoo111Ku 1.;ocmu. B Jmoz7 cmambe aemop
npe0C/11{16,1Rt'ln ll {J//C'.11Ull{))'e/11 111llll0a10c'UIO h"OC/11Hllbl \. npeO.\lt'l/108, Cl 171ClKJICt' /71eXllllK)' U Oj))'(}ZIJI, K01110J)ble
npu.1teltJi.711Cb OJ15i ll3i'0/11C>6'.1£'/IUR npeO.ltt'/1106 U3 l<OC/11/A. Cpeau pa111006p£Bllb/X l/J(}e:1uu. U3201?106.1eWlblX 113
KOC/11!1, MO.)fC/10 6blC 1e.Wnlb /leCK0.1bKO Kamezopu(; l!ObCK/1106 pa3,1U'il/020 IIU31/ClL/eIIUJi.' lU/C111py"itelllJ1bl,
npu11a!J.1e.J1c11ocmu u, ·cmpy 1te11111oe, cJeKOJJC1mue!1b1e nped.11r111b1 u _)'Kpawe11uR Koc11110.11a, uzpa.1b11b1e 061,eK/11bl
u 111.0 ... u omcJe.1b1,y10 xamezopwo cocma8.1J1111 Ja<"omoe1su. Eo.11,wu11cmeo KocmJ1111,1x npeo.11emoe 6btw 11m7ae11b1
11a noce,1e11w1x 8-9 81:. C rnex1w.10zuL/ec1,:ou moi,·A:u 1pn111J1 06paoo111Ka Koonu mpe6yern 11ecKoJ1bKUX cmaauu.
ITep8aR - pa1pe3a1111e. 1•ucKa.11,1ea11ue u 1aocmpe1111e 1a2omoeK11, da.1ee ·- 11ep1108aJ1 u 1aK. no11wne.1b11aJ1
no. wpoeKa. 0111oe,1b1, 1,1e nwn1,1 u1ae.mu 61,nu ouu1qe111,1. npoceep.1011,1, dopa6omw1b1 u op11a.,1ell/1111po8a1tb1.

"Bone and horn handicraft in the territories of the North of Lower Danube River during 8-9 cc." Most
archeological sites be 1011gi11g to the 8°'-911, ce11t11ries and located 011 the territory of the northern of Lower Danube
ril'er have yielded nu,, 1ero!lS and di,·erse obj eels that pro\'e ti1e exiJtence of a \'list practice of boue processing. In
this article the a1ithor slW>f'S and analyses sequrntialh the rypology of bone objects as well as the techniques
and roofs used to wane bone objects. Among the di1·erse objects 111a11ufact11red of bone one could identify several
categories of objects ,Jjvc.rving uses: tools. tool acces.,ories. decoratire and dressing olljects, play objects, etc.
and a separate category representing ha!Fmade u/Jject.1 The most numerous categories of bone objects found in
8,1,_9,;, century sefllemenrs are pierces. From a 1ech110,',1gicct! point of ,·in1·, hone processing requires several
stages. The first is curring, splintering and sh,1r1•c11i11,r; 1l1e half-made object, followed by its e,·ening and final
polishing. Some trpes of oli/ects were peeled, perf;Jrclfe, I. fi.\ed and ornamented.

I. Generalitati
In majoritatea a'.;ez:1rilor medievale timpurii ccrcetate la nordul Dunarii de Jos au fost descoperite
locuinte, dependinte, gropi ~i ateliere in interimul c:'!rora au fost atestate numeroase ~i va1iate piese care
dovedesc practicarca rr:ai multor me~te~uguri ~i 1ndeletniciri casnice, cum ar fi olaritul, prelucrarea
metalelor, a pietrei, a lemnului, a pieilor, te~ utul, orsul, croitoria etc. 0 categorie impresionanta de
1

piese se refera la prelucrarea osului ~i a corn ului


Cercetarea me~te~ugului prelucrani osului are u importanta deosebita in procesul de reconstituire
a nivelului de dezvoltare economica ~i a moclulm de \·iata a oamenilor din diverse pe1ioacle istorice
(Haimovici 1986, 8'5). Deoarece prelucrarea osului a amt o legatura directa cu celelalte indeletniciri,
pieselc din os au fot,t cm1feqionate de catre om in fu11qie de necesitatilc sale economice, de regula
unelte pentru agriculturiL prelucrarea pieilor, tors, tesut. confeqionarca ve~rnintelor, vfmat, pescuit
etc., iar unele piese din os au avut o destinatie 111 plan spi1itual-religios.
Vo/1111111I II, N,: 1-2 129

Gratie conditiilor favorabde pentru cre$terea animaldor domestice $i practicarii vanatorii, mem-
brii diverselor comunitati ob\ineau cantitati mari de materie prima, ceea ce a stimulat dezvoltarea
i'ndeletnicirilor legate de prelucrarea !or. Printre aceste descoperiri se inclucl numeroase obiecte
co:1fectionate din os ~i com pentru diverse necesitati gm.podare~ti. Numarul im~resionant ~i diversi-
tarea acestei categorii de piese arheologice, descoperitc in a~ezarile medievale timpurii din spatiul
carpato-danubiano-pontic dovede~te practicarea frecventa. impreuna cu alte indele1niciri, a me~te~ugului
prclucriirii osului ~i cornulm. Specificul tehnolog1c al prelucrarii osului, abibtatile care se cereau
dobandite, dar ~i relatiile de schimb au dus la apari·:ia unor ateliere ~i mqteri specializati fo
confectionarea obiectelor din com ~i os.
a. Materia prima
Majoritatea studiilor in domeniul arheozoologiei an.1lizeaza materialul osteologic intr-un cadru
general, fara o diferentiere a pieselor confectionate din os, fapt care complica studierea aprofundata a
preferintelor comunitatilor medieval-timpurii pentru anumite specii de animale ~i elemente scheletice.
Din datele care ne stau astazi la dispozitie putem observa ca materia prima pentru confectionarea
obiectelor din os provenea atiit de la animale domestice, cat ~i de la cele salbatice. Majoritatea
pieselor erau prelucrate, in special, din oase de taurine, coame de cerb, caprior, $i foarte rar din oase
de pasari ~i de pe~te. Dovezi in acest sens aduc spre ex emplu, rezultatele analizelor materialului
osteologic descoperit in a~ezarea de la Gornea-Caur:ifa de Sus, jud. Cara~-Severin, Romania
(Smilenko, Kozlov 1985, 124, fig. 3, 13).
b. Ateliere
Intr-o serie de constructii din sec. VIII-IX au fost desc()pe1ite numeroase resturi osteologice, semi-
fabricate, piese finite din os, unelte defier ~i pietre abra;:ive care au legatura directa cu me~te~ugul
prelucra.rii osului. Concentrarea numerica a unor asemcnea piese in interiorul constructiilor pot fi
pusa in legatura cu activitatea unor me$teri specializati in prelucrarea osului . Un studiu de caz in acest
sens sunt descoperirile din a~ezarea de la Izvoare-Bahna-La pod la HarmaneJti, jud. Neamt, Romania
In 9 din cele 23 de constructii din sec. VIII-IX cercetate in aceasta a~ezare au fost descoperite piese
de os (strapungatoare, manere, pandantive) sau din meta: ~i piatra (cutite, pietre de ~lefuit), care au o
leg,itura directa cu prelucrarea osului. Constructia nr. 5 prezinta un interes apar::e; in interiorul ei au
fosi: descoperite 27 de strapung~itoare, finisate sau semifabricate $i o piatra de gresie cu urme specifice
rezultate prin prelucrarea unor asemenea piese (Teodor 1996, 45). Numarul impresionant de piese de
os clepa~:ea necesitatile unei gospodarii, de aceea, dupa wale probabilitatile, aceasta constructie a
fost un atelier de prelucrare a osului, eventual a pieilor.

II. Tipologia pieselor din os


In cadrul ansamblului de mare diversitate al pieselor c onfoctionate din os descoperiite in a~ezarile
medievale timpurii din spatiul carpato-danubiano-pontic putem deosebi, dupa clestinatia lor, cateva
categorii de obiecte - unelte, accesorii pentru unelte, pies,~: de podoaba ~i de toaleta (nasturi, margele,
catarame, amulete, piepteni etc:.), piese pentru jocuri (ar?ice, zaru1i), patine $i elemente de la sanie,
instrumente muzicale (fluier), anne (varfuri de sageata. elemente de arc). 0 categorie separata o
reprezin:ta semifabricatele, care dovedesc practicarea accstm me~te~ug in a~ezarile cercetate.

A. Unelte
Piesele confectionate din os au avut o utilitate larga in activitatile gospodare~1:i. Astfel, cercetarea
lor contribuie la reconstituirea nivelului dezvoltarii ocup:,tiilor agricole, prelucriirii pieilor, torsului,
tesutului. confectionarii ve~mintelor, vanatorii $i pescuitului in cursul evului mediu timpuriu.
a. Strapungatoare
Cea rnai numeroasa categorie de piese de os sunt strapm 1gatoarele, atestate, praci:ic, in fiecare a~ezare
din ~ccolele VIII-IX in spatiul sud-est curopean (Tentiuc J 994, fig. 6, 6). Spre exemplu, in 9 din 23 de
J3l) Re1·1s1a .4rheo!ogica. Sene nouci

complexc cercetate in a~ezarea Izvoare-I.:;a11na La pod la H{mnane.~ti.jud. Neamt au fost descoper-


ite 44 asemenea pic~e (Rabinovic l 946; Teodo1 l 9~16, 46). dintre care 27 in constructia nr. 5 (Teodor
1978b. 78. fig. 33, 5.7-8; 36, 5 ). in a~ezarea de la Bucov,jud. Prahova, Romania au fost atestate 65
strapungatoare (Toropu, Stoica 1969: Fiedler l 99~. 211. fig. 48. 5-8). iar la Hligeni, r-1 $oldane~ti,
Republica Moldova -- 76 (Andronic 200~. 48. pl. 27. 2. 7 .11 J. Piesele au fost confeqionate din oase
de animale mici, in special de ovicapnne. folcc,111du-se deseori tibiile, insa nu lipsesc nici piesele
confeqionate din a~chii de oase. Au fr,st descorerite strapungatoare din oase de caprior ~i vatf de
corn, cum ar fi, spre exemplu, pieselc dcscopvrite la Cefa-Ciciocu,>·, jud. Bihor (Rosal', Fedorov
l 973. 176). Dc1v1deni-La i:.:rnare-SpieJri,jud. \,.'.anir (Gol'ceva, Kasuba 1995, fig. CXV, 3; CXXIX,
l 3. t 5.19 .20.:12), Dod;~~ti. jud. Vaslu1 (Muc,te, .1,1 2006 )_ Sighi~oara-Dealul Vii/or, jud. Murq (Te-
0

odor 1984, 80, fig. 3:~. 5), Romania etc.


Unele strapungatoare au fost decorate ::u cen:uri incizate, cum este exemplarul descoperit la la$i-
Casa Cart ii, jud. Ia~., Romania. Piesa este u~or curbata, fiind decorata pe una din fete cu cercuri
simple sau concer.tric~: dispuse la distan\c egale, ayfmd in centru o alveola u~or adancita (Hincu, Titov
1974, 172). In c.:tegoria pieselor decorate se inscriu ?i descoperirile de la Dode:~ti, jud. Vaslui,
Romania (Andronic :~005. 48, pl. 27, 2. 7.11 ).
Dimensi un ile acestorpiese vaiiaza intre 3,8 cm ~i 20,0 cm. Lungimea strapungatoarelor din a$ezarile
de la Popeni-Cice11.jud. Sr1la_j, Romania vanazii intre 3,8 cm, 8 cm ~i 11,0 cm (Cosma 2002, 238, pl.
272. 4 ). a eel or de la S :innico!au Roman-Bereac. 1ud. Bihor, Romania intre 8 ~i 9 cm (Acest fapt poate
fi legat de fine tea 1e .:''.;tor oase care nu s·au past1 s1t p;:ina astazi), iar a pieselor de la V ladimirescu-La
Cetatc,jud. A·ad. Ro mama, intre 9 $i l l ,6 cm ( t)entrn dctalii privind tehnologia prelucrani osului,
comulm ~i filde$ulm a se vedea MacGregor! 98:5).1~~umeroase piese au fost descoperite in a:?ezarile
de la Ma?cauti-Lii·ada Boierelui ?i Ma?cau,;i-Cetate. r-1 Criuleni, Republica Moldova; lungimea !or
oscileaza intre l 0. 0 .jl ::.0,0 cm (Go!' ceva, Kasuba 1995. 59, fig. CXXVII, lil)(fig. l ). Majoritatea
strapungfitoardor sunt ascutite la unul din caper:. Partea activa, uneon chiar wata suprafata acestor
piese, erau in tens~ lefLite, prezentand un lustru specific. Uni1 cercetatori,judecand dupa form.a piese-
lor ?i analogiile etnografice, considera c;'.i str21pu11~~itoarele erau utilizate la prelucrarea pieilor (Adan-
citurile inguste sunt urme lrtsate de ascutire,, pieselor din metal ~i os), altii le caractenzeaza ca unelte
universale, folositc la irnpletirea plaselor, precurn ~i la omamentarea vaselor de lut (Gol'ceva, Kasu-
ba 1995, fig. CXIL 1). Dat fiind faptul ca tehnolog1a irnpletirii plaselorpresupune schimbarea frecventa
a direqiei mi?car: i uneltei purtatoare de tir, in accst scop se folosesc iglitele, unelte bifurcate la
ambele capete, car;;, fire~te. puteau sa fie rcalizat,.: ~i din os, dar ~1 din lernn sau metal iii nu strapunga-
toarele, cu totul iIYproprii ca forma realiza·ii u1wr astfel de operapi.
b. Lustrui1toare ~i cutite ('?) din os
Dinos sunt confecl:1onate ~i lustrultoarek (M Llstedta 2006 ), utilizate in special pentru prelucrarea
pieilor, una din prcocuparile constante ale rneml)filor comunitatilor medievale-timpurii (Mitrea I.
1998, 53, locuinta 5, tig. 52, 7; 58, locum\a 15, rig. 49, 8: 59. locumta 16, fig. 49, 10; 61, locuinta
I 7). Piesele de ace st gen sunt confeqionare, de regula, din coaste de animale mari, utilizate, dupa
cum arata datele etno.~:rafice, cu rolul de gripcL (Constantmescu 1999, 197.224, nr. 93a; Teodor
l 997, 120). Partea actiYa a acestor piese este foe: Te bine ~lefuita (Sacu1eni-Suro Dombo, jud. Bihor
(Dulea 2002, 218), Liipu~el-Ciwg{w,jud. ,\1ararnure~. Popeni-C11ce11, jud. Salaj (Mare 2005, 58),
Romilnia). dup~1 tOcLte probabiliti1ti le, ca umrnre a Lcti lizari1 tor indelungatc (Vlasenko 1990, 216, fig. 2,
1-5). Lungimea lo, vanaza intre I 0,0-20,C cm Cl entiuc 1994. 262. fig. 5 ); in a~ezarile Hligeni-La
,rnnf, Ma~caufi-Livacla Boieru/ui. r-I C1iulern ~1 T, cbu_1eni-Scoc. r-l Orhe1, Republica Moldova au fost
descopeiite piese, .1vand o lungime cuprima intrc 15,0 $i 20,0 cm (fig. 2, 1.. 3.:5). Pentru inlaturarea
grasimii de pe piei era ftilosita o categorie clc pie:,e care se deosebesc. dupa fonna, de lustruitoare ~i
sunt numite uneori in J iteratura de srecia; irate .:urii:e de os cu tai~ul curbat. Piesa descoperita la
Ma~cauti-Livada Boiendui, r-1 Ciiuleni a fo:;1 c·on eqionata dintr-un fragment de os tubular de animal
folumul II. N1'. 1-2 131

3 4
7
2
1

11

·.··
.·,:·.-

12
14

Fig. 1: Strapungatoare din os descoperite in a~ezarile de la Ma~cauti-Livada Boierului


(2-lll) ~i Ma~cauti-Cetate (1, 12-15)

mare, ascutit pe una din margini; ea are o lungime de 15,5 cm (fig. 2, 4 ). Piesa de la Ma~diuti-Livada
Boierului i~i gase~te analogii i'n cutitele din os descoperite in a~ezarea medieval.a timpurie de la Pada
din nordul Estoniei (sec. 7- 1 l ) .
132 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

c. Lopafele pentru tabacit


Pentru inla.turarea grasimii de pe piei erau folosite ~i lopa1elele din os descoperite la Alcedar-Odaia,
r-l Soldane~ti, ReJublica Moldova. Bor~~eni-Buigarie, jud. Neamt, Romania. Brane~ti, r-1 Orhei, Re-
publica Moldova, Dobrynovcy, reg. Cem2uti, Ucraina, Lozna,jud. Boto~ani, Poiana-in Huci la Fed-
cu, jud. Suceava, Romania, Trebujeni-Scoc. r-1 Orhei, Rudi, r-1 Soroca, Republica Moldova etc.
Piesele erau confoqionate. de regula, din partea lata a coamelor de ccrb, avand o forma trapezoidala
~i o lama Iata, u~or a~.cutita (fig. 2. 6-10 ). U stensila descoperita in locuinta nr. 13 de la Rudi a fost
confeqionata din:r-un fragment de calor.a ,~raniana de cerb; capatul man~onului avea patru g:iuri dis-
puse simetric pentru fixarea cozii de lemn (Bejh:kci 1986, 104, fig. 2, l ). In literatura de specialitate
aceste piese mai sunt denumite ~i oticuri (Andromc 2005. 47).
d.Ace
Intr-un numar de c omplexe din a~ezarile mec!ievale timputii din spatiul carpato-danubiano-pontic
au fost descoperite ace confeqionate atilt din metal, cat ~i din os, utilizate cu siguranta in activitatile
de confeqionare 1 vq;mintelor ~i a altor articole dm materiale textile ~i piele (Musteata 2005, 82).
Mai multe ace au ~ost descopente in a~ezarile de la Dode~ti,jud. Vaslui (Teodor 1984, 80, fig. 32, 3),
Poian-Loc de Pia 1ri.i. 3ud. Covasna (Dulea 200:'., 216), Hligeni-La -Jan{, r-1 Soldanqti, Ivancea, r-1
Orhei, RepubLca \1oldova, Perebykovcy, reg. Cemiiuti, Ucraina fiind confec!;ionate din oase subtiri
(fig. 3, 11.16.17). Lungimea lor variaza intre 6,0 cm ~i 9,0 cm. Unul din capetele acclor 1este bine ascutit,
iar celalalt u~or aplat1zat ~i prevazut cu o gaura ,.:irculara sau ovala, avand diametrul de 0,2-0,3 cm.
0 astfel de pies[t a fo~1 descoperita in a~ezarea de la Ma~cauti-Livada Boierului, r-1 Criuleni, Repub-
lic a Moldova. Acul a lost confeqionat dintr-un os plat ~i subtire. Piesa, In stare fragmentara, are
lungimca de 5. 7 c11 ~i Ll{imea de 0.8-1,0 cm. Capatul ascutit lipse~te, iar celalalt este u~or aplatizat
:~i prevazut cu o gaJrii. l)imensiunile acului sugeriazii. ca a putut fi utilizat la confectionarea unorpiese
din piele (fig. J. l'.i}
d. Tocuri pemru ::llce
0 alta categone ck obiecte din os sunt tocunle pentru ace; acestea se confectionau din tibii de
animale. Piesele dc:pistate in a~ezarile de laEtulia. UTAG, RepublicaMoldova, Hligeni-La '}an/uri, r-1
~$oldanqti, Trebujeni-Scic, r-1 Orhei, Rep1.;blica .\1oldova ~i Vladimirescu-La Cetate (Cosma 2002,
238, pl. 271, 4; DL!ea 2002, 216),jud. Arad, Romania aveau lungimea de 4,5-10,0 cm ~i diametrul
de 0,7-1,0 cm (Gol'ceva, Kasuba 1995, fig. CIX, 11; Jovkov 1981. 145, fig. 3, 4) (fig. 3, 13.14.19).
Alte doua tuburi d~ os, avand lungimea de 6,5 cm ~i 6,6 cm, s-au descoperit in a~ezarea de la Orlea,
jud. Olt, Romania (Uzum 1990, 236; ToropJ et td. 1976, 98). Astfel de tocuri pentru ace sunt foarte
larg r.:"tspandite in a:;ezarile ~1 necropolele din seco . ul al VIII-lea din sud-estul Europei (Stancev, Ivanov
1958, 98-99, tab. XXXIV, 1-4: XXXV, 1-2, fig 63--65.67.69-71.107-108).
e. Piese pentru urzit, impletit ~i tesu1·
Din aceasta categone fac parte ra~chitoarele., andrelele ~i suveicele. Ra~chitoarele se foloseau la
urzitul firelor de Jana Sell! vegetale. Fragmen :ele unui ra~chitor confeqionat din vfuful comului de cerb
au fost descoperite in a11ezarea de la Hling,~ni-Li1 ~'w1ruri, r-1 Soldiinqti (Gol'ceva, Kasuba 1995,
fig. CXV, 2). Andrelele se aseamana, dupa fom1a, cu acele de os, dar au dimensiuni mai mari ~i nu
sunt prevazute la un capat cu orificiu pentru intrndus firul; acesta este in cazul piesei descoperite la
Dode~ti,jud. Vashti, Romania (Teodor l 9B4, 80, fig. 32, 4). Asemenea piese au putut servi atat ca
andrele pentru impletit, cat ~i ca ace de prim; parul (Teodor 1996, 44 ). Suveicile au fost confeqionate
din oase tubulare subtiri, avand o lungime cuprinsa i:ntre 6,0 ~i 10,0 cm, cum este in cazul pieselor
atestate la Trebuje1i-Scoc, Paharniceni, r-l Orhei (Hincu 1969, 44, fig. 45b, 6.7; 49b, 6), Rudi, r-1
Soroca (Rosal' . Fedorov 1973, 157), Repual1ca \foldova etc. (fig. 3, 12.18).
f. Accesorii pentru unelte
Din aceasta cat;:gorie de obiecte din os fac pa rte manerele ~i plaselele pentru cutite, seceri, etc.,
descoperite la Alcedar-Odaia, r-1 Soldane~.t1. Echimaup (Fedorov 1953, 124), r. Rezina, Briine~ti,
Volumul II. Nr. 1-2 133

I
'·i.
,,
., ,/
,_,r
.,r
I· 11·1::
'11i,
I
I I \

',,} I I

' ,l
'.'
I
'',

,' I

~:," ,t\
t,d 3

!"··· .. ·:?"":· ·: ·: . . ~:.:-:·7;,::?:::-:~r:-:~::-\~ .~--~~:~~'·:"'. -: .: -,_,•:,~,~:~~-~ ~~:r~~


