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FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED BRICK

AGGREGATE CONCRETE

PHASE I REPORT

Submitted by

BHARATHI S

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

ST. XAVIER’S CATHOLIC COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

DECEMBER 2017
ii

ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this Report titled “FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED


BRICK AGGREGATE CONCRETE” is the bonafide work of BHARATHI S
(962216413005) who carried out the work under my supervision. Certified further that to
the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other thesis
or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier
occasion on this or any other candidate.

Dr. S. CARMEL JAWAHAR, M.E., Ph.D. Dr.M. JOHN ROBERT PRINCE, M.E., Ph.D.
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
St. Xavier’s Catholic St. Xavier’s Catholic
College of Engineering College of Engineering
Chunkankadai 629 003 Chunkankadai 629 003

Submitted for the project phase I viva voce examination held on


……………………

Internal Examiner External Examiner


iii

ABSTRACT

Fast development in the recent years indeed has increased the need of coarse
aggregate in the alarming rate. Besides that, the growth of the construction industry has
also produced lots of product mainly the waste materials. In fact, land filling is the most
common waste management practice in India. The high amount of construction waste
generated from the construction industries has caused pollution. Due to modern
requirements for living and developed construction industries, the old buildings (usually
constructed with brick masonry) are demolished and are replaced with new modern
buildings. Demolition of buildings results in waste materials which can create waste
related problems and environmental issues. By using recycled aggregates, weight of
concrete can also be reduced, which can also solve problems related to self-weight of
concrete. The study is conducted to investigate the flexural performance of reinforced
concrete beams made with recycled brick aggregate. Furthermore, to investigate the
mechanical and physical properties of brick waste concrete, and to compare the flexural
performance of brick waste as full replacement of coarse aggregate in concrete with the
conventional concrete (control sample). In this study physical properties of cement, sand
and Recycled brick aggregate like specific gravity, sieve analysis, bulk density, bulking
of sand, water absorption, moisture content test, finess of cement, cement consistency,
initial and final setting time of cement were tested. Light weight recycled brick aggregate
has different texture, size and properties than normal aggregate. The properties of
concrete such as slump, density, compressive strength are studied by replacing the granite
aggregate with recycled brick aggregate. With the advancement of the concrete
technology and to fulfill the durability requirement M30 (28 days characteristic
compressive strength 30 MPa when tested on 150 mm cube) and higher grade of concrete
is generally used in most of the construction now a days, thus there is a complete shift of
trend to the use of stone aggregate instead of brick aggregate in concrete.
iv

ஆய் வுசுருக்கம்
சமீபத்திய ஆண்டுகளில் வேகமாக ேளர்ச்சி உண்மமயில்
ஆபத்தான விகிதத்தில் கடுமமயான மமாத்த வதமே

அதிகரித்துள் ளது. அது மட்டுமல் லாமல் , கட்டுமானத் மதாழில்

ேளர்ச்சி என் பது முக்கியமாக கழிவுப் மபாருட்கள்

தயாரிக்கப் பட்டுள் ளது. உண்மமயில் , நிலம் நிரப் புதல் இந்தியாவில்


மிகவும் மபாதுோன கழிவு வமலாண்மம நமடமுமை ஆகும் .