. -·-id;
(
~·- ;..~r,;-;-··
~-"-· ·· . . .
~-~~--···,

l 5 .•
C:::::::.,..._=--...-,~·-
~~~ ····--····
.....
----~
~....

Fig. 2: Lustruitoare U - Trebujeni-Scoc, 3 - Hl rgeni. 2, 5 - Ma~caufi-Livada Boierului);


cutit de os (4- Ma~caut1--Livada Boierului) ~i lopatde de os (6, 7, 10-- Brane~ti, 8 -Alcedar-
Odaia, 9 -- Trebujeni-Scoc)

Luca~euca, r-1 Orhei, Han~ca-Limbari-Capniria, r-1 Ialoveni, Hligeni-La ~an/uri, r-1 $oldane~ti
(Gol'ceva, Kasuba 1995, fig. CIX, 7), Republica Mol,lova, Izvoare-Bahna-La pod la Harmane~ti,
jud. Neamt, Romania (Mitn~a I. 1998, 59, fig. 49, 7:, etc. Aceste piese au fost confectionate, in
134 Rensta A1lzeologicii. Sene noud

special, din tibii de vite mari comute sau din com de cerb; este cazul eel or 2 manere descoperite in
a~ezarea de la Vladimaescu-La Cetate, jud. Arad, Romania (Dulea 2002, 216; Cosma 2002, 237,
pl. 268, 5; 269, 3). [n lungime ele ating 10-20 cm, iar suprafata !or este deseori omamentata. Oma-
mentul caracteristic pieselor din sec. VIII--I.X (manere, plasele, piepteni) consta din incizii, unul-doua
cercuri concentrice cu punct la mijloc, a~a-m1mitul ,,decorin ochimi" sau omamentul geometric alca-
tuit din linii 1n zig-zag ;;i curbe (Pascu et al. 2001. 198).
g. Matrite
0 categorie special ii o constituie matritele pi,~selor confeqionate din os ~i com, folosite la pro-
ducerea obiectelor de podoaba ~i vestimentatie in tehnica presarii. Asemenea pJiese au fost descoper-
ite in atelierul din sec. VI [-VIII de la Coste~ti- \.'atru satului,jud. la~i, Romania (T:eodor .l 970, l 02.106,
fig. 3,4,5). Dou:'i di1tre rnatrite au forma paralelipipedica; pe suprafetelc lor au fost gravate formele
unor aplice, cercei cu pandantivul stelat ~i semisfere. Pe o matrita este gravata o placa dreptungluulara
de catarama, iar pe alta o aplica decorata cu motive antropomorfe. Alte patru matrite au incizate pe
suprafata lor divers,~ ove, semisfere ~i mici i: atrate. AUturi de matrite a fost descoperit ~i un obiect cu
capetele rotunjite, folosit, dupa toate probabilitati!e, la presarea foitelor de metal (Teodor 1981, fig. 11;
Idem 1996b, 46, fig. 17).

n. Piese de toaleta, obiecte de podoaba ~i accesorii vestimentare


a. Piepteni
intr-o serie de a:iezari medievale timpurii din spatiul carpato-danubiano-pontic au fost descoper-
ite obiecte din os ascmanatoare pieptenilor (Alcedar-Odaia, r-1 Rezina, Calfa, r-1 Anenii Noi, Hansca-
Limbari-Capraria, r-1 l.aloveni, Trebujeni-3coc, r-1 Orhei, Republic a Moldova etc.) (Cebotarenko
1973, 95, fig. 13:; Rafalovic 1972, 209) (fig. 3, 1-9). in cadrul a~ezarii de la Ma.~cauti-Livada Boierului,
r-1 Criuleni a fost descoperit, intr-o stare fragmentara, un pieptene (fig. 3, 10). Piesa, avfmd o lungime
totala de 15,0 cm, e~.te alcatuita din trei elemente: partea activa cu dinti (care din pacate este fragmen-
tara) un maner ~i un capii.1t pentru a putea fi legat. Pentru sec. VIII-IX sunt caracteristici pieptenii cu un
singurrand de dinti. cu maneruneori omam~ntat cu motive geometrice, realizate in tehnica inciziei.
Dupa parerea unor ,;ercetatori, aceste piese erau folosite pentru efectuarea omamentului incizat pe
vasele ceramice (C,~b01:arenko 1973, 95, fig. 13; Teodor 1996, 45).
b. Piese de podoatdi ~i accesorii vestimentare
0 serie de obiecte confectionate din os se inscnu in categoria pieselor de podoaba ~.i a acesoriilor
vestimentare, cum ar fi: pandantivele, aplicile, nastrnii, margelele, cataramele etc. in locuinta nr. 22 din
a~;ezarea Izvoare:-Bahna·-La pod la Harmant§ti,jud. Neamt, Romania a fost descoperit un panclantiv
din os, de forma aproximativ conica, avancl la capatul gros doua orificii ~i un ornament realizat prin
incizare ,,in ochiur." (IVlitrea I. 1998, 65, fig. 49. 9). in a~ezarea Poiana-ln liuci la Fedcu, jud.
Suceava, Romania a fo~,t semnalat un alt par,danti v, confeqionat dintr-un varf de combine ~lefuit ~i
perforat la ca.pa.tu! gros (Andronic 2005, 48, pl. 28, 3).
Un loc aparte il ocupa confeqionarea obiectelor ~i pieselor din valve de scoici ~i cochilii de
melci, materiale atestatc destul de des in cadrul ajezarilor meclievale timpurii (Gomea-Zomoni/e,
jud. Cara~-Severin, 5,annicolau Roman, j ud. Bihor, Romania (Du lea 2002, 250; etc.). Astfel, in ~e:zarea
de la l\fa~cauti-Livada Boierului a fost descoperit un ~irag de ,,bijuterii" alcatuit din 5 valve de scoici
de rau, fiecare av::ind in partea superioara un 01ificiu penlrn a fi prinsa pe firul de ata. Faptul ca molu~tele
se foloseau in alimentatie inca din cele mai str~Lvechi timpuri este cunoscut deja. Descopcrirea noastra
vine doar sa confimte mlul ~i importanta eccnomica a molu~telor. Utilizarea !or in alimcntatie (Hai-
movici 1986, 85), iar a scoicilorin calitate de podoabe sau amulete ~i, totodata, descoperirea lodn
cadrul unor momlint~, cum ar fi cele din necropola de la Alba Iulia, jud. Alba din Romania (fn morman-
tul nr. 456 au fost de:,coperite 220 de scoici - Gros:m et al. 1993, 274) sau din necropola Nin-Zdrijac
din Croatia(i'n mormantul M 173 din necropola Nin-Zdrijac au fost descoperite fmute multe cochilii de
io/wn1il II, ,Vr 1-2 135

melc (Cf. Belosc\'ic 1980 1, ne sugereaza ~i semnifil ati2, lor spirituala sau, eel putin, de piese de
podoaba.
In a$ezarea de la Saho, reg. Odesa. Ucraina a :Ost descoperita o piesa din os, dupa toate
:::1robabilit2ttile. un scmifabricat al unei catarame, ce ·eprezinta o placa rectangulara cu o gaura de
: CJ x~,:i
.',. , · (S m, Ier.11·\O, K' o,1J·1J\, 198-
· 1 .. cm 1
:,, 1)4
_ , t..1g ..')1, J'l)
_1 .

In uncle a$ezari au fost descoperite aplice ~i nastt: ride diverse fo1me ~i marimi, simple ~i oma-
nentatc (Teodor 1996, 4:i).

C. Piese pentru jocuri


a. Ar~ice
Alaturi de obicctele din os cu fi.mqionalitatc economidl. in complexele mediexele din sec. VII-IX
:rn fast atestate ~i p1ese care pot fi pusc in lcgatur~i cu unek preocupari distracti vc. [n a~ezarile de la
de la Durlqti, m. Chi~inau. Raciula, r-1 Calara$i . Luca~euca, Brane~ti, r-1 Orhei, Hansca, Mole~ti,
r-1 Ialoveni, Ma~cauri, r-1 Cnuleni, Republica Moldov ,t etc. au fost descoperite ar~ice (Tentiuc 1994.
•'ig. 6. 6 ). care prov in de la animalc de talie mica (ovil aprme, mai rar ca.prior etc.), medie sau mare.
\1ulte din ele au um1c de prelucrare ~i omamcntare: · ma sau doua gauri ori retele de linii incizate,
realizate pe una din panile piesei. Perforarea ar~icelc r ne poate sugera fapn:l ca au fost folosite ca
amulete sau jucarii, iar eek rnai mari ca greut5.ti.
b. Instrumente muzicale (?)
Om fragmente de oase tubulare provenite de la ,1111male rnici (ovicaprine) sau pasari au fost
confeqionate picse mici. a\·.G.nd unul sau mai rnulte ori ricii, asemanatoare cu instrumentele muzicale
( fluiere) (Rabinovic 1946; 'kodor 1996, 46). Asemer,ea piese au fost descoperite in a~ezi'irile de la
Falciu-Casa de apa, Dode~t1, Murgeni.jud. Vaslui. Cavadine$ti.jud. Gala1i etc. (Teodor 1978b, 78,
fig. 33, 5.7-8; 36, 5). Acest trp de piese se aseamana fuarte mult cu tocurile pentru ace, care sunt, in
cele mai dese cazuri, pat1e a inventarului funerar, cum ar fi spre exemplu in cazul rnorrnintelor de la
Obar$ia Noua-Coada bal{ii. jud. 0 lt de aceea function .11itatea !or este apreciata dife1it i'n literatura de
speciahtate (Mormintele nr. 66, 70. 88. 101) (Toropu, Stoica 1969; Fiedler 1992, 211. fig. 48, 5-8 ).
c. Patine
Piesele contectionate din oase-tibii de animale man, unele fond perforate longitudinal ~i cu partea
folosiUi bine ~lefuit~L sum interpretate ca avand rolul functional de patme. Astfel de piese au fost
descoperite in a:~ezarile de lla Poiana-ln Huci fa Fecic11 (Andronic 2005. 48, pl. 27, 2.7.11),jucl.
Suceava, Romania ~1 Rudi. r-1 Soroca, Republic:a MolJova (Rosal'. Fedorov 1973, 176).

D. Semifabricate
0 dovada a prelucrarii c,aselor sunt ~i numeroasele descoperiri ale semifabricatelor din os ~i corn
~;i a rezcrvelor de materii prime (Gol'ceva. Kasuba 1995. fig. CXV, 3; CXXIX, 13.15.19.20.22). In
a~ezarile de la Akedar-Odai.:r. r-1 $oldane~ti, Ma~cauti Uvada Boierului. l\1a$cauti-Cetate (Musteata
~1006). r-l Ciiulcni, Republica Moldova, Dodqti.jud. Vaslui, Romania (Teodor 1984, 80, fig. 32, 5)
etc. au fost descopente p1e~c nefinisatc. La Ma~cliuti-Livada Boierului s-,il descoperit o piesa plata
care ar putea fi un pieptene in curs de prelucrare (fig. 3, 20), iar la Alcedar-Odaia, r-1 $oldane~tt.
M:'i$C~mti-Cetate. r-1 Criuleni, Proscureni-ho•icja. r-1 Ra~cani (Hincu, Titov l 974. 172), Republica
Moldova ~i Dodc$ti,jud. Va~.Jui. Poiana-ln liuci la Fe. lcu.jud. Suceava, Romania (Andronic 2005,
.:(8, pl. :~7, 2. 7.11 ), s-au des.:,Jperit fragmente de corn Jc cerb cu unne de prelucrare prin taiere sau
cioplire. Deoan.:cc comul este 111 faza inipala de prelu( rare ~i nu a fost sectionat, pare evident faptul
c.:'i din aceasta pi,:sa se pute<.1 confeqiona. tinand cont, le marimea ei, fie anumite piese de podoabtt,
fie plasele pentru cutJt. in a~ezarea de la Vladimirescu-La Cetate.jud. Arad, Romania au fost desco-
pente coarne de cerb din care se puteau confeqiona diverse piese (Cosma 2002. 238. pl. 272. 4).
136 Re1·ista Arheologica. Serie noua

~-2~ 2
1
»-~
t1-r~!!i> 4
~3

r--__--~-~7)
~
·:;,,,,;·::-·:.-.. j~:,;)
9
10

-@

1.3 U .
'

14

:,

~---::•·

~
..
I 20

16 17
18
0 19

Fig. 3: Piepteni (l-3, 5-7 -Trebujeni-Scoc. 4-Alcedar-Odaia, 8 -Calfa-Cetcifuie,


9 - Hucea, IO - Mii~ciiup-Livada Huierului), Ace ( 11 - Hligeni, 15 -- Mii~ciiuti-
Livada Boieru/ui, 16 - Perebykovq, 17 -- Ivancea); tocuri pentru ace (13 - Etulia,
14 -- Tre:bujeni-Scac, 19 - Hligeni); suvieci ( 12. 18 -Trebujeni-Scoc); semifrabricate
(20 - Ma~c:auti--Livada Boierului)

III. Telmici de prelucrare


Analiza materialului din care au fost con:fectionate obiectele descoperite arata preferinta pentrn
vite comute mari ~i ov1caprine, tara a fi ignonte oa:,ele altor animale: cornul de cerb, oasele de rnistret,
ViJ/111n11/ ll. .\'r. ]-] I _1..,~I

rnai rar caprioara, !up, iepur,:. Ob1ectde confeqionak Im oasc de pasiiri ;;i de pc~ti sunt atestate intr-
Ln numar rnai redus (acest fa.pt poatc fi legat de finctea .1cc:;tor oase care nu s-,1u pasrrat pana astazi).
Din punct de vedere telmoiogic. proccsul de preluc1 trc a osului presupune mai multe etape. Prima
a· fi taierea, a$chierea $i as,:utirea scmifabricatcl·i>L d 1pa u1rc ar urma nctezrca $i ~lefuirea !or. In
c,rzul unor categorii de p1esc s-a aplicat strujirea. pert, ,nr::a. ti ,area ~i ornarnentarea !or. Cornul ~i
c,1sele mai mari erau taiate mai intai in bucati rnai 111 c1 din care se confrct1onau diverse obiecti.~
( Pentrn detalii privincl tehnoiogia prelucrarii osului. con ult.1i ~i filde~ului a sc vcdca Mac(Jregor 1985).

I\. Tipuri de uneltc pcntru prelucrnrea osului


a. Cutite
r--.fajoritatea pieselor din os au frlst initi<ll prelucrate, u un cutit ~i apoi ~ldui1e cu ajutorul gresiilor.
J1naliza lor tipologicil ne araUi ca aceste unelte,. practic nu au n oluat de-a lun.sul secolelor VI-XIII.
I-aptul ca unelte precum cut 1tele emu confeqwnate de cat::-c mqterii locah sunt semifabricatele cu
lama netocita (Gol'ceva, Ka\;uba 1995, 59. fig. CXXV IL 11 ). Dimensiunile cutitelor, al caror maner
e>;te in forrna de peduncul, sunt diferite, variind intre 6, 'i cm ~i l J cm; lama de ~eqiune triunghiularii
e',te lunga de 4-9 cm, lata de 0,6-1,5 cm ~i are rnuchie ingustata spre varl~ groasa de 0,2-0,4 cm.
Trecerea de la maner spre lama se face printr-un pra; taiat perpendicular sau oblic, executat pe
1
,

ambele parti ale lamei. Rare sunt cutitele la care mtit,erul este o continuare a larnei,, pragul fiind
prezent doar pe marginea cu tai~. Cercetarile au evidntiat utiiizarea indelungata a acestor unelte -
dovadii fiind stare a lor avansata de uzura ~i faptul ca ta ,~ul cste <ldesea curb at spre interior in partea
ck mij loc. Tipologic., deoscbim 2 variante de cutite. ( uti1ele din prima varianta, predominand in
n:ajoritatea a~ezarilor, au un peduncul care se fixa intr·-Ull miner de lemn sau com. Cutitele din a doua
Yarianta au manerul plat drept1mghiular, uneori cu gauri pentru fix.area de o pane ~i de alta, cu ajutorul
niturilor, a unor plasele de os sau de lemn. Lungimea mimer1lui coincidea, uneori, cu lungirnea Jamel
( 15 crr.-20 cm).
b. Pietre abrazive
Netezirea ~i ~lefuirea picsdor de os se realiza cu aju1orul pietrelor abrazive - roci dure, nisipoase
care. in majoritatea cazurilor, nu au o forrna regu.lata. f le crau facute, de obicei, din lespezi plate de
gresie de culoarc gri, maro, verde sau pnmdi~ din roci .:nstaline tari. Pe uncle din aceste obiecte se
e l'1dentiaza pana la 4 fatete de ~lefuit, rezultate ca mma re a asculirii ob1ectelor. Pietre speciale (poli-
z,.,are) erau folostte pentru :tscutirea strapung~ltoarclw de o:s: in urma acestei operatii s-au produs
\,ilntuiri adanci specifice (adinciturile inguste sum urm .: L'bate dL' ascutirea pieselor din meral ~i os)..
tiir~L o dispunere regulata; accsta estc cazul pieselor dcscq)cntc in a~czarile de la Hligeni, r-1 Soldane~ti
(Gol'ceva, Kasuba 1995. fi~,·. CXJI, J), Ma~cau 1i-Cerat, ·. r-l Cnu leni, Republic a Moldova (Musteata.
:1006 ), lzvoarc-Bahna--La pod la Hamzcini:\vti, Jlld. Neamt (Mitre a I. 1998, 53, locuinta 5. flg. 52, 7:
5 t:, locumta 15, fig. 49. 8; St.I, locuinra 16, fig. 49. IO; 6 L locuinta 17), Murgeni-La lA.S,Jud Vaslui,.
l~iJmania (Constantinescu l999. J 97: 224. nr. 93a. Tecdor 1997. 120: etc.) (fis. 4).
c. Sfredele
Ac1~ste piese erau confec 11onatc dintr--o tiji'i de m:;ta] ( ,1rc ~e rarncea pentru a i se da fonna cuvenita.
ci mar fi in cazul descopermk)r de la Bezid-i\'ugys:c'II 1fii, jud. '.v1urq (Dulea 2002. 218), Gornea-
Zo111011ire, jud. Cara~-Sevenn. Romania (Mare 2005 581. Alcedar-Odaia. r-1 Soldtme~ti. Rudi-
R(\1·cm1a, r-1 Soroca ~i Raclllla, r-l Cilara~i. Rcpublica \loldova(Vlasenko 1()90. 216. fig. 2. 1-5).
d. Dalti
Dalple sunt confeqionaic din tije defier masn. rcc11ll!c'.Ubrt' in sectiune ~i cu un capat aplatizat.
. . um sunt ce le descoperite in a~cz;\rile de la Durle\;ti- \,, f ,,a Rah, i. m. Ch1~ma J. Calfa-Ceri1{11ie. r-l
i\ncnii \.Joi, Hligeni-La .ycmrz,1 '/. r-1 ~oldanc~ti sau Rtu:mla, ·-1 Ci1ltlr:1;;;. Lungimea lor atinge circa JO,O cm.
Sr,rc exemplu, in locuinta 21 :lin a~ezarea de la Durle~ti \,ilc'll lfohci, m. Chi$iriau. Rcpublica Mold-
0', a a fost descoperita o dalu defier cu lungtm1:a de :29 .3 cm (Tn1t1uc l 994. 262, fig. 5 ).
138 Re,,ista Arhcologica. Serie nouii

L•::,;,. .•. ~ 2

·- ~.
,•

.,
:~
3,
7 I
_.·,j
.,

6
_____.,.
,

--
Fig. 4 Cute ~i pietre abrazive 1, 7 - 'ivla~c;iu\i-Livada Boierului, 2-5 - Trebujeni-Scoc, 6
Ma~cauti-Cetate.
l'olumul 11. N1: 1-2 L\9

c.Dornuri
Domurile reprezinta unclte de forma tijelor cilindr ce, avand utilizari multiple. De regula, cu dor-
nul se fac sau se largesc gaurile in tabla, in os, piele etc. fragmente ale unor asemenea obiecte au fost
descoperite ~i in a~ezarea de Ia Ma~cauti-Livacla Boierului, r-l C1iuleni, Republica Moldova.

V. Concluzii
Pe langa indeletnicirile legate de asigurarea hranei :;i constructia locuintelor, preluc:rarea osului ~i
;: cornului reprezintl, dup[t cum reiese din cele descnse, una din preocuparile constante ale mem-
brilor comunitatilor din a~ezririle medievale timpurii c Jnoscute in spatiul carpato-danubiano-pont1c.
Cercetarea acestorindeletniciti nu este, inca, prea arnpla, atat in Republica Moldova, cat :~i in tarile
l'ecine. Acest fapt i~i gase~te explicatia in lipsa surselor scrise cu referirea la aceasta epoca, in nurnarul
mic al a~ezarilor arheologil:e cercetare integral; de aic ~i interesul scazut al cercetatorilor ~?i, respec-
1

t iv, nurnarul mic de studii in acest domeniu. 0 alfa problema este ~i necesitatea analizei materialului
osteologic dintr-o perspect1va interdisciplinara, care in cazul arheologilor din Republic:a Moldova nu
este a tat de u~or de realizat.
in finalul acestui studiu, putem afirma ca stimularea mteresului ~i colaborarea in domeniul cercetarii
obiectelor confeqionate din os ~i com faciliteaza atat cunoa~!lerea nivelului de dezvoltare a mqte~ugului
propriu-zis (un exemplu de abordare in dorneniu esL: studiul recent privind prelucrarea osului ~i
comului in evul mediu in Transilvania, care arputea fi en imbold pentru cercetarea ~i celorlalte regiuni
de la nordul Dunarii de Jos. Rusu, Margineanu 2005 .), -iat ~i reconstituirea al tor indeletniciri din sfera
economiei aflate in legaturii directa cu obiectele de acest gen (la nivel international exist1 chiar un
grup de lucru specializat in cercetarea prelucrarii osu lui din cele mai vechi 1impuri ~i pana in evul
rnediu--ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group. Grupul se intrunqte o data la doi ani; ~edina a 4-a a
avut loc la Talin, Estonia in 2003, LUIK et. al. 2005b; ~edinta a 5-a a avut loc la Veliko Tyrnovo,
Bulgaria, intre 29 august ~i 3 septembrie 2005 (Yh M~:eting of the Worked Bone Research Group,
bttp://www.clmc.bas.bg/archaeologyL), iarunnatoare.t v-a avea Joe in 2007 la Paris). Toate acestea,
analizate complex, contribuie la cunoa~terea nivelului .:ulturii materiale ~i spirituale a populatiei din-
t r-o anumita regiune ~i perioada istorica, in cazul nostru spatiul carpato-danubiano-pontic 1n evul
rnediu timpu1iu.

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Sergiu Musteaf{i, doctor in istorie, con/.' univ, Catedra Istoria Romani/or, Facultatea de Istorie
~i Etnopedagogie, Universitatea Pedagogic/I de Stat "Jon Creanga" din Chi~inau; Str. Jon Creanga
nr. /, bloc of
central, 407, MD-2069, Chi~inau, Republica Moldova, e-mail:
s_ergiu musteata@vah,2J:>.com
i ,:.,/wm,i II, Ni'. 1-2 14:;

EOBEJU1PHbIE YKPALIIEHIUI IIPYTO-)lHECTPOBCKOfO ME)K)lYPEqb.H


B KOHTEKCTE 3THOKYJlhTYPHhlX CBSI3EH PEfHOHA BX-XI BB.

CBeTJiaHa P5IEUEBA, Kmmm3y

"81juterii din spa(iul Ptuto-,,Vistrean in contextul legaturilor etno- culturale ale regiunii in secol'ele X-XF'
A .-ncu/11/ estc consacrat conte.1tului istoric-cultural de alcaruirc a setului de podoabe meta/ice a populatiei
ngiumi Ptuto-Nistrene din secole!e X-XI Autorul eriden{ia::c componentele care au origini in zona dunareanii
,)I sell/! de podoabe cu a11alogi1 in spa(iul Rusiei Kievene (inc t1siv regiunule ei de nord-vest. de asemenea grupa

1:,1 preu mare de piese, care este legata de antichitafz"!e popu,a 1iez nomade euroasiatice.

B (/ll(l/11be pi1CC.\ICll1lpu1:1aem Cf/ KY."lbll1)JJIIO·UCl)lOpU'ieC1' 1;ii KOIIIIZCKC/11 rpop.1tupo6C1/IWI 11a6opa .\tC/11Cl.L1ll-


yKpatue11ui1 11ace.1euuJ-1 1Jpymo-JJ,11ecmpoeow20 pez w11a e X-XI e1:1. Aemop 6btOe.u1em KWtno11e11n11,1,
',','O:ll.'\
.l/,:'/0/W/C nodpwiJCKlff UC/1101'1/, U KO.\t/L1CKC YK/Wll/Cf/Ul{, U,\ICIOU{UX a/W.WZllll /{(I meppumopuu JJ,pe,q11e[j Pycu
, 1

1q 1110.H •mc.,e 11 e cerwpo-1anao111,1x ee pe2uo11ax), a 111aKJ1ce, te6o ·tbzuy10 2pynny u1oe_wi1, t6Jl'JbU!Cle.iiy,o c ope6'-
11ocm,utu Ku'ieeozo 11ace_1e11uJ-1 E6pa1uu.

"Jewelry decorations of the Dniestr-Pruth Interfluve~ in the context rfethno-cultural contacts ofregion in HP-
cc.'' The article is dedicated to the rnltural-historical con 'ext that enabled formation of a set of metal jewelry
/ ['ii
J>roduccd bv the population of the Dniester-Pruth region in J(Yh_ ll' h cc. The author distinguishes components coming
the Danube area, a set ofJewelry finding analogies 011 the zerritory of the Old Russia ( including in its north-,vest
ti-0,11

r?gio11 ,. and a small group of products associated with the antiquities of Eurasian nomads.

Ec:m 10Be:u1pm,re yKpalllemrn, naTupye.Mhre VII-IX BB., rrpe.acraKreHbI Ha Tepp1IT0-


1nu1 llpyTo-,UnecTpOBCKOM MeiKnypeLib.51 OT,IIeJ11,HblMI1 HeMHOr()lUICJleHHbIMll HaXO]lKa-
1111. TO mur X-XI BB. MO)KHO roBoplITh y)Ke o nen,itt cepmr Bewett, B KoTopott npHcyrcTBY-
lOT KaK H3lleJnrn, IIpOl13BOlllIBilll1eC51 Ha MeCTe, TaK l1 51BJUIBilIHeC51 l1MI10pTaMI1.

OcHOBl-lbie apxe0JJ0fH'IeCKHe naMHTHHKII IlpyTo-)luecTpOBCKOro perttoua,


couepJKaBmHe yKpameunH X-XI BB.
,Urrn nepI10.na X- Ha'-rana XI B. Ha Tepp1uopI111 Mo;moBhI I13BecreH p5Ill apxeosron1-
1iecK11x mlM5ITHI1KOB, ,l:(aBWI1X npe,llCTHBHTeJibHJ,Ie non6opKI1 10se:111pHbIX yKpaweHHH.
,D.oBOJihHO pa:rnoo6pa3HbITT apxeonorw1ec1rntl MaTepmrn npoHcxo;llIT c 611pnTy-
a:1bHoro ;\10fl1J1bHI1Ka Ep:::meWTb. B MOfHJibHm e pacKonaHO TPI1 ypHOBbIX rrorpe6eHI151
110 o6p5IJJ,y COilOKCHI15!, OCTaJibHbie 95 HJIH 94 - TpynononotKeHH.51. Cpe,ri11 I1HryMaum1
BblµeJ151IOTC51 LJ:Ba norpd5emrn B CKOp'-IeHHOM l :OJIO)KeHI1H. HttrepeceH HHBeHTapb no-
rpe6emrn Nc.159, BepmnHo, 5IBH51I01Ueroc51 OLlHHM 113 nan6onee paHm1x rpynorrono)KeHm1
B :no;--.r MOrJ1JlhHHKe. Ha rI05!Ce MY)K'-Il1Hbl 6bL1l1 o6I-rapy)KeHbl 6po!-I30Bbltt Il05ICHOil Kplo-
'!OK co CTI1HI130BaHHOil roJIOBKOH now:a:111, KHH-Kan B HO)KHaX, JJ,Ba 10'-Il1HbHbIX 6pycKa I1
,)rH11Bo. CJieBa OT '-Ieper1a pacnoJiara;1ach Menaa5I cepbra. :ho e;:1,1rncrBe1-rnoe 3axopo-
.-Ie1n1e B MOrIUbHHKe C opy)KneM, I1p}:1)I(Kal\m I1 KpecaJIOM COOTHOClITC.51 C LtpeBHOCT5l.MH
,:a_;n0Bc:Ko11 KYHbTYPhI H MO)KeT 6hITb nanrpoB,rno rrepBoi1 nonoB1rnoi1. X B. (<:J:>e;i:opos,
4e6lrrapeHKO. Be,1I1Ka1-1crna 1984, 22.2:9: cDe.noi-,oB, 1-1e6ornpeHKO ICl74, 105).
bp)HClllTCKIIH MOJ'lI.lbHI1K 51BJI5!JIC51, no BCeH B11,[(HMOCTlL K,1a;i:611LUeM i],JI51 Hacenemrn.
pacnonoiKetrnoro Henu;J(a11eKy cen.mua Ep·:rne111Tb XIII. 3axopoHemrn, conpoBO)K;J,aB-
l1mern llHBCHTapeM (B TOM LJHCJ!e l1 yKparnemrnl\rn), rpymmpyIDTC5l B OCHOBHOM B Haa60-
1ee ;lpeB1-Iei1 BOCTO'-IHOli '-!acn1. HeKpono;rn. Tat KaK B MOrII.JlbHHKe npenCTaBJICHbl 3axo-
poHCHl15l B JICflH.blX cocynax. a B K,YJibTYPHOM CJ[OC HeKponosrn COJlep)KHTC}l 6oJ1bllIOe KO-
JIW!cCfBO .1CI1HOl1 KepaMIIKH, Ha4cL10 cpyHKUHO}:HpoBaHH.51 MOrI1,/IbHl!Ka COOTHOCIITC5I, Be-
pomHO, c ropH30HTO;"v1 KYJ1hryp1,1 .,1"IyK11-Pa11Kol3eL(l<011 Ha nocenemm Ep:rneWTb XIII l1
144 Rei ·istu A .-}1eulogica. Scr-ic: rwuu

M0)KeT 6h!Tb n:an1poBaH0 IX B. Tipoc:nuecrnoBaJJ )TOT fiaM5!THl1K BflJ10Tb llO XI - HaLia-


.!1a XII B. (Pafou-IOBH':! 1997, 457; Pa6HHOBH 1I 2005, 127-128).
"YKpamemrn B :\IaTepaanax Ep3Hell1TCK1:lf 0 K0MIL1eKca npencTaBJJeHbl JUITblMH 6poH-
30BhlMH nymnruaMI-:l, nepcrHeBHJJ,HhIMH K0J!bLiaMII, np0CTblMl! nma;-.rn nepcTHei:L BlITbIMH
npoB0JIOY:HhI\1H 6pacne1ar-.m, nacroBhJMH 6yomar-.m, 6ycHHHbIMH cep1,raM1111 o;:XHoii ceph-
ro11 «BOJ1bIHCK0fO>> THna «B» (no HallJell Tl1JIOJ10rHH -- P5I6UeBa 1999, 338-356) (pHC. 2, 12).
Ha nocenemrn IleTpyxa, pacnonotKemIOM HenoLianeKy 01 ropolla OpreeBa, 6hmH
BCKpblThl TPH 3eMJI5IHKH, llBa Cbip0LJYTHbG, rop1rn l1 HeCKOJihKO 5!M-xpamrnmu (XbIHKY
1969, 37; lle60Tape1-1Ko 1982, 45). ITpII pacKorrKax 3eMmIHKH N2 3 6uJ10 uaii.ueuo llBa
.npoTOBbIX 6pacrre1a C cy>KaIOWllMHC~ KOIUX3MH. 0 H3o1IF!HH Ha noceneHHH co6CTBeH-
Horo IOBeJIHJ)HOro :~lpOH3B0llCTBa CBY 11ere.IhCTBYIOT HaX0)lKH J1h5ILfKl1, LfeTbipex T11reJ1b-
K0B .11 MOTKa Me.::rHoli npOBOJI0KH (XbIHKY 1969, 33.44, p11c. 46, 6; 49, 1.2; 50, 6,1) .
rpyHTOBhIH M0nIJibHI-IK XI-XII BE. JIHM6aph pacnono>KeH Ha 3ana11Ho11. 0Kpa1rne ce-
mmxa XaHcKa. Ilp11 em 11cc1e110BaH11;rx fo,t-10 orKphITo 108 norpe6e1mii no o6p5ILlY rpy-
norrono>Kemrn. 3axopotteHH5I HMeIOT 3arnurny10, ceBepttym H IO)KHYIO optteHTHJJOBKy.
BcKpbIThl u CK0pl.feHHbie rrorpe6emrn, C0BepweHHbie B OBaJJbHhIX l1 KpyTJJblX .511Max l1
conpOBO)KJJaBIIHieCH KOCT5I.\UI )KlfB0T-IbIX. 3nr 3axopotteHH5I MODIH npHHa;::J,Jie)KaTb Ha-
ceJiemno, B Kym,Type K0T0poro 5lBCTHCHHhl caJIT0BCKIIe 11epTbl (lle6oTapeHKO 1982, 22).
'.:.ho rrpe;:mo;lQ)KeHMe IIOllTBC]):;.KJl,aeTCJ1 H pe3yJibTaTaMH aHT])OllOJI0I"HLfeCKHX HCCneno-
Bamu'.i, cor:rnci-w KoropbI\1 ttacene11He. conepmaBwee 3axop0Hemrn B MOfHJihHHKe JlttM-
6apb, CJ10)KlL10Cb Ha 6a3e ;::J,Byx OCHOBHblX KOMIIOHCHTOB. )KeHCKHe qeperra OTH0C5ITC5I K
C~[aB5IHCK0MY nmy, y 0OJlblliUHCTBa MY)KO;Hx Bh1)leJI5IIOTC5I rrpH3HaKJI, xapaKTepHlbie J]Jl5I
I 10pKo-6o;rrapcKO!O HaCeJICHH5I, aHa.IOflfllH0fO T0MY, l.fT0 0CTaBHJI0 MOfHJibHUKH can-
10BC:KOJ 0 nua (Be.mKattoBa 1978, 3~-37).
Ha6op I0BCJ::Iipl-[blX yKparneHUM :noro MOrlIJ1bHUKa 0TJil1LfaeTC5I 6e11HOCTbIO i1I rrpen-
CTaBHeH, B OCH0BH 1JM, nepcTHCBHllHI:lMli K0JihUaMH, nyrosKaMtt-6y6eHLIHKaMH i11 Kpyr-
JlbIMH 6rn11111-:aMu-p03e1Ka"tvrn (lle6orape1-u:o 1982, 20). TaK B norpe6eHHH 60 6brno ttaii-
nctto cepe6p>IHOC uepcnreBHllHOe Bl1CWIHOe K0JibUO c HCCOMKHYThIMH KOHUaMH. B HH)K-
HCH l.facTH Kone 11Ko o6MOTaHO 6onee TOHKuii Me;::J,Hoii rrpoBOJIOLIKOii (Xhlmcy 1965., 20.21,
p11c. 43, 3). Cym1 no Ha.11)lCHHhIM B :\Wnrne rB03115IM, B T0.\1 lUlC.--Ie H C OCTaTKaMH L{pesec-
Horo Tnetta, 3axopcrnemre 61,mo xpu.::nrnHCK0e, coBepllleHHoe B rpo6y. KpoMe Toro, B
M0fHJibHHKe 6b!JIH uaiineHbl ewe JlB~ MaJleHI,KIIe nepCTHeBH).IHhle cepbrH c HeC0MKHy-
TbIMH Kpa>Il'Ym, .[],Ba Ko;11,ua, BbII10.!IFeHHhle 113 6oj1ee TOJICTOH. 6poH30BOH np0B0JIOKH
6onhlliero nHaMeTpa (rrorp. 19 H 33), u om-10 rrepcrtteBH.ilH0e cepe6p>Ittoe KOJihU0 c 3ac-
Te)KKOH-Tpy60LIKoi-i (rrorpe6eH11e 51) B rrorpe6emm 90 JTCHO MOI"lIJihHHKa 6bIJIO o6Ha-
py)KeHo 6poH30BOe rrepCTHeBHllHOC 1:o.1e 1 JKO C HaHH3aHHOH Ha Hero paKOBHHOH KaypH
(XbIHKY 1970, 13, puc. 5, 9). Bo3MOiK :-IO, :=n 0 KOJ1e 1IKO 5IBJI5ICTC5I HMHTau1Ie11 B 6onee noc-
TYITH0M MarepHaJie BOJihlHCKHX KOJieJ nrna «A>> (P5I6UeBa 1999, 338-356).
EpoH30Bble rrepCTHCBllllHhie BHC0'-:!Hb]<.'. K0Jlblla 6hIJil1 06ttapy)KeHbl H Ha pacrrono-
:>KeHHOM HenomUieKy MorHJihHHKe X:rncK,t-K:mp3pH5I (XhmKy 1965. 46, p11c. 49, 10.11),
pacKonaHH0'.\1 Ha :socroLIHOH 0Kpam1e cenrnua XattcKa. Ha :noM MorHJihHHKe 6hrno
0TK])hlTO 75 rrorpe6eHUH, m HHX 7 6eJ crre.noB 3axopoHeHHli (XbIHKY 1973, 15.23). OCHOB-
Ha5I optteHntpmma noKOHHhIX - 3ana.:i:Ha5I. Eo.1bwaH 4acrh norpe6ettHhIX Jie)Kana Ha crra-
ue, HO ecTb uoceMh norpe6emn1. B cKopqeBH0M noJio)Kemrn. YKpaweHll5I 11 .ueram1 one)K-
HbI npenc:TaBJ1eHbl nyrosKaMH 1I 6mm:1caMld-lialllHBKaMH (XbIHKY 1965, 40, ])HC. 43, 9).
Mor11J1bHHK Aw1e11ap KoHua IX · rrepsoi1 rro;10BHHhI X BB. 5!Bmrnc.H ychmam,HHUei-i
)KlITeJieH. 0ll1-IOHMe1rnoro ropo1111wa. lb 3-+ KypraHHbIX HaCbll1CH 6bl.rrO paCK0flaH0 BCero
11. I1pH '.}TOM BCKpbffO 254 norpe6eHH5I (<I>e,10poB 1964: OH ;.KC 1964a. 67-80; OH :>fi:e 1968,
14:'i

1974, 273-2;.;; cDciopoB. Lie6cna1x:m:o 1974. l 01-103 ). B i,:ypranax co11ep)Ka-


:-. '1-93: :-)1 i )Fe
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1

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:!t,l\ 1·10I!OE Y.epHOBJIU},()(! dl);[aCTil H BUCIO'frll IX paftOHOB CeBepHO~i EyKOBHHbl. Bo3-
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,>r rpy1111a (T1c,1owyK 1976, 95; Pa611ao-
1111'l 2005. 12).
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i(l;CO\l1.,:HVTbI:\ll1 KOHU--i!\1ll. rrepCIHCBlUhaH rpexr poBCU0'1Hd51 cephrn, llY)KKa OT JJ,pyroi:i:
hrn Cipmr:,ona;:i rpy1 1,:mui-uH nyroBHU:t, o. !Hci cepe6pm-tM! 6HyceYeHHa5! 6yc1rna .
,q1a,ir1::1!luH JCpHhh) :1 Lha1-11,10(Kypr N~·2) (4-1c 1opoB 1964, 77-SS, p11c. 35), IIMe1owa5l
:>Lt:1<:H Hlt Ha EKu:\uyuKoi-i 1opi-:rnmc 111ucpcc tbr H:axcqK11 B 1ax,Jp0Hemrnx 3Toro He--
h Ji)ll(,',>'f npCJl\[eTUB. OT1,,::,cmm1xc5I K Ky:rne1.mo1• H lOBe.1HpHOl1 Lie5!TC.lbHOCTH - )KCJie3-·
r bill lLLicll<, THUIH l1 py;rn, B lU;KC BpC\15'1 B nor ,e6eHH51X HCT npe,IMCTOB,, CB5I3aHHhIX C
p xo1>1£i,:J BCJll-luii .Je51rc.:1bHOCT1 l - 3eMne11em1eM. ci<oTOBOL!,CTBOM (Pa-
TiJM Ii rmQa:vn1
t,miOrlJ!ll 1997, 45~:). l-L ,~Ll'-lC;~apCK0\1 ropc·~1Hl lC uaxo,J,OK yKparneHI1H MCHhllie. qe;1.1 B
j ,L: LH KC, H,rn6onec ,Ha4HM0!1 ;:rn:rneIC5l ;1,ia(CliBHaH cepe6p5!Ha5! n.pOTOBa51 rp11BHa C
,,:vtKC·t d :rno~rnym rreF ,{) (<l-1e,10pos. l-ld'iorapetIKU 1974, 80) (pm:. S. 2).
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:. :)lfr[hIC '/KpaurtHH>l, Gp,:i,.:JeTbI, O>KepenniI -- p11c. 2.
no:JKOBOo6pa3Hb!C ,qrn6y1Ibl. 11eTa.:rn
.\. 61 npo11cxo;rnr c rop >amua F.Kl1M3)'1lh. pacr orro>KeHHoro B 1v1e>K,:i,ype1 1he )],1:1ecrpa a
llpy-ra. lla\UITHHK 1pa:rnw10HHO ,J,ar11pyeTrn K1>HHOM IX - ttaLiajJOM XI BB. (cD enopo:a. 1

1.!efiorapeHKO l 974. 101.80.92; ©e;(opoB 1953. 1114-126: OH )KC 1964, 77-88).


r opo,nmm: ()b!IO Yhi'.!'ITOtKCHO l!0)Kapm.1, H,l HeM Ha11,1eHo MHOJKeCTBO CIIeJJ.OB cpa-·
:<dH,,J ( HZi.l<!lHC LfHiJKH Cl p.~:r. KOllHii. cy;rnu. 6oe36IC TOllOpbl, KHCTCHI1, HclKOHe"[HHK HO-
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i B(, l"LL ii lc1Kl(:'!IKk K.IIH•'lll. npm::mma llpeD~IeT ,I BOopy)KCHl1:>I rrpem.:TaBJICHbl MHOf'O'-ll1C-

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!lv\fr,ll-llill (KpenocT11 fhKy10.1 :l'\11 Coape 11 )hu oreu1rn. i-:,m;:i, P::i.:-ty:K meHh. 3axopoHeHHe
d Kry.+:t}, bo.~irap1m (B ,teKponone rpa11e1LHHl.\kL y c. Ha"1ap0B0. KpHBHHa. B IlsrncKe 11
~lpcc;uBei (Diacor, u. \1 h:<1nu l ()7 2, l 5:'i. fig. 62: Dinogetia 1967, 295, fig, 173; Spinei 1999, 66;
T/ 19:~ 1, i U9: M1FJ1-It:r:i l %3. 22-27. OH iKe l97 1. 129, p1IC. 1; C1aH11J10B l 993. 152-163: OH
>Kt 1995. 110-135: )],OH'i-~BJ. 2004. 2L?.-227: llHCIHCB 2004, 2:28-240; 130;1rnp1ne 2004, 23-

2-.J. 7(1_ 8Ul. Ho oco6e1rn_L\ ux M1to1 o B BeHrprn1 (Re ,1ersz 1994, 308-3:54: The ancient Hungarians
l 996 ). K Kpyry BCHI epn:k1X ,iXp.:.'.BHOCTCM OT HOC 1101. Ha Ham B3rJT5IL., H cepe6pmibll1 no-
:,,, iC'i·. HHhl:1 nak,•HV,d u,: HOJf\;~H cafrm c Er~Il'\ :_:,yitKoro ropo;xml(a (My3ei1 apxeosmnrn
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146
Revista Arheologica. Serie noua
C .UBYM5l 0TBepcnrnMH, )KeJie3HblH HrnaK H ,,1e:ma5I npoBOJIOKa. bbIJIH OTKpbIThI r()TOBbie
MeJJ:Hh1e H cepe6pmn,1e yKpawemrn (B TOM 1 rncne 6 ceper <<BOJibIHCKoro» nma), cep.aomi:-
KOBhre 6ychr. K>Bem1pHb1u HHcrpyM01Tapu1-i 6hrn BcTpel.feH 11 BHe npeae110B 3TOH 3eM-
JI5IHKH. Ha ropommJe 6hum HaiiueHhr ewe rrnTh T11n1eti, ManetthKHH 10BeJiuptth1ii Mono-
T04eK, 3y6J1J!bU.e, 2 MaTpHU.hl llJIJ.'I TliCHCHJl5!, cepe6p5IHa51 11 MCL(HaJ.'I ITp0B0JIOKa (<Deno-
poB 1953, 104-127).
Cpen11 cepe6p51HbIX IOBCT!HpHbIX /Kpa1m:HHH, rrpoIICX0Jl511lll1X C ropO)XHllla EKHM.3-
YU.h, HaH60Jibilll1l! HHTepec npei:i:cTaB.rrneT 6oJihllla51 K0."InCKU.H5I cepe6p5IHhlX «BOJihIH-
CKHX» ceper nma «C:» 199S·, 338-356). KpoMe Toro, Ha roponmue 6hrno Haii-
(P5I6UeBa
aeHo .1lBa cpparMef-ira cepcr nma \,B>>. flu coo6weH1110 r.B. <t>eaopoBa, Ha 3T0M ITa-
M5!TH11Ke 6hIJIO o6uapy)KeHO 32 3K3Cl\lnJrnpa «B0J1bIHCKlIX» ceper (<Denopc>B 1953, 125).
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i:nyirnTh 25 3K3CMI1JlJipoB cepe6p5IHbn ceper THITa «C» (MA::> HHB. 411-421, 77-79, 152,
153; OAM HHB. 52660-52663, 52667, 5.2668, 52670, 52671) 111wa 6pomoBhIX JIHThIX yKpa-
IJJeHH51 cxom11,rx c :JTHM T11rroM (MA'.:;) 1rnB. MA KTI 1183/ 316-C; MA KIT 1183/ 376-C).
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)KHTCJ."I l.faCTb K0JmeKJ.(lIH MaTepHaJI0B 113 paCK0IT0K EK11M3YU.KOfO rop0IJ.11U.(a 2 •
I{)Bemrpm,re lB_]eJimI C 3epHhIO, B:(0IJ.5I1LUie B TY )Ke CTl1JII1CTJ1l!eCKYIO rpyrrrry, l!TO 11
cep1,ra l1 /IeTam1 o;,i,:epenuii c EK11M~YUKOf\) ropon11wa, B ttenaBttee BpeM51 6Lrn11 o6tta-
py)KeHhI ITPH paCK0flKaX ,[()Kypll)KYJICUITCKOro M0f'HJibHlIKa Ha 10re MOJillOBhl. flp111 pac-
~rncTKe rrorpe6eHH51 N2 6, II]JHHaLIJIC)KclBlliel 0 ,D:CB0':!Ke 6-7 JICT, 6bIJia o6ttapy)l{eHa OIi.Ha
oBaJibHa51 ce_pe6p5IHcUI 6ynura, Bhmo;rnemia5I 113 rrpoB0JI0l.fHoro KapKaca 11 yKparneH-
HaH 3epHb!0 H l.fCTbipe cepe6p5IHbIX TIICHeJ:'.bIX rnapOBHlIHbIX ITYf0BHU.bl C Tpy6tiaThIMH
yrnKaM11, TaK)Ke 11eKop11poBam-Ib1e 3epH6IO (HMHM inv. 1178-1182.) (JleBHl.(KHH, Xaxey,
P5I6u.eBa 2000, 90-96).
TaKHM o6pa30M, IOBemipHhlli MarepHa;1 X-XI BB. rrpeacTaBJieH B I1pyTo-,[(HeCTpOBC-
K0M perH0He Ha JJ,0B0JihH0 0OJlhlllOM .1rnrrw1ecrne naM5ITHHK0B, 3al.faCTYIO B 3aKpbIThIX
K0MTIJieKcax, THI10JIOJ'.'!1l.feCKH ero tta6op pa moD6pa3eH. PacCMOTp11M 0CH0lBHbie mm60-
.01ee TI0Ka3aTeJibHbie THilbI IOBeJIHpHbL\ YKJHLUeHHH 3T0f0 BpCMtHl1.

Bucoquh1e yKpawemrn " cephru

llepcm11eeuiJm,1e IHLCOl/ltble K0.1bl(ll u cepl,W 51BJI5IIOTC51 0.D,HHM 113 Ha1160Jiee THITJ1l:IHhIX


c.n:aB51HCKHX yKpawe1ui:ii. TTepcTHCBH,UHhie K0JihU.a C HCC0MKHYThIMl1 K0HU.aMl1, ll3f'0TOB-
JieHHbie 113 cepe6pa HJil1 6pOH3bl, 5IBmUOTC>l 0CH0BHbIM Tl1H0M BHC0l.fHbIX yKpaweHllH
HaceneHH51, 0CTaBirnmero bp3HelllTCIOIH :\10D[J1hHHK. ,[(HaMeTp KOJibU.a Bapb11pyer B
rrpeaenax OT 2,5 J.(0 3,5 Ccvf. B 3axop0HCHl15I~. JTH yKparneHl151 npencTaBJICHbl ITO OJJ:HOMY
3K3eMITJI5IPY (B 8 norpe6eHl151X), ITO llBa I B 7 norpe6eHH5IX), no TPH -- B o;.(H0M 11 no weCTb -
T0)Ke B omroM norpe6emrn: (Cf>eaopoB, ll!e6orapeHKo, BemmaHoBa 1984; <t>enopoB, l.Je-
6orapeHKo 1974)
I1epCTHeBH)lflhie BHCOl!Hhie K0Jlhl.(a (B TO!\[ lll1CJie l1 C ITpOBOJlOl.fHOH O0MOTKOH) 51BJUIIOT-
C5[ ITpaKTHl.feCKH eJIHHGrBeHHhIM THIT0M yKparnemiii, HaMeHHhIM Ha M0fHJihHHKe Jl11M6aph
(1.le6o-rapeHKO 1982, 20). opOH30Bbie rrepCTHtrnlU(HbIC BHC0l.fHbie K0JlhU.a rrpe)]:CTaBJieHhl l1

2
TToJih3yi:rcb c.1y,rneM. np1rnowy r.:ry60Ky10 Ciaro;upHOCTb xpamnemrM E.<:D. Pe.u11Hott, A.11. HHK)'JIHU3,
HT. BJrnceHKo. H. MaTeem1'I, O.H. TTy,16epe. EH. A61,u0Boi'13a Jno6e3HO npe.uocTaBsreHHYIO B03M0)KH0CTh
03HaK0MHTbCH CM,Hepua1aMH KOJLlCKUHII.
Vi?lumul II. N1'. 1-2 147

Ha naM5ITHHKe XaHcKa-K:mp3pm1 (XhIHKY 1965, .::~6. p11c. 49. 1().1 I) (pHc. 6, 1,6,10). ITp11
pacK0nKax MOfHJ!hHHKa AJJ"Lle.uap TaK)KC 6bIJU1 Hci H}leHbl nepcTHCBl1)lI-Ia51 TpexnpoBOJI0t.J:-
H<l51 cephra 11 cpparMeHT 2lpyro11 rrepcTr1es11.uH011 cc:phrH (<l>enopos 1964, 77-88, p11c. 35).
Ecsnr rrepcTHeBI12lHhie Bl1COt.J:Hhie KOJihUa 11 cep1r11 xapaKTepHbI .a;rn Bcero apearra
paccerremrn CJiaB5IH, TO yKpawemrn c nposonot.J:HOH o6MOTKOH r1an60JJee nmttt.J:Hhl llJl51
KaprraTo-barrKattcKoro pen10Ha. Oco6eHHo 1-rncTo BCTpe'-IaIOTC51 om1 B Cepforn, Eonra-
p1m, NlaKe}loH1111. BpeM51 ax Ha116orrhwero pacrrpoc'TpaHeHl151 np11xomITc51 ua XI-XII BB.
B y6ope KaK ropOilCKO[0. TaK H CCIIhCKOfO Hace,1CHH51 3TH yKparnemrn npOL{OJI)KaIOT
6h1TosaTh 11 no XIV-XV BB. B p51ne crry1c1aes OHJ:l cp11Kc11py10TC5! H s JTHorpacpHqecKoM
y6ope XIX B. (cM., Hanp11Mep, MaHeBa 1992, 53, ·,. 18, 101).
CepbZU "60JlblHCKOZO" muna ITO TCXHI1KC 113f010BJTCHH51 H oco6eHHOCT51M }leKopa 110}l-
BCCKI1 6hrn11 rro.uesreHhI r.<:Jt>. Kop3yx11Ho11 Ha zma Ba1mar1rn (Kop3yx11Ha 1946, 49). Crre-
llHaJibHa5! pa6oTa, l10CB511JllCHHa51 l1CCJIC}lOBaH11K, BTOpoi1 rpynm,I )HIX yKpawem111 no
f.<l>. Kop3yx11Hott, 6hrna nponerraHa E.IO. H0B11Kosoii (H0B11K0Ba 1990, 107-114). MHe
T:J.K )KC HC0}lH0KpaTHO 11JH1XO}ll1Jl0Cb o6pawaTbC H K 3TOlI KaTeropmI apxe:osrorw-reCKl1X
HCT0l.fHl1KOB. CephrH 11 BllC0t.J:Hhie I10}lBCCKI1 C 110. lOll lllTaMI10BaHHOI1, crra5!HHOI1 I13 ;'lBYX
Il0JIOBHHOK IlO}lBCCKOH (nepBbl'H Bap11aHT, no nmononur r.<D. Kop3yx11HOH) 6hL1 Bbl.:IC-
JieH B Tl1I1 "A". BTopofI Bap11aHT, ITO r.<D. Kop3)Xl1HOH, C ITOllBCCKOM, COCTaBJICHHO]{ 113
nonoro KpyrrHoro 11 MHmKeCTBa MCJIKl1X wap11KOH, I1Jll1 MHHHaTIOpHblX wap11K0B 11 J)5I}l0B
3epH11 H rrpoBorrot.J:Hoti: o6MOTKH 6hm rroaerreH Ha THnhI "B", "C' 11 "D" (Pa6HHOBI11-L,
P:;i:6ueBa 1997, 237-238; PH6UeBa 1999, 338-356; oHa )Ke 2005, 92).

Cepbzu "aonblHCKozo" mu11a "A" c rroJIOH 115!T.It.J:acTHOH rror(BecKoi1, 11Merome11 BepT11--


K,UI6HbIH lllOB, Ha Tepp11Top1rn IlpyTo-)],HeCT]JOBCKOro Me)Knypellb51 IT0Ka He H3BeCTHbl, B
KaprraTO-)],HeCTpOBCKOM per110He 0HH rrpe,UCTaBITCHhl OllH011 rrapofI. Ha11.,aeHHOH B MO·-
nUibHl1Ke X-XI BB. Apcypa (PyMhIHCKa51 Mon,rlOBa) (p11c. 2, 14) (Teodor 1968, 237: fig. 25, 1;
Pa6nHOBl1lJ, P516lleBa I 997, 244, p11c. 4, 7.8). On1mHanuaTh norpe6e1-rn11 3Toro Mor11J1h··
l-U1Ka, COBCJ)llICHHble ITO o6p5IllY HHryMauirn, 0TH0C5ITC51 K nepaony X-XI BB. YKpaweHl15!
1n Apcypbl Jll111ICHbl 3epHeBoro }lCKopa. Tpeyr;OJibH11Kll n poM6hI 3C]JHH, neKop11py10--
u.me cpem·llOIO '-!aCTb nono6HblX l13IICJIJ1li, HaX0.J.l1MbIX Ha BoJibIHI1 11 B IlonHenpOBbe,
Ba 3THX IT0}lBCCKaX HMHTHpOBaHbl B TCXH11Ke TI1CHCH1151.
flpOHCXO)KlleHI1e «B0;1blHCKHX» ceper T11na «A>> CB513bIBaeTC51, Ha Halli B3rIT51,:X, C paH-
He6onrapCKl1Mll n BCJII1K0M0paBCKl1MI1 npeBHOCI5IMH VII-IX BB. Cepbnl, 5IBJI5IIOW:HCOI.
np0T0THI1aM11 p0CK0lllHLlX «B0JiblHCKHX» Ko;reu X B., np0I1CXO)l51T H3 KerrerdicKoro KOM-
rmeKca, IlaCTblpCKOfO II HoBOTpOHUKOro rop0,(Hll(, MOrl1JlbHHKa CrpapoKopcyHCKOro
Ha Ky6amr. Hai1.ueHhI no,J;o6Hbre yKpalllemrn H H,l ropo.u11max H1npa n KmrnpHo (Cpeu-
1-1ee Dony1rnBhe), MormrhHl1Kax M11xati:n0B0, farrl1'1e, JlyK0B11T L BhmIJenpoM (Eo,TJra-
p1rn) (P516UeBa 200.5, 82, puc. 18).
)],oBOJihHO rrpencTaB1rrerrhHa51 rron6op1rn yr~pallleHHH c Tl1CHeHhIMH rronBecKa:-.rn.
l!aTI1py101u11xc51 IX B. 11 0THOC51Ill,HXC51 K Kpyry np0T0T11I10B «B0JiblHCKHX» Korreu Tirna
«A», Hai1neHa B M0fl1JlbHlt!KC ql1M6py.u (PyMhIHH51). Cpe;:i:11 Hl1X eCTb KaK 6011ee np0CTbie
c1K3CMIIJI5Iphr, 6n113K11e K paHHHM aBapo-6orrrapcK11M o6pa3UaM, TaK 11 113nemrn, rrpn6m1-
)KeHH61e no cpopMe K H35IUXHhlM IT0}lBeCKaM X B. HO JlHllICHHbIC 3epHeBoro llCKOpa H ro-
pa3ll0 6011ee Ml1HHaTIO]JHlbie (puc. 1, 1-6.8-10). K npoT0TI1I1aM «B0HbIHCKHX» yKpawem111
MO)KCT 6bITb 0THeceHa H ym1KaJihHa51 cpparMeHTI1pOBaHHa51 cep1,r2. 113 K.1ana P3,nyK3-
HCHb (puc. 1, 17). TionBern:a JTOH cepbrl1 HMeeT H,rn6orrhrnee pacurnpe1-me B cpenHeI'i '-IaCTb
Jj;:(Ba HC60Jibllll1X B BepxHeH H HI1)KHC11 qaCTI1. E.:raronap5! HaJlHlJHIO pac11I11peHH!~ B HmK-
EeI'i '--l.acnr, 0Ha HaTT0MlrnaeT aMcpopOBH.UYIO ITO wecKy C HO)KKOH-TTOJ(CTaBKOH aMq)Opbl.
148 Revista Ar/1eologiec1. Serie nou,J

(~' ~_-_,)
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15
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Puc. 1. Cepbrn 11 BHC0'IHbie yKp2111em151 KapnaTo-)]:yttailcKoro pernmrn IX-X BB.


(Macrrna6b1 pa:iHbre). 1-10,12 - q11M6Jy.U, 11,13,14 -- O6hrprmrn, 15,16 - CyJcTaHa, 17 -
P32l.YK3Hem,.

xapaKTepHyIO Ll)I5I lOBenHpHbIX yKparneH11i1 rrepBOH ITOJIOBHHbI I TbIC. H. 3. (Teodor 1981,


109.110, fig. 17.18).
C
KOHu,a X no cepei:u-my XI B. Kpy:mhre BI-IC:O'-IHhre Ko.11bu,a c TI-ICHeHbIMI-I nonBecKaMI-I,
6oraTO )],CK0])I-Ip0BclHHbIMI-1 3epHblO, ()bITYIOT B TionHerrpOBbe H Ha BonbIHH. B )TOT )Ke
nepnon Ha TeppnTop1-1n Ilonbllll-l pacnponpanenbI cxm1rne BHcoqn1,re rro,r1,secKI-I, 0Tm1-
qa10umec.51, 0)],HaK0, ])MOM K0HCTJ)YKTHBHh!X 11 )],CKOpaTHBHb!X oco6eHHOCTeii. CB0.51 JIH-
HIUI pa3BHTH5I rro.uo6HbIX yKparnem1tt npe;1CTaBneHa n Ha EaJIKaHax (P.516u,esa 2005, 89).

Cepbzu "6·om,mc,-;_ozo" muna "B" BHelllHC cXO)KH c cephraMH n1rra "A", no OTJIH'-IaIOT-
C5l OT HUX no TCXHHKC H3rOTOBJICHI151. 110.nuecKa 3THX yKparnemdi co5paHa 113 Kpyrrnoro
THCHeHoro mapHKa H I105ICK0B MCJIKHX. lllapI-IK0B. )],n5I Kpen.1em-rn 110,,'.],BCCKH I-ICITOJ!b3YCT-
C5I lllTbIJ)h. f[apa ceper TI-Irra «B» 6b1na Hai-iAeHa Ha ropoAI-IUie EKHM3YU.b. O6e cepbr11
HaHH3aHbl Ha rrepcTHCBI-l)],HbIC BHCO'-IHblC KOm,ua (pI-Ic.2, 13). Cxo;i:Hoe yKpallleHHe npo-
HCXO)],llT 113 norpe6eHH5l 34 Ep3HCIIlTCKOrn MOLI-IJibHHKa (p11c. 2, 12). B HaCT05lllICC BpeM5l
3TO yKparne1me, ttaXOll5IUieec51 B cpoa.uax O.ueccKoro Apxeonorw1ecKoro My3e51,, He,uo-
cTynHo )],JI5l 113Y'ICHH51 l13-3a nnoxoro COCT051HH5l coxpaHHOCTH. Ha H306pa)KCHI-II1 B rry6-
JII1Kau,m1 cepbra BHCllIHe CXO)Ka C «B(IJlblHCKHMH» T11rra «A», HO ee IlOl}BCCKa He HaHH3a-
Ha Ha llY)KKy., KaK y c:eper nma «A», a yKperrnelfrn non ny)KKOM 11 I-IMeer OT,UeJibHhIM lllapI-IK
«rOJIOBKy». KpoMe Toro, B 01111.caHI-IH (<!>enopoB, 1.Je6oTapeHKO, BerrHKaHOBa 1984, 49)
Vi)!umul II, Nr. 1-2 149

0TMel.!eHO, 4TO TTOJlBeCKa COCTaBHa51 113 TTOJIOH 6ycHHbI, yKparneHHO}[ 3epHbl0 H OT}leJII,-
HblX II05ICKOB 3eptt11. TaKHM o6pa30M, CTaH0BH rc51 5ICH0, 4TO yKparneHHe 0TH0CHTC51 K
nmy «B» BOJihIHCKHX ceper no Harneii nmononm.
BoJibIHCKHe cepbrH rn:na «B» neJI5ITCJ.1 Ha }lBe 60JiblllHe rpynnhl. 1 - C COCTaBHbIMI1
Il0}lBCCKaM11, B K0TOpbIX HCTT0J1b3YIOTC51 T11CHeHue wap11KH. 2 - J111Thle 3K3eMIIJI51pbI. Co-
CTaBHhie Bap11aHThl ceper T11IIa "B" BCTpe4aIOTC51 Ha TeppHTOpH11 BettrpHH, EonrapH11,
6hIBllleH 10rocnamrn, PyMhIHH11, Pyc0. (Kop3yx111-ra 1946, 50; HoBHKOBa 1990, 115; Pa611-
HOBWll, P516UeBa 1997, 237; Vana 1954, tab. 4; M:lSOV 1979, 39; faTeB 1977, 34; nopOBHn-
Jby6HHK011fi 1951, 44; Teodor 1980, 404). IloilBec1rn, yKpaweHHhie 3epHbIO, np0.ypo'IeHbI K
Ilom1enpoBhIO, Ilo6y)l(hl0, IlonHecrpoBbIO u Kapna.TcKoMy per110Hy (Ep3HeWTh., EKHM]-
YUh, P3JlYKJHeHh, Kny)l(-HanoKa, EoprueBKa, Kom1.eBcKa, ToKati, E.r::maBeupaJJ.cKuii y,)
(Kop3yx0.Ha 1954, 84; Teodor 1980, 404; Spinei 19')9, 66, fig. 14; Mesterhazy 1994, 193-239).
Ha EanKaHax pacrrpocrpaHeHbI cxoJlHhre yKparneH1151, Ho 6e3 3epm1 (Rb)l(apoBa 1976,
'f10pOBHh-Jby6HHKOl1fi 1951). AHaJIOflfl-lHble cepbrH 6hIJI11 HaHneHU H Ha TeppHTopmi
PyMhIH11H (Il51Tpa-cDpHKau,eii, An6a 10mm, ,[(mmreuirn) (pHc. 2, 1-3,10), am M0rHJihHH-
Ka "l:111M6pyn rrpOHCXO,llHT rrapa rrono6HhIX yKpameHHH, ,neKOpHp0BaHHbIX CKaHHhIMH
1Cone'l!KaM11 (p11c. 1, 7,12) (Teodor 1981, 109, fig. 17; Dragota, Nitoi 2005, 227, pl. 1).
Jh-ITbie aHaJIOfH JTOMY T11ny "BOJibIHCK11X" ceper rrpencraBJieHhl .B OCHOBHOM B Bem'-
p1111, 6hIBWeH IOrocnaBHH 11 EonrapHH, HeCKO;(bK0 IIOJl06HhIX cepe)l(eK BCTpe 1-IeHo H B
PyMhIHH11 (KpeIIOCTb ,[(mwreu1151) (pHC. 2, 4,5,9). B uenoM, naHHbllf T11I1 yKpameH11H B
IO)l(HOH 11 UettTpanhttoti Esporre rrpe.ncraBneH s apeane pacnpoc1vaHeHH51 KYJihTYPhI
l5HeJ10-Epno cepeLl11HhI X-XI BB. (nopos11h-JbyCi11HK011h 1951, 21-55; Dragota, Nitoi 2005,
223-227).
Ha EanKaHaX )TH yKpaweH1151 BCTpeqaIOTC51, B OCHOBHOM, B 3axopoHemrnx (M11J14CB
1963, 22-37, T. 2, 3; Bb)l(apoBa 1974, 9-22; Masov 1979, 31-47, fig. 8,1). B Bettrp1m B 3axo-
poHe:ttH5IX H B ToKaHCKOM KJia}le (nopOBHn-Jhy6m1KOHfi 1951, CJI. 21; Vana 1954, 50-95;
Mesterhazy 1994, 193-239). B PyMhIHHH H Ha Pyctt :JTH yKpamemrn, mro10BneHHhie, KaK
ripaB11J10, 113 cepe6pa 11 ileKop11poBaHHh1e 3epHbIO, qarue rrpe,ncraBJietthI B cocTaBe KJia-
.uos H cny'IaHHhIX HaXOll0K. Ho eCTb 11 OTL(CJlbHbie 3K3eMIIJI5Ipbl, Hafi,neHHhle B rrorpe6e-
HH5IX H Ha rroceneH115IX (,[l11HoreUH51, An6a 10mm, Kny)l(-HanoKa, EpJHemrh, l.JepBoHe,
EK11MJYUh) (Teodor 1980; Kop3yx11.Ha 1954; XaBJIK1K 1969, 164).
ripoHCXO)l(JleH11e ceper "BOJibIHCKoro" THI13 "B" Mbl CKJIOHHbl CB513bIBaTh C yKpawe-
H1151Mll, 6hITOBaBUIHM11 c cepen11.HhI VII rro rrepsym 4eTBepTh IX Be:Ka Ha m11p0Koii rep-
p1nopH11, OXBa'IeHHOH ,rnapCKHM BJIH5IHHeM. ,[(aHHbie cepbrH, COCTaBJieHHbie 113 KOJibHa
11 H3.H113aHHOH Ha IUTh!J)h CTCKJ15IHHOH rro,nBeCK11, BeCbMa 6mi3K11 K "BOJiblHCKHM" no
q:iop¼e rronsecKH H oq:>opMJieH11K> JlY)l(K11 (Cilinska 1963). B IX BeKe B flonymrnhe BcTpeqa-
1<nc:>1 aHaJIOf114Hbie yKpaweH1151, y KOTOpbIX l'iycHHbl BblII0JIHCHbl He ll3 CTercrn, a 113
MeTanna (ttarrp11.Mep, cep1:,r11 ll.3 CKan11cKa 11 B11HH B CnoBaK1rn) (Holcik 199ll, 85-105,
Tab. 5; Budinsky-Krica 1959, Abb. 28, 15). B Kaprraro-Tio.nyHaBbe rro1lo6ttb1e pattHIIe
yKpaweHH51 rrpOHCXO}l51T ll3 MOfHJibHHK0B "l:111M6pyn 11 O6brpmm1 (Teodor 1980).

CepbZU "60RblHCKOZO '' muna "C" rrpe,ncTaB.n HIOT co6ott KOJibUO co CJIO)l(HOj:i rro,nBeC-
KOll., HaH113aHHO}l Ha lllTblpb. TTo.nBecKa C0CTaBJieHa 113 II05ICKOB, c:rra51HHbIX 113 MeJIKHX
Jil!TblX wapHKOB, pa3rpaHH'ICHHhlX rrpOBOJ10'fllbIMll, cKaHHbIMll lillll 3epHCHblMll KOJie4-
KaM11. Ha KOJibU0 Ha,neTbl attaJIOfH'IHhie I1051Chl1 H3 MCJIKIIX wap11KOB, f0JIOBKa II0,!lBCC-
Kll npe,ncTaBJI5leT co6ofi nHpaMH.!lKY 113 wapHR0B.
Ha ropOJlHIUe EKllM]YUb 6bIJIO o6Hapy)KeHo He T0JibKO CKOIL1eHHe Il0Jl06HbIX yKpa-
weHHH, HOH lOBeJmpHaH MacrepcKa51, O}Ul.011 H3 0CHOBHbIX cneu1rnJrn3a1u1fi KOTOpoil 6bIJIO
150
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Revisia .4rJ,eolon-ica. Serie noua

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Puc. 2. CepLrn MBHCOtIHbie YKJc'lllICHIUI KaprraTo-.ll.ytta:lkKoro perttoHa IX -


Hat.Iana XI BB. (,1acllITa6b1 pa3Hbie). 1,4,5,9 - .D:ttttoreum1, 2,3 - IlHTpa-<t>pHKaueii,
6-8 -- P3,UYK3HCHh, 10 - An6a IOmrn:, 11 - Kny)K-HarroKa, 12 -- op3HCllITI,, 13 -
EKHM3YUh, 14 -- Apcypa.

lf3f0T0BJiemi:e ceper )Toro TlfIIa. ,UttaM~TP JlY)KICH «B0JiblI-ICKHX» ceper lf ,[(lfaMeTp Me,[(-
HOH rrp0BOJIOKH Hilll,[(CHHbIX B )KHJilfll(e J:OBenapa II Ha ropo,nmue C0Bna,[(alOT C ,[(HaMeT-
poM MeHhlliero ornepCTlf5I Ha BOJIO'-IlIJ1bHOl1 ,"lOCKe (<t>e.uopoB 1953, 123).
CxeMa 11crronHemu1. Bcex cepe6p5IHI,1x ceper nma «C», HaiiLJ.eHHbIX Ha ropoLJ.Hme,
0,[(lfHaKoBa (pttc. 3, 12--14). Ha K0JibLI,0 HaCa,KeH0 no LieTbipe n05ICKa .H3 JilfTbIX rnaptt-
K0B, orpaHHLieHHb[X npoB0JI0'!HblMH KCJiel.JIGiMH lUIH uenoLIKaMH 3epmi. ro.JIOBKa Il0,[(-
BeCKH npe,ucTaBmH~T co6oi1 rrnpaMHLJ.KY 113 ccpe6p5IHbIX wapHK0B. Ha II0,[(BCCKe pacrro-
JI0)KeHbl K0.1et.J:Kll, co6paHHbie H3 Me;1KHX l1 KpynttblX wapHK0B, 3aBeprnaeT K0Mn03.H-
umo Ha0.60:ree KpynHbIH wapHK. OTJilflIH5I :,1e)K,IJ;y yKpaweHH5IMH 3aKJIIOtJa:IOTC5I B pa3-
H0M .ueKopaT.HBH0M pemeHHH IT05ICK0B ,)6MOTKH - ,[(JI5I Hee MacTep BbI611pa.Jl py6tJaTylO
np0B0JI0KY, C03LJ.3J01UYIO 3cp<peKT 3epmr, CK3Hb 11.1111 rJia.[(KYIO npoB0JI0Ky.
CpeLl,H MaTepl-Ia.JI0B .. xpaH5IUlHXC5I B q,oHLJ.,iX MA3, BbI)lemreTC5I HeCK0JibK0 nap H)leH-
Tll"IHbIX cepe6p5IHbIX ceper. Me)KJlY CO0OH napbl pa3JIHtJaIOTC5I pa3MepaM.H K0Jibl{a 11
n0,11,BeCKH, a T3K)KC K0JIH'IeCTB0M BHTK0B ofo.fOTKH Ha Il0,[(BeCKax. I1o.n.o6Hble napbl YK-