கட்டுமானத் மதாழில் களில் இருந்து உருோக்கப் படும் கட்டுமான

கழிவுகள் அதிக அளவு மாசுபாட்மட ஏை் படுத்தியுள் ளன. ோழ் க்மக

மை் றும் ேளர்ந்த கட்டுமானத் மதாழில் களுக்கான நவீன வதமேகள்

காரணமாக, பமழய கட்டடங் கள் (மபாதுோக மசங் கல் மகாத்து

மகாண்டு கட்டப் பட்டு) இடித்து, புதிய நவீன கட்டிடங் களுடன்

மாை் ைப் படுகின் ைன. கழிவுகள் மதாடர்பான பிரச்சமனகள் மை் றும்

சுை் றுச்சூழல் பிரச்சிமனகள் உருோக்கக்கூடிய கழிவுப்

மபாருட்களின் கட்டிடங் கமள அழித்தல் . மறுசுழை் சி மசய் யப் பட்ட

திரேங் கமளப் பயன் படுத்துேதன் மூலம் , கான் கிரீட் எமட


குமைக்கப் படலாம் , இது கான் கிரீட் சுய-எமடயுடன் மதாடர்புமடய

பிரச்சிமனகமள தீர்க்க முடியும் . மறுசுழை் சி மசய் யப் பட்ட மசங் கல்


மதிப் பீட்டுடன் கூடிய ேலுவூட்டப் பட்ட கான் கிரீட் விட்டங் களின்

மநகிழ் திைன் மசயல் திைமன ஆய் வு மசய் ய ஆய் வு

நடத்தப் படுகிைது. வமலும் , மசங் கல் கழிவு கான் கிரீட்டின் இயந்திர

மை் றும் இயை் பியல் பண்புகமள விசாரிக்கவும் , மரபார்ந்த


கான் கிரீட் (கட்டுப் பாட்டு மாதிரியுடன் ) கான் கிரீட் உள் ள
கரடுமுரடான மமாத்த மாை் றீடாக மசங் கல் கழிவுகளின்
மநகிழ் திைன் மசயல் திைமன ஒப் பிடவும் . இந்த ஆய் வில் , சிமமண்ட்,
v

மணல் மை் றும் குறிப் பிட்ட புவியீர்ப்பு, சல் லமட பகுப் பாய் வு,
மமாத்த அடர்த்தி, மணல் , நீ ர் உறிஞ் சுதல் , ஈரப் பாதுகாப் பு
வசாதமன, சிமமன் ட் சிமமண்ட், சீமமந் து சீரான தன் மம,

சிமமன் ட்டின் ஆரம் ப மை் றும் இறுதி அமமப் பு வநரம் வபான் ை

மறுசுழை் சி மசங் கல் மதிப் பீடு . வலசான எமட மறுசுழை் சி மசங் கல்

மதிப் பானது மேே் வேறு மமாத்த அமமப் பு, அளவு மை் றும்
பண்புகள் ஆகியேை் மைக் மகாண்டிருக்கும் . கான் கிரீட் வபான் ை

பண்புகள் சரிவு, அடர்த்தி, அழுத்தம் பலம் மறுசுழை் சி மசங் கல்

மமாத்த மகாண்ட கிராமனட் மமாத்த பதிலாக ஆய் வு. கான் கிரீட்

மதாழில் நுட்பத்மத முன் வனை் றுேவதாடு, நீ ண்ட காலமாக

கான் கிரீட் உயர்ந்த தரம் மகாண்ட M30 (28 நாட்கள் சிைப் பியல் பு

சுருக்கக்கூடிய ேலிமம 30 எம் .பீ. 150 மிமீ கன சதுரம் )

நிமைவேை் ைப் பட்டு, தை் வபாது ஒரு கட்டடத்தின் மபரும் பகுதியில்

மபாதுோக பயன் படுத்தப் படுகிைது. கான் கிரீட்டில் மசங் கல்

மதிப் மபக் காட்டிலும் கல் மதிப் மபப் பயன் படுத்துேதை் கான

வபாக்கு முழுமமயான மாை் ைம் .


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound gratitude to almighty god for his presence and blessings
during the course of the work.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to our correspondent
Rev. Fr. Dr. MARIA WILLIAM, Ph.D., for providing dexterities in the institution to
complete this project work successfully.
I am hearty indebted to our principal
Dr. S. JOSEPH SEKHAR, M.E., Ph.D., for the facilities made available for the
progress and completion of project
I wish to extend my heartiest thanks to our Head of the Department
Dr. S. CARMAL JAWAHAR, M.E., Ph.D., for his encouragement and effective
suggestions to complete this project.
I am proudly obliged to render my immense gratitude to my guide
Dr. M. JOHN ROBERT PRINCE, M.E., Ph.D., Department of Civil Engineering for
her valuable guidance, effective suggestions and advice to complete this project
successfully.
I wish to extend my heartest thanks to my P.G co-ordinator Dr. M. JOHN
ROBERT PRINCE, M.E., Ph.D., and Professor in charge Dr. J. JERLIN REGIN
M.E., Ph.D.,
vii

I also owe thanks to my parents and friends for helping me in preparing the
project. I thank all the staff members of civil engineering department for their valuable
suggestions during the project.