pamemi:tt Bbl,[(e.15IIOTCJI, nanpHMep, H cpemr MaTepllaJl0B KonHeBCKOfO KJia,la. B 3T0M
I oiumul fl, ,"v1'. 1-2 151

,rnane TaK)Ke KaK l1 Ha baIMayuh C0llep)K,lTCH Kp0MC ceper THila <:<C» l1 HeCK0nhK0 3K3eM-
ruui:poB ceper nma «B» !JiiHKa-fermeHep 1948, 184, ra6:1. II, 3.4: Kop3yx11Ha 1954, 84;
CrpoKoBa 1997, 62)3.
qTO KacaeTC51 JIHTbIX 6pOI-!30BbIX '3K3eMrnrnpo B rpo:meBI1llHblX yKpaweHI111 (MA3 HHB .
.N2MA Kn 1183/ 376-C N~1MA Kn 1183/ .316-C). TO HX HaXO,UKa Ha EKI1M3YUKOM ropomr-
lUC BeCbMa noKa3,lTCJlblla, 1160 CB1llleTeIIbCrnyt T O BXO)K;JCHHll nor,o6HI,IX yKpaweHHH
II B C0CTaB y6opa ]J5!ll0B(ff0 HaCeJieHirn (p11c.3, 16 ). Ha 1 eppHT0pH!,l MoJI,iJ,OBbl ewe 0llHO
mnoe 6poH30BOe BHC0 1HIOC K0,1CY:K0 0b[Jl() Ha(weao npH paCK0TTKax rpo1a TpHHKa I
(Eopm51K, P516oa l985, l84, pac. 3). Ko;1buo H3 TpaHKH 6onee ynpowemwe, no cpaBHe-
amo C eKllM3YllKI1Ml1. Y Hero rna,J.Ka51 JlY)KKa C ll \1HTaw1e11 HCCK0JlbKiX II051CK0B,, Ha 1101(-
BCCKe pm}J,1ea11e rronpa:,i,;aeT 3CpHCB0MY II np0BC.:101:[H0MY J,eKopy cepe6p5!HbIX o6pa3UOB.
B IX-X BB. pa3H00l)pa3Hb!C rp03LlCBIIL[Hblt' yKpawemrn WHp0J(O nper(CTaBSICHbl B
cpenHe- H HHn<He)lynaiicKoM penrnttax, HX Ha).0,llIT B naM51THHKax qex1rn, Eo,rrap1111,
PyMhIHHH (HnTpa, fpa1JemHHKH, Pa3nerrbua, :~o;p-i:e,npoM. 1;yKos11K, aJI11LJ:e, JJ:onbHll r
.TTyKOBHT, HoBn fla3ap, H3Bopyn, O6b1pw1rn n T.JJ.) (Kumatowska 1980, 155-163). Ha-
l(0llKH 6poH30BbIX ceper 11 BHCOLIHbIX K0JICU CP-HllCTCJibCTBYlOT O Il])HTOKe Ha Teppnro-
pmo l1pyTo-)lttec1pcrnrnoro pernotta rpym1b1 11onyttaacKoro HaceneHH51, n;rn Ko1oporo
r10no6tt1,1e yKpawemrn 6hun1 BeCbMa xapaKTepHbI.
J;b Bcex '"BOJlblHCKH)( ,, ceper HMCHHO THII «( '» HMeeT Han6011ce 06wnpny10 TeppHT0-
plllO pacnpocrpaHemrn. oxBaTbIBaioruyio Kap ia10-I1orlHecrposbe, BoJibIHb, flo,;:men-
p0Bhe, TpaHcIIJibBattmo, BeHrpmo, qexnio, Cn.1 >BaKmo, Tionbwy, 61,rnwyio IOrocnaBmo
(Pa6HHOBH4, P516urna l 997, 237, Ta~1 n<c mnepa1ypa). npororHn3.MH ;:xn5l Hero cLJ:11Ta-
10rc:i: rp()3,UeBHLlHbIC cepbrH, rrpe;_tcTaBJICHHbIC B aBapCKlIX MOrHJibHlIKax VIII B. (I1ep-
xaBK0 1986, 30). TaK )KC KaK u npoT0THilbI npe,JhlllYllllIX "BOJiblHCKHX" ceper, npoTOTl1-
l1hl ceper 1nna "C" no.7ly1:I111u1 na111>ttdiwee p t3B:vrrue B .apeBH0CT51X BemIKOH i\,fopa-
Birn . Ha reppnrop1rn BocTOLJ:HOH EBpOIIbI rpn rpo3neBH.JHbIX cepe6p51HbIX K0JibUa
MopaBCK0ro THITa, nanrpyeMblX KOHUOM IX - repBOH 110JIOB1IHOH X B., 6hlJIH HattllCHbl
B fuc3n0Bc (TTymKnHa 1987, 55). B Kapnan1-nonyHaBbC pai:-11-me Bap1rnttrhI nono6-
HbIX yKpawernra rrpe;J,craBJJCHbl B M0fHJihHHK,~ l13Bopyrr, rnc OHlI 0TH0C5!TC51, rro Bceii
BHLlirIM0CTH, K IX B. (p11c.3, 2,3) (Mitrea 1967, 456, fig. 51.
1-IaXO]lKH HHX yKparneHHH qacro BCTpeLJ:ah)TCfl B norpe6a;1bHbIX naM5![THHKax, l13Y-
L£eHHbIX Ha Teppinoprnr 61,rnwe1i IOrocnaBnH :]uric 1986, Tab. lV, VI). Tipe.J.CTaBneHbI
0HH H B Eonrapmr (HeKporron11-lyKoBHT, fan1I11e. I1pernaBa a fLrncKn) (Bb)KapoBa 1976,
207.244; BbDKapoBa 1987, 298-308, p11c. 4) He TeppHTOpHH PyMbIHHH COCTaBHblC n J1H-
TblC BapaaHTbI 3Tl1X )'Kpawermii HaH)JCHbr B I'JJJ)'K3HCHb, E,naHJlliaHC, Opaue II THMH-
moape (p11c. 3, 7-11) ( Spinei 1999, 66: Teodor 1980. 404; Radulescu ::oo
1, 167, Abb. 11; Dragota,
~itoi 2005, 223-227).
flo BCCf:1 BllLll1MOCTll, MOiKH0 BbI)JeJIHTb H{~CKOJibK0 LlCl-ITp0B IIp0H3B0,UCTBa ceper
THna "C:". Omrn. rrp11ypoi.1eHHh111 K Ea:IKaHCK,)MY penrnHy, BTopc11 - K Kaprran)-Tion-
HenpoBcKoMy. Bropoi1 uet!Tp, BCp0511H0., CHa6)l{aJI 3THMH yKpau1eHI15!MlI l1 TeppHT0-
pmo TIOJiblliH, CQC OHll ocenas'IH B BII}le C0KpC BlllU B K:1aJLaX (H 0BHK0Ba 1990, 113; Pa-
6m[OBH4, P516uesa 1997, 241 ). I1o MHeH1110 P.A. Pa61moBnLJ:a., Kaprraro-J:\aenpoBCKHH
pen I OH, B K01 opm.1 npo~BB0LII!J1l!Cb cepe6p.llHbl ,: Tl!CHCHbJe yKpameH rm, B 1-IaCTH0CTH, cepb-
f'll nma "C"' HaX0,'UL!C.5! C repp1nopHel1 rloI billll B Cl1CTe\-1e KOO l1ep1Ip0BaHl151, CB5l3H,

1
no.TJb'3y'5ICJ, c,1yiiaeM npmrowy L1y60Ky10 friaro;Japl IOCTb 3aBeJyI01I1ei1 KJ!('.BCKOfO My3e51 llCTOpw,ecKHX
.ziparoue1lHOCTei"1 }l.R CTpOKOBoii. 3d ;1106e·3110 npe,JOC:TaB: ·~lmy10 B03MO)K!-IOCTb U3lMKOMIITbC5! C KonneKUHdi.
1.52 Rcvis(u An'u:ulogiu'i. Se:n',c: ,wurl

ocyw,ecTBJI5IBUieik5[ rro ToproBOMY ny:H "lkpHoe Mope - )J,HCCTP -- BepXOBh5I 3arraIJ,HO-


ro Eyra - B11cJrn - 1:;,rnn1iicKoe Mope". flo :no My nyTH tta Tepp11Topmo coBpeMeHHOII
Pecny6JIHKH rv10:rncrna nocryna:1H .IUipXCMbl, KOTOpbIC 3,CleCh HCIIOJ1b'..IOBa:mch B OCHOB-
HOM KaK Cbipbe Il,J15I MeCTHOfO IOBen11p 'fOfO npOH3BO]lCTBa ( OOJII,lllHHCTBO «BOJihIHCKHX»
ceper EKHMJYU,KOfO roponmua H'\•teI01 npo1Sy 960, COBIIa,rraIOIUYIO C npo6oii MOHeTHOfO
cepe6pa). qacn, yKpawettnii no JTOMY iKe nyn1 rrepenpaBJrn;:raci, Ha ceBep., rro ttanpaB-
nemno K EanTHKe, 1-no HJIJIIOCTpHpyeTn1 K0Hue1npau,neii ceper nma "C" B 1rnanax ·"py6-
nenoro cepe6pa" B 6acceiitte B11cnb1 (Pa611HomF-1 1999, 263-274).

EycuHHbte euco'IH1J,1e 1..-o.11bu,a u cepb,'U. B u.enoM ,J;rn IlpyTo-;::I,aecTpoBCKoro per11ona


HaXOJlKH pam-rnx THIJOB 6ycHHHhIX KOrn:Tl HC xapaI(TepHbl. HcKmO'ICHllC COC'raBJHIIOT ;:J,Ba

0 'W
1 2 3

n
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y•

Y.
Puc . .3. Ccpbrn u BHC04Hbie yKparnemrn KaprraTo-J],ym1trcKoro pernoHa
IX - Ha4,ura XI BB. (Macuna6F.,r pa3HLIC). l - Croi1KaHh, 2 -- 06h1punrn, 3 -
J13Bopyn, 4-7.,10,11,15 - P3JlYK3HCHh, 8,9 - EnamurnHa, 12-14,16 - EKHM3-
y111,.
Volumul II, N1: 1-2 153

Me;:IHhlX K0JleY.Ka C THCHeHbIMII 6ycHHKaMII, HaiL (eHHbie B rrorpe6emm 74 Ep3HelllTCKO-


ro M0rl1JlbHHKa (<De.n:opoB, qe6oTapeHKO, BemIKaHOBa 1984, 48-49) 3nI K0JibI.I,a rrp11-
Ha.[(ne:,KaT K nmy Ol(H06ycHHHhIX II lllIIp0K0 rrpemTaBJieHbl B K0HUe X-XI BB. B KypraHHblX
ll])CBH0CT5IX Pyci1, HaXOD.~IT attanonPIHhie yKpa1u~:Hm1 11 B TionyHaBbe - B HcTp1111, ,[J;an-
Maumr, EonrapIIH, PyMhIHHH (.5Iccbr, ,[J;o6ell1Tb), 1 [exm1 H Mopas11n (P516ue1m 2000, 215).

YKparneum1 011eJK~hI
</Ju6yJlbl. <D116y.Jibl TaIOKe 5IBJI5IIOTC5I pe.[(KHM 11 HaX0l(KaMII nmr paccMa TpHBaeMoro
perIIoHa. )Kene3Hble TIOllKOB006pa3Hbie qm6y.'1hI 6bIJII1 Ha11neHbl Ha EKIIM3YL(KOM ropo-
}11111.J.e (ontta r.I,ena5! 6e3 JffJibI, cpparMeHT BTopo1111 0T/i:enbH0 Hrna - HMI1M HHB. 0/7485-
223-225) (pIIc. 6, 8.9). <D116yJibl BblTI0JIHeHbl ll3 Ii pylleHoro D.P0Ta, K0HL(bl paCK0BaHbl 11
corHyTbI B Tpy6oqKII. AmlJIOfIIY.Hbie crrttpaneK0HC'-IHbie T0PD.Hp0BaHHblC qm6ynhI npo-
HCX0.JJ,HT C TeppHT0pHH ,llpeBI-Iett Pyc11, rne TaK)l(e BCTpeqaIOTC5I HC'-IaCT0 (HarrpHMep, B
f'He3.[(0BCKHX II Te~mpeBc1mx Kyprattax H naTHP) IOTC5I X-XI BB.). B 3T0T )Ke nepno.n 0HH
pacnpocTpaHeHhI B flpII6aJITHKe II CKaH)lllHaBCKHX CTpaHax (JleBalllOBa 1967, 156-157).

IlyzoBUU,bl u 6y6eH'IUKU. K HaJI6oJiee paHHHM nmaM OTH0C5!TC5! KpeC'ronpope3Hbie


6pott30Bhre 6y6effYIIKH, npo11cxon5!U.J.He c ropoLHIU.J.a EKHM3Yilh (HHB. N2MA 1183/478,
479-C) (pHC. 5, 4). AttanOrn'-IHbie 6y6eHI.JHKI1 HaXCJ)l5IT B 0CH0BH0M B Tip1ma,1J,O)KCKJIX Kyp-
nrnax c C0)K)KCHH5IMH H BO BnanHMHpcKHX Kyprattax X-XI BB. (Ma.JihM, •:Dexttep 1967,
133.134). Ha Tepp11Top1rn KaprraTo-Tio;::i;yi-caBhH ue1ra51 rro116opKa KpecTorrpope3HhIX
6y6ettt.J:HKOB rrp0HCX0.[(HT 113 bblpJia,na (Teodor 1978, 201, fig. 42, 24-28).
TipoCTbie rryroBKH-6y6ewrnKH 6bIJIH Haif)lCHbl Ha M0fHJibHHKe J1HM6apb, 6pOH30-
Bbie rrycToTenbre rryroBKH - B rrorpe6emrn N262 11 B pa3pylllem-10M rrorpe6eHm1 :noro
MorHJJlbHHKa (qe6ornpeHKO 1982, 20; XbrnKy 1965, 22, p11c. 43, 7). EpoH3osa5I rpyllleBH1l-
H:rn nyroBIIUa rrp0HCXOLIHT H3 M0fHJibHHKa AJit.J:e. '.~ap (<DenopoB 1964, 77-88, pHC. 35). Ha
rroceneHHl1 TieTpyxa 6bIJia Ha1111eHa II0JI0BHHKa GpoH30BOro KOJIOKOJ.[h'-IHKa C TpeyrOJib-
H:bIM rpaBHposaHHbIM op1-raMeHT0M. B rrorpe6emrn 4 M0fHJibHHKa K3rrp3])H5! 6una 06-
Hapy)KeHa 6poH30Ba5I nwnrn rpH60BHHa5I rryroBJrua, no;::i:o6Hbie nyroBHUbI HMeIOT aHa-
norHH B caJIT0BCKHX H BemepCKHX npeBH0CT5IX (XbIHKY 1965, 40, p11c. 43, 9) (p11c. 5, 9-13).
YHHKaJihHa HaX0.[(Ka Ha6opa 113 t.J:CTbipex cepc6pimhIX THCHCHbIX map0BI11IHhIX nyro-
BlfU, yKpalllCHHbIX 3epHblO (pHC. 4, 13), c,neJiaI-LHa5I B C0CTaBe HHBeHTap5! 3axoponeHH5I N2 6
J:[)Kyp;::i:)KyJielllTCKOro M0HUlbHlIKa. bbIJIO HafulCHO 2 uenux H 2 cppan1eHTHpoBaHHhIX m11e-
JIIUI (HMHM inv. 1178-1182). TiyroBIIIJ:hI cocroHT m Tpex 11eTaneii B cepellHHe - THCHCHhIH
uiapmc-TyJI0B0, sepXH515I H HH)KH515I l.JaC'fH K0Topon, yrn10rueHhl. K mapHKaM 6hlJII1 IIpHrra5I-
HbI, C00TBeTCTBCHH0, CBep~:y - rpy6I.JaToe YWK0, CBepHyToe JI3 JIHCTKa MeTaJLl.a, a cmny -
TJICHeifa5I rp03)leBH.JlHa5I II0)lBeCKa-nHpaMlllIKcl (JkBHIJ:KlII1, Xaxey, PH6uesa 2000, 90).
A1rnnorHt.J:Hhie nyromu~hI rrpo11cxonHT H'.3 KJia)],0B cepe6p5!tthIX yKpawettHH cepe.ilH-
HbI X-XII BB., BCTpe11eHHhrx B 6acce11nax B11c;1b1, }J:y1rn5I, ,[J;ttecrpa H )ltterrpa (,[J;apyqmnh-
Ba, MawettHua, BecoJ1K11, ,[J;3e)KHHUa, MeKnen6ypr-KB11nnue) (Slc1.ski-Tabaczynski 1959,
Taf. XII, 2; XXII; V; Kocka-Krenz 1993, 93; Kiersnowsky 1959, Taf. XVII, 2). B )lapyq.ianhBe
TiiJMHM0 CCMH wap0BHlIHhIX rryr0BHU 6hIJIO natt;(eHO nsanuaTb ;:(eBHTb THCHCHblX KOJI0-
K0.10BH1IHhIX Il)TOBHU C TpeM5I BapHaHTaMH )J:CK0pa, BhlTI0JIHeHH0f0 ll3 3epm1 H HaKJia.JJ,-
HOH cepe6p5IHOiI rrp0B0JI0KH. AnaJIOfHt.J:Hhie K0JWK0J10BH}].Hble 3epHeEhie nyroBHIJ:bl HaH-
)leHhI B PyMhlHJill (B LJ:3fa,1Ke - p11c. 4, 14), H3BCCTHhl 0HH H B Ilonbrue (MameHHUa 0Kp
BpouJiasa) (Teodor 1981, 112, fig. 20; Slc1.ski-Tabac2 ynski 1959).
B nonnerrpoBbe rnapoBH.[(Hbie 3epneHhIC rryr 0BHUbI tta111i:em.1 B ,J,eHHCOBCKOM, Ko-
IIUeBCK0M l1 ftte3)l0BCKOM 1993 r. KJianax, mrrnpyeMbIX cepe111rnoii X - Hat.J:aJI0M XI BB .
154

(Kop3yx11na 1954, 22-23; TTyrnKHHa 1996). Cpen11 1-rnxo;:i:oK c Tepp1uopm1 Bocn,qnoi1


EBpOIThl BbI}leJUUOTC:,J[ Ml1HHanopHbie nyroBKl1, )'Chll1aHHhie 3epHhlD 113 Kon11eBCKOro ICia-
n:a (JiinKa-fermeHep 1948, 184, Ta6n. LL 3.4; Kop3yx11Ha 1954, 84; CrpoKoBa 1997, 62).
flyroBKH, amrnor111-1Hhre Ha1iueHHhIM B Ko1me:sKe, npo11cxo.z:1:51T 113 ynoMRHyToro Bhrwe
3axop01-ieHm1, pacKonaHHoro Ha Tepp1nop1rn ropoaa Krry)I(. B :ffOM rrorpe6emm Bem11
C 3epHhlD ( «BOJihIHCJ-<11e» KOJibUa H MHirnanopHhie 3epHeHbie IT}TOBKI1) 6bIJil1 HaiiaeHh[
COBMeCTHO C npe,aMeTaMH BCa,UHHt.J:eCKJH K)olhTYPhl B 3axop0Hemm, np11Ha}lJie)KaBI1IeM,
B03MO)l(HO, BeHrpy. B norpe6emm 6hrn11 Ha11,ueHbI ca6m1, CTpeMeHa, yn11Jia H cpparMeH-
TbI IT05ICHOro ]-Ia6opa (Spinei 1999, 66, fig. 14 ).
flpOTOTl1IIaMJ1 jlJHI Kpym-IhIX TlICHeHbIX 1ryrOBHU C 3epHhl0 5!BJI5!IOTC5!, Bep05!THO, Ha-
XO}lKll 113 BeJI11KoMopaBcK11x rrorpe6emrH CTaporo Koyp)l(11Ma 11 MHKYJiht.J:l1U. NIHHH-
anopHhie rryroBKII HJ Kny:)l<a 11 KonHcBKH 6m:t3Kl1 K Mas1eHhKHM rryroBHUaM, yc1:,man-
HblM 3epHbIO m Tpmrn: ()_:(aJ1Maum1) (P>16ueBa 2005, 129).

llleu11b1e yKparneHHH
I'pU6Hbl'. K Ha116onee paHHHM THIIaV[ rpHBeH, cpe}lH HaH[leHHhlX B IIpyTo-,UHeC'rpoB-
CKOM perHOHe, O~:HOCHTC5I rna;:ma5I M3.CCHBf-Ia5I cepe6p5IHa5I .,J,])01'0Ba51: rpHBHa C 3aMKOM
B JJ:BOHHYIO rrermo, HaII/J;eHHa5! Ha ropo.nmne A1111e)lap. EcTb coo6memrn, '-ITO rrepB0Ha-
11aJ1hHO KOHUH rpHBHhI OhIJIH yKpaweH:&I Cl<aHl:,IO, B HaCT05Ill.lCe BpeMSI OHa Ha BCW:H OT-
cyTCTByeT (cDenopoB, 1Ie6oTapeHKo 1974, 80; HMHM HHB. N20/7261) (pHc. 5, 2). A11ano-
rHt.J:Ha5! Macc1rnmrn rpHBHa rrpOIICXOD.l1T II'.:i KJJa}la P3JJ:YK3HeHh (PyMhIHH5.1) (p11c. 5, 1)
(Teodor 1980, 403-423). Ha116onee 6.rrn3KI-Ie aHanornH naHHhIM rpIIBHaM rrpoIICX0)],5IT I-I3
pyccKIIX KJia)lOB BTO pott IIOJIOBlIHhI IX - m-tt-raJia X BB. B 3TOT ne:pHO)X 6om,rnIIe Jl]JOTO-
B_bie rpHBHbI C 3aMKOM B }lBOHHYIO rrermo rrpencraBJieHhI rrpaKTHLJeCKH BO BC:ex KJia,nax, a
HeKOTOphie 113 I-IHX (IC[a}lbl Y3hMIIHO, I'opKH) COCT05!T IICKJII04IITeJihHO 113 TaKHX rpIIBeH
(Kop3yXHHa 1954, 21 ). MacCIIBHa5! Ce;Je6p:rna5I JlPOTOBa5I rpIIBHa, IIOJIHOCThIO anano-
I'l1t.J:Ha5! HaH)leHH:bIM B AJII-IC;':Iape II P::,11yK:JHeHh, rrpOHCXOL[HT H3 cJiyt.J:aHHOH. HaXO}lKH
1891 r., cneJiaHHOH y MeCTe'-IKa 11mmcu. JlimoBeUKOro ye3,1a KneBcK011 ry6. (Kon:. fo-
cy,aapcTBenHoro '.3p:11HTa)Ka IIHB. N2l 025) 4 .
HH OLlHO II3 lI3BeCn-IhIX HaM yKpameJ-IHJI CKaHHhIX HIITe1I He liMCeT, B03M())KHO, He 6hIJIO
IIX na rpIIBHe H3 AJ-it-Ienapa. flo aHanonrn c semaMII H3 nepB011 rpynrrbr pyccKIIx KJ1an0B
(Kop3yXIIHa 1954., 20.21) npoTOBhie rp1rnHhI tn 1crnna P3.J:YK3HeHh II AJ14enapcKoro rnpo-
1u1ma TaK)f(e MoryT 6hITb }laTl1]JOBaHhI :nopoH HOJ10BHHOH IX - Hat.J:aJIOM X BB.
B Ep3HCWTCKOM ,1on-LflhHI1Ke ewrn,:rBe1-1naH HaXO.llKa llleHHOH rpHBHhI 61,ma c,Qena-
Ha He B COCTa:se '.!aXO]POHCHH5!, a B KYJlhTYPH0\1 CJIOe. 3TO 6pOH30BaH JlPOTOBa5I BIITa5.I
rpIIBHa c neTJI5!MH Ha KOHUaX. Ilono6HJ,Ie rrHBHhl xapaKTepHbI wrn D,PCBHepyccKHX rra-
M5!THl1KOB X-XI BB. ( 1(DenopoB, qe6oTapeHKO, Ben11KaH0Ba 1984, 49 . 50; <t•exttep 1967,
70-71 ). IlpII pac1rnm:ax AJit.J:enapcKoro MornJihHIIKa TaK)Ke 6hl.rrn Hatt.lleHa rrono6Ha5l
BI1Ta5I 6poH30Ba5I rpa1rna (cDenopoB I S64, 77-88, pnc. 35). fp1rnHhI Ha EKIIM3YUKOM ro-
pO.llHLUe rrpe.llCTaBneHhI 6 3K3eMITJI5!pa MH a 11aJIOI'Ht.J:HhIX an11enapCKHM BHThIX H3 Tpex
,ll]JOTOB C rreTeJ1bKaMI1 Ha KOHuax lI nBy \151 3K3CMilJI5!paMH .ll]JOTOBhIX C 3aMKHYThIMI1 KOH-
uaMII (IIHB. N2 KlJ 1] 83/ 345-350) (pm:. 6, '.2). B11.TIIIMO BHThie rpIIBHhI OhIHH }lOBOJihHO
rrorry;rnpHhI y Hacenefnrn flpy-ro-)_:(nec,~poBcKoro perIIOHa.

4
floJih3YHCb cJiyciaeM. np1rnowy nry60Ky10 6:rarc,,JapHocTh xpamITemo rocynapcrnemroro =~pMHTa)l(a
P.C. M1-rnac5!HY 3a mo6e:mo rrpe.uocTaBJie1rny10 B03MO:iKHOCTb 03HaKOMl1TbC5LC Kon;1eKunett.
ViJ!umul II, 1,.rr. 1-2 155

4
1 2

10
12 13
14

Puc. 4. )lcTaJIH O)Kepemrtt H nyroBHUbl Kapm, ro-,[J:HeCTpOBCKOfO pernoHa KOHUa IX -


HaLtana XI BB. (MacIInafo,1 pa3Hbre). 1,4,6,7 -- P3t,YK3HCHh, 2,8-12 -- EKHMayuh, 3 - q11M-
6py.u, 5 - 031!'-IeHb, 13 --- )l)Kyp.u)KyJieIIITh, 14 - lb6b.IKa.

/jemaJlU OJICepe.wii. Jly11HUl(bl. B Ep:rneIIITCKO\f MOfl1JlhHI1Ke (norp. 74) 0}1Hl1M 3K3CMTI-


JrnpoM rrpeJJ,cTaBrreHa 6poH30Ba5I Tpexpora5I IT) ttmrua. TioJJ,BecKa mna5I JIO)KH03epHe-
Jl a5I, B UCHTpru'IhHOIT qacTJI yKparneHa Kpy)KKaMJ [, a Ha «pO)KKax» - KarrneBH}1HhlMI1 qm-
rypa;-.m (<DeJJ,opoB, lle6oTapenKo, BemIKaHoBa 1984, 25, p11e. 1 L Ill, 7). 3Ta srynnm~a
6JHI3Ka K paHHI1M :rnrram-[ocnaB5IHCKI1M 06pa3ua,1 (Malachowska 1998, 37-123).
Jhrra5I Tpexpora5I nyF-mrrua l13 Ep:rnernTCKO. ·o MOI'HJibHHKa 1J,ar>1pyeTC5I HCCKO.'lbKO
60J1ee TT03}1HIIM B)JCMCH,~M, qeM nymmua C Ep31-ICIIITCKOro rroceJieHirn (npOIICXOJJ,l-IT 113
CHOCB KYJihTYJJbI J[yK11-PaHKOBCUKOI1), 11 MO)KCT 6LITb COOTHeceHa C Ha116onee I103/l,Hdt
BOJIH0!1 3ana}1HOCJiaB5IHC}COfO BJII15IHI15I, ;:(aT11pycMOH no MaTeprranaM KJia}10B KaprraTO-
rio.uHeCT)JOBb5I 11 I10}1HCnpoBb5I cepe;:J.HHOI1 XB (Pa6HHOBWl, P5I6UeBa 1997, 236-245).
C noceneHH5I np3HemTh XIII rrpmrcxomn n11Ta5I JJ,B_yxpora5I HYHHI111,a, yKparneHHa5I
nceB}J.03CJ)HhlO, HaH}lCHHcLH COBMCCTHO C rIOHOBIIHKOIT JIHTOll 6pOH30BOIT rryroBKH B 3a-
EOJIHemrn )KHJII11Ua N2l (XhmKy 1969, 52.53). I101106I-i1,re nymrn1i1,1 m.T11py10Trn KOHUOM
X-XI BB. (YcneHcKa5l 1967, 103). ohura Haiinetta B np3HCillTb H n11ra51 ;lByxpora51 rryHHH-
i:.a C BOJIHI1CTbIM opHaMCHTOM. TIOllBCCKH-JJYHHi1UbI C BOJIHHCTl,l,\1 OpHaMCHTOM xapaK-
~1epHbI n.:rn KapnaTcKoro penrm-rn BX-XI BB. (Kralovansky 1959, 76, t. XIL XIII).
0 B:I115!Hl[l1 3aIIa,'IHOCJiaB5IHCKOro IOBe.1:HpHc,ro nena MoryT CBHJICTCJlbCTBOBaTb Ha-
XOllKH IIOJlBCCOK-Jl:YHHIIU, npo11cxoa5IIIll1e c EKHvDYUKoro ropo;umra. EpoH30Ba5I JIHTaH
:iaMKH)'Ta5! JI)'HHI1!],a C «pora'.\-111» B BHLIC LICplIBilTOB pacnue.fJbHblX no6croB (p11c. 4, 2)
1,. axo,a11T rrp5IMhie aHanorm1 s 3arra1lHornaB5IIICKHX 11peBHOCT51X IX - Ha1.rnna X B.
( Rejholcova 1995). l1cxo;u-wii TO'-IKOH pacnpoCTpaHCHH5! MO)lbI Ha no,106Hhle TIOllBCCKH
156 Rc'l'isla Arhcolog.ica. Serie f!Ulll[

5IBJUieTC5I, Bepo5ITHO, Bem1Ka5I Mopam-rn. HecKOJibKO o6pa3UOB TaKnx uo.,:lBecoK nponcxo-


DJH, Hanpl1Mep, l-l3 H1npbl (Dekan 1979, 30, "2 l56). IlpaKTlP-:leCKH 11lICHTl-Il.fHa5I CKl-Ilv1.3yU-
K01I nyHHnua (pm:. 4, I) 6bma Haiwem1 B Kna; te PJ.JYKJHeHh, PyMhrmrn (Teodor 1980, 404 ).
)lBypora5I cepe6p1rna51 3epHeHa5I :1:nrn111 ra c EniMJYUKOro ropoLJ:mua 1rnJrneTrn, Ha
Ham B3I'J15IL(, nepexon,HbIM 3BeH0M OT 3ana.urocJiaB5IHCKI1X o6pa3UOB K TI1lJiflIHbIM L(J15I
)]'.peBHeI1 PycII m11p0Kopor11M 3Cpm:H :,[l\t JIYHl-llfUaM. HaXOllKa 3CpHeHo-qnurnrpaIIHOH
nyHHHUbI pamrero 11-1na Ha EKnMJYUKOM ropomrwe, a n-tK)KC cxonHhi:x JIYHHMU B imane
P3LlYK3HCHb (pnc. 4, 6-8) (Teodor 198( 403-423 ), CBHilCTC,l:bCTByeT 0 rrpo).],BmKeHJrn lI3
1
,

nonyHaBb5I Ha B0CT0K MOllbI Ha !10JlO}HbIC yKpawemrn. illTaMnOBa!IHO-c}:n:r:rnrpaHHbie


lIByporHe nyHI--Il1llbl H3 )TI-IX K0MTIJieKCJB no cpopMe II0ilBCCKH 6m13KH K Han6onee paH-
HHM BapHaHTaM, naTnpyeMbIM KOHU0\1 IX - irnt.ianoM X BB. no Haxo.,:xKe n3 CTaporo
l'v1ecTa (Hruby 1965, tab. LX; Malachowska 1998, 37-123). AHanon1q1rn51nyHHHI.I,a 6brna
HafuleHa I-I B KorrneBCKOM KJJaD,e (fliHK1-renneHep 1948, 182-190: Kop3yxntta 1954, 84).

llo.11ycrj)epu11ec«ue :1epnenb1e noifoecKu B K1pnaTo-TionttecTpoBhe 6hmn HaHJleHhI TOJih-


K0 Ha ropo.am1ie EKIIM3)'l.I,b (p11c. 4, 9.]] ). ')rn no.aBeCKI1 OTHOC5ITC5I K nepB0My THIIY no
HaWdI THilOJI0rmI - C OllHHM TI1CHCHbIV[ K0Jlfla'iKOM B I.I,CHTpe f!0,D,BCCKI1 (P5t6I.I,eBa 2005,
123). EbDO HairneHo 'leTbrpe 1v11-m11a110pHbr>, MenanhoHa H ywKo oT ml.Toro (MA3 HHB.
Ng 1135, 1136, OAM HHB. N2 80-82). l~e1-upa11hHa5I nonyccpepa, yc1,mam-ra51 KpynHoi:t 3ep-
HJ6EO, coxpam-nacb T0JihKO y 0.[lHOH 110,lBCCirn. :hoT Me.aa,'lbOH OTJinqaeTC5I OT Tpex .apy-
nrx 11 xapaKTepoM CKaHH0-3epHeBoro .aeKopa. OH yKpaweH He TpeyroJ1hHI1KaMn 3epHn, a
0T/lCJibHbIM11 nonocaMH, TaK)Ke CICJ1aL(bIB::UOLllHMli1C5I B y3op B BHl(e TpeyronhHI1KOB. Cxon-
Hble no.aBeCKH npoHCX0,ll5IT l13 rHe3L(OBCKHX KJiaL(0B 1867 H 1993 rr. l13 KJia)lOB CnaHKa,
OCTpcrn, m norpe6e1<1ti1 B KHeBe, qepH11roBe, y c. ropon11we (Bnanm.rnpcKaR ry6), y c.
qepeBKa. HaxonRT rrouo6Hhie Meaa.nb0FhI 11 B KJ1a11ax CKal-lllHHaBHH -- Eoprec, J1mre Potte,
Eypre (P5I6UeBa 2005, 125, pHC. 45). flonycq)epwieCKHe 3CpHeHbie fI0lIBCCKH 1105IBJ15IEOTC5I
B X B.. H 6hrTymT Beeb XI B., B03M0)KH0., oxnan,rna5I I-I ttaqaJ10 XII B., o l.feM CBnneTenh-
CTBYK>T ).J,aTbI 1cna.aoB OcTpoB, Wanaxc,no 11 EenorocTHHO (Kop3yxHHa 1954, 97.98).

JlucmoeuiJHble ll008fCKU. O.z:r.1-rn 3K3CM 1.1:5Ip KpyrrHOH 6pOH30BOH JIUCTOBI1L(HOH n0,llBCCKH


npo11cxonur m ;xeTcKoro norpe6emrn B lJJam,Bnpax (KypqaroB 1991, 23, 24). £n51xa 6poH-
30Ba5I JIHTaJI no BOCKOBOH MOlICJIH D,OB0J[bH0 KpynHoro pa3Mepa (7, 7 X 5, 1 CM). B l.I,CHTpe
H3.aemrn pacno,1:o)KeHo l.feTbipe 0TBepcnrn. ITo Kpa10 6m1xa yKpawetta Bpe3HhIM u11p-
KYJlbHhIM 0pHaMeHT0i\1. HH)KHlfl1 Kpaii I10,clBCCKl1 o6nO'.\!aH B ;:rpeBH0CTlf. Bo3MO)KH0,
nepBouaqaJihHO 1nne.aue Hcrronh30Ba.rncb KaK Kor10yu1Ka. fIOjl06HbIC JIHCTOBHJm1,1e
yKpaweHn5I xa pa1nepHbI ;:urn nel.feHeJKc:Koro )KCHCKoro Kocno:via. Omr npei:tcTaBneHbI B
KapnaTo-TTo.aytrnBI:.e )lOBOJibH0 6om,u Hl\f K~);lHqecTBO:vt Haxo,.:xoK ()],mrnreu:i-rn (6 :lK3.),
Hyqnpy (I 3K3.), I13Kywn nyii Coape (2 :tK3.), «Basrn )],aqenop>> (1 3K3.) . MCTp1rn (2 JK3.) H
B lBanaxHH-- B }:;3Kype1JJTb-CTp3ynewTb (1 .JK3) H llp.) (Spinei 1973; Dumitriu 2002, 49). Haxo-
mn raKne m.aenm1 H B Eonrap1m (BapI-ia, n:rncKa, C1rn11CTpa H ilp.) (H.010B 2000, 211,
Ta6.1:. l; Horon 2006 ). PacnpocTpaHeime 3TH:>, yKpaweHm1 rrpoHcxo.auT c BocroKa 1-rn 3a-
na.a H3 Cn6npu 11 floBOJDKb5I, 3axBaTbma51 flpwlepHoMopbe 1-1 KaprraTo-EanKaHcKm:l pe-
rn:cm (TIJl:CTHeBa 1963, 255, <De.aopoB-)],;iBbI.[l,)B 1966, 54, pac. 9; <1>HJ1HilqeHKO 1959, 240,
pac . l; ryKHH, Kyp,1aToB 1995, 143-14.5; PR6UcBa 2005a, 350-358).

Eycbl .wemannu11ec1;:ue. I1p11 pacKonKax s1or11nbm1Ka An,reZLap 6hl.rra ttatin.eHa onHa


cepe6p5!Ha5I 6HyceqeEHa5I 6yc1rna, yKpamem1a5I 3epHbIO 11 cKaHhKI (KypraH N2 2) (<t1e.ao-
pcrn 1964, 77-88, p11c. 35), 1IMe1owaR amtnorn11 rm EKHMJYUKOM ropon11w.e. Ha EKHMJY-
1.(ax fo,rno Ha11ueHo 3 3K3eMnnRpa no;:w6HblX cepe6pm-rh1x fomHpaMHllaJihHhIX 6ycrrn,
yKparneHHb[X 3epHeBblMl1 I10JlOCaMn, Tp~yro.ilbHHKal\m H poM6aMH (MA3 I1HB. N2. 83-85)
110!1111wl II, N1'. 1-2 157

(p11c. 4, 10.12). Cepe6pm-Ibie 6yc11Hbl, IT0JIH0CTi,10 aHaJ!0flFIHbie H3HlleHHbIM B TipyTo-


,t~HeCTpOBCKO:Vf pernoHe BCTpeY.eHbl B 1-leXI1Jl (l.J 11CTeBeu 0Kp. rpa)lCK KpanoBe) B C0CTa-
BC KJlcUla X-XJ BB. (Turck 1948, 481-535. obr. l ). KpoMe yKpawemdi (6yc 11 ceper) B Knai:(e
!IplKYICTB0Ba:rn [l 366 MOHCT, \.IJiaD,UJHe [!} K0T,)pb!X 0TII0C5ITC5l KO 3pCMemI npaB.:IeHH5!
J;onec.1aBa II (967-999).
B norpe6ernm N~6 )]:~i,:yp;rn,yJ1e1JJCKoro wm::-rhHJIKa HaIILlCHa o_;rna 0BaJibHa51 cepe6-
[»1mur 6ycmrn, Bhrrro.-meHHa51 II3 rrpoBo;ro,rnoi o KapKaca 11 D.CKopaponaHHa51 JepHbIO
·:HMHM inv. I 1782). K:1.pKac .1onoJ1bHO pb1xs1Lii, CB060L1Hb1i'i. flo 5oKaM - npoBoJiol1-
111,1e K0.lC'-IKH, CKB03h KOTOpbie npOlICBanach I 11n:a 0'iKepeJih51. K K0J1Cl-fKaM KpeI15!TC5!
UB.JJlbHbIC npoB0J10'-IHbie «JrenecTKH», crra}HIHb e B UCHTpe 6ycIIHhl. A'iKypHbie KapKac-
i'{blC 6ycHHbl, ,YKpameHHhIC 3CpHblO, npe,:lCT:lBm Hbl B X-XI BB. HCCK0JibKI1MH pa.3H0BI1L(-
H0CDI\.!II H xapaKTepHbl 13 0CH0BH0M t1JUI 10:>KHbI ,; JI UCHTpaJihHbIX pe.~H0H0B Pyci1. CBoe-
o6pa3HbIC nap11aHTbl a;.i,ypHhIX 6yc BCTpeY.aIOT,;51 11 B 3arramrncJiaB~HCKHX Ll]JCBH0CT5!X
1Dekan 1979, cat. 172; flcBHilKHii, Xaxey, P5I6ue11a 2000, 93, p11c. 2, 1).

YKparneuusi py1,
EpacHembr. B £pJHeJJJTCKOM :--.1orHJihHI1Ke 11awSonee qacTo BCTpe4anHCh IIpocTbie
f p0ifl0Bbie 6pacneTbl, BhIK0BaHHbie l13 KBa)lpan-roro B ce11.e1-nrn /lPDTa C HCC0MKHYTbl-
1

Mil. 3aoc1peHHbIMH K0HWlMH (2 HaX0LIKH B KYJibTYJJH0M CJIOC l1 omrn B rrorpe6e1-nrn 43 M


,rne -74). KpoMe Toro, B 110rpe6emm 40 6b1.:1 Hai1;J.eH 6poH30Bbih: neTJICKOHeY.HbIH 6pac-
:1e1, C:Bl1Th!H H3 CHO>KCHHOH B TPH pa3a np0B0JI0Kl1. O6a 3TH THna 5pacJJeTOB WH]J0K0
upe,'.lCTaR[CHbI Kah y B0CT0'-!HbIX, TaK II y IO>KHbJ:( H 3anaJHbIX CJiaB5Lf. Tiono6m,Ie 6pac-
JICTbI 5IB.15110TC51 rrpaKTH'ICCKH 005f3aTenbHOl1 Ha 'COLIKOM BO Bcex HCK ponosrnx Eonrapm1
X-XIII BB. (cM . , HanpuMep, Crattl!eB, lfattroBa, fleTKOBa 1961, 38). Ha Pycn 0HH 61,rnH
BecbMa nonymrpttbI c XI no XIV BB. (Cei1.0Ba 19.:1, 94).
TI pH pacKorIKax 3CM.Hl!HKII N23 Ha IT0CCJICHl 11 IleTpyxa 0blJlO HaH)lCHO L!Ba ,llp0T0-
BblX 6pac11eTa C cy)KaIOWJIMHC51 K0HUaMH (XhIHK~ 1969, 37.99, pHC. 49, 1.2). KoHUbI 0,LlH0-
[.) 113 HHX (MA.3 1mB.Ni \JA 1399-KTI/2306-c) ()(l>opMnCHhI B BHJ.IC CTIIJIH30BaHHhIX .:1e6e-
J:ll1Hhrx ronoB0K. <DparMCHT ropa3)l0 6mree peam1cnlYH0 11crrmrne1-rnoro 6pacneTa, 0KaH-
111-rna10werorn nn1LJ.bdi (:1e6e;:umott 11m1 ynmoi') roJIOBKOH, 61,rn tta11nett B HoBropone
(Cenona 1881, 11 L puc. 43, 11 ). Ilpu pacKorrKax ,,1ornJihHHKa Aw1euap 6bIJI Hai1i:(eH 1JP0·
T-)Bblli 6pacneT c HCC0Mh.HYTbIMH K0HllalvH1 (<De;J,JpOB 1964, 77-88, pHC. 35).
Epacne11,1, 1rnxom1Mh11~· Ha EKHivDYUKOM ropcmuue, rrpencTaBJieHhI ttecK0,lbKHMH TH--
11:a,rn ( pHC. 6, 4.5). HaHfio.1ee pacnpocrpaHeHH0 ,I H::l.XO,iJKOH (7 3KJeMrnrnpoB) 5IBJI5!IOTC5[
r; p0CTbie LlP0T0Bbie 6pac_: !CT bl co c:rerKa cy>KeHbI \11-l K0HUaMH, B P>lllC c1y11.aeB yKpameH··
ti bl\.111 ttape3KOH. O,JHH:v1 JK3eMrnrnpo!\1 Ha EK11M3'. uax npc;l(TaBJieH 6poH30BbJH, BHTOH H3
Tpex n:ponrn 6pacneT. KoBIJ,bI 6paCJiera BnJ1eTCHbt Jpyr B .apyra. KpoMe Toro, B 1951 r. Ha
ropo;:rmue 0bIJI o6napy'iKC:H ¢pal MCHT 6pOH3DBOI 0 ,iJ.]JOT0B0r0 6pacm:ra, 0KaH4HBaIOrn:e--
roc5I pe.1.1,ecpHhIM 1-no6pa;Kem1cM 3Memmi1 rn.crom H (HMI1M 0/7485-227) (pr1c. 6, 7).
3Mem-roronoBbre YKIMIUeI-rn5! HMCIOT :urnTe; bHYIO HCTopHIO 61,1 roBaHH51 (P516UeBa
2005, 234-247). Qqepe;(HCtlJi BCI1~ICCK HHTepeca K 'ITHM o6pa3aM 0TMe'-1aeTC5I B XI--XII BB.
1'!3BeCTHO, ,no npl! BH3clHT!Il1CKOM ilB0pe., rJ:e o;: ml BapBapcKa51 t\10,Ja CMerrn:ra .':lpyry10,
no BpeMeHa HMneparopa KoHcTaHTm-1a IX \1011m1axa (1042-1054) 1po)KI1Bana a.1auc-
1<::1J1 rrpmruecca, cpe;rn yK pameH11i1 Korop011 coBpeMeHHHKI-I Bbrnesrnn r1 10.:rnThie 6pacrre-
T E,r., y.KpameHHhie 3\.!CIIHI,IMH ro.·roBK,nII1 (To:1c~ oi1. KoHL(aKOB 189/, 43). B Kaprnno-
.Lllyrrnr~icKoM pernoHe JMe1rnoronoBbIH 6pacneT 11peDCTaBJ1CH, HarrpH\1ep, B }J,11ttoreum1
(Dinogetia, 29 l, fig. 172, 101, HclX0il5lT IIODO0HbiC 3M,~JfH0ro:JOBble yKpamemrn 11 Ha Teppruo-
pmr MaKertomrn. Eo;rrap1u1, BeHrp1m. Om1 ttaiim:HbI B M0rIUihHHKe Xa1rn,16a. B IlmrnHe
158 Revista Arheologica. Serie nouii

c BeHrepcK11M11 MoHeTaMH X-XI BB., B E11eJio EpJJ.o c MOHeTaM11 XI B. (nopoB11h.-Jhy611H-


Ko11h.1951, 35; r:neB 1977, 39-40; CrnuqeB, 4a1ff0Ba, I1eTKOB 1961, 37, pHc. 5, l; MatteBa
1992, Ta6. 49-51).
llepcmHU, HaH,'J,eHHhie B rrorpe6e1-m:;cx EpJHeWTCKOfO MOrH.lbHHKa, 3a HCKJIIO'-IeHHe:\1
OJJ,HOro cepe6p5IHOrn 3K3eMITJI5Ipa H3 norpe6emrn 54, 6hIJIH lBfOTOBJieHb[ H3 MeL(HOro

4 I

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I

"f):·---,.
,.~
,, .
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~:JP
7

Puc. 5. rpHBHbI, nepCTHH, 6y6eHYllK>I 11 nyroBKH KaprraTo-,0.HeCTpOBCKOro perHOHa KOH-


ua IX - Ha'IaTia XI BB. (H.B.). 1 - P3.L(yJCrneHh, 2 - Anqe,uap, 3-8 -- EKIIM3YUh, 9 - XaHcKa
K3np3pmI, 10-13 -- XattcKa.
159
-----------··-----------------------------
h:'C0\1KH)TJJI o ;rpcna. 1'0:lhLI.a 110.1yi-.:pyL1u1 o. Kpyr;roro. np5!:\10)TO. lhHoro wrn Tpeyro11h-
' ,11) cetiernrn (<De;1,JpOB. lk6orapeHKO 1974. 1()(-; <llenopoB. tie6orapeHKO. Ben11KaHo-
ru ::i l ). flpocrnii urn r· 10Kocpe,11rnHb1ii ruaci 1rn 1rnTh1i1 nepCTeH1, : 3axo.,"lHUU1M11 He-
it);-(-+.
1~( 1\1 KH\ThI\lll KOHLLct:\111 OJ.LI Ha1\1e1-111 Ha nocenernm fleTpyxa (XbIHKY, 1969).
!Lt160:1ee \If!Ul o'mc1t:~rna>1 noJ,6opKa nepcTH,_:ii np011cxomn c roro:rnma EK1n1JyUh.
l iec L 1 Hcdie1e1-1 \Jact·1rnrn,1i'r cepeopm-ll,rh nep( reHh. yKparnem1I,ri'1 06be:"rno1i :lmryp-
i,cii uuSJ1ridi Ha .111cre :rni >lliKJI (OAM 11HB. NA86Y4). 3TCn pacc~rnTp1rna-
JiepneHh LI:15!
1:\1u[ u pei 1lona yimKcLk'H 11 Jrn:rneroi. sepoHrHo. r,a6cnoii 3"ura,1HoeBpJneikKoro 1-osem1-
p.,. l p1w. :\ 7) h:po:--1e TOI\) C ropO,]HlW1 llJXHICXO,J] r 6po!-i30Bblli ILiaCTil!-lliaTblll rrepcTeHh,
1.'U l Ill I Jh'U\l, :1cKupl! poHaHI l bl\1 ;rny\15! rcpcL lb,'[IILJe .:Kl! COITOCTaB.J1eHH.blil11l m1,lHCBl-1,J,HhlMl1
h r:11Hc1s.1r1. uKpy:m a1ournl\11 t I<0:-.moJIIUlil{) in ilBYX K( ,:1eu (HMlL\;1 FB 74~:5-226 ). 4eThrpbM5!

11, k'\l!i.lnJ)cl\lll ll[X',lCldB.ICl!bl Ha )TOM WL\!;;!Tlll!Ke 6pOH30Bb[e ncpcnm ca:ITOBCKOI'O


t rrnc1 en creK ui1rn1,1:--111 Bl:1aBKa:-.111 (MA')-~~-' M \-Kfl-1183/370-373) (pm:. 5, 3.5.6.8).

;\J ]CCifBHb!II cepec'>pmlblli lh!pCTC!lh C KHOlJKOii He ThUhl-i011 CTOpOl-lC J1 '!CpHCBbl:\-'l .,JCKO-


fl(l:\'l r:n lhll,,. a rnK>Kl'. (4rno.,,~'rnBoii BCTaBKoii Ha IJU11Ke (_MA31rnB. }\'"0 l H2; pnc. 5, 6.111MeeT
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1[ll\1 B ,KCHCKIIX JaxopOHCHl!5IX. YB bl. \!Yih.L'!, )l.' ,•..-:u ll)IF!HUC>) l 1a1.,\:.-rCH!!t:. 3cLXopm1eHHOC B
0

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1 K:mp11pml. Ir;: ,xi ,!Bl LIO Bbl!XlJl!TC.lbHUl u ) l \(ifM O HC\t MO,h-

1IU cyIUHb .Illlllb lli.' 1.1yr0Bt-:a\1-6y6e11' l1Kcl\1 ·1a 110 KUCDIHOll LL'iCiKh:C
Vi1lumul Ji, Nr 1-2 163

CTOJih )Ke HeB11pa:nne.JihHa noKa Kapnura 11 co crreump11Y:eCKH 6onrapc:KHMH, 11:rH


aoo6rn;e KaKHMH-HH6y,u,h y1<parneHI15IMH, H Ha 10re - B 30He paccenemrn Hace:1emrn Ean-
K,rno-JlyHa11cK011 K)'J1bT)'])bI. OmrnKo, }TO CB5I3all0, CK0pe Bcero, He C 6eLUIOCTblO KY}1b-
ryphl, a co cna6ott IByY:eHHOCTbIO norpe6a.JJbHJ,IX K0MrrneKC0B (Te.:IhHOB, CTenaHOB,
PycceB, Pa611H0B11Y: 2002. 120). K y)Ke yKa3a~IHhlvt Bhrrne cepbre 11 np5I)KKe 113 rrorpe6e-
HIJJ:I N2 6 M0HIJibHHKa Ka.ncpbI MO)KH0 D,O0aBHTb 1:'.me 6pOH30BhIH K0JlOK0Jib'-HiK C a)Kyp-
HhIM HJDKHHM KpaeM, Ha1iaeHHbI11 Ha rrocenemm r:onnoe (Ko3JIOB 2001, 126, p11c. 19).
0 H)BeJIHpHbIX yKpawL~IHI5IX rre'-ieHe:iKCI(Of() Kpyra M0:iKH0 C)'}lHTb no HaX0,;JKe Jil1CT0-
BHlUIOi1 6m1x11 H3 rrorpe6eHH5I B llianhBHpax.
Ta101M o6pa30M., Ha n:ppH1op1111 KapnaTo-n >)1HecTpoBh5I ;urn X-XI BB. M0)KH0 BhI-
llC.1HTh L£eTbrpe ocuoBHbie 30HbI pacnpocrpar-reHJ l5I IOBe.rrnpHoro y6opa:
«CKJ1M3YU:Ka5I» - C0JJ,Cp)Kall.(a5I caMbII1 00Jlbll10l1 IJ, POlLCHT rro;:i:yHaI1CKI1X, 3ana)JJ{0CJlaB5IHC-
KHX IOBCJIHJ)HblX yKpawernrH, 0JJ,HaKO, 3)],CCb npi,icyTCTBYIOT 11 npem-iepyccKHC yKparne-
I-UUI., B TOM '-iHCJie, H CXOLlHblC C xapaKTepHbIMli )lJU[ ceBepa Pyc11, I1 TlffU1'-iHO caJJ.T0BCKHe.
«6p3tteurTCKa5I» - c rrpeo6rranattHeM apeBaepyco:oro y6opa.
«XaHCKa» - r.ue CJiaB5IHCKHH y6op xapaKTepeH B 0CH0BHOM 11,Jrn )KeHCKHX 3axopoue-
HHH.;
«Kampa>> - rrp11 LlclJ'1bHCI1lllCM l13Y'-iCHHl1 3T0T perHOH, BCp05ITH0, ,[(aCT 6om,ll1HH rrpo-
L(CHT IOBCJIHpHhIX yKparneHHH, HMCIOll.(IIX aHa.rronrn Ha EarrKaHax.

Eu6Jiuorpa<J>11H
Apxeononrn Benrpm1 1986: Apxeononrn Bettrpml (MocKBa 1986).
Eonrap11Te 2004: EorrrapHre u rexnure cbcemi npe3 V-X BeK. Kanurnr Ha II3J10)K6a
(BapHa 2004).
Eop3H5IK, P5I6oi11985: H.A. Eop3I-I5IK, T.ct>. P51.hoi1:, CpenneBeKOBhre ttaxonKH B rpore
TpHHKa I. B c6.: ApxeonorlP-IeCKUe HCCJICD,OBaHH5I cpentteBeK0BhIX naM5ITHI1K0B B ,0:HCC-
TpOBCKO-TipyTCKOM Me)f(nype'-ibC (KHlllHHeB 1985). 180-188.
BemIKaHoBa 1978: M.C. BeJrnKaHoBa, JJ:attHbte naneoaHrponoJrorHH o nepeMell(e-
mm HaCCJICHl15I B .D:HecrpoBCKo-TipyTCKOe MC)KJ_(ypel.J1,e BI-II TbIC5I'-iC.JICTH5IX. B c6.: Cna-
BHlIO-B0J[OlllCKHe CB5l:3I1 (KHillHHCB 1978 ), 30-76.
BnaceHKO 1983: H.f. RrnceHKO, JJ:peBHepycc1-;i111 woi1 ropommla MepeuroBKa (no
paCKorn<aM 1980rr.). Bc6,: AI1M 1979-1980rr. (K111mrneB 1983), 77-78.
Bb,KapoBa 1976: )K. Bh1:1<ap0Ba, CnaB5IHH H npa61,nrap11 (Coqm.H 1976).
81,rn-:aposa 1987: )J{.H. Bhr,KapoBa, CnaBJIHe K mry OT LJ:yHa5I. CA 4, 298-308.
rareB 1977: IT. raTeB, HaKHTH OT norpe6e1-nrn ,JT XI-XII B. Apxeo.rrnrmi, ron. XIX,
KH. 1. Cocp115I, 1977, 30-46.
[yKHH, KypirnToB 1995. B.LJ:. ry1rnH, C.H. Kyp,raToB, ITo3nHeKoYeBHH'-IecKoe norpe-
6e1rne y cesra I1aJraHKa. ApxeonorH'-iCCKHe BeCTH ,l, CaHKT-I1eTep6ypr, 1995, 143-145.
,ITott 1-i:esa 2004: C JJ:owieBa, 3a e.,JHH B11,il opm.MeJ-ITaJIHa yKpaca B paHH0C:pC.[lHOBC-
K0BHa EbnrapcKa Mera11onmtcTHKa. B c6.: IlpernaB 6 (CocpH5I 2004), 212-227.
HoHKOBa 2004: M. I1oHKOBa, Ilpo6JICMbT 3a R0JI2LHHTC C BepT11Ka,1HH peMbIJJI npe3
XJ)HCTI15IHCKU5I rrepH0JJ, Ha m,pBOT0 O'bJJrapcKO uap..:rno. B c6.: TipecnaB 6 (CocpH5I 2004 ),
196-211.
](loroB 2000: B. 11oTOB, 0 MaTepHaJibHOH KYJl bType ne'-ietteroB K IOry OT JJ:yHae -
JJHCT0BIUJ,HbIC a)KypHhIC aMyneTbI XI B. Stratum plus 5. 2000, 209-212.
11-oTOB 2006 B. HoTOB. 0 MaTepmurhHOH Kymrypc ne 1IeHeroB Ha HH)KHCM JJ:ymrn.
Jlp1mecK11-aMyJ1eTbI XI B. B c6.: CJiaBJIHo-pyccKoe wBeJrnpHoe neno Hero HCT0KU (CaHKT-
lieTep6ypr 2006), 67-69.
164 Rei ista Arheologzca. Serie noua

Kawy6a, TeJibHOB, lllep6aKoBa 1997: \1.T. Kamy6a. H.IT. Tem:>HOB, T.A. lllep6a-
K0Ba, AJJ'--1.e.aapcKoe npeBHepyccKoe noce11e1-me (pacKorrKH 1987-89 rr.) (THpacrronb
1997).
Ko3noB 2001: B.B. K03nOB, EoraToe I - nocenem1e ITepnoro Eo;1rapcKoro uapcrna
Ha neno6epe)Kbe .u:enbTbI )lyHa5I. )lo6pyn»-a, KH. 14-16 (1997-1999), 2001, 98-130.
KoHcTam11H Earp5IHopo;:xHbIH 1991: KoHCTaHTHH Earpmropo,1HhIH, 06 yrrpa1rnemrn
11Mrrep116i (MocKBa 1991 ).
Kop3yx11Ha l 946: r.
<.D Kop3yxm-1a, 0 1ex1-rnKe THcHeHH5I Vi rreperopowrnT011 JMann B
JlpeBHe11 PycH. X-Xll BB. KCI1l1MK 13, l '-J46 . 45-52.
Kop3yxmrn 1954: r.<D. Kop3yx11Ha. PyccKMe Knanhr IX-XIII BB. Cv1ocKBa-Jiemrnrpan
1954).
Kypq,nos 1991: C.11. Kypt.JaTOB, On1:T o pe3ynhTaTax apxeonorw-recKHx 11ccneLw-
BaHHH. KypraHoB 6.1113 c. ITanaHKa 11 HoBI,re WanhBHpbr )lpoKHeBCKOro p-Ha CCPM B
1990 r. K11w1rneB 1991. ApxHB HailHOHanbHOro My3e>I apxeoJ1or1111 I-I HCTop1m Monno-
BbI. l1HB. N(_) 31 f;_
.Jlenamoba l %7: B.I1. JlenamoBa, BHCOLIHhie K0JibUa. B c6.: TpyLJ:hI fl1M, BbUI. 43
lMucKBa 1%-.'). ·7_
.J·Ienarnot:a 1% 1 . B.Il Jienarnona. EpacneTbI. B c6.: TpyiJLI 1l1M, BhITI. 43 (~1ocKBa
1967), 2U7-247 .
.'kBli!lKllli. X. . Pn6ueBa 2000: :).C .i"Iem1u,K1111, B.I1. Xaxey, C.C. P51.6I.(ena, )l)Kypn-
3epK,Lle lOBCai11pHOl1 MOllbl X-XI BB. Stratum plus 5, 2000, 90-96 .
>ic:y.Ic1urc1-.:a51 lla\.(I [ :a B
99:'i. 1-0.M. JlecM,UI, µBOJIHO!l y3eJI B cpem-1eBCK0BhIX IOBCJII-IpHhIX H3nemurx
.-L.:'L\!dll :
Bou01rno11 EBpom,1. B c6.: lOBeIIItp:-Ioe 11cKycc-rso 11 MaTep1rnJibHa5I KYHbTypa. T)l y-Ya-
c rn11KuB BH•))U[(l f:tLLll)KBHyMa (Caw~r-Ilerep6ypr 1996), 35-37.
JlittKa-rcmreIJcp l 948: H. JlinKa-ri::rrnui:ep, KormiBChK11ti CKap6. Apxeo.1.ori51. 2, KH'iB.
1948. 82-190.
Mam,:vr. 1De:ore:, 1967: B.A. Ma.rrbM. M. B. (PexHep, I1otlBecn1-6y6eH1..J.HKH. B c6.: Tpy-
;ll,I rHM, Bhm. 43 (MocKBa 1967), D3-14:~.
MaHeBa 1992: E. MaHeBa, Cpem1eseK0BeH HaKHT o,J MaKenomrja (CKorrje 1992)
M1L1 1-res 1953: A.. M1u11..J.en, Pa1-uycpe;rnoseKOBHH 6l>nrapcKH HaKHTH 11 KpbCT0Be
CHK0JIITH0HH OT Ccr1ep03arra;.1,Ha E1,Hrap1rn. Apxeononrn, rom-rna V.. KH. 3 (Coqnrn: 1963),
22-37.
MH;1 1-1en 1973: A. M11n:1..J.eB, <DopMHponmrne cTapo6onrapcKoH KYJihTypi,1. B c6.: CJra-
B51.HHTe 11 cpem13eMHOMOpCKHH CB51.T. Vl-X[ BeK (CocpI-15! 1973), 107-1.33.
HoBHKOBa 1990: E.10. HonHKOBa, 0 cep1.rax <<eK11MayuKorn nma». B c6.: f[po6J1e-
Mh1 apxeonorm1 Enpa3HH (rro MaTep1r,L1aM rHM). TpyJJ.bl rI1Yl. Bbm. 74 (J\1ocKBa 1990).
107-114.
I1neTHena 1963: C.A. I1neTHena, Kol.!eBH1F1ecKHI1 MornnbHHK CapKena- Ee.1011. Be)!m .
Ml1A 142 (MocKBa 1963).
I1neTHeB 2004: B. I1JICTHCB, I1pori3BO;[CTBO Ha K0JiaHHI1 rapmnypH B pamrocpemro--
BeK0BHa Ebnrap1rn. B c6.: I1pecnas ,S (Co<p:mr 2004). 228-240.
I1epxanKo l 986: B. E. I1epxaBKO, 3ana;rnoc11aB51.HCKHe :rne,1eHThI B paHHecpeimene--
KOBOH KYJILType Me)K;:xype'--1.b51. )lHcrrpa H HeM,rna. KCHA, Bbrn 187, 1986, 28-35.
IlywKI-IHa 1987: T.A. I1ywKHHa, BHCO'-lHble K0Jlbl{a fHe:moBCKOro K0MUJieKca. B c6.:
TpyJJ.bI V Me)Kuy1-rap0Lmoro K0Hrpecca c rammcKofi apxeonon111-1. K11en. 18-25 ceHrn6p5!
1985 r. T. IIL Bbm. la (MocKBa 1987), 50-57.
I1yu1Km1a 1996: T.A. I1ymKHHa, HoBJ.111 fHe3IlOBCKHH Knaa. B c6.: 0FreTHaH ceccmr
111M (MOCKB2, 1996), 79-80.
ViJ!umul II, ;Vr 1-2 165

Pa611HOBlf'-l. 1997: P.A. Pa6HHOBHq, KapnaTc -LJ:uecTpOBCKIIe 3eMJIH BO B1opofi nono-


BHHe IX--nepB011 noJI0Brrne XIII BB. (HcTop11Ko-apxeononI1recKoe HccnenoBamie). LJ:I-Ic-
cepTau1rn ... Katt~. HCT. HayK (CattKT-Tierep6ypr 1997).
Pa6m-IOBWI 1997a: P.A. Pa6I-IHOBWI, Kaprraro-)lHecTpOBCKHe 3esL1H Bo BTopo:n no-
.:I0BI-iHe IX- rrepBoH rro:rnBI-IHe XIII BB. (I1CTopI--IKo-apxeoJiornqecr:oe Hcc.1encrnam1e).
A1nopecp. m1ccepTaUHI-i Ha COHCK. yq, CTeneHI-I K,.H,1. UCT. HayK (CaHKr-TieTep6ypr 1997).
Pa6I-iHOBHq 1999: P.A. Pa6I-IHOBHq, LJ:HpxeMbI Ha repp1nop1111 Mo!IJlOBbI: KYJihTyp-
H0-HCTop11qecKHM K0HTCKCT. Stratum plus 6, 1999 263-275.
Pa611ttoBHq 2005: P.A. Pa6m-10BJ1II, 0 K)'.'IhTYPB0M H xpo1m;10rnqecK0M cooTHollle-
mrn AJrqe,1apcKoro H EpaHernrcKoro MonrnhHHIWB. Revista arheologica. SN, v. 1, 1, Chi~inau
2005, 120-132.
Pa6IrnoBJII-L P5l6UeBa 1997: P.A. Pa6mIOBWi, C.C. P516UeBa, JQ.3em-1pHbie yKpaum-
rnrn C 3epHblO H3 Kapnaro-TiomrecrpOBb}I B K0HTCKCTC KYJILTYPH0-llCT0pl'P-ICCKHX npo--
UCCC0B X-XI BB. Stratum + Tierep6yprCKHii ap).eOJ1ornqecKrn1 BCCTHHK (CaHKT-l1eTep--
6ypr -- KI-IWHHeB 1997), 236-245.
P516UeBa 1999: C.C. PH6u,eBa, «EJII13HCUbl» IL m «ilB0i1HI-IKH». 0 cxoJ.],CTBC H 01.11-JI-nur
(<B0JlhIHCKHX» H «npaKa:\tCKHX» ceper. Stratum plus 5, 1999, 338-356.
P516t(eBa 2005: C.C. P:,i:iueBa, LJ:peBHepyccKHir 1oneJIHpHhIH y6op. OcHOBHhie rcH,lCH··
1um q:1opMHpoBamrn (CaaKr-Tierep6ypr 2005).
P516UeBa 2005a: c.c.
P5I6UeBa, 0 JHICT0BHJ.],HbIX yKpawemrnx - H0D,BCCKax, Konoyrn-·
Kax H pem:v1.ax. Revista arheologica. SN, vol. I, l, CJ-i~inau 2005, 350-358.
CenoBa 198 l: M.B. Ce,::~oBa, lOBem1pHLie H3DC,'IH51 LJ:peBttero HoBropo::ca (X-XV BB.)
(:Vloc1rna 1981 ).
C1amuoB 1993: C. c~r-amrnoB, ,lJ;Be rpyrm CLLpo6bJ1rapcKu pe:-.1b'-IHII yKpaca 01 Ce-
BepoH3T0'rna frhrrrapH.51. B c6.: IlJrncKa-IlpernaB. T. 6 (CocpH51 1993), 152-163.
CTamrnoB 1995. C. C:ramuoB, MeraJIHH rapirnrypH 3a peMbIW H 06sre1c10 01: Ll:Bop-
ua BbB BeJrnKH IlpernaB. B c6.: TIJ1HCKa-TipecJiaI:. T. 7 (lllyMeH 1995), 110-135.
CraHqeB, 1-IattroBa, TieTKOB 1961: Cr. CTaHqeH, 11. qa1-rr0Ba, Xp. IleTKOB, HeKpornrbT
B MeCTH0CTTa «Kai"irrbKa>• np11 IlrreBeH. ApxeoJ10i'Irn. III. 1, Cocpm1 1961. 32-41.
CTenH ... 1981: Cre1rn EBpa3III-I B :moxy cpeJJ,lleBeK0Bb51. Apxeo:10rn51 CCCP (MocK-
Ba 1981).
CrpoKoBa 1997: JI. B. CrpoKOBa, K Bonpocy c, TCXHHKe I-I3f'0T0B.:1e>nrn ceper <<B0Jih1H-
c1,oro THrra,> H'.J KonHeBcKoro KJiaD,a. B c6. IOseJIHpHoe !ICK)'CCTB0 H MaTepIIaJihJ-Ia5I
K)'JlhTypa. Te3HChI ,'J,OKJia.U0B Y'IaCTHHK0B lJCTBep roro K0J!.:[0KB!i)''.\L1 (CaHKT-fie1ep6ypr
1997),61-63.
Te:IhHOB, CrenaHoB, PycceB. Pa6HHOBHI-1 20112: H.TenhHOB, B CTerrnHOB. H. Pyc-
ceB, P. Pa6I--IHOBHl._[, «11 . . pa30lllJIHCb CJiaB51HC no 3C'.\1JIC.)) (KI-IUJHHCB 2002).
Tm,10w:yK 1976: O.E. THMOW:YK, CnaB'mrn TiiE HiqHo'i EyKOBI-IHI-1 V-IX CT. (KI-Ii'B 1976).
To.1cTofL KoHWlKOB, 1897: 11.11. ToJICTOH, H.11 KoH;raKOB, Pycrnue JJ:pemrocT11 B na-
MJITHHKax HCKYCCTBa, BhILI. V (CaHKT-Ile1ep6ypr 1897).
YcneHcKa.51 1967: A.B. YcneHcKa51, Harpy;1Hb1e H rro5!CHbie np11sccK1-1. B c6.: Tpy.'lh1
r11M. BbITI. 43. (MOCKBa 1967), 88-132.
CDe.!Jopos 1953: r.E. <l>eaopoB, fopomm1e EK:r:vrnyu.hr. KCHA '.'iO, 1953, 104-126.
CDe.aopcrn 1968: r.E. cJ)enopoB, Pa6ora Tipyr,:Ko-·LJ:HeCTposcKoit ')Kcrrcz1mum B 1963
r KCHA I 13, 1968 . 85-93.
CDe,aopcrn 1964: r.E. ({)eJJOpOB. Pa60TbI Ilpy o-)~!IeCTpOBCKO.H 3KCIICD,IIU,11H B 1960-
1961 rr. KCI1A 99, 1964. 77-88.
CDe,1opoB 1964a: r.E. ct>enopoB, Pa6oThI Ilpy o-)~HecrpoBcKoi1 apxecrnxo-::rrnorpa-
cjrnqecKoi1 JKcne1:i,au.mr B 1962 r. KCOf AM (OD.ceca 1964), 67-81.
166 Revista Arheologica. Serie noua

<:J:>enopoB 1965: LE. <l)e,r:i:opoB, lhorn ll 3a;w1111 l13rreHH5l .apesHecJiaB:rncKoH KYJih-


TyphI l0ro-3anana CCCP. KCI1A 105, 19<,5, 21-31.
cJ)e,JopoB 1966: r.E. <l>enopoB, nocan EKnMayrmoro noceJiettmi. B c6.: Ky11hTypa
)J,peBtteii Pycu (Mocirna 1966).
ct>enopoB 1968: r.E. <l>enopoB, PaGorh1 flpyTo-,0:ttec-rposcKoH 3Kcrren11u1111 s 1963 r.
KCHA 113, 1968, 85-93.
<l>enopoB, qe6o~~apeHKO 1974: f.E. C!>eDopos, r.<l>. qe6oTapeHKo, TiaM5ITHl1Kl1 npeB-
HHX cnaB5IH. AKM, Bhm.6 (KnwimeB l974).
ct>enopoB, qe6oTapeHKo, Ben11K2HoB:J 1984: r.E. Cl>e,n,opcrn, r.ct>. l.-J:e6oTapeHKo,
M.C. Ben11Kauosa. GpattewTCKHH MOrHJibHHK X-XI BB. (KHWHHeB 1984).
<l>enopos-Jl,aB1,1,J:OB 1966: f.A. (l)~uop1.)B-)laBbIJJ,OB, Koi1eBHI1KI1 BocToY:Hoii EBpo-
[IhI non B:IaCTI:,10 30:JIOTOOpllbIHCKMX >.aHOB (MocKBa 1966).
cJ)exttep 1967: M. B. <l>exttep, lUeiIHbie rpHBHhI. B c6.: Tpy,r:i:1,1 fHM, BhIII. 43 (MocKBa
1967), 55-75.
<l)11;nm -1eHKO 1959: B.A. ©I1m1w1eHKO, ITorpe6em1e X B. B AcTpaxaHcKoii o6nacTH y
1

c. Honac. CA 2, 1959, 239-242.


XaB:UGK 1969: fl. I. XaBJlIOK, JlpeHbopychKi ropomuua Ha I1iBD,CHHOMY Ey3i. B c6.:
C.10B5IHO-pyc:LKi crapO)KHTHOCTi (Kli'i3 1969), 156-174.
XLIHKY 1964: HT. XhIHKY, 0Tirn o pacKonKax Ha rroceJ1eHmIX I1eTpyxa 11 EpaHeIIITh
OpreeBCKoro p-Ha MCCP MCCP H · 963 r., oTpHn,oM no 1ny c1eHHKt paHHecpe,uHeBeKo-
1

Boi'1 apxeo.1onm. KmmrneB 1964. Apx1rn Hat(HOHaJihHoro My3e5I apxe0Jrnr1111 l1 HCTo-


pmr :Mo.l.'(OBhI, l1HE N0 21.
XLIHKY 1965: ll r. XLIHKY, Qprer 06 apxeonor1111eCKl1X paCKOl1KaX MOfl1JibHl1KOB
Jfo:-.16apb, KmpJp1: H, Jlynp1rn 11 rrocc.1emrn Jl11M6aph-K3np3pH5I, y c. XaHcKa KyTy3oB-
cKorn p-Ha B 1964 r. KnwirneB 1965. Apxmi Hau110HanbHOro M:y3e51. apxeo.Jior1111 H 11cTo-
pm1 Mo:I]OBbI, HHE,. N2 28.
XwrKy 1966: 11.r. XLrnKy, 01qe1 o Je3yn1,Tarnx apxeon:orw1ec1rnx pacKorroK B 1965 ro.uy
1ra noceJ1eHm1 J11n16apb-K3npJpm1, y c. XaHCKa KoTOBCKOro p-Ha MCCP, oTp5ID,OM
paHHCMOJIJaHCKOl! apxeonorHH II0.1] pyKOBO.[(CTBOM C.H.C. XbIHKY 11.r. KHIIIHHeB 1966.
Apx1rn HaunoHam,Horo 1'1y3e51 apxeo.rionm 11 11cTop1111 MonnoBhI, HHB. Ni 31.
XLrnKy 1969: H.r. XhIHKY, I1ocenemrn XI-XIV BB. BeKOB B OpreeBCKHX Kon:pax Mon-
WlBHII (K11wrmeB 1969).
X1,rnKy 1970: MT. XhIHKY, J1m,,16ap1,-cpe1weBeKOBb111 MoranbHHK XII-XIV BeKOB B
Mo.1naBI111 (Kmmmes 1970).
XhIHKY, PacpaJIOBW-l. 1973: HS. XbrnKy., 11.A. PacpaJIOBIFI, CiaB5IHe l1 T1opKo-6onra-
p1,1 B VI-X BB. Ha TeppaTopm1 MonJJaBHV[ no apxeoJ1on111ecKHM naHHhIM. B c6.: CnaB5I-
HHTe 11 cpe,uIBeMHOMOCTH5IT CB5IT VI-XI BCK (Cocp1rn 1973), 161-182.
1.Ie6orapeHKO 1973: r.ct>. l.-J:e6or2.pemco, KaJrcpa-ropon,nme VIII-X BB. Ha J:l,HecTpe
(KmmmeB 1973 ).
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16~ Re·:ista !lrheologica. Serie noua

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C6em.w1w PR64e1w, r)o,onop ucmopuu, llew11p apxeo,wzuu, Hllcmumym KJJJZbmypuozo 1La-


c.1e<JuR, AKcu)eMuH FlayK Mo.1C)06bl, y.1. /Yfznnpono.wma DJIL_}'.1ecKy-Eor)o11u 35, MD-2012 Ku-
u1w13 y, Pecny6.wKa A1 o.1do6a.
169

DISCU'fll--)JJ1CKYCCH ;1----DISCUSSIO:\S 1

IN CE PERlOAD.4 PUTEA FI FORTJFICAT\A:$EZAREA TRINCA.,LA SA~T"


(raionul Edin et, Republ ka \ loldova)'?
Oleg LEVlTKl. Oleg Ch rIIC. Clu~inau

Aces! material, in mare mcis11ra. este determinat de puhl :·urea i11.tur11111{iifor incor?cte rc(er,tourc fa rcz:11/.
r,.teie seqionarii sistem\illli dCJL'iiSi\' al aye::arii Trinca ,.Isa S 111/" Pre::el/la/11 situaria 1ealci ,J s1w/11i la i/l0//1CII·
t;, f de111arari1 sapaturii YI une!,· suge~rii la perioaJa c(md a _1 ,J,\t _Ji;rrifi, ·utii

,, 0 11epuo,Je cmpoume.1bc111Ba 06vpo11umc..1b111,1x coopy.11cn r11111a 110cc.1cll1111 Tpum.a <·J1a lllam(» (pmiou Eou-·
ucl{, Pec11y6.-ru1'a Ato.1i)o6a) ". Li e. .'h/0 (!a1111011 011c1111h/1 :rn:tsem ;, .Yupu1.·1nepucm11Ka ap.,eo.W,'lll/CCKO?o mI.1uImI111--
.~-u Tj 1w11,a «.,7a llla111p!, I1a I-.:o,11,1opo.1I e 1999 ?oc)y (11,1.1,'.1 np, ,,ccJ01h1 pa:u1cr)(/l!J1h1e JH1c;;:011;..:11 06opo1111me. 1 b11bn
('00j)J.JtCt'lllllf U O/J1/IOCU/71e.7b!t() ',<.1moph!X 6 CI/ClfUff1b/I0li '/1111 cpwnype L)!CC II \teemu1 , It' 6/l(U/le 0()'bc'l,117U6/{{/H
uurj)op \f{ll/Wl. llyo.w;..:y101,11c51 (/(, 11 iilb/C O COC/11WiliUll IIU.W/1111/Uh O f,.,' _,\IO.llClli11Y czo om;..:pi>lll1l/J/, (I l/1Cll.:..JiCC 170. l_'.'l/C/1··
/ff/(' pe3_F7b/11(l/)/b/, Bpe.1i'J/ coop_t')/CCIIUJ/ o6opOIIUl/1('_71Jlt011 CUCl 11t.\tl>l OCIJWCl11CJ/ 6CC euw 1100 60/Jj}OCO.\t.

"About the period 1~/' construction of defensive works <ill settlement Trinca "La $an('"'. The purpose
gi1·c11 cicwse is rhe charactcrisnc of archeologica! monumen, Ji·inca ,d,a San{» on ,1·/zich in 1999 prospectin~·
e.1caiatio11 ofdefenszvc 1rorks ond concerning 1vhiclz in the sp .·cial lircrarurc alread1• Tht're is nm quite objecti1·c
in 1on11mion hm·e been leud. Duza abou1 a condirwn of u n101111111cnt br the moment of i.'.1 opening, and also the
//'eared rernlts are published. 7zlile of a construcrion of de/ens. 1·e s1.1Te111 remuins di.1cus:.

lstoricul cercetarii
In anul 1991, in procesul prospectarii suprafetei o,;upate de necropola tunulara din perioada
tzlrzie a epocii hallstattiene Trinca ,,Drumul Fete~tilor'' amplasata la circa 0, 7-0,8 km spre sud de
periferia sudica a satului, pe panta lina, de sud-vest a unui prornontoriu fonrn1t de o meandra a nluleµilui
Draghi~te, pe suprafata arabil2l a solului au fost evidentia :e rnai multe aglomeratii de resturi de cultur{i
material a, printre care preck,mina fragmente de ceran .ica de tip Cucuteni . T1i polie (.TleBI1UKI1H,
Cnsa, l.fo6aH 1992, 95). Mai rnult ca atat, la baza u 1ora dintre tumulii sapati a fast depistat un
st rat cultural, in unele cazuri, chiar vestigii ale unor cornplexe de habitat care se atribuie la acela~i
o::·1zom culh1ral-cronologic (Lcvitki 1995, fig. 24, J: Lc,1 itki ~.a. 2000).
Cercetarea suprafetei arate a promontoriului a stabilit · aptul ca vestigi!le ,u-heologice sunt raspandite
p:ina la marginea acesteia, precum ~i mult mai sprc nord-v .:st in partea intelenit{1 a promontoriul.u1, uncle
in locul unor excavari contemporane, de asemenea au fc st scoase la iveala fragrnente de ceramic a de
fa,:::tura cucutean - tripoliana. Aceasta intinsa a~ezarc. da1 fond faptul ca, in lista rnonumentelor arheo-
lo:;ic:e din epoca neolitica ~i eneolitica de pe teritoriu Mol.iovi:i nu estc mentionata (Map11:emrcI 1973 ).
ul :erior a fost numita dupa denumirea locala a locului · La stfma Jui Ghicu" (Levitki 2004, 88). Tot
atunci a fost evidential ~i sistcrnul de fortificatie ce 1ntrct tie promontoriul. Loca. nici1 nurnesc accasta
parte a promontoriului ·'La ~ant", denumire pa.strata de noi ~1 pentrn cetatuia d= la Trinca (fig. I, l ).
Investigarea incintei protejate de ml $i ~ant a atestat fa ,tul. ca in mai multe seco:oare ale acestcia s-aL
p:tstrat tmncle unor lucrari de cx,;avatie (fig. 4, 3). ekcrcwte. dup~i rnftrturiile bi'i~tina:?ilor, de catre o unitate
de: artikrie in timpul ultimulw razboi mondial. Pe sl!praf tt:1 intelemta a acestei parti a promontoriului
vestigii arheologice nus-au g'.bir.. Cu cxceptia unor pietre. t k lipsesc ~i pc sistemul de frmificarii. Accasta
circumstanta. precum $1 faptul c{i la marginea opusa a prom rntoriului a fost amplasata necropola tumulara
"'Drumul Fete~tilor'' care catr,: anul 1999 era deja comp!(: cercctata ~i stabilita apartenenta ei cultural-
cronologica la grnpul podolian de vest din perioada hall stat .ind tai7iC' (Levitki 1998, 39), nc--a $i detenni-
na: s{t sectionam sistemul defensrv. Rezultatele s-au do1:cdit I fi in mare masura neclarc ~i atunci s-a hotirrat.
cii pana la intreprinderea unor ·,iipaturi de amploare, inclus \ ~i in incinta, sft nu fie puhlicate.