BHARATHI S

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER. TITLE PAGE


NO NO.

ABSTRACT (ENGLISH) iii


ABSTRACT (TAMIL) iv
LIST OF TABLES ix
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 2
1.3 PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION 4
1.4 AIM AND SCOPE OF PROJECT 4
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 4
2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
3 METHEDOLOGY 22
4 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 24
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4.1 MATERIALS USED 24


4.1.1 Cement 24
4.1.1.1 Fineness of cement 24
4.1.1.2 Standard consistency test 25
4.1.1.3 Initial and final setting time 26
4.1.1.4 Specific gravity of cement 27
4.1.2 Fine aggregate 28
4.1.2.1 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate 28
4.1.2.2 Specific gravity of fine aggregate 29
4.1.2.3 Bulk density and Percentage of voids in fine aggregate (compacted) 30
4.1.2.4 Bulk density and Percentage of voids in fine aggregate (loose) 32
4.1.2.5 Moisture content of fine aggregate 34
4.1.2.6 Water absorption test on fine aggregate 35
4.1.2.7 Bulking of sand 36
4.1.3 Recycled Brick Aggregate 38
4.1.3.1 Specific gravity of recycled brick aggregate 38
4.1.3.2 Fineness modulus of brick aggregate 39
4.1.3.3 Water absorption test on brick aggregate 40
4.1.3.4 Bulk density of brick aggregate (compacted) 41
4.1.3.5 Bulk density of brick aggregate (loose) 42
4.1.4 Water 44
5 CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 45
5.1 INTRODUCTION 45
5.2 INDIAN STANDARD 10262:2009 METHOD OF MIX PROPORTIONING 46
5.2.1 Stipulations for proportioning
5.2.2 Test data for materials 46
5.2.3 Target strength for mix proportioning 47
5.2.4 Selection of water/cement ratio 47
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5.2.5 Selection of water content 48


5.2.6 Calculation of cement content 48
5.2.7 Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate content 48
5.2.8 Mix calculations for brick aggregate 48
5.2.9 Mix proportions 49
5.2.10 Mix calculations for coarse aggregate (conventional) 50
5.2.11 Mix proportions 50
CONCLUSION 51
6 REFERENCES 52
53

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
TITLE PAGE NO
NO
4.1 Standard consistency of cement 12

4.2 Initial setting time of cement 13

4.3 Specific gravity of cement 14

4.4 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate 15

4.5 Specific gravity of fine aggregate 19


Specific Gravity of Cement
4.6 Bulk density and percentage voids of fine aggregate 20
(compacted)
Bulk density and percentage voids of fine aggregate
4.7 20
(loose)
4.8 Moisture content of fine aggregate 21

4.9 Water absorption test on fine aggregate 21

4.10 Bulking of sand 22

4.11 Specific gravity of brick aggregate 23


x

4.12 Fineness modulus of brick aggregate 24

4.13 Water absorption test on brick aggregate 24

4.14 Compacted bulk density of brick aggregate 25

4.15 Loose bulk density of brick aggregate 25


1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 General

From the view point of sustainability, reducing the consumption of non-


renewable resources is a key factor to sustainable natural resources. Concrete is
known for using a lot of non-renewable natural resources and also has an
uprising demand in construction works all around the world. It had been
reported that concrete industry is the largest consumer of natural resources with
a global concrete consumption of two and a half tons per capita per year. The
major contributors to concrete volume are the aggregates and the consumption
of aggregates is estimated at 13.12 billion tons per year (Tarek Uddin
Mohammed 2017). Generally, aggregates are produced by crushing rocks after
cutting from mountains or quarries and breaking river gravels or boulders. A
significant amount of natural resource can be saved if demolished concrete is
recycled in new construction works. Reinforcements are included in the mixture to
achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients
are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time,
the cement forms a hard matrix which binds the rest of the ingredients together into a
durable stone-like material with many uses. This huge amount of waste is usually
dumped in open air which not only occupies a lot of space but also raises
environmental concerns related to disposal. Utilization of Construction and
Demolition Wastes (CDW) as aggregates in concrete can make natural resources
sustainable and help them to reach their full potential. Recycling of demolished
concrete will also provide other benefits, such as creation of additional business
opportunities, saving cost of disposal, saving money for local government and other
purchaser, helping local government to meet the goal of reducing disposal, etc.
Also, crushed natural stone is considered as the coarse aggregate for the concrete
2