Aceasta conventie, spre regret, a fost neglijata de catre c:oexecutorul contrnctulm de colaborare
~;Limifica dintre lnstitutul de A.rheologic ~1 Etnografie a A$M ~i 1nstitutu1 Rom[m de Tracologie,
170 Re1·ista Arheo log ica . Serie noua

2
3

L fi · d, ·st··ttIUill
. '1 · Monumente
. . "--
" 1991_,1 l ,\irplasarea ge ogra 1ca . I ca"· ' , B - l,Tnnca
. " Drunml
nt
Fig. I. Tnnca •• a .,, a , . Tcinca I A . Trinca ,. lzvoru
C: · . • ] Im $ant.,; E . Tei nca ,,La ;aCJ
~U ' ,- ;• -
arheologice in raz~ com~:e~tana lu1 Ghicu"; D - Tn~_ca ,,La ,
-1 "· c .. .Tnnca
Fetc~tior' ,,
,··ficala~czfm1 .. ·rnnrn,,".,,
. . I a cant. .
ric"), 3. Planul topogia 1

·ta in ,·~tatiunea Trincade-


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j
d-na < . J"> Alaiba, care su . . Mo
b genencu
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in volurnu
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c· 11.,,r '·
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raionul Edmet, 1
i,c,/umu! II, ,Yr. ! -2 171

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Fig. 3. Trinca ,,La $ant" 1999. Profilclc martorilor (A - strat vcgctal; B - pietre; C - strat brun ccnu~iu in amcstcc cu rcsturi de cuitura matcrialf1; D - ~-
:::,
lipitura; E - ccramica; F -- roca matcrna).
~
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i ·J11tml'i U, Xr. /-1 173

II.1co 1og,e a prezentat comp let partea textuala a Raportului de sapatura din ar.ul 1999 (Alaiba 2004,
?S-39) l3 care a avut acce~ in Arhiva IRT, dar care Ia 11tocmirea Jui nu a avut r1ici o contributie. Mai
rnllt ca atat, textul <lat pentru publicatie suferea de o ~ erie de inexactitati, afirmatii neintemeiate }i
•· 11 :ar gre~el i, fapt care ne-a i mpus sane retragem nurn eJe nostru de au tor la aceast2l publicatie (Ibi-
' ,1, 11, nota de Ia p. 28) ~i a rcdacta acest material.

l\stfeL in lucrare, se mentioneaza cape Cetate au aparut numeroase silexuri putemic patina!\::
n :.1dee, ~i a~chii, cu sau fara prelucrare secundara, gratC1are, burine, piese cu retu~e laterale sau varfu-
' 1, ,.::e este comp let eronat. Pe suprafata intelenita a inc ntei fortificatiei, cat ~i a sistemului defensiv,

cupa cum deja am spus, vestigii arheologice nu se ga~.esc. mai mult ca atat, ele lipsesc ~i i'n primul
:,I rat de sapatura. Cele afirmate de catre autoarea de la Ia~i, de fapt, se refera totalmente la un alt sit
t! n raza comunei Trinca, a~ezarea cu mai multe orizomuri cultural-cronologice - "Izvorul lui Luca'',
cunoscut in literatura d1: specialitate (J1eBHUKIIi1 i 986, 54-71; Levitki 1995, 24 7-278:. Levitki.
!laheu 199 7 , l 69-212-. Levnki 1997, 213-27 4; Levitk , Alaiba, Bubulici I 999, 17-116).
L1 continuare . reforindu se la localizarea sectiunii trasate, locul, uncle valul se intrerupc ~i ~antul
<i':Llpat. cste calificat drepr .. mtrare" in incinta fortificatie:i. In prezent acest oc intr-adevar face o
s,, cm:;:;nca impres1e in acela:;;i rimp, participand la sapatllfa :;i cunoscand faptul ca in panea fortificath
nurhonului in timpul celui de al doilea razboi mondial a stationat o un.tate de artilerie, care
d1ipa cum am aflat de la localnici, pentru a aduce tunurile ~i accesoriile la marginea de nord-vest a
1·1 omontoriului a ~i facut ,,intrarea '', autorul nu mention.~aza aceasta lasand s~i se i'nteleaga ca ea a fost
a1 ncnaJ<1t:i in antichitate.
De~criind errn)kctonul valului, gre~it se afoma precum ca pietrele mari prnvenite de la saparea
;;,mtulL1 fonnau trei riinduri suprapuse. De fapt, acestea au fost aranjate in trei randuri longitudinale
p,,ralel e . mcnite sa con~;olideze partea centrala ~i laturile valului.
t".eintemeiata, in ,::azul cind in a~ezare au fost efo.::tuate cercetari !imitate doar la seqionarea
s1:;ternului defensiv ~i materialul arheologic depistat apa11ine exclusiv culturii Cucuteni - Tripolie, este
~;upoz11ia, lui R. Alaiba care exclude posibilitatea ca fortificatia sa fi fost amenajat21 in perioada de
c:iistenti1 a acesteia ~i ca ca a aparut in epoca hallstattiana.
IncGrecte sunt ~i umele rcfcrinte la literatura citata. Raportul asupra investigatiilor arhcologice
~ctuate in anii 1997-1998 la Trinca ,,Izvorul lui Luca'·. raionul Edinet, Republica Moldova, la care
R 1\la1ba figureaza in calitatc de coautor, ~i publicat In arm! 1999, in lucrarea din anul 2004 este
pr::7,,;mat ca ar fi sub tipar. Studiul autoarei din arm! 995, citat lap. 29, in compartimentul bib-
hi grafie nu este trecut. Obiel:tii se impun ~i referitor la ( alitatea materialului ilcstrativ.
in cele ce urmeaza vom prezenta starca reala a a~ez.1rii Trinca ,,La Sant" la momentul demararii
llmll1r, conditiile topografice de amplasare, situatia :,tratigrafica evidentiata. particularitatile con-
st I ucti ve ale val ul ui ~i ~antul ui ilustrate prin planuri, pr,ifile ~i fotografii, urrnarind scopul crcarii la
~,:iali~ri a unei imagini corecte despre acest sit, continuiind cu expunerea unor consideratii cu privire
i,t x:11oada cand a fost posibil:1 amenajarea sistemului defensiv. Materialul ceramic, plastica antropo-
1

,norHi, uneltdc ~i ustensile de pi state in procesul investigatiei urmeaza a fi prezer1tate complet intr-un
:,U,dili ~cparat.

Localizarea monumentului
'S nul rri nca "La Sant" este situat la periferia de sud- vest a satului, pe un pr:)montoriu format de
,·u rauletului 01 aghi~tc, orientarea caruia este de la std-est spre nord-vest. A ltitudinea promonto-
n liltu em: de 245 ..2 m, inaltimea fata de lunca raulettlui Draghi~tc de circa 75 m. La nord-vcst
p1 urr11mtnmd este limitat de pcretelc stancos a defilculu Tnnca (KpaB11yK, Bep11tta, CyxoB 1976,
p11c 74) in care se gase?te cunoscutul obiectiv din cpoca paleoliticului mijlociu - grota Trinca Ill,
nu 111tz\ de localnici ,,Grata lu1 Scridon", (KeTpapy, E lJ)'31151K 1974, 3-12). Partea de nord-vcst a
prinwmunului. in locul unck laprnea este cea mai midi. este 1ntretaiaai. pe o linie u~or arcuita.
174

Fig. 4. Trillla .. La ~an( 1999. l \cdcr,. ~c11craL1 a (drburn ~1st1.:mului dd'i:nsiv. 2. Ex-
trema nord-- csucri a \·alului. 3 E:--.ca, an cirn ,m1p1il cclu1 de di dc,ika r:'lzbu" rnondial. 4 .. Jntra-
rea .. in incin.a fon :· ,. a\ic1.
175

l-.,·,! :·.;,._1[

,,,, .. l, 1,l ! I
I 76
----------------------------·--,.·---·
urientala de la ~ud-vest spre nord·-est, de un s1ste1n del ens1 \ format d1r \ ,d ~i ~ant. Car::\ 1u;
al valului 1~ste limitat de stanci calcaroasc care sc inalta de la suprafrit.1. c,2! ,)pus,;_,, 1.· ,L

margin ea abrupta a promontoriului. In locul curbu1ii maxi male sistcmu[ deknsi, C'>k, i,,1, i l:· ,: ,
segment de circa 3 m (fig. 4, 4 ). Incinta forificatl, in plan are fonnii c vast tnungl iuLi<:,. ·" 1:11 u r,, ,
pere!i stanco~i, alocuri, de pante care coboara abrupt spre talvcgul raLllewlui Draghi -'11.: , l;f: l ~.
Suprafap cet~t!ii este de circa 600 x 400-250 m ~i atesta rnai multe d,'.nivel:iri. lnC.ii!;,,,·a, 11 1i,.
masurata de la nivelul orizontului contemporan, este de circa 0,.5- 0.7 m, adancime,; ?.F,!l
0.9 rn. Incinta fortificat:1 ~i sisternul de apa~are citre inceputul s,1paturilu,· erau lntelen: 1,. , ,, : ., .:, .1,
deja a fast mentionat, la suprafata vestigii arheologice nu au fost gfistlc

Sap~ituri arheologice
SondaJul din anul 1999 a avut ca scop clarificarea coraporturilor dintre a;,c rnrea ·1 r ,, ....
~i nccropola tumular{1 hallstattiana tarzie Trinca .,Drnmul Fete~tilor" :1i respec iv. cu :t;<,, ,; . ,,:
Cucuteni- Tripolie T:~inca ,,La stana lui Ghicu'· in \'ederca posibilit'qu de a :;tabih u,.L, _,; ·
fost edificat sistemul defensiv al a~ezani I fig. l. 2). Pentrn aceasta ... a ,:irca ~() rn ,pr1 .•,L.l ··
intreruperea sistemului defensiv a fost tra~ 2lta o ,ecti une, pcrpendiculartt lui, ,:u lungi1:1, ad, ,, 1 \
l:ittrnea de 2 m. De dnd cu sectionarea valului ~1 a ~antului, au fost cercetate ~i secto,11~ , lut '::-:: ,n ·:.
de: 4 min lungime, a@ in interiorul, cat ~i in exteriornl fortificatiei. (fig. 2). Sapatui 1 c· ·,dll s:h'L l :,:,
confom1 metodei unanim acceptate privilor la im estigatiile acestui tip de obi,:.cctiv arhl:1JlcgL
fortificata, i'n mod manual, pe stratmi cu grosimea de circa 0,25 m. Matcrialek rczuitate d. cmpi, ,· ..
tonul valului, umplutura ~antului, sectoarek intra - ~i extra - muros fond fi:-:.ate separat \ E\sur~in k su r:1
efectuatc de la nivelul contemporan al terenului din incinta fortificatici.

Stratigrafie
Succesiunea stratigrafica a depunerilor, prez.::ntata de la ni velul orizc,ntulLi conk n,ri1 •r.:m ii 1
cu un strat de cernozem, la suprafata intelenit, de culoare nea 6:rra-cenu~ie. :u grosnneu d1~ ,·1L:d ,L~ ~ 11,
scos pe intreaga supra:fata a seqiunii. in po:rtiunea valului a fost evidentiat:'i par1ea
plectonului de piatra. Pietrele predomina de asemenea ~i in umplutura ;;an1ului. Vestign ,_: 1n.
au fost depistale.
Pana la adtincirnea de circa 0,5 m. in se .::toan~ le d,n incinta ~i resp(·c ti' din .;<i u - n :ur·c,,. ,L ,, ic:, ,;,
un strat de sol vegetal c:are treptat capata nuante rnai desch1se, de culoare bnmi1 cemi~;,c i:, ,11,1;,'·,'.,:c u
resturi de 1:ultura mat~:riala. Spre baza, a.pare stratul de prundi~. can: treptat T('CC in! •H'd ;1 .tL'rn-l
1

stanca calcaroasa. in portiunea valului con:inua cmplectonul de piatrit. ir urnplutura -a r,111 c, ::n a1 u'
de cemoziom in amestec cu ceramica, pietre, si cxuri, lipitura. La extrema de: sud L' ,t ,1 ~',.: 1m·1,: d
fost depistata o aglomeratie de fragmente de ceramica de factura Cucukni · Tri po lit (n~, ·: .,
in continuare sapatura s-a limitat doar la sect1Jarele cc tin de val ~i ~ant. Dupft deg::tj:,rc:i ~: r,11L :!
pana la baza valului ~i respcctiv, fundul ~antului 1 fost posibil de a stabil I pararne1rii dim,'n ,1un.1 l 1 ';- :.

evidentia particularitatile constructive a acestor:J.

Sistemul defensiv
Sanfuf a fostsapatinrocacalcaroasaa xomontoriului (fig. 6. 2). ln prufil are fo,· ,k 1,ap,;, :,,1:1
Peretcle dinspre extra .. muros, la adancirr ea de 0,5 m de la nivelul ro( i1 maL'rne es.e pre\ J/ ,,, , , .
treapta cu iatimea de c1:rca 0,4 m. Adancm1ea ~antului rnasurata de la ni, du] u~izont1.l:l: mu, . >k. ,,
circa 1.4 m, deschiz~itura de circa 3,5 m, la(imea la fund de circa 1 m. P11:trcle prov1:·111t. ,.Jin ,'l u,
mai mare pai1e, au fost utilizate la construirea va,ului, o rnic1 parte fi1nd •. :(·gd_J,11{1 ;' in, \ ,. ~1 ii .1u,
~cllu/ (fig. 6, 1J b ~ frir~1tul degajani s1raturiloc de stipaturit, a tusl pi.i:-;1 lid ,.k ~uh,i ! r cj l,i., i W1l : ',:
masurata de la niYelul orizontu!ui antic cstc de circa l. 7 m: 15\imea <iv ;:11\·:1 >-, n, :·, i, ,.r '.1 '
pidn: man dispuse in trci ~irnri longitudi111k ffi,.'. 5. I. 2). spatiul d:ntrc .::11,: .ri u1,ipi1,1 .. , i' ,,,
1·,··.1
,

\ ,:! f,
Rei ,,ru :1,·f>E olog)cu. \enc 1w1,u

I '
, _ ,_ _ _ _ _ _ _.....,1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___,,,.

i·-,
,.
,,
"': \
'-,-~
\\
\
\

Fig. 7. Trinca ,,La $an!'· 1999. Vase din groapa nr. l.

dn1'11:nsiuni :nai m1ci Si nrnluz. a fust dcpi~t,.t un st rat ,:ompact de chirp1c I far.:i amprcm,: de grm11;,
n u11.'ie) ~1 pa1rn111t ce11.1:;os: care la randul sau acopcrea un pavaj din fragrnente de ceramic,\ (it.' mar
dmll:nsiurn aranJatc in tl l,1i multl' stratun cu prntca C\tenoarf1 a !or (fig. :'i.3 ). considerate de dr. R. :\ la1b;,
l1Jlw11,:iill, ,Vr 1-2 179

:a vestigii ale unei locuinte (Alaiba 2004. 28-29); dupa care um1a un strat de piimant cu multa cenu$a,
lipitura, avand la baza roca materna in care a fost depi~rnt un mic complex sapat in stanca calcaroas,a,
groapa nr. 1, fonnat dintr-u11 vas ~i doua ca pace (fig. 6 3; 7).

Concluzii
Doamna doctor R. Alaiba in baza ceramicii pictate dateaza a~ezarea fortificata Trinca ,.,La Sanf',
in limi gcnerale in faza B 1[a a culturii Cucuteni -T1 ipo:ie (Alaiba 2004, 29). Dupil cum deja am
men ti onat, incadrarea cultural - cronologica a fortificc, tiei Trinca ,,La Sant" ri'.:mane a fi discutabila.
lntcntionam sa mention;S:rn unnatoarele:
1. A~ezari cucuteniene, o parte a carora intr-o mumita perioada a fost fortificata, servind ca
tefugm, in spatiul est- carpat lC sw1t cunoscute deja in e .apa mijlocie-tarzie a culturii Cucuteni- Tripo-
lic (Sorochin 2002, 48).
2. Depistarea unor fragmente de tip Gordinqti, comunitatile carora obi$nuiau sii fortifice spatiille
vi tale cu valuri ~i $anturi csce bine cunoscut in aria est - carpatica din peri oada de tranzitie de la
(:neolitic la epoca bronzului (Alaiba 2004, 29; ,[lepraLieB 1980, 112.119-120.124.127.137;
MapKeBWI 1981, 72--74; Kpya 1977, 118;Dumitres,:u 1949, 127-163;Dirnbovita,Florescu,Flo-
rescu 1999).
3. Timpul impactului nomad (cimerieni-sc1ti) a.;upra masivului tracic autohton, tinand cont de
orizontul hallstattian tarziu. atestat in a~ezarea Trinca .,Izvorul lui Luca" (Levitki 1992, 119-121) :~i
ttecropola Trinca ,,Drumul Fete~tilor" (Levitki, Demc,~:nco 2005, 44- 71 ), precum ~i situatia cultural-
tstorica din aceasta perioacLi. in bazinul Nistrului Superior (CMHpHoBa 1990, 24-31), de asemenea,
nu po ate fi exclus ca o periuada de edificare a sistemuL1i defensiv a statiunii Trinca ,,La Sant".
Aceste presupuneri pot fi solutionate doar in rezulta tul tmor noi cercetari, la care speram $i suntem
~,igun ca le vom efectua.

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Dimbovita, Florescu, Fl:orescu 1999: M. Petrescu - Dimbovita, M. Florescu, A.C. Florescu,
Tm~qti monografie arheologica (Bucure$ti-Ia~i 199'1).
Dumitrescu L949: H. Durnitrescu, La station prehistorique de Horodi~tea sur le Pmth. Dacia, IX-X,
1941- 1944, 1949, 127-162.
L~vitchi 1992: 0. Levi rchi, La situation culture!! e et historique dans res pace Carpato - Dm-
,: stne:1 a repoque du hallstatt. In: Symposia thracolog1ca, Nr. 9 (Bucure~ti 1992), 119--121.
L1~v1tki 1995: 0. Levitki, Investigatiile arheologice de la Trinca, raionul Eclinet, Republtca Mold-
<1va. l n: Cercetiiri arheolog1ce in aria Nord- Trac ii I ( i3ucure$1i 1995 ), .l 57-188.
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L1~\'itk1 1998: 0. Levitki, Consideratii asupra rnom.mentelor funerare din perioada hal~tattiana de
:,e tcritoriul Moldovei. Rcvista Arheologica, nr. 2, 1998, 28-59.
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;Theo logicc efectuatc in a1111 1997-1998 la T1inca ,,Izvornl lui Luca" raionul Edmet, Republica Moldo-
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180 Rc:1 !Sitt .~1heo!ogi,·11. Serie nuuci

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KpaBlIYK, Bepmrn, CyxoB 1976: IO.n KpaBLIYK, B.H. Bep1rna. H.l\l. CyxoB., 3amrne,'-
HHKH H rraM51THl1Kl1 npHpOJJ.bI MOJl,iJclBJH (K11WHHCB 1976).
Kpyu 1977: B.A. Kpyu, IJ03nm:Tp1mo.11,c1rne naM5ITHJIKJI cpem-iiero flomrenpom,H
( K11eB 1977).
fleBHUKH.11 1986: o.r ..TleBmlKHM, I1oce;1e1-rne pairnero )Ke.1en-wro BeKa y c. TpHHKa.
AHM B 1982 r. (Km1rntteB 1986). 54-57.
JleBHLI,KHH, CaBBa, lfo6aH 1992: OT. J1eB11U.KHH, E.H. CaBBa, J1.ct>. lJo6au. Hccne;:10-
BaHHe Kyprattttoro MorH.1bHHKa pamrero )l(e.1e:moro BeKa y c. TpHHKa. Anuarul L Chi~inau
1992, 95-107.
1973: B.H. MapKeBIPI, IlaMHTHI1KH Heo;rnTa 11 :meo.:nna. AKM. Bhm. 2
MapKeBHL[
(Km1rnHeB 1973).
MapKeBHL[ 198 l: B.11. MapKeBIH, I101zmCTp1mcu1,cKue r1.1eMe1-rn crnep1-wt1 Mo.'ua-
BIHI (KHWHHCB 198} ).
C\.1HpHOBa 1990: r.11. C'.\rnpHOBa, Kym,TypHO-HCTOpHLieCKHC r.rpou:ecCb[ B 6acce11..th;
cpe;:u1ero )lttecrpa. ,l:(Hcceprawrn Ha :0HcKatt11e ycJ.etto11 crenem1 JlOKTopa 11cTopnY:ec--
KHX ttayK B cpopMe Hayimoro )].OKJia;:ra (KHeB 1990).

Oleg Levitki, dr. lu1b. fn ,,t. istorice. Oleg Chiric. docrorand. Ct1,rru Arheologie, IILltiruu,f
Patrimoni11/ui Cu/turd al Academiei de ,'iriinfc ,1 A1oldm·ei. Sn: Afitropolitul Ban11/escu-Bodo-
ni. 35. l\.1D-20l 2 Chi;;inau, Republica ,\.foldm,1.
i ()/'./ i!iil ll. ,\,· 1-2 ]X !

0 llPOHCXOJK,HEHHH l1 <l>YHKUI10HAJihHOM H.A3HA 4EH11H


CPEJlHEBEKOBblX KPYr, JbIX rOPO)l11Hl B
llPYTO-)~HECTPOBCKO:VI .\IE)K)],YP.E'-IhE

PoMaH PAEMHOBI1q, K11wHHJY

.,Drspre prob!ema origin ii .)i destina(ieifunc(ionale u cetatilor circu!are de tip Echimauri -Alccdar din spa(iul
P•utu-. \·istrt!un ''. f,1 ar,·icol es•e exa1111/lutit prob!emu origin i s1 des1/J/a(1e1 .f1111c{lu11ale u usa-111111welor cetit/1
,: 11,·ulcn· de tip Echima,'1/i-A!L>: Jar din sparnt! Pruro-S1.1trea11 Acesre cer.in au ujJClrltl /!// mai tar::il, de sfcir}·1tul
,.cc:1!:1!, 1/ IX .it, judecand dupa 1·1stemati::area yi parricul:iritu 1,1c ro11structin· ale fi.1rufh atiei. :le asement'a dup,i
, aractL r11i materialului arheo!ocic, care a fost gu,·it mci, cle c -1 nun prohahil cm caractc 1• strain, 1 ,,srshn- A 1110111/
u1llte 1x1rerea cii i11ipal aces re cctll{i c/l'eau fi111c(ii sacra le. f. 'nd ,·onstnlite in :::one cu energie hene(icci, unem t
r, nci )·1 ~·,mm:r i111ereselor .1rra1tg1ce. Rec1111ua.)·tereaji111qic1 sc, era le a aces/Or cet11f1 d1ep1 lnitwlc1 de/oc nu nc/ud·:
(,,;;i/Ji/,wtu1 ca e!e sajifust zn ~1cela.)·i nmp Cf'nrrc poli!ILC .), cco11,m1ic·e, Llld11si1· mesrqugare,m, ale ob,1·tllur.

('n1unu1:1 nocB>Illffna npofl.1c11e JJJNJUC..YoJ1cde11uJJ u 1f,y11J..·:1uuna.7hflo,:o 11u31ur.1e1nu1 n1u;;_ h:·11h:'fUle tbLr ·"·py:1-
1

11,n 11T1 ,ro.,,11eebt.•. , opoilu1u nwna EKu.11ay1/b1-A 7'teOap en, '.1 mn-/111ecmpoecKo.11 .:1e,;1c:)rpc%t'
1 0
'.111:u 2upuc)u-
1'!a 1,03 1!11.'·: W 6 pe2I/r.i/lC Ill' 11031!/ICC K0/11/Cl f_\' 6/?K(I ll, crrj>J Ile /UCl/ll/J)ORKC !I KOIICi?I{)\'/., 11//lfillbl 11 Ol'/lDC!,//0(/11511/
t/1up1111..j,w. .·1;11u11, ll 11/i/J,JiCC Xil},ti,,illepy /Wli(/l'/1//021) /{(/ 1/UX 1]).HO.W?WICCJ.,'()i'O .iW/JICj'l/(/_1(/, l>t'j)0>l/111/C'e ecc;,,;
'1/U npu:U.liJ.'O JunaJ110C./(i(j,'{/.C,,O?// npuuc.\O)!CtlCUW/. Aun 'Jj) /:b/Cl{(/J/,1(;(/em <'llllfi/ll1'J)' /}(} l/J!{(/'/(/ lb/lO cUI,·
1-,1. 1 ,U(;t°{ 1/! l i!/,l/Ull J..pyi.-U,l.\ <'<li'00Ullj, cmpUHU/1/XCH e ,·co.1/C 1
/1/li,z'llll,i.\ 30/lil.\ /l<icJ'illC r)C/,)/CC 601/JJl'IU! u11mepc-
.:·u.11 OrJOfl!ilfo/. flpl,31/(///li(' l/J/1,/ 1 /0/bl/O C!l1'JHl.7h//Oli rjJr!il,l/lil J.,·o:1bl/C6b!\ ,'UJ}Of}l/ll/ tW6CC !fl: liCK.110'-iiiC/li 1710,'t),
1 ,1110 0/il/ u,);1,JRpC.'ltC/1//() 6bt.71' (Uli .\I0?.711 Ub//Jlb o/JU/1111111,/ '.[ll l(Clll7lpa.\ll/ llU.11111111 1/CCi,:Oli 11 JI;011,, \ll/ 1t'CC'l,:vIi
:.'.Ulili, ;f IU(l_\f 1-flf( ll' lJ pt:.HCC.]C

"A. bout The problem of origin and function of medieval r.1wul fortified sites in Dniester-Prulh imerjluves ''.
r'1c urticlc is ded1cnrcd t,J rhe pn!hicm oforigm a11dj1mcrion of. o called round or cirndcu fort!fied sites ofEJ.:imauc-
:'. lchedur r;pc in flnicsrcr-Prntlr inrerf71ffes. These .1ites appc a red in the region nor /mer thu11 ii; rhc t:nd of 9'''
,: 1'11tI1r,. Br their planning and .ilnrcture, as well as b,· the clwr,1crcr 1if'arclweologicaf e1·1de11ce. the_Y seem to be of'
/1. ren;n 1110s1 likely \,\,est Slovic ,.,ngin. lhe author suggcsrs tlw, rhe main fi111ctio11 of r!res,· .11tcs \\·as sacra!, as the,·
,1 .-, .,illwred ,11 geomant1c ::,one., :,0111erime.1 against any <h.:few, :: 1111eresrs. The fact tlwr rhe priman f11ncrio11 of' rh,
.: 1rc11ia,·Ji111ified sires is though. 1,.1 be sacral does not exclude ·/wr rhey played or could 1/ay. ot the same time, rhc
•1 /e of ,;om11w11iry cemcrs polirical and economic life, n·he1 ,·1irwu:, l!ldustrics cotl'ld be focared 100.

lLl Tep pm upmi: Jl11cl poHCKo-TTpy-rc1.;:oro ~1.:11.;:;1ype'-lhSI H3Becr;iu 60"1ee ,lBYX .aecm ·
FOB rupo;JHW, OTHOCIL\11,1 '- 1ICc1e:wBa1e~rnMH K rn p110;iy IX-XIfI BB. flo;.1,aB.:rniowee 60:u,-
iLll!Hcrnc1 ax jJCKamI::iyer-:;,i: B ce1:,epo-BOCH)'1Hoii LEtcn1 .,1ei1,:~{ype'-1M1. Tpli r·opoi.1.mna HJ·
l:::'.CTHbl H:l CeBcpe Mo.:1,;:i ... BCKoro ripyro-,;.1HCCTf0Bb}! JU 6epery )]H,:crpa ll HCCKCLU,KO
I }pu;,1rn1 ·- B ue1up.,Ubl·l\)l11 '--!aCTlL HH o;rnoro r.)pO,JJflll,a, 3a l1CKJHO'!CHlie\I na;,.,rnTHHK<l
1::a:1q)a, He oforapyn<tHO KrmmHeBa. TaKHM oop,UOM, ropOJJ,II-
IO~KHee COBpeMCHHOIO I '
1L(a Jc..Hi1Ma101 O.J,I!HaKu :~.1.1fi: :rnH.1watpn10-reor )aq:,11qecKHii apea. 1. uaxo,J.5.! rc5! i: ;1ecc1-
~ n:IJBOlI JOHC H He BCTpl'.'laJOTC}[ IOiKHee B 30He .~TernL
A pxeo;101 a 1-1eo:uM m c1e,il0Bamrn;1,,1 no;wepra mcb HC: Bet: a:mec r HL!t mtM>ITHli Kl 1. Tai;:,
pa:..'J-.:CIIKH. BKJIIO~la5! wyr,J10BKH, npOBO)],ltlliCb Ha ropOilllUlaX MepemuBKa, PyD):i <<Cl)ap-
ypu,: rypiiacK:J», Jia Tpe11 KpyY.h, rcp\rnHaprn: \!foB,rn Ta1apoBKd IV). Hu5LH,.t-Ky1rn-
•: .i, :\.'F1e;wp, Lnrn,KeH:,I I. fsrnmKeHhl IL Ma rey1~b1-Kop;ioH, [lapeBKa, EK1niayub1,

. : yi::aweB11a, Mairnrnyll1:,1. Pe1.ryJ1,L Kampa (B.,raccHKo 1983; OH :iKe 1990: R1ace1JKO, Tem,-
i ;in l 994, <Dc;1,)pos 197 ..'.: c!)e.,:i:opoB, 1-Ie6ontpei KO 1974: Pom:Lll, <l>e,1opo11 197 3: 5ei1-
1

, ;:1-d11. 1983; 5ei1.1eK 1 rn [985. OJ-! ,11:e 1986; Pa6rn-1,JB1FL TKalfyK 1995:
TtJ1bllOB, B:raceHh•J
\.i.1m:y 1964: XbH-lKY ]9(:1): qe6ornpeHKU 1964: OH ihC 1965: OH :;KC 1973; 3.taihOBCKaSI,
rf cues,.1ii I 9(i9; r o:n,ueB:i. Karny6a 1995; Cw1p1uB l 964: Sa,a et Jl. 1995: Karny6a, re:1L-
hc11:L ! Ilepi5aKoda l 997· 1 .lp.).
182 Re!'iSla Arheologica. Serie noua

I-Ia116rn1ee xoporno 11cc:1en:0BaHbL rJpo,I.1,1nu2. EK11.-.1ayuhr, A:P-1eD.ap, Pyn:h, fnHIDKettbr II,


J1yKameBKa, Kampa, rn,e BcKpbna 6cnbW.,l5I rrnowanh 11 OTKpbITO MHO)Kecrno coopy)Ke-
HHH. l opOD.HLUa fI p~(TO-,UHeCTpOBCKI1X 3eMC.lb KaK KaTeropa~;r apxeo.1orwreCKHX DpeBHO-
CTCi'l HeO,[IHOKpanw CTaHOBHJ111Cb 001,CKTll:\-f l-ICCJICLJ,OBaI-rnii. BHHMaHHe 3TOMY Borrpocy
y;:ie.:rn.1H TI.II. nb1pH5I, r.©. l.Ie6ornpeHKO. 11.r. XbIHKY, HO 1rnu6on1,illa5I 3acnyra B pa3-
pa6oTKe .uaHHOH Tt:Mhl rrpHHan:Jie)K!fT l.b ©c;:ropoBy B 50- 70 r r .. an HOCJICllHHe rO.IlhI -
H.n. TenhHOBy (E1::,1pH5I 1984; l.Ie6or2peH1,o 1973; XhIHKY 1987: ©e.nopoB 1974; TenhHOB
1990; OH )Ke 2003).
Bee ropoumua B TipyTo-,UHeCTpOBbe, .10 ncpHo,11y cpyHKLU10HHpoBaHH5I OTHOCHMbie
11cc;1e.,:r0Bare.1rnM11 K X-XIII BB., no Bp;:-,1e1rn coopy:iKemrn: MO:iKHO pa3,le~rn:Tb Ha 11Be rpyn-
nhr: ropomnua, HenocpencTBeHHo ccopy)hCHHhre B JTOT nep110J1, H ropomrwa, coopy-
)Ketttthre :rna 1n-nenb1-10 patthllle, Ho Hcnom,1ouaBlll11ec5I B rrep11o)l cpe1meBeKOBh511 ttace-
ne1n1eM perHOHa. Cy.il5I TIO H:\1CIOWHNC5I l-I'.lBeCTH5IM, BTopa5I K,rreropH5I .npeBHOCTett Ha-
MHOro MHOfO'--IHCJICHHek B cpem-reBCJ:OBbl 1:1 nepHO.ll HCf10Jlb308'UIIICh B OCHOBHOM ropo-
JlHWa, coopy)KeHI-Jhie B Jnoxy paHHCICJ :>Ke,1c3a. HaH6oJiee xopomo 1ny'--IeHHhIM naMRT-
HHKOM JToro nma }rnJureTc5I ropom1LlC fmrn1KeHbI II (foJihUeBa, Kamy6a 1995). K ro-
poll,HWaM, coopyiKeJIHhIM B pam-recp,~_rrneHeKOBhIH nepao.n, MO)KHO OTHec:nr TaKHe na-
~rn:THHKH Ka.K MepemoBKa, Pynh, f'ep:11~-rnapHe, An'--Ienap, E1rn~1ayub1, UapeBKa, JiyKa-
meBKa, Pe'--Iy:ra, Ka;1cpa. K JTOMY )KC ntpHOW OTHec TI.A.ParrnonopT ropo/J;HWa Ho5.!Ha-
KyHJr'la H l\.-famKay1u_,1 (PannonopT I %7, 301, a I--I.TI.TeJihHOB --· rnpomrme Jia Tpe11 Kpy'-:lh
tB:raceHKO 19155, 20:?-203; OH )KC 1990, n7.:~29; TeJibHOB 2003, 178).
B ocmrny 1crnccwp11Kamm ropo.:u11l, coopy:iKeHHhIX B parn-recpe,ilHeBeKOBLIH TiepHOLl,
H TT.Te:1bHOH TI0;10,KH.1 KJiacc:ucpnKaumo rI.A.Panrronopra - rpymmpoBKY IIX TIO LIBYM
dplUHaKa'.\t: l rnaHOBOH CTpyK1ype 06upOH11TeJ1bHhlX coopy>KeHHH I--1 HCIIOJib30BaHHbIM
\2 rpmne;!bllhl'.\1 npHei\.laM, TO eCTb KOl!CTP~- KUHH o6opOHHTC.dbHblX coopy)l<emrii.

Il.rrnHoB:ilH crpy11nypa" KOHCTPYKUHH o6opOHHTeJibHbIX coopymcHHH ropOllHUIJ,


Ha OCHOBaHIIH ruiam1pOBKH o6opoHHTeJibHbIX coopy)KeHHH II ee 3aBHCHMOCTH OT
.JliHI,awacpTa H.TI.T~'..%HOB pa3nemrn see 'lOCTOBepHO pamieq)CJlfo~BeKOBhie ropO,ilH-
rua Ha D,Ba nma (TeHbHOB 1990, 6-7; JH ih\'. 2003, 175-176). K 1,epBoMy nmy OH OTHec
5 ropom1J11, (An'-:lemip, EKHMayuhr. Fy,11, L(apeBKa, JiyKameBKa), yKperrneHH5I KOT0-
p11x He ITOD:'--IHHeHb[ l::CTeCTBeHHOMY pe;1be[(ly MCCTHOCTH. OH H pacm)JIO)KeHbI Ha rr.:rnc-
KOli rroBepxHOCTII, Ha TIOJIOrIIX CKJIOm.x H llMCIOT B rrnaHe Kpyr_-1yf0 IIJIH OBaJibHYIO cpop-
l\1y. ):~aHHbre r·opO)l]IlIW IIOJ1Y'--IIIJIH B l1CT0pl10 rpacpHH Ha3BaHii5I <<KpyrJibIX:>>, «KOJihUe-
BhIX>\ B KYJ1hTYPHOM OTHOilleHHH HX onpe.nernIOT KaK «IIaM5ITHliKH ;lpeBHepyccKofi Ky.rib~
T)'pbr», «.npeBHOCTH ·rnna EKHMayui,1-An'--Ie,Jap>,. Ko BTopo:..1y T11ny H.TI.TeJihHOB OT-
Hee 4 ropo.nm;ua (Pe'--Iyna, Jla Tpeiii KpyLJr>, Kancpa, MepernoBKa) cm))KHO-MbICOBoro
nma C HCCKOJlbKHl\1I1 3aWH1UCHHblMH rnroma,JKaMll, ycTpoeHHbl111H C y'--IeTOM 3aw,11THbIX
CBOHCTB peJibecpa MCCTHOCTH (TeJibHOB 1990, 6-7; OH )Ke 2003. 176-180). Ct-rnTaIO ueH-
HblM ~rneHIIe H.TI.T~:JibHoBa o TOM, l!I o roponnwa, coopy)KeHHbie B 6onee pairnee Bpe-
M5I H HCTTOJib3Yl01Ul-l(:C5I uaceJieHHeM :]pyTo-)]:HeCTpOBb5I B pmrnecpe;:i;HeBeKOBbIH ne-
pHO)], TaK)Ke rro.np,uneJI5IIOTC5I Ha .rJJ',a TH Ila, npIIOJIJDKaroumx C51 K xapaKTepHCTHKC
..:iocTcrnepHo pa1-rnecpemreBeKoB11x rcpom rm. "O-r:111 1 1He pamuix :..11,rcoB1>1x ropomnll
'.3aKHIO'--IaeTC5I B T0\1, '-ITO OHH COCT051T H3 O.iJ,HOi'i yKpen:ICl-!]fOi1 IL10Il!alIKH, - I1I1ll1CT
HccnenoBaTCJib, - Kpyro1b1e aHan:onr:uihI CTiB5IHCKJtM. TaKJL'vl oopa::wM. cmrnm-re o6)KII-
Bamr JIHillb Te roporrnwa, KOTOpb!C r () IIJldHOBOlf CTpyKType. :V!CCTOTTOJ'IO)KeHHIO, xa-
paKTepy yKpennem1f1, pa3MepaM noxo;m.1111 Ha co6cTBem10 c.~1aB5IIICKHe ropormwa"
(Tem,HOB 1990, 7).
l1,ii11nul il, ,\'r. 1-l 18_1

\'L1n{IIO COL"IaCIIThCr. C npe,1:10:-KeHHOi'i Tl1Til ,;1or·11eh. no:rnra10. lffO ee MOiKHO 110·


I UJ[HJ!Tb l!OHLI:\flI nal\UITlll!KaJ\lll. B '-IaCTHOCTH. K Kp,YL!hl:\1 ropOLllLUal\r HYn{HO OTHec-
j 1 11 mi:,unmiK f'ep,ra1-iap11e (Ht)Ba5I TaTapoBKt1 IV). ucc:1e,10BaB1rn1iirn mnm B 1990 I!
i 'N3 tT. Bo]l\lO:-KHU. cne_ l~ e1 on1en11 K /toCTOBC pHo cpe~u1eBeKOBbl\! Kpyr;n,I:'11 r·upo:111-
u,1:,1 11 ru:,unirnK IIomra-KyH1Itfrt. KaK :no :1e.1;_rn,1 r.E.<l>c.]opcrn 1:1 TI.A.ParmonopT. Ila-
;\lWt HIit,y:>Ke :,,rnoro ;reT pacnax1rnaeTC5! II ;lOCTc TQLIHO C:IOn{HO oupen_e:IHTb. KO]'J]a OH
·, 61:1 ~u 11a 'l,U!hl!O co 3;1a11. Om-rnKo orrpe,1e1rnc:\11,1 e pa3:'11ep1,1 ropow 1wa l 80x200 M c_11:1rn-
h Y\1 .BC,ll-JKif JI.rn nHI!Illl!bIX reTCKHX K0,1bU~l3bI,: ropomnu. '-ITO (:raBHT flOil COi\!HeHJH'.
,_:1 o ,'i,J 1cc p;urnee coopy;Kett11e ( <Deiiopcrn 1Y54 9)
l:,:o:+:H0-;1,1biCOBLie ropo.mrwa HMeIOT HeCKO; bKO 3clll1111UeHHb!X I1IIOLWL'l0K. Om1 xa--
l' \r; 1 epln) !OTC}i C!OiKHO, I CHCTe:\.101I nmu-mpOBK11 o6opomne:Ibllb]X yKperrncm1h. HaH-
1J_]Ct HpocryJ{) n;1am1poBKY JL,1e10T ropo;rnwa J>eqym1. jJa Tpeii Kpy 1 rh H l'VIepcwoBKa.
hccKO 1bKO Ba.JOB napa;ueJibHO nepepc:_:lalOT l\-1.b!C, 06pa3y51 HeCKO.:IbKO n.10Ll{cljl0K 1I
i 1uc1e He coe;u1w1}JCh LIPYl c .·1p)TOM (R1ace11Ko 1990, 212-213).
b.1HJKy10 ILlicHmpoBK\' o6opmu--ITeJihHbIX coopyn:eH11i1 H\1eeT 1 opo.rrnme Kamim. Ka~:
·1 Jil1 aer llCC.:lCJ(OB,rre:Ih [Ja\rnTHIIKa r.cD.1-:le601 apCHKO, B CJiaB5!Hn:ai'i 11epI10;1 iKI-UHli
; . :1 11oce.1emrn B V I1 - nepB011 uonoBJrne IX BB. yKperrnemrn cocT051JJH in .:myx Jrnm111,
r cpq::t·JaBWliX l\-lb]C II IlpC,'.lCTaBJJ51BWHX co6ot-i: uepeB51l!Hhifi Tbll! 113 ilBYX naparnreJib-·
r blX r,5!.]0B ,lYOOBbIX 6peBeH. BKOnaHHbIX B JeMJ.JO BepTHKaJibHO II B BCpxHefi CBOeH Ya·-
,; 11. 6:1aro;iap>l 061rnrnK~: wiaxa\m. o6pa:iyK)UlH ,; K.1en1. B KJICTII ciu.ia :iaci,mana 3CMJI5!
1: 3 psa. rrpornHyBwernrn B,UO.lb 06opomneJibHC11 cTeHhL Bo BTopof1 nep1m:1 n{JBm1 Ha
I, jCe:1eHJ11L CH5-naHHhll1 C ropl130HTOM 6aJIKaHo-nyHa1-iCKOH K)'JlhT)'pbL pa3pyrneHHa51

CH'.J-Ia 61,rna 3aMeHeHa 3C:VL151Hbl:\1 BaJIOM, poB tlbl.'I yrny6neH, II HatiaTO 6bIJ10 CTpOH··
TelbCTBO rpeTbdi 06opo1.IJ1TeJibHOl1 ;nmHH C Ha IOJ!bI-IOiI CTOpOHbl, TaK H He 3aKOHL£eH·-
.ll )e tlle6urapeHKO 1973. 68-72).
Ofhl-H)-\tbICOBLie lt.']X)!l!HUa B pcnIOHe OT.'hl'I<.HOTC51 HC TOJihKO pa3:\1CpaMH l1 OCO··
1::i1~HHOCTR;1.111 nnamlpOBK.11., HOH rorrorpatj)w1ecK1 [;-,111 ycIOBH5!MH. HanpH:v1ep. ropomrwe
P= 1yJJa 1
pacnOJlO)KCHO Ha O'-!eHb Hff3KOM H L!OBO lbHO H(UOrOM Mb!C:v, BCJICDCTBlle tJero
:J )Ha,·,nfoLIOCb JCKaprrnposa1rne CKJIOHOB l\H,rca .].15! ycmreHJl5! Cl'O ()iJOpOllOCT10C06HOC·-
l 11. l'opo1~m11e Jla Tpeii Kpyq1,_ H_v1e1owee Tpe)TO!IhHym cj)()pMy. HcLXOLUI rc5! Ha ol!eHh
i;[U)f:il\1 i)Opb.tBJICTC\1 _\II,ICy. ilOCT)'IJI{O\I ;rm , ,ca,lhl TO:lbKO C HaIIOJ1bHOii CTOpOHbl
[ ~,po,'[l![L(e 2\1epe11IOBKa !f,lXO,ll1TC5I Ha He OL!eHb BbI::OE0\1 i\lbICY, HO 3dTO KPYTO\I.
Kpyr:n,,e r opo;umw no rna110Bo1i crpyKType Bbir:rnm:rr ro::xn:10 nporne c:10:-KHO·
blU)BbiX. Om1 11l\1e1or u11Hy yKpennei-rnym n.:101muKy. Ha DBYX Kpyr.11,rx rnpomnuax
. lyK,lUJOBKa 11 l1om1a-KvJmtJa :1ono_cm1ne.1bHbie cerMern OB!lil·
OTMeY:eHbI HeOOJ'hUllle
llbiC Eas-lhl c mrnom,Hoi1 crop01-11,r (cDe;__ropoB. 1-:le60Tape1rKo 1974. 94: B.:taceHKO 1990 .
.: .'. '/) ko.10Tp5! Ha TO. 1 n U KpyLiblX llOCTOBepH) cpe,i1HeBe1<0 BblX ropOJJHU OTKpb!TO B
pci 110He 60. 11,111e. cxo;JCn:o :vteiKHY HI1\1l1 ropa:3Jl(1 60;1ee Bblpa:+:e1-11-1oe. c1eM l\h:iK.Ll.Y c;10tl{-
0

H1)--1-.1b1-.:0BhL\-11i KaK H n:I,frD!pOBKC, TaK ll B \ICCT\'•IlO.'!OiKCHl-Il!. Bee KpyroBble ropomnua


p,tCfi0.1U>KCHbl Ha CTpCJIK,.lX HtBhlCOKIIX 110JIOIIIX \1b!COB. oopa30BaliHb!X C:llU!Hlle\1 .1BYX
l0llll1H, <l)aK IH'·ICCK!f ro:·1om11ua Me:+:-1y co6ori H."IHLJa IOTC5I B OlJe!Ib IIC3Hcl 1 JIITeJH,HOI1
;:: : ~·r,.:1J11 ru.IbKO p,n,1ep,' ,rn yKperr;1e1moi1. 1riro11 a.]Kll.
IlccKonbKY :urn I-IaillH\ ,lcUibHei-iluHx cyiK,JEHIIII o (PYHhJUIOIELibllO\l HT3Hatiemm Kpyr-
hi \ rO]K\'JJnu 6yil)T l!;-,tetb :3Hac1ea11e ux pcu:v1epb:. np1rne;_i,e\1 ax: A11Lie,1ap 80:.,_70 ,1: EKH-
i 1y, u,1 86x60 \r: JlyKaLLICBKa 80x60 l\-t; Uapt'BKa 52x30 M: rep:'l1,urap11e 38x36 M: PyLlh

··· i>ap([ly'f'JJC T,Vf)'laC1<3>> /J 1 )x70 .\1 (Cf>e;J,opOB, 1lcourapCHKO J974, 75.n.89,91.961.


Cpt!l! Kpyr.1hrx ropu.111111. coopy>Kel!HbL\ B t •n.iee parn-Ice BpC\l}I. HO 1IcI10_1,c,mBaB-
' • ill\U B pctlillc'C))C,J!lem hOBhlii i!Cp110il. HC l]')l" 1,i.lC] l.'il !,aK na'.\l'.-l Ill l!KJ! llpcn: l li'-H:CKll
184 Revista Arheo!ogicii. Serie nouii

paBHbie ITO pa'3'.v1epaM yno:-.urnyTh!M Eb!We. H3!1pIIMep, MaTeyUhl 63x57 M, KypaTypbl


60x50 :vL TaK M 3Hal!ffleJibHO 0OJlhUJHe ro pa:::v1epaM, HarrpHMCp . Il05IHa--KyHwrn 200xl80 M
( cDenopoB., 4e6oTa [K:HK0 197 4, 77. 88 ). Y Kpe I c1eHHa51 n;rnw.a.nKa ropomrw. o6bP-IHO oBaJib-
I-!OH cpop'.'vtbl H lIMCCT HaKJI0H B cropoH y crp,,:;lKH Mb!Ca, Ha K0T0p0M paCIT0JlOiKCH0 ropo-
_:_:mwe (<DeaopoB 1974. 232).
Cyurecrnyer ew.e o.mrn 3aK0HoMepIocTb B nnam1poBKC Kpyrnhrx ropormm, coopy-
>KeHHhIX B paHHecpe11HeBeKOBhil1 rrcp110;:r. Ha BCCX naM51THl1KaX Pynh, repMaHapHe,
.1\..;--it1e;:rap, EKHMayu1:.t, J1yKameBKa, UapeBKa, f105rna-KyH111rn B HI1)l{He11 'IaCTH yKpen-
:1eHHOH f!JIOUiaLIKH 110 CKJI0HY HaX0ll]iJlHCI, K0.10llUhl, Ha HCK0T0pblX ropo,J,IUUaX (Ha-
IIpHMep, AJII.Jenap) _iLBYXKa\IepHbie. co CJlt))KI-[hll\111 B0,i'.I0TI0,;:(bCMHbl\111 MeXaHH3MaMl1,
;1y60BbIMH cpy6a:-.rn (cDcLI,opoB 1968. 86-90: PaB,z:nrna 1988, 57).
Pe3ynhTaTbl l1CC°CllOBaIIH1i KOHCTPYKUIIl1 o6opOHl1TCJlbHhIX coopy>KCHI11~ paHHecpe,1-
HCBeK0BbIX ropon.mu Ilpyro-)],HeCTJ)OBb51 HC0L[HOKpaTH0 rry6mIKOB3JIHCb r.E.<Denopo-
BblM (1953s: OH >Ke I954a, 8-23: OH )KC 1961, 81--106: OH )KC 1968. 85-93: <Dc11op()B, qc6o-
TapeHK0 1974. 74-98) OH )KC 0606uu,i;1 H Bl:C MaTepnaJihl pcrH0Ha no llclHHOl1 TeMe (cDe-
,'lOp0B 1974 ). K aHamny o6opOHl1TCJ1bHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH TI011HCCTp0BCKl1X ropom1w. o6-
paruaJIC51 TI.A.Pannonopr (ParrrronopT 1967, 125.201). THnonon110 o6opoHl1TCJihHbIX
coopy)l(eHHH, 11CX0;J,;~[ 113 HX K0HCTPY1'THBHblX oco6CHHOCTeH, npencraBHJI B nuccepra-
UH0HH0M 11cc.1eno11amrn, a no3,nHec 11 B M01-iorpaqrn11 H.TI.TcnhHOB (1990, 7; OH )KC 2003,
173-193).
OcHOBHOH KOHCTJ)YKTHBHOH oco6eHHOC rLK> o6opomnenbHbIX coopy)l(eHJ11i paHHeC-
pC:JHeBeK0BbIX Kpyr.1bIX ropon11m 0blJlO Ha IJilIHe ncpeB51HH0r0 Kap Kaea, 3aJil1T0ro )l(Hll-
KOH HJIH nony>KMKO:li rJil1HOH, 3ano:rneHH0l '0 KaMH51Ml1 H 3CMJ1eII. Cm1py)l(H BaJibI l1MeJIH
nattrr11pHoe fI0KpblTHC 113 II3BCCTH51K0 BbIX llJI0CKl1X KaMHeH, upocJie:;-KeHH0C Ha MH0rHX
rnp01ll11llaX. nosepx HaCblfll1 BaJIOB, HH )rLI,a l 1p0Il0J1)1(a5111epCB51HHhIC K0HCTPYKU11l1 BHYTPH
I-IaCblTIII Bcwla, B03B0JJ:11JllICb 6peBeHlJaH,IC cpy61,1, nosepx K0T0pbIX craBHJlllCb 6peBCH'Ia-
Tble 3a6opona (<DC:JOpOB 1974, 239-240}. OCHOBOH 11J151 KOHCTpyKUIIH Bfu10B Kpyrm,rx ro-
p0Al1lli, coopy)l(CHHbIX B 6onee pamrce Bpe\rn I Mareyuhr-KopnoH), a raK1Kc HCK0T0pbIx
CJI0)l(H0-MblC0BbIX ropOllHlll (Ka.ncpa) c;1y)KJIJII1 BK0TiaHHhIC Bepn1KaJibH0 llBYM51 PJW3MI1
CT0.1()bl, O0WIITbie IliiaXaMH l1Jll1 onneTCHHbIC rrpyTh51Ml1 (3naTKOBCK;:rn, IloJICBO}I 1969:
cDenopoB, l.Jc60Tape11Ko 1974, 88: 4e6ornpcHKO 1973. 68-72).

0 pacnpocTpa11c111rn npyTo-nuecTpoBCKHx THUOB roponnm Ja npen.eJial\m pernoHa


Bhl51CHCH11C 3T0I0 Bonpoca HMeer Kpa1111e Bcl)KH0e 3HalJ:eHHC J,JI5l onpeneneHH51 KYJih-
TYPHLIX CB513Ctt c ;:rpynrMH rcpp1nopmIM11. K HeMy o6pama.rrncb r.E. 1:De11op0B (1966; oH
>Ke 1974) H TI.A. PannorropT (1967, 194-199). MblCOBbIC l'L111 CJI0)l(H0··MbIC0BblC ropom1-
1ua urnpoKo pacrrpocrpaHeHbI 3a npe21cna:-.,rn TipyTo-)],ttecrpoBCKHX 3CMenh (Panno-
nopr 1967, 110, pile. 153). YLJ:l1TbIBa5J l\IaJI0lJ:MCJ1CHHOCTh ,i'.I0CT0BCpH0 coopy)l(CHHbIX s
pamiccpemreBeKOBbI~I ncpH0.Z:l CJI0)KH0-'.\1blC0BhIX ropomrm Ilpyro-)],HeCTpOBb51 11 co-
nyTCTByrowee nmo;rnrlllJ:CCK0C pa3H006pa3IIC B nnaHOBOH CTpyKType, Ha 0CH0BaHHl1
a1-rnnor111l 3TI1M ropon11w.aM 3a rrpcn:;iaM 11 Hawero pcr110Ha TPYllH0 cy.z:1.HTh onpc.iJe-
:IeHH0 () K::lKHX-,1H6o CB5135IX.
KapTHHa pacnpocrpattemrn Kpyrm,rx ropomuu 3a npej1e;1aM11 JlpyTo-llHecrpoBhSI
;raeT YHHKclJlbHYIO 11 HHTepeCHYIO l1Hq)OpMaLU1IO 0 CB5135IX pcrnc)!-{a, I-lo npe1Kne lJeM 06-
paTHTbCSl K a1-1aJI0I'llHM, 0TMCT1IM Bper,151 co 3JlaHl151 KpynrhIX rop0)111LL(.
f1o \1HeHHIO 0CH0BH0r0 11CCJie.J0B3Tea1JI r.J3.<l)e11opOBcL Bpe:\151 C03]l3HH51 Kpyr-
IIX
:thlX rupomrm - KoHeu IX B. (cDe;:ropcll3 191'.)()a, 181-182: cDe.:1opoB, 1 Ie6orapeHKO 1974.
75-98).
Vi1.'11111ul Ji, l•./1'. 1-2 !85

rioITbITKa T.B.PaB1U11Io1i pa;:u1KaJibH0 nepecwnpeTb mnnpom:y ropo;unm1 A..1'-:!.e-


J:ap K0CHyJrach. rnaBHbIM o6pa3oM. n03JJ.HeJ'.i ;1a rbr ero cymecTB0BaHII5!. OcHona1-rneM
·;,i-;:c: WU:[ l1CKJIIO'-J.CHlUI 113 DclT11p0BKl1 3T0ro rop0DJ!Wcl Boo6we IX B. IL15I T.B. Panmm:ofr
cny)KHT 0TCYTCTBHe rremrnif I-I paHHeKpyroBoH i;:epaMIIKH. Mbr ornepraeM nOLtO0HbIH
[C3MC, flOCKOJibKY OH lI3Hct'~l,UlbHO OCHOBaH Ha y6e,K,JeHim. l.fTO KpyroBa5I KepaMHK,1 K0.lb-
L[CBbIX rop0;1HlU 5!BmieTC5l reHeTI-Il.fCCKlil\1 npo[(o; >KCHHCM pa'.3BHTll5! NiCCTHO}I KepclMHKH
1 lllla JlyKII-PaHKOBCIJ,KOH B penlOHe. '-:!.TO B0BCe 1e 5''.BJI51CTC5! D.0Ka:J.arHbL'v1 H j_(a)KC npo-
n1Bope1rnT HCK0T0pb!M BbICKa3aHHblM B HCTopm,rpaq:rn:iI l\IHeHI15ll\1 (no:1po61rce CM. Pa-
Ci1rnoBHt.I 1999, 269--270). OnHaKo n0311H5I5I narn ycrnmrnmrnaeTOl T. B.PaBJlHHO~f cepe-
,11; HOM 60-x rr. X BeKa (PaB!lHHa 1988, 63-67).
Ha OCH0BaHIUI aHaJlH'.frl HYMH3MaTHl.feCKoro, 1;emeBoro H KepaMli'-J.CCKO[O :-v1,nepH2Lla
B 60J1ee paHHeH pa6me npmumr K Bbmony. l.fT0 KYJ1b1ypa KOJibUCBhIX ropomm1 THna
,1 bl
Er:11Mayub1-An1.1enap B03HHKna B TiozlHeCTpOBbe re no311Hee Komra IX B. H 1.1To BTT0Jrne
Bepo5!TH0, .lla)Ke He no3J1He:e cepenHHbI IX B. ( Pa61 mos11q 1999. 266-270). Hc3aBac11Mo 01
Toro • .KTO )Ke H3 HCCJ1CLIOBaTeJrett npaB, KOHCTaTHpyeM, t.IT0 B mo6oM c_ryl.fae Kpyrnbre ro-
pom1w,a B llpyro-,QHecrpcmbe y)Ke cywecTB0Bililli B nepnoLt He no3.zrnce aaIIa.·rn X B.
KpyL1bie ropomnua, nocTp0eHHbie 6e3 yqe1a 3aWHTHbIX CBOlICTB pe.rrbecpa., 6LUH
xapaK,,epHbIMH 1IJI5I MHornx 06.1acTe11 ,[(pe1rnd PycH. Ho B Cpe;:rneM no.'XHenpoBbe
KVYL1hie yKperrnemrn rrmrn:rnIOTC5! He pattee BTOJ!OH 11onomrn1,1 Xl B., a B CeBepo-Boc-
1 Ot.IHoit H CeBepo-3arramwH Pyc11 JUIWb B XII B I1 TOJ1bKO B 3arramrnpycc10-ix '3CM_15!x 1

(~a ncKJuoc1eHHeM flon011Koi-i H CMoJ1ettcKoH 3CMCJJh, 6nH3KHX B 3T0.\1 OTHoweHHH K 60-


.1ee BOCTOt.IHbIM o6nacT5!M ). y)Ke c caMoro pmrnero rrepH01Ia B03HMKH0BeI-rn5I roponHu~ c
IX-X BB. no5!BJT5!IOTC5! ropo,'J,Hll!a rrpaBHJibHoir Kp:1'nIOH cpopMbI (ParmonopT 1967. 195).
KpyrHbie ropo;.]Hwa KpOMe TeppHT0pm1 Tir:yTo-,QHeCTpOBb5! 3acpHKCHpOBaHbI Ha
1:ore r 3.Jl!IUKOH 3eMJIH -- Ha IO re Y:epHOBHUKOI1 H HHHHHUKOH o6rracTJI, B 6acce(im~ cpe11-
HCfO Tet.Iemrn I<))KHOro l3yra, TaK)Ke B CeBepttc,(i qacnr BonbIHH. TypoBCKOM TioHe-
cbe. no11n5!11Ibe, B l.]epHoi1 Pyca, T.c. BJl0Hb 3ana;.ttoi1 rpaHHUbJ Pycn 1;PannonopT 1967.
l 9-20.:(8-30.45-51. 76.83.93. 97 .196 ).
OmraKo raKa5! ofaua5! xapaKTep11cT11Ka KaK Kpyrna;;i nnaHoBa5! c11crev1a ropo,JJIIH ofrbe-
;nrn5ICT ;10cTaT0lIH0 pa3H0P0J1Hbre rpynnh1 navr5!THHK0B. TI.A. PannorropT Ha ocHoBamrn
,JtTi:lJlbH0r0 aHa:u13a BCCX 3ananHopyccKHX ropom1w. HMCIOilUIX 11CKYCCTBCHH0 rrp1uaH-
aym reoMeTpIIIJ.ecKyro cpopMy, pa3,1e.11:c1 HX Ha qe 'bipe rpynm,r. 3aMCTHO OTJII-I4aIOIUHec5!
;1pyr OT npyra B nenurnx K0HCTPYKUHH. Hccnenom: remo YL(,LlOCb fl0Ka3aTb, '-lTO 3TH rpyn-
llbl 3am1MaIOT H nocTaT0lrno t.IeTKO orpar-1111-re~rnh e Tepp1nop1m ( Parrr,onopT l 967, I 96 ).
B 0T.JC_TbHYIO rpynrry Kpyrm,rx ropom1w. OTJIWiaIO Ul1XC5I OT 0CTcL1bHhlX rpymr 6oJiee '.v10W-
Hh[Ml1 BaJiaMH l1 Torrorpa<trnIIeCKHMH yc.10B!15!MH Mecropacrr0Jl0)KCHI:51, HCC;le.'l]0BclTCJTb
Bh,i(ec1HJI rpyrrrry KpyrnbIX rop0JlHlll TTpyTo-)],HeCT!)OBCKHX 3eMe.:Ib. B :ny )Ke rpynny. nep-
B)'IO, no TT.A.ParrrronopTy . BX0D.HT 11 rpynna Kpy1111,rx ropomm.r cpe ..'l.Hero Te1.1eH11H lO1K-
11oro Eyra. 3ra rrepB,rn rpyrrrra -- rpyrma DHecrpcBcKo-6y1KcKHX ropo:mw -- Tepp1nopII-
,lJlbHO 0TD,ane1ra OT ]Xlli.OHOB J10KaJIH3aUHH Tpex npyn1x rpyrrrr KPYl~!lbL". ropomm1, Tepp11-
T0p!1aJ[bHO Me)K.ny co6011 C0CCJ15!Wl1X (PannorropT 1967, 196, p11c.153}.
K cesepy OT Tepp1nopHH MoHD,OBbI Kpyr.r1bre wrn oBa.IbHhle Hel°iom,wac ropo.mrwa
pacnpocTpaHeHbI, no Jlcll!l-[blM KapTorpacp11poBaHH5! ]5.A.THl\IOll!yK,L 13 B0CT0lfHb]X pai1-
0Hax l-£epHOBHUKOI1 06J1ac-r11, BKmoqa51 Xonrno y10 B03BblllICHI-IOCTL (T11Mo111yK 1976,
139-140; PycattoBa, Tm,101IJyK 1981, 34). Hcrn6on1::e 6nH3Id1 no rnrnHonoii crpyKrype Ta-
KHe ropom1wa KaK .l10Ma 1 H1HUbl, rpo3eHUbI. 3awmCKO, MyKiua, JleHKOBCUKOe ropo,w-
lHC (THMOIJIYK 1969, 61; OH 1Ke 1973; OH 1KC 1975. 7-42: OH )KC 1976. 61-65.78-79; Pan110-
11opT 1967, 19-22).
186 Rcvista Arhcologica. Serie nouii

K B0CTOKy OT flpyTo-)lHeCTpOBCKHX 3e,1e;11, B 6acce11He cpe;:rnero Te4eHH5I IO)lrnOrO


Eyra K0J1Wiecrno H3BeCTHblX KJ))'Llb!X rop0W1LJ, aHaJJOril'-IHbIX no rrnaHOBOli crpyKType
IL pa3MepaM ).:[HeCTp0BCKIIM, ;:i,aiKe 6o;n,llle. Cpe;:i,11 HHX TaKHe naM5ITJU1Kl1 KaK C11060,a-
Ka, ryTa, Ol\teTHHUbl, MapKcoBo, :>Ko )I-!lrn~.e IL TiapxoMoBKa, ,.QaumB L ,Qaunrn IL Ko-
rmeBKa II, TapacoB1G1 I, TapacoBKa U. TeJtenleBKa, .5ICTpeMfa1xa 11 ilP- (XaB,1IOK 1969,
156-174; Parmonopr 1.967, 29).

IlpoucxoJKJJ,enue i-;pyr.1h1x roponmu


TI.A. Parrnorrop r rroKa3an, l.JT0 no;rnnei-me 11 pacnpocTpaHe1rne KpyrnbIX ropoJlHll1 B
:3ana.:uwpycc1-:nx 3ev1.:rnx CB5!3aHo c 3anam-tocnaB5lHCKHM BmurnHeM. Ou np1rne11 3Hairn-
TeJibHYlO JIHTepa T)' p y, CBHJleTeJ1bCTBy10111yh) o pacn pocTpattemrn Kpyn1b1x yKperr;1eHHH
B CHHXpOHHblH. 11 6onee paHHHH nepH0L( B BocTOY:HOlI repMaHHH, HmKHeM fJOBHCJleHbe,
C1ue3HH, Bem1Kono.1bu1c, Ma30Bm1, B qexm1. TI.A. ParrrronopT TaK)Ke noKa3aJI, Y:T0
Kpyr;1h1e ropo;ri:mua xapaKTepHbI He T0JlbK0 llJUI 3anaJJ,HOCJ1aB5!HCKOrO MHpa, HO I1 )]JI5!
;1pyr11x paHOHOB, Hanpm.1ep, )lamrn, ro,1surnmm, illBewm, f epMaHHH, EpnTaHCKHX oc-
rpoBoB (Parmorrop1 1967, 195-197).
YYHTbJBa5l TaKoe 11111p0Koe pacrrpocrp,rneH11e KpyrnhIX ropOJlHW. B EBpone, K0HeY:-
Ho, TJ)YJlH0 EbI5IBHTh OnpeJ..(eDeHHbJC CB513ll TipyTO-)lHeCTpOBCKl1X 3CMCalb C KaKHM-TO
KOHKJ)CTHbIM perH0H0M. R1H5IHI1e 3arra;rnocnaB5lHCK0ro B0CHH0-HH)Kettepnoro HCKYCCT-
Ba Im C03)laHHe )],HCCTJ)OBCKHX Kpyrnb X rop0Lll1ll1 rrpe)lnonanrn l1 r. 1;. <!>eJ].OJ)OB ( <:Pe)lO-
poB 1974, 245-246 ). l1cCJienonaTeJ]b CCbU!c:UIC5! Ha pa60TbI .51. KaMHHCKOH. 11 Jlpynrx
rro:u,CKHX 11ccne)lOB,1TeneA, YTBep)KJ.J.aJ0IUm;, Y:TO ropOJlHllla C K0JibUCBbIM BaJJOM Il05IBI1-
;rnch y cnaB5IHCKoro irnceneHH5! Bemmono111,w11, Cm1e3111-1 11 B npyr11x pai1.oHax TioJihllil1
B K0HUe VI-VII BB. H pa3 Kpyrnhre ropon11u1a B Tipy10-)lHec1poBcK11x 3eMJl5IX B03HHKnH
1103)KC, Y:e\1 B llonbJJUe, TO II BJ1H5II-rne, [10J1yY:aeTC51, 0Ka3aJI H~teHH0 3TOT perHOH.
Ho repp11Top1rn CeBepHoro TipHKaprra1 b51, B TOM Y:Hc,1e BepxoBh5I B11rnhI 11 O;lepa B
VI-VII BB., 6bIJia TeppI1TOJ)l1CH., 0TKY1lil C0BeprnanH CB0e HCTOpHY:eCK0C JlIHl)KeHHe cna-
B5IHCKHe Hap0Hbl. vi ecmI HaY:ano rnawrnCK()H. 1:popn1q.>11KaUHH neHCTBHTCJlbHO 0TH0CHT-
C51 K ::noMy nepHo;ry, TO, eCTeCTBeHH0. BJil15JHHe 3arranHocnaB5!HCKOH q.>OpTIHpHKaU,HH Ha
~1pyr11e C,laB5lHCKHe Tepp1nopm1 6yi1CT Ka 1aThC5! 0'-ICBHJlHbIM.
Eonee ocropo)KH0 no)lmuen K Bbl5LCHCHHEO JTHX CB5!3eH TI.A. Parmonopr. Ha ocuo-
BaHHH TlllaTCJibHOI0 aHa.runa K0HCTJ)y'KTHBHblX oco6emrncTeH, MCCT0TTOJ10)KCHH51 Kpyr-
:IbIX ropOJUII.Ll OH 0II[)C)lemur CB513b MC)l(.]y Bhl5IBJICHH6IMH HM 0CHOBHbIMH rpyrmaMH Kpyr-
.IbIX ropoD,Hlll l1 KOHKpCTHhIMH paiiot!aMH 3ana)lH0CJ1aB5IHCK0f'0 MHpa. Ho KaK pa3 B
0TH0111CHHI1 nepBOI! r·pyrIIThl KpynrhIX ropo unu, KOTopyIO C0CTaBJ15IKIT rraM5!THHKH Tipy-
TO-)lHecrpOBh5l 11 6ac:ceiiHa lO)KHOro Eyra. TI.A.PanrrorropT He cyMe.1 Bhl5!BHTh Jnr CB51-
:m. "K CO}l(anem110 ... m1weT l1CCIC)l0BlTCJih, - IIOKa Cll1C HC5ICH0, C KaKHM KpyroM naM5IT-
]-H1K0B 3arra)lH0C:IdBHHCKOr0 MHpa c:Ie)lye f CB5!3bIBaTb Kpyr:IbIC ropom-rwa nepBOH l1
BTopoH rpyrrn·' (Pa1morrop1 1967, 199).
He ceKper, Y:T0 aa cero.J.H51111m11i JleHh iia116onee xopo1110 H3yY:eHa cnaB5lHCKa51 q.>op-
rncjrnKau1-151 aa Tepp1nopm1 fepMaHHH 11 flo.rhWH, Hennoxo B 4ex1rn. xy)Ke B BeHrp1111 11
PyMLIHl111 H npaKTl1'1eCKl1 HC H3yY:eHa Ha .DdJIKaHax. OnmlKO yAl'.e I-I TaM 113BCCTHbl Kpyr-
.lbIC ropomrnw pam1ecpe;1HeBeKOBoro Bp:MCHH, HarrpuMep, B qepHoropHH (rpaJXa1i,
c·aMo6op II ;rp.), B 1:;onrap1111 (f opaH0Bllbl), K0T0J)ble HCK0T0pbIMH HCCJlC.il0BaTeJrn:MH
rpaKTYIOTC5! KaK caKpaJibHble rrno1Ha.w11 (\1ujOBI1Y:, KoBatieBHY 1975, 8-10; PycaHOBa,
TllMOUIYK 1993, 99). Ha '3ana;J,Hbre a 1oro--1anam-1b1e nc10KH 1pa1111UHH q.>opn1q.>IIKaum1
KpyrnbIX rop0JlJIUJ B Tipy-ro-llHec-rpOBCKHX 3e'.1JI5!X KOCBCHH0 M0iKCT yKa3hIBaTb m:nom,-
30Bc!Hl1C B )TO'.\! pCL!0I!C KpyrJIL!X roru,urn1 !TT0B, no ITJial-lOBCn'i c-rpyKrype H pa3MepaM
'f;/umui 11. )\'r. 1-2

CXOLU-lbIX C pa1rnecpeIU·l\:BeKUBbJ:\![l IlpcilClilKa 11l"l10 lL'{OBaJ-nrn HCCO:lLUIIIX f]() pa3l\-1C-


paM Kpyr.1bIX ropo.aHW l CTOB B O pvro-,]1-1,.:c·q :i lltt' \IO:-KeT JL\IeTr) XlBHIOIO H He \Iecr-
Hym. a 11epeHece1rny10. nu;1tJcpKlIBaJO. llt'JJClleL'. lili\'J() c10;1,l T]Xl.Jl!l!l!IO. Tor.Ja HOCHTC-

. ei1 3TOII TpaJHlUUI BYif,HO 11ch·aTb K 06.1a..: 1>L\ rj,p; i-;:o-- 1 1.wp11ircKoro !\rnpa Cpe.JJfi:'ro 11
Bmi-:Hero I10:1ymrnL}I, I .'le H 61-,1.111 pacnpuc 1pc· IIl'J 11,1 i-let10:1bI1IJ1e c; Kpa.lbHbie ropoD,11-
r
ua-c1rnT11.1mua ( B1;He;rn ,<1 oB 1980: a pallu 1111H Kl11-{;1 'Il"BJilJ 1950. 100-1 J::: Gosr::ir 1969 ,_
r.E.ct>e1lopoB o6panu BHII\-rnHuc Ha 4JdKI ,:J_11:0Bpt:-.1emwro 1rP51B:1eJimI o.J,HOTitn-
HbIX ICOJ1bUeBhIX ropom1u1. O."U!OTlff!HbL\ f(jj,, il \ll'i.']UI!tl.[Oii-:CHlIIO, ·:·aK II 110 OCH()BJ!bl\1
hOHCTpyKnIBHbI.'.\1 ocoClL'llHOCT51'.\1 06()porn11~-m 111,1,: u),)pymcmrii. rro pa3:\1epa,1 11 T.J.
()i.-r rrpeJ]J10JIOiKl1JI. 1-1.TO U JJOl!ICJ1bCJ BO fflf\ Cll( {WkUil1ll BC.'lOCb l!O o;wo:-.1y n:iaHy. BC-
!)O}ITHCC BCero, J-:IanpaB:,:,nocb 1n OiJ,lll!!'() W,'.H11,~1 (hr .JOI!YCKa:J 1-Ja.fllfl-!I:Ie HCKOero C.Ul!-
1' oro ¢eo1wnhaoro uem pa. a nprrtmHofi n,opy ,i<ciJ mi 11a:rnas1 Heo6xo_1H1\1ocTb orpa;,i;:e-
1rn:x Hana;leI-mii Ko~reBH1moB (<l)enopos 197,-1-. ~- 7)
BpHJ Jili MO,KHO npH.i,HaTb y6e.u11TeJJbHhl\-1 i,u:1061-we OO"b5!CHett1:1e. HeT 1-m o:rnoro
I!pHMepa, HH B nnaHe ap~:eoJIOfl!l!CCKHX :.10Kd3a' e;JhCTB. lll1 B OTHOWeH!111 ,]aHHblX !HfCb-
),,[CJ-IHbIX 11CT0l!HHKOB, KOTOpbie OLI '.\JOI;Il1 CB[ ae [C.1bCTBOBaTb () no.ao6J-Ioii Moaemr.
Ko;lbUeBb[e ropom1wa pacrr0.10i!-:CHbl B;IaJlJj ff! ·paHllllbl co CTeIIbEO. K TOM)' )KC no.rw6-
lJa5! !\W;leJib He 06M1.c1rneT 11051:BJICH.He Ka4eCTBeJ: HO l-!OBhIX B rpopT11CpIIKarn-roHHOM ILla-
He coopy)KeHI-riL He xapaKrepHbIX 11"151 Mecnrorc Hacenem-rn B npe/1urecrBymmee speM51.
LcTb .aam-Ibie, lffO c;1aB51H1:: crpo1t:m :\1b1coB1,1c r >porum.la (Pe11yJrn. Kantj:Ja. ct>yHny Xep-
UHi1) HJ1H HCTTOJ1b30Bami ropomrwa pamrero )Kt:1e:iHorn BeKa (LrnH)KeHbl II). Kosrhue--
Bbre ropO,'.UIIl.la, 0,[(HOTHllHbIC IIO KOHCTJJYKLIJlH I MC:CTOrIOo10)KeHJ!IO. B03HHKa!OT OJWO··
BpeMCl-lHO B nepHOJl, KOI .~(a Mbl He MO>Ke:v! e111e r pe.'[TTOolaraTh KOlICBIHil!eCKOH onaCHOC··
T!1. I1onaraIO HaH6onee Bep05!THOii CB5!3b B(nl-HitCHOBCHirn KOJ1bLI,eBbI)( ropo.aHil.l C 1105!B··
J leimeM HOBOI'O HaCe;lCHHlil B penIOHe.

He OCTaHaBm-rna51Cb B paMKaX m-teT05lHICii c·1 aTLll cneuaa:·rbHO Ha 3TOl1 re;v1e. KOTO··


pa51 y:,i.;e 6bma orpa,Kena B ;urccepraurn1 11 pn.Jc Hy6,.11IKaw111 (Pa611:-roBH"f I! 997; OH )Ke
1999; OH >Ke 2005; Pa611HOBIFI, P516UeBa 1997: 1-<abinovici 2002), JIJilIIb OT\1el!y, l!TO, no
H,mre:11.y MHeHI110, KYclbT\ pa Ko.:u,ueBLrx ropo.m; ll Trma EKII'.\,IaYUhl B ITpyTo-Ll,HecrpoB-
cK11x H ,lJ;HecTpOBCKO-Dy)t;CKI1X 3CMJ1}IX. xapaKTep nyiowa51C5I cneumpIIl!CCKH:'.-1l1. He BCTpe-