mix proportion method described in ACI-318. But the unit weight of concrete made
with crushed natural stone ranges from 2242 kg/m3 to 2434 kg/m3 whereas the unit
weight of concrete made with brick coarse aggregate ranges from 2002 kg/m3 to
2082 kg/m3. Also, the surface roughness and texture of brick coarse aggregate is not
similar to crushed natural stone aggregate. So it becomes uncertain whether brick
aggregate concrete and recycled brick aggregate concrete will follow the design
equations developed for the crushed natural stone. Therefore, it is important to find
the suitability of the application of ACI-318 provisions for these aggregates.
Although some studies had been conducted to understand the suitability of brick as
coarse aggregate, few literatures were found where the suitability of RCA originated
from brick aggregate concrete was discussed. Further investigations are still
necessary to understand if ACI-318 provisions can be safely used for RC beams
made with recycled brick aggregates.

1.2 Problem statement

The scarcity of good and quality coarse aggregates has now become an issue that
keeps pressing hard to construction sector mostly in many construction processes. Natural
coarse aggregates are generally extracted from larger rock formations through a process
of open excavation, also known as quarrying process. The existing aggregate used are
non-renewable coarse aggregate also the reason for the scarcity of aggregate. It takes
many years for a natural coarse aggregate to be reformed again after being excavated.
With the lack of it resources will affect the production of a good concrete. Furthermore,
the aggregate, quarrying process causes a negative effect to environment. This is due to
the quarrying process will strip the land and depletion of natural resources. With the
construction project is keeps increasing years after years, the production of natural
resources has been affected to depletion. Construction waste has become a global issue
faced by researchers and practitioners around the world lately. More specifically, it has a
primary effect on construction cost, time, productivity and sustainability aspects
3

(Rahman I. A., 2012). The waste that been generated through every year, have resulting
environmental troubles and global warming problems in the world. As a developing
country, India also has been affected by this construction waste problem in the same
situation with the rapid development of the construction sector. The statistics of
construction waste that's been produced have shown estimated that almost 10 to 30
percent originates from construction and demolition activities globally. A study shows
that over 28 percent urban solid waste is originates from construction and industrial waste
in the central and southern regions of India. Landfill is the one of the common ways to
organize waste disposal. The increasing of construction waste that keeps increasing on a
large scale of area year by year causes the construction waste are dumped to the
landfilling area and minimize the capacity of landfilling to support the construction
waste. Demand of houses and major infrastructure keeps the amount of construction
waste getting increased. This statistic shows that the construction waste generation will
keep increasing year after year. If this situation is not being overcome, it will result
landfilling is full with construction waste and more landfilling needed to be produced to
fulfil the require construction waste. In addition, many landfills have decided to close
rather than receiving new waste due to the number of waste generated yearly is far more
rapidly than the natural degradation process. From researchers conduct on 30
construction sites, six types of materials were identified, such as concrete (12.32%),
metal (9.62%), brick (6.24%), plastic (0.43%), woods (69.10%), and other waste (2%)
(Faridah, 2004). Even though brick waste is not the higher amount of waste in
construction, but it contributes an increasing of waste material from construction. More
likely this waste can be treated by reusing for construction. The issue, scarcity of landfill
also will put a decision maker in local and state authorities in critical situations to a make
a tough decision to prevent these problems. Thus, waste utilization has become an
alternative solution to overcome the problem for disposal of waste (Bahoria, 2013). As
stated above it seems that the use of brick waste as alternative coarse aggregate for
concrete production is one of the good alternatives to overcome the problem stated. It has
actually been applied in many countries, and including in Australia. The use of recycled
4

waste has been proven to be practical for low strength concrete and for a limited extend
for some structural grade concrete. Instead of minimizing the brick waste produced, it can
increase the strength and performance of concrete production. While it also helps
minimize the land fill scarcity problem.

1.2 Problem justification


Since it is clearly known and understood that the rising cost of concrete production
has impaired the construction industry, a study on the alternative readily available
alternatives (like recycled brick product waste) to aggregates justifies the research.
Also from environmental point of view, recycling of these wastes would help in the
protection of environment i.e. exploitation of normal granitic aggregates
1.3 Aim and scope of the project
The aim of this study is to investigate the use of Flexural behaviour of Recycled
Brick Aggregate Concrete. Brick wastes are broken into sizes ranging from 2.36 to
20 mm.
1.5 Objectives of the project
1. To determine the suitability of recycled brick aggregate as fully replacement of
coarse aggregate in concrete production.
2. To investigate the mechanical and physical properties of recycled brick
aggregate concrete.
3. To compare the performance between concrete with recycled brick aggregate as
coarse aggregate fully replacement and conventional concrete.
5

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter focuses the review of literature regarding the issue the flexural
behaviour of RC Beams made with Recycled Brick Aggregate with chemical
admixtures in the past researches and studies. The most noteworthy of them which are
relevant to the current study are being reviewed.

2.1. Tarek Uddin Mohammed , Hare Krishna Das , Aziz Hasan Mahmood,
Md. Nafiur Rahman , M.A. Awal, “Flexural performance of RC beams
made with recycled brick aggregate” Construction and Building Materials
Volume - 134 (2017) 67–74

This journal presents an investigation on the flexural performance of


reinforced concrete beams made with recycled brick aggregate was conducted.
For this, 24 reinforced concrete beam specimens of width 200 mm, height 250
mm and length 2100 mm were made with recycled brick aggregate, picket brick
aggregate, and brick aggregate. Other variables include steel ratio, doubly
reinforced, and singly reinforced concrete beams. Flexural tests of the beams
were performed by four-point loading test. During loading, deflections of the
beams at the middle and middle-third locations were recorded. Crack widths and
crack spacing were also recorded. The beams were loaded gradually till failure.
The results of beams made with recycled brick aggregate were compared with
the same results of beams made with virgin brick aggregates. It is revealed that
the design equations proposed in ACI 318-14 for design of reinforced concrete
beams can be used for design of beams made with recycled brick aggregate.

2.2. M.Adamson, A.Razmjoo, A.Poursaee, “Durability of concrete incorporating


crushed brick as coarse aggregate” Construction and Building Materials
Volume-94 (2015)426–432
6

This journal aims to study the Using of crushed bricks as coarse aggregates in
concrete is of particular interest to preserve natural aggregate sources as well as
to reduce waste and waste storage. The objective of this experimental work was
to study the durability of reinforced concrete made with crushed brick as
aggregate. For this purpose, a comparative study was performed on the durability
properties of concrete made with crushed brick as coarse aggregates and with
natural aggregates.

2.3. Antonio Eduardo Bezerra Cabral a, Valdir Schalch b, Denise Carpena Coitinho
Dal Molin c, José Luis Duarte Ribeiro c., “Mechanical properties modelling of
recycled aggregate concrete” Construction and Building Materials Volume-24(2010)
421-430
This journal explains the variability observed in the composition of construction
and demolition (C&D) waste is a problem that inhibits the use of recycled aggregates in
concrete production. To contribute in this field , a research was carried out varying
water/cement ratio and substitution percent of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates.
The experimental program used samples of main Brazilian C&D waste sources, which
are concrete, mortar and red ceramic bricks as well as tiles. Results of concrete
compressive strength and elastic modulus were statistically analysed and modelled. The
study shows that for both concrete properties, recycled coarse aggregate was more
influential than recycled fine aggregate. However, the use of fine recycled red ceramic
increased concrete strength. Coarse recycled red ceramic aggregate and fine recycled
concrete aggregate exercised the largest and the smallest influence, respectively, in
concrete properties.

2.4. Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Md. Abdus Salam, Sukanta Kumar Shill1 and Md.
Kowsur Hasan2, “Effect of Replacing Natural Coarse Aggregate by Brick
Aggregate on the Properties of Concrete” DUET Journal, Volume 1, Issue 3, June
2012.
7

This paper presents an experimental investigation on the properties of concrete


obtained replacing stone aggregate (partly or fully) by crushed clay-brick. The target
compressive strength of stone aggregate concrete was 24 MPa. Remaining concretes were
made by replacing the stone aggregate (partly or fully) by equal volume of brick
aggregate while everything else was kept unchanged