LJ.:lFOilJHMHC}I pa.Hee 3IleCJ, 1.popn1qrnKaw1eiL 70\1 )ClpOIII eJibCTBOM. o6p5!;JOM 3axop01-re-
H!1!1, KepaMHl!eCKli\.1 l(():v1lT]eKC0\1. BCUJCB61:.I lllilieIJrape\L Hy~,1113:.taTIFICCKII\1 MaTepirn-
JI,)M l1 T.]l. CB513aHa CBOH\I npo1tCXO>KJlCHl1C'.\1 f!e .: p,:3BJ!THeiv[ Ky.:IbTYJ)bl :\H~CTHOI'O Hace-
Jli~mrn - HOCHTenett .upeBHOCTe(I T!1fla JlyK11-Pa, iKOBCUKO!f B penw11e, - a C 11plHOK0:.1
IJ,)BOI O l-IaCe.1eHH5!. -~dfiaJ.HOC:JafH!.HC1':0IU 110 CBu;\1\ K)."ll,Typ11mo1_y Q•):JHKy.

I-1 CJ1eJ1YIOil.llIH. Bonpoc. OCBC1Ue1-rne Kornpcn) }J W!5!CTO! !.'lclBHOll llC..'IbIO J,U-IHOH CTaTbll.

<l>y11K11uo11a.r1huoe 11a31rn•n·m1, · 1q1~ 1.11,1x ropomuu


Ha 11epBh111 B3r:rna. ca:v1a rrocraHUBKa Jroro HO rpoca K,DKeTC51 111."11mrneiL oco6eH-
HO. ecnH )'l!HTbIBaTh orpoMH,Yl{) .ll!Tepa1yp\. )!( ,cmrnem1y10 JTO!I TCMe. jJ,eikTBIITe.lb-
HI). 11 TaK Bee f!OHSITtfO: rupO.(lll[lC npra11113aw1,)HJ lO-crpyKryp11pymw:m1, COUl1cl:16HO-
nonHTH4CCKl1ll ll JKOJ-!()\11l'ICCK!ii'i UCI-ITP .'l.151 oiq~ \ >Karowero mtcenemrn, Oj{HOI1 Jl3 r.:-raB--
HblX tj:JyHKUIUi KOTOpor u i:i bl. Ia OOOpOH111 C.'11 Ha $J \1He npe;.tCTaB~l51CT:51, tITO CTO.lb Tpa-
Hl:ll.U!O HHbili B3rJI5!)] Ha npHp<.ny B03HIIKHOBCHW !I L)CHOBHOe tj:lyHKUHOHa.:1bHOC Ha3I--Ia-
LJ[:H11e Kpyrm>rx ropomllu He cro.·1b yJK 11 6ecc1ror L~ll. 1

OCHOBHOl1 HCCJleJJOR,1.TeJib .'tpe1rnepyccKJI,\ lllplUl!iU Ha C0CCJHIIX C Teppwropnei1


J\-lonnOBbl 3CMJI5!X CeBep1roli l~yKOBI!Hbl 5.:\.T11\l()lJlyh. !W fone ;_UiaJIJna ,(aHHbIX no
T;:n1.uua TH ropO.LIHLUJM. Jl pe;J.'IO>Kl·EI cne;ry101ny1 J rj)\'J!Klllf Ollc!Jlbl-!0-XpOHOJ10 rll'fCCKym
188 Revista Arheologica. Serie /Wllii

nmononno: ropomrrna - o6wJIHHhie U~HTphr; ropo;. unua -- KWDKecK11e Kper10cT11; ropo-


mrnw - cpeo,aaJihHbie 3aMKII 11 ropo;:i:mua - c1 opo)KeBbie Kperrocn1. r opoilmua -
06ll.(11H-
H1>1e ue1rrp1,1 neJUITCJL B CB0IO oLiepenb, eIUe Ha nBe rpyrrrrbr: I) ropomiwa - KomreKTl1B-
Hbie y6e)Kmua (11x IIJIOIUclJJ:KH He HMCJIH cTaUm)Hap1rnro 1acene1urn) 11 2) roponuu.ra -
a,L{.'vllfHI1CTpanrnHo-xo:rnHCTBCHHbIC ueli TpbI ( HX IlJIOI_Ua.llKI1 HMCIOT crau110HapHbie )KH-
muua I1 peMeCJICHHbie ~rnCTepcK11e) (T11MOIUYK 1982, 5-37).
113 KpynihIX ropo1mm: Ha CeBeprrof-'r byK0B1rne pacKorrK11 rrp0B0J,un11cb Ha Tpex: f po-
3HHUbI, Jlor.rn411HUbI H JleHKOBUbl. fopomnue f'p0311HUbl, BpeM5l cyIUeCTB0BaHI15I K0TO-
poro E.A.THMOIUYKOM orrpe;:i:eneHo IX-X BB., paccMaTpHBaeTc5I HM KaK o6ll.(HHHbIH ueHTp;
r
pa3111epb1 yKperrneHHoii rrnoll.(a.LIKH 3Toro roponull.(a 315x270 M. opo.LIHIUe JloMa'"rnHUhI
nepB0HaI.Ja:IhH0, rro MHemuo E.A.THMOH(yKa, 0hlJIO 06w11HHhIM ue1npoM, HO 3aTeM npe-
BpaTHJIOCb B KH5I)KCCKy10 KperrocTh; )l(H3Hh Ha roponttll.Ce ITP0.LI0JI)Kanaci, c IX ITO XIII BB.;
JlHaMeTp oBarrhHOH n.noll.(a.LIKH ropom1ma 70 M. J[enKoBeu,Koe ropou11we cywecTB0Bano B
XII-XIII BB.; ero Kpyr.na5I B nnaHe yKpemrem:ta5I :ru1owanKa 6una rmaMeTpoM 80 M. B c11-
creMy o6opOHI:,I BX0LIH.J1l1 CIUe )lBC JlHHIHI BaH0B. E.A.THl\-10ll.(YK paccMaTpHBaeT JleHKO-
BeUKOe rop0LIHIUe TaK}Ke KaK KH5I)KCCKYfO KpCil0CTh (THMOll.CYK 1976, 61.78: OH )KC 1982,
37.68-69).
C0Bepwe1rno 0 1 1eBHJJ:HO, LIT0 E.A.THMOll.CYK orttec Bee rpH ropoLimua K KaTeropH5IM
ocirn,mrnoro ueiupa H j~:H5I)l(CCKoii Kpenocnr, 11cX0.LI5I 113 cyll.(eCTBy1oruett y 11crop11K0B cxe-
MhI CMCHbl o6wecTBemio-3KOHOMI14CCKl' X ¢opM3UHH: Ha CMCHY O0IUHHHOMY CTp0IO np11-
XO,UI1T pa:m1e¢eonaJihH6Ill. Ha116onee HarJI5IDlH0 3T0 Bl1LIH0 Ha ITp11Mepe JloMa41IHCKOro
roponmu,a. B XII B. ropon11rua K0Hei:.rnl) y)Ke He Monrn 6hITh 1pa.LI11u110Htth1M11 o6rn,HH-
HbIMI1 ue1-npaMI1, a II0 CB0HM ycJIOBl15IM 6om,we CO0TBCTCTB0Ba.JIH rraM5ITHHKaM rrep110-
;Ja qleonamnawrn - KH5I)l(CCKl1M KpenoCT5!M. TaK, EKHMayuKoe rroceJICHHe, no MHCHHIO
E.A. THMOlllYK2., ¢opr,nrpoBaJIOCb 113 ITPE'WliCCTBYIOWero o6rumrnoro UCHTpa H B ycJI0BH-
5!X rrocreneHH01'i ¢eo;J:amnau11H o6wecrBa rrp11HHMano xapaKTep paHHeropoacKoro
rrocenemrn(Tmmll.(yK 1981, 119-122).
r.E.<PenopoB paccr.raTpHBaJI Kpyrnhie ropomrIUa EKHMayuh1, Anqe,;1ap 11 apyn1e KaK
LUITaJ,CJII1 paHHe<peOLiclJibHbIX roponoB. Ha caM11X ropon11wax, ITO ero MHCHHIO, )KHJIH
npCLlCTaBHTCJIH cpeo,:raJibHOH 3HaTH 11 peMeC.ICHHHKH Ha1160J1ee BhICOKOH KBamitj)lfIKa-
UI111 - IOBem1pbl, opy)l(CHHHKH II T.LI. Ha nocanax, 0Kpy)Kal0llll1X UHTa;~emI, ITp0)KHBaJI0
rrpoqee Hacenerme. ropona B03HHKJIH 1rnK ucHTpbr peMeCJrn 11 1oproB.1m Ha 6a3e HeyK-
pennettHhIX rroceneH11i:::[ - O0ll.(HHHbIX UEHTpOH rrpenwecTBYIOIUero BpeMeHH. IlpH 3TOM 1

f.13.<PenopoB HMen B BHLIY He 06wmrn1,1e ueHrp1,r-y6e)K11rua, a o6wmrnhre LlCHTpbI pe-


Merna (<PenopoB 1973, 50).
PaccMOTpHM BbUlCrlCHHbIC HCCJ1CLI03aTeJI5IMI1 xapaKTepHCTHKH IlJ)HMeHHTCJibH0 K
KpyrnhrM ropow,rruaM Ilpyro-):J:ttec1poB:b5I. To, I.ITO HCJih35I nocenemrn THna A:iI.Ie):i,ap
HJIH EKHMayUbI paccM,L'fpHBaTb KaK npe.rnepyccrrne ropo;:i:a, C HCTOpH4CCKOI1 T04Kl1 3pe-
mrn y6ew-ne.'lbHO IT0K,nan TI.Il.E1,rpH5!. OH npe1JJIO)l(HJI HX HaJhIBaTh 11poToroponaM11,
HO 0TMenIJI, I.ITO 3Tl1 noceJICH115I B CHJIY HCKOTOpbIX IIpI1411H TaK 11 He Jl0CT11l'Jll1 cranm1
pa:mHTH5I cpeonanhHor·o ropona. TI.Il.B1,rp1rn noJiarasr, I.ITO rrocenemrn r11rra AJII.Ienap 11
EK11Mayuhr 0bIJIH u,e1rrpaM11 He TOBap1rnro peMeCJieHHoro npo11JBOLICTBa, a 06w11HHoro
peMecna (Ebrptrn: 1984, 21-31; oa )KC 199l, 186-205).
Amrn113 Marep11anoH c noceneHHlI EK1Mayl~hI n AnI.Ie.L{ap IT0Ka3bmaer orpoMHbie Mac-
wra6b1 nMeHHO MeramryprwrecKoro npc,1nBo,1crna - necmKH ropH0B II arnoMepmmmr-
HhIX rreI.J:eH, LleC5.iTKH KH.norpaMMOB )l(eJte:1noro wnaKa, MHoro 1rncneHHhie KYCKH Kp11u . co-
nna. Ho raKa5I KapTHHa rrp11cyll.(a H Hey1<pern1eHHbIM nocenemtHM Ha Tepp11roptt11 lvfon-
.LIOBhr. Ha noceneHHH CJKoK, na)Ke He rroJIH0CThIO pacKonaHHOM, ofornpyiKeHo I 7 LIOMHHU.
liJ/11111ui JI, ,1111: 1-2 JS9

Ha coce;11reM nocenem11I EpaHeUITbI I oKo.10 50( .1 conen. <DaK11rc.1ecrn HaYl. He1!'..mecrno mi


OD.Ho pam-iecpeD.HeBeKoE1oe nocene1rne --- HeyKp.:nJ1e1moe tLHI yKperrnemioe. -- Ha KOTO-
poM ObI He 6hi.r10 061-rnpy}KeHo :maY1ne:11,Hb1x c1,~ll0B Mern.1.'1yprT1L1ecKoro npomBO,JCTK-L
Q:>aKT orpo.\rnbIX Mac1ma60B .\1na.1:1yprw1, ·cKorn npOII3BO _ :{cTBa B pa1-1Hecpe:rneB1~-
KOBb1ii 11epHO;J, B penrnHe, ;rnweHHOM CBOeii CblpbeBOlI 6a3bl. caM !1() ce6e q)eHOl\lC!IaJ!Cll
] I npeJCTaBJI5leT llOCTaTOYHO HHTpHrymwym Jl.:J5! HCCJ!e~'lOBaTe,!l-1 upo6:re\IY l Pa6mrn-
13J1ll l 999, 273). Ho OH He MO)KCT CJIYiKHTb l10Ka:;aTeJ1eM B xapaKTCpHCTHKC yKperrneHHblX
:rnceneHHH KaK HCKJlJOlHl'feJlbHO ue1upoB pev1ec:1a ropOD.CKOIO T!Uta. Hanwme CJ[CllOB
.1pyn1x peMeCCJI Ha :nm~ nocenemrnx ,!lOCTclTOLJ HO CKpOMHO.
Heo6xo,1IIMO o6paTHlb BHHMa1me Ha TOIIOI pacpwieCKlle yc10Bm1. MCCTOI!aXO)K,':(CHH5!
i<pyrnbIX ropOL!,11lll H C}10iKHO-MbICOBbIX. a TaK,KC Ha HX corryrcTBJie ;:i.pyr ;1pyry. flo6mno-
CTH OT Mecra coopyJKernrn Kpyrnoro ropow11uct ofo13a1e-11b1-JO np11cy1crnyn ropo,,.1H11(e
C:lO)KHO-!\lhICOBOfO nma. 06opmnne:IbHblH 1101 eHLll1clJ1 KOToporo Hl~lBMepH.\10 M01l]Hee.
Kpynroe ropomm1,e Py,1h-«<Dapchp11e TypLJacK:1>> pacnonoJKeao no :::oceDcrny c rocno,1-
,:rny1-01ueM no cBoeri BbICOTe Han BCeM MHKpopaAuHoM ropo;urwe:vr Py_;:-:b-<<Jla Tpei-i. KpyLJh 1>.
ITocJIC,CJ.Hee, CCJIH H He 61,1.:10 HenocpegCTBCHHO (. oopyiKeHO B cpewreneKOBblll rrepIIOJl, TO,
110 Kpai1HeiI Mepe, 11cno.1b30Banocb B To Bpe:vrn. TTo6mBocTH or ropom1wa A.;1•1eJap pn,'..\
::JI0;+:Ho-~v1b1coubrx ropo;niw, B TOM LJ.HCJie H TaKo,~ MOil!HOe KaK Lnrn;i(eHbl
1 11. Herro,1,L1eKy
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Han: ropo,=:r11u1eM f'epMam1pae. pacnonoJKeHI1bIM KaK u Bee Kpyrm,re ropo;Jmua B HH31lHe. c
,'.1,BYX CTOpOH B03BblWaIOTC5! H rocnOLJ,CTBYIOT fOiJOl!Hllla py6e>Ka 3p PyD.b-«Jla lliauuypb>>
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.,::51 mt BOCTOKe l.lepHOBHUKOH o6JiaCTH H Ha EOJKHOM Eyre.
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KO HCIIOJ[b3YIOT CJ10)KH0-:V1bICOBbie ropomuua rrpe,1rnecTBYI01Uero BpeMeHH, HOH CTp05lT
HX caMH (Harrp11l\-H!p, Pe 0 1yna. <J)yHLI.Y Xep1u111 B PyMhIHCKoiI MmuoBe). Yc.n1ThIB,U1 MaTe-
pliaJ:lbI C 3Tl1X nocerreHrn>[. MO)KHO YTBCpiKDaTb. 4TO OHH CTpOl1JllICJ, pain,me HJIH CH!:-L\-
pOHlIO C co3naHI1eM KpyrJibIX ropo;um1 11 KaKOC-TO BpCM5! cocymecTBOB,U1H. K 6onee
paHHel\1y BpeMeHH, YeM c03nam1e KpyL1b1X rop ..>rrmu, TO ecn, par1ee Kouu.a IX - Ha,iana
X. BB., OTHOCHTC5! Ha11a;10 l1CrIOJlb30BaHH.5l rop0,1,Hll.l ClO)KHO-MbICOB()f() THna. coopy)Kel-l-
f-!ClI'O B npen.rneCTBy'IOlUlH~ HCTOpIILICCK!iC 3IIOXII. flpIIMep JTOMY -- iiCflOJUdOBaHHe c;ia-
B51H3Mll ropo1rnwa Lrn11;,KeHbI II ( ronbueBa. Karny6a l 9lJ5).
KaKOH paIUIOH,,lJ1bHOl1 npH4HH01I pyKOBODCTBOBaJJ!ICb jfG!Te.:rn TTpy-ro-il,HCCTpOBC-
KHX JCMCJib, coopy)Ka51 O,JHOBpCMCHHO ll KpyLlbIC ropo-1mua JI C.10)KH0·-MblCOBb[C, TCJ\1
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pmrnero JKe.r1e3a BO MHO!O pa3 OOJlbWC, LJ.C.\1 ll .lBeCTHblX pairnecpeL:HeBeKOBbIX Coopy-
1KCHHC KpyrJ1bIX ropowm[ Tpe60BaJ10 orpOMHh X TPYilOCMKHX 3a·1pcll. HeCOIIOCraBHMh[X
no BC,11FlHHe C 3ar paLJllBdCMblMH BO BJ)C'.\151 C0(1py;Ke!H!51 !OpO,J,IllU Ha :\1bICax, a y)K TeM
60:1ee C peKOHCTpy11pyeMblMH MbICOBbl;\HI ropo, lliU{aMl1 pammx )llOX. 4ro ;+;e <<Bbllll pu-
BdJIH>> :\1CCTH6Ie )I<HTCJU1 OT IIX coopyJKe1-11rn?
1) CywecTBYCT MHClrne, LJTO pacnoJIO)KeHHe Kpyrnb[X ropOlll!IJl l10'3BOJI}LIO (5e3 orp;:t-
HWleHHH paCTii BOKpyr lll1X nocany, B TO Bpc.\151 KaK 'ih.l1JlliWa Ha Cl(H<HO-Mb[COBblX ropo-
'1l1Wax pacno;rnraJUICh TOJlbKO Ha yKpeII:IeHf-IblX IL101lla;1Kax Ii He BblXOiULrn :ia npe.ae-
i!bl yKpcrrnemriI ( H.111pm1ep. T e!IbHOB 1990, 7). Ho murnoe Ha6.110;::,e1-rne m: r10.1HOCTbfO
orpa)KaCT peanbHOCTb. BoKpyr CJIO:iKHO-·:\!b[COB b[X ropo;:i.1m1 pa3pana;1c;1 IJOca;i Ti.lK:-hC,
KdK H BOKpyr KpyrOBblX (fJI!-H!JKeHbl II). a BOK!))'! Kpyr.16L\ ropo.~Ullll pocT noca;~a Ob[:1
raK;i~e 01·paH11'-!-eII. HaILpHMep. BOKpyr ropo;.11111ia Py,Ib-«Cl)ap41yp11e TypYaCKJ» IIOCci.il
190 Revista Arheologica. Serie nouii

pacrrpocTpamrnc51 B ,wyx HarrpaBnemrn:x no cTopoHaM cBeTa. BoKpyr ropo,Jmua f'epMa-


1rnpI1e TaK)Ke B JlBYX ttarrpaBJieHI15!X, npHt.IeM B O,UHOM ttarrpaBJieHHH )Kl1JIHWa, cy,u51. no
coxpaHI1Bllil1MC5! B ycJIOBI15!X Jieca 3ana,ilI1HaM OT 3eMJI5!HOK, )lOCTJffaJII1 CJ[())KHO-MbICO-
BOro roponmua Pyi:u,-«TIHcKyn r on».
2) "KpyrJTbie ropon11wa B03BO.llHJ[l1Cb B TOH MeCTHOCTI1, rne Ha.1u11rne TOIIOrpaq:rn-
'IeCKHX ycrrOBHH He I103BOJI51JIO BbI6paTb ecTeCTBeHHO yKperrneHHYIO nnowa,uKy H npH-
cnoco611Tb ee )lJI5! yKpennettttoro noce.1ettm1 '' (TenhHOB 2003, 180). l1 3TO cy)K,uettHe rrpH-
MeirnTeJibHO K ycnmnrnM TionttecTpOBb5! Hy)K,C{aeTC51 B KOppeKTHpOBKe. J1 KpyrJ[bie, H
CJIO)KHO-MbICOBbie ropoi:rnwa pacrron2raIOTC5! B KaHhOHax l1, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, Ha BbICO-
KHX MbICax, neprreH.[lHKYJI5!pHbIX Te 11e!iHIO peK - ,lJ;HeCTpa, l.JopHbl H PeyTa. B 3Tl1X TO-
norpaq:ml..JeCKHX YCJIOBH5!X ropa3)l0 J1er1..Je 6 bJJ10 HaHTH IIJ101UaJ:IKY' yKperrJICHHYIO caMOH
np11po.no11, l..JCM OTHOCHTeJibHO ITOJIOr:111 pOBHhlH H JlOCTaTOl..JHO 60J1bllIOH no fIJ!Ollla,ll,H
MbIC B JIOlUHHax Me)l{/lY BbICOKHMH MbICaMI1.
3) 06opo1-rnTeJibHbie B03MO)KHOCT1 Kpyrm,Ix ropom1w 6bIJIH ,ll,OCTaT0 1-IHO 6o;Jbllll1-
''1H. Bbrcorn BaJ10B Ha KpyrnhIX ropo.nc1wax, KaK rrpaBimo, 6onhllle, t.IeM Ha CJ10)KHO-MhI-
cosh1x (TeJihHOB 1990, 7). Ho 3TO, rroJ1<anyti, eimttcTBeHttoe rrpeHMyw,ecrno Kpyrm,1x ro-
po;1H1U nepen MbICOBbIMH Ha Tepp1nop1rn ITpyTo-,1J;HecTpOBh51. lllttpoKoe pacnpocTpa-
HeHHe KpynibIX yKperrnettHH Ha Bcei1 Teppmopim Pycu K KOHUY XI B. H B XII B. TI.A.Parr-
nonopT o6b5!CH5!eT H3MCHeHHeM TaKTHKH Harra.neHH5!: «BHe3afIHbll1 aa6er "tt3r0l-[" rro-
creneHHO 3ar--:ema.r1c~ nmrreJ1hH011 ocrnxoii ·'06J1e)Katt11eM". KpyrJihie yKpenneHH5! 6hmH
npm:noco6~1eHbI K o6opoHe c rroMOU(hIO q1poHTaJ1hHOH cTpenb6hr, T.e. mmpaBJ1eHHOH
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ropOJ.CKI1X CTCH B CTOpOHY npoTHBHI-1Ka )WJ1:>KHa 6hrna 3acTaBI1Tb ero LJ,ep)KaTI:,C51 Ha
1101IT1neni,Ho'v1 pacnmunm OT KperrocTH» (PanrrorropT 1967, 157-159).
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BCHHbIX yKpe1rnem11i rrpaBHJ1hHOH reoY1eTpl11..JeCKOH cpopMbI Ha TIJ10CK011 MeCTHOCTH. Ho
np11 onpei:leJieHHH tj)yHKLU10HaJibHOro Ba3Hal..JeHH5! KpyrnbIX ropO.UHll! TipyTO-,lJ;HeCTpOB-
CKHX 3CMeJib HY)l{HO )/'-IHTbIBaTb MeCTHbie ycJIOBH5I, B KOTOpbIX l-!aXOJ:lHJlHCb 3TH ropo.u11-
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BblCOKHe MbICOBbie ropom1wa, KOTOphie, I<aK Mb! y)Ke OTMet.IaJlH, H TaK L(J15! o6opOHbI
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KHMH COCC,ll,HlfMU MI,[CaMH, I103BOJ15!:IO nponrnHIIKY o6cTpeJIHBaTb HX C coce,ll,HHX lBbICOT
(HanpHMep, Pyn1,-«cl}apcpyptte Typ1..Jac10», repMattap11e ), ,ua)Ke He rro,wepnrn ce65! orrac-
HOCTH. YKpen:neHH51 KpyrnhIX roponmu: MO:.KHO 6hIJ10 C)Kel..Jh, He rrptt6mI)Ka5!Cb K HHM Ha
orracHoe paccT05!HHe.
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J:U1aMeTp lIHor.ua He npeBbilllaeT 40-60 M. CosepllleHHO Ot.IeBHD:HO, l.!TO TaKHe pa3Mepbl
He fI03BOJ15!J1l'.I BMeCTl1Tb HH 3HalfHTeJ1UIOro KOJII1L£eCTBa 3aWHTHI1KOB, HH B uenoM Hace-
JieHHH. fI03TOMY, OHH He MOfJlH BbinOJ1H5lfb ponh 061UHHHOro ueHTpa-y6e)l{HlUa. Tio
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1
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pa3MepaM I103BOJ15!CT Cl..JHTaTb, l..JTO ero HaCeJICHHe, B03M0)1{H0, He 61,mo MeHbilllfM. OJJ,-
HaKO KaK :no COOTHeCTH C pa3MepoM ero yKpenneHHOH rrnowa.UKH (38x36 M), t.IaCTb IlJ10-
1WlllH KOTOporo 3am1MaJ1 H BHYWHTeJlbHbiii no pa3MepaM KOJlOJ:Ieu.
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mr.nem1 coopy)l{eHJrn yrJ1y6neHHb1e, THna noJiy3eMJI51HOl..JHhIX )l{HJ1HI11 Ha oKpy)KaJIOIUHX
~?n',mwf ii, .\'r 1-2 191

nocaD,ax. Ho om1 rrpaKrw-1recK11 He Ha1'.i.ue11h1 Ha ,.:pyr.:thIX ropomiu{ax. ~:ho oT:-.1e1IaJI 11


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Hosam1e CLIHTaTb. I.ITO J1a1 moe ropomrwe 0bL10 r .1e'.\1ern-1b1:-.1 y6e:iKI1UieM.


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K0r0pbIX 66IJIH fo,r lla11.W~Hbl KaK11e-.,m60 3anac ,I 3ep1Ia. npOJ{YKTOB. :Jra KaTeropH51
coopyJJ(eHIIIi BOO0llJ,e OTC\ TCTBYeT Ha (<LU!TaJJeJ15J.;,)> J.; pyr:IhIX rop0.'.llilU. PyKOBOlUIBllla5I
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ropOJlHW Ha reppmop1rn fipyro-)],HCCTJJOBCK11X J(:Me;1b CB0.ill1JIHCb K ·:PYHKLJ,HH ILICMeH-
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no 4.HC1eHH0CTI1 HacerremuL K0Topoe B CJiyliae OILLCH0CTI1 He cyMerro 0bl na:>Ke YKPhITbC5I
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1

pHn BOCT04HhlX CJiaB5IH (PycaHOBa, THMO!llYK }9l)3; PycaHOBa 2002; PhI6aKOB 1981; OH
>Ke 1987: CenoB 1982; K.J1eiiH 2004; f-Ia3apeHKO, Xc,powKeBHLf 2002). HeKOTOpbre H3 HHX,
KPYrJ1hi'C mrn 0BilJibHbie B n.rraHe, HMCIOT 6(rnee HJ] lf MCHee 6JlH3KHe ;.rna:10ra11 Ha 3aIIa,il-
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po,CJ,1rnrn 6o;ree BCero COlHBe1CTBYIOT KYJT6TOBO~,y xapaKTepy.

1ropo:u1rne-cB5!nu1r1uc Ape:uHa IX-X ll BB. ( o. P1oreH) n ,,,.1opcK11x pym1 irnll pclHOB. II3Becn1oe rro pac-
:Kcl3a\.t f'e.1bMO.lb.J.a (f'e.'JbMO}lf>,l 196>.1UO.n6-~37). <1pxeo1 1rwrecK1111cc_1e;lOB,UtKh. 60_11,rna51 em 4aCTh
:/w,: T-pen1) yrnl'no;Kemt J\Wpe:11, 110 11 coxpamrmuaRC5! 'J ,tCTb rwpa;KaeT CBOiiMl1 paJMepaMII - 90x 160 .\I. Ha
:,·opo,;:uime J1Meerc51 HCT0 1 rn11K rwJ.:0,I, He 1rnii11e1w >KIL!hlX coop ,;;.i..:e: rnii. 3,no s cro OKpccnrocrnx pacno:ro;Ke-
m,1 14 rro::e:1e1mii 11 60.lhlllofi KY Pl arnrhIIi ~wnu!l,I1rn-: (PyL'.arn ,nd.T11~101UyK 1993, 95 J.
192 Revista Arlzeologica. Serie nouii

Eme 0)lHH )l0B0)l B fl0Jib3Y Harnero n pe,IUI0JI0)KeHirn 06 H3Hal.faJibH0 caKpaJibH0M


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pon11m. IloMHMO X035I11CTBeHHbIX II o6opOHHhIX, B BhI6ope MeCTa )lJI5I B03Be)leHH5I ropo-
,'lHlUa, BHJlHMO, onpeneJieirnoe BJIH5IHHe 0Ka3bIBaJI H M0THB 3CTCTHl.feCKl1H. B caM0M aene,
npaKTHKa apxe0Jl0fHl.feCKHX pa3Be)l0K B ITpyTo-,llHeCTpOBCKOM Me)Kaypel.fbe II0Ka3aJia,
l.fT0, HaX0,ll5I MeCTa, rne rro Tonorpacpw:1eCKHM 11 npyrHM oco6eHHOCT5IM M0fJ1li 6bITb
pacnoJIO)KeHbI cnaBJrncK11e ropo.z:i11ma, cneaonano H,llTH K HaH6oJree KpacHB0MY Mecry, 11
HMeHH0 TaM tt H2LXOiUUIOCb ropomnue" (ciienopoB 1974, 234).
OTnaBa» naHb yBa)Kemrn poMaHTH3MY r.E.<t>enopoBa, 3aMel.faTeJibHoro ttccne-
,;:i:onaren5I H rrpeKpacHoro JJHTepaTopa, x oqy OT'.\ieTHTh, l.fTO, no MOeMy MHemuo, OH
npeaeJibHO npu6mi3HJIC5I K O)lH0MY 113 B03MO)KHbIX MOTHBOB HHTepnpeTaUHH II051B-
.'1eHH5I KpyrJJ:bIX ropom,rm B Mec-rax, rne 0HH,. KaK rrpaBHJIO, 6bIJIH Y513BHMbl .[(JI5I Harra-
.nett11i1 npara. PaccMoTpHM MecTorrono)KeH11e nnyx KpyrJihIX ropon11m repMaHapue 11
PyJlb-«cJ.>ap~iyp11c TYP'-IaCK3». 3n1 ropo.z:mwa, KaK l1 60JiblliHHCTBO nonHeCTp0BCKHX
ropo;miu. p.lCIIO.JO)KeHI,I B KaHI,OHax, ncpneH.Z:UIKYJI5IpHO cnycKaIOlllHXC5I K L(Hecrpy
B ero cpCilHCM 'l\::t:1emrn. B reoJIOfHl.feCK0 M 0THOillCHHH 3TH MeCTa 5IBJI.SIIOTC5I KapcTO-
Bb!Ml1 pa3,10~1aMH. ,D,JUI HHX xapaKTepHbl pe3KHe MarHHTHbie aHoMaJIHH, MeCTa KOTO-
pbIC, 6naro.nap5I CBoe11 reoc}.l113HKe, B HeKOT0pbIX cnyl.fa5Ix 0 11eHb 6naronpH5ITHbI J'lJI5I
)KIUHil lJCJ10 BeKa, MCCTa co cnoeo6pa3HblM MHKpOKJIHMaTOM l1 tj.Jnopott, KOTOpbie co-
r;1ac110 cooTBeTCTB)IIOlllCH JIHTcpaType B .ri,yxe K.KacTaHen1,1 M0)KHO Ha3BaTb "MeCTa-
'.\1l1 CHJlb[''' a y rrpoqieCCl10HaJlbHbIX 6IIOqll'13HKOB HOC5IT Ha3B,1HHe reoMaHTl111HbIX 30H
()J,y6poB 1996). 2
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MeCTax II0.[l3CMHb[X KJ1IO'-ICH IiJlH HCT0'-Il-UiKOB. Ha ropon11111e repMaHap11e, yKperrneH-
HYIO IIJIOLirn£iKY K0Toporo 0Kpy)l;:a10T HCCK om,Ko l!CT0l.fHHKOB, KOJioneu coopy)KeH B Ta-
K0l\l MCCH~, '-IT06I,J OH HarJ0JIH5IJIC5I BO)JlOH liMeHH0 113 Toro HCT0l.fHHKa, KOTOpblH y MeCT-
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HaXO.[lHTC).J: orpO!'vlH0C K0Jll1l.feCTB0 HCT0'4HMKOB, HO HMCHHO yKa3aHHbII1 HCTOl.fHHK MeCT-
HbIM HacerreHHCM TUiaTeJlbHO o6eperaeTC5I' C HHM CB5I3aHbl pa3Jil1l.fHbie JiereH.[lbI, KOTO-
pbre co6CTBeHHO H o6b5ICH5IIOT TaKoe CTpa1moe .[lJI51 MOJI.[laBCKoro 5I3bIKa, HO TaKoe "11c-
TO]JJ1l.feCKoe" Ha3sa1rne 'TepMaHap11e''. Ta )Ke Kaprmrn y ropo.z:rnma Py,%-«<l>aptj.Jyptte
Typ'4aCK3>>. OHO pacrroJI0)KeHO B6JII13I1 HCTO'-ilHHKa, CJiaBa O 11,eJie6HOI1 none KOToporo
l13BeCTHa Ha MH0n1e nec5ITKH KHJIOMeTpOB B0Kpyr. B HerrocpencTBCHHOH 6JIH30CTH OT
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LICTCJibCTBYCT LI0KT0p 6HOJIOflll!CCKHX nayK A.)],y6poB, reo~ta!ITHl1J-lble 30I!bl 061rnpy)KHB3.TII!Cb 113,UaBirn C no-
M0f.Ub!O 6HOJIOKaUHl1 mm orpo~moro K0)111'-lCCTBa npHp0.[(HbIX np!IMCT. l1MCHHO B reoMaHTl!Hllb!X 301rnx, KaK
npaBHJI0, HaX0,W!TCR ,[(pCBIHIC xpaMbl, CBRTb!C MCCTa. )KCpTBeHHl1Kl1. ITpHMCp reoMaHTIIMHbIX 30H, BbUlBJleH-
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1111pyrnx Mecrnx ()],y6poB 1996).
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J) ropomima JJ/IHHJIO!'O (oopy">KeHH51. Koropue J; .A.T1Ii\10111yK HH1epnpen1pyeT KaK 06-
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mrn (T11:--101uyK 1981, 122).
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ciunaH c oco6011 ca1qxu,.rwii po:II,1') ropo:u111t , \1--:cnwro C:IaB5111Ooro 1rnce.1cHmL

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Ee:i:1ei,:,w E>85: B,C. Lic{i.1eh'111. 1'.yp1;1ii .· l \.;n .-\ilM B 19811. (Kmrn1HeB 1985),
t'.i:2-15-+.
Ee1i.1cK'-IJI 1986: B.C. b(~JL!CK'111 ll::tL'i,Ollh1i .. uH11li"lfu noce:1eHrn1 Pyab R 1981-1982 rr.
i\H~1 B 1982 r. (Kl!LUlll-11.Sll 1986), %-11-+.
194 Rc1 !Stu Arhcologica. Se ·i,c
1 /lOllll

E;ei1JieKtm, Tem,HOB. BnaceHKO 1983: B.C. EdineK"Iil, HJ1. Te;lbHOB, 11.r. BnaceHKO,
PacKOIIKl1 cnaB5IHCKorn noceneHirn Py.Ji, XX s I980 r. AHM B 1979-1980 IT. (KimrnHeB
1983), 171-183.
bbipH>I J 984: TT.fl. EL1p1-rn, Mon:,:::raBCKl!M ,_:pe_:11-re:-se1<0BLI11 ropon: H )JHecTposCKo-fipyT-
1~K0\! MC)l(JlypcLILe (Kmmrnes 1984) .
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Dll pattttero cpemieneKOBMI. B c6.: llpeBH01~TII KJro-3ana;rn CCC:P (1-cepemrna II ThI-
cw1eJ1cnrn H.3.) (KirurHHeB I 991). 186-205.
BeHeJJ:l1KTOB 19:~0: H. BcHe;lIIKTOB, TpaK11iicKH CB5Inrnuwa (Co1Jnrn 1980).
Ben1Me3oBa 1999 E.B. Be1b\1e3osa, «Ky:iHe4HL1e 3,=trosoph!i> a TeKCT KY3Heua B
1 1eWCKOH qJOJH,KJ10j)IWH ·1pa.JJIUIIH. C:raB5ll-lOBCD.emre 6, 1999, 104--108.
B.iacCHKO 1983: H.r. B.i1aCeHKO, )JpcBH,.:pyccKHii c:1011 ropO.JHW:a MepemoBKa. (no
pacKonKa:vr 19-30 r.). AHi\1 B 1979-1980 JT. (KmmmeB 1983), 77-88.
BnaceHKO J 985: H.r. B:rnceHKO, HoBL1e .1pxeoJronF-1ecKI1e naM5!THHKI-1 B MonD,aBHI-1.
AMM h !t);'.'Jl 1. 1K11LUJIHeB 1985), 198-205.
B.ri.kc:HKC' 1
it)(1: 1·1 r. R1aceHKO. I1cc.1e;wsamrn ropo;uuua f'eqy;rn. AHM B 1985 r.
/KiltrH!JH:'B !')')U,. l.12-229.
B.n<::CHKO, l:.tL.i 1B 1904: H.r.RrnceHKO, H.n. TeJibHOB, BOCTOL!HOCJ1aB>IHCKOe ropo-
i 1tu-:· Pl·'ly . ra B ,) _;_,<1 Bl!lL B co .. Hacc;re1, HH TI pyTcLKO-jlHicTposcbKoro MC)KHpiLILI5l:
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Lq>allldHJ1H, h.~,,.:,:'lcu:F1 1950: :\.I. Lq)~twawrn, J. KoBaLJCBI1 1 r, Ilperne,u MaTepHja..1.He


1) pc j:, ;.u-n: x c. rn,KHd y paHo:--r cpe:--1.rn,c::,; BeKy (Eeorpa.::i. 1950).
l°L: .. 11,.\w 11,;1 ! '.lC.i. r·(:·.11.,y10:1b,1. C.:rcLi:i>IHCK,15! xpoiurKa. IIpe.u,HGIOBHe, nepeBOJJ. II np11-
\1i.:Lrn11wi Jl.B. Pa3'.,'.:,11>cKufr Cv1oci,J3,t ]<)63).
ro.11,1tcbil. ~:.1w> ·.i i'JI.J"i: H.B. i,J:11,ucr:,l, :1,-1.T. Kamy6a., f;rnH.li,eHh IL l\1Horoc11011:i-rb11-'r
na.\llHl11IK Cpee'.ll,:1') k,,111.:crp,rno>i (Man.pH;:Jibl paCKOf!OK 197b-79 rr. H 1989-90 rr.) (TI-I-
p;tl'I lb ] 9951

,..t, fipuR l 9%: A \ C,puB, rcouaH)!eill-J:ble 3;)HbL ')1,0CTOIJJ!CTBO ,. L 1996.


barKObU(d}!, rIO.ii:'BUJi 1969: T.JJ,. 3mlT!-;,)BCKa5L J1.J1. Tio_Ji:'.BOli, fopomrw:a ITpyTc-
KU-,=(l 1ecTpoBc1:o ru \t,::,i:_n peTib>I IX-III BB.; 1o H. J.H sonpoch[ n o:1:.1nF1ccKoH HCTopm1
1cn1B B c6.: J]pcBt[I 1•.: 1jlpa1,Hii11,hr B CesepH(lM Hpw1epHo,10p1,e (MocKna 1969), 35-60.
Kamy6a, Tcm,l!G1L UJep6aKoBa 1997: M.T. Karny6a, H.n. Tt'..ILHOB, T.A. ll.(ep6aKo-
Ba, ;\__rp-renapcK:>e .upestrepyccKoe rroce;1em1e (pacKOTIKII 1987-89 IT.) (THpacno;11 1997).
:kJtdiH 2004: Jl.C. JKJielll-L Boc.Kpeweime fiepyH:t. K peKOI-iCTpJKUI-1H BOCTO"-!HOUJa-
B5UlCKOfO 5!3bJl.JCCTBa (CaHKT-fieTep6ypr 20(14).
M11josw1, KoBaliCBIILI 1975: I1. M11joBJI'-, M. Kosa11eB11l.r. r pa;lOBH H y-rnpreHb5! y
Up1t0J fop11. (fieorpa.D-Y:IUHHb 1975).
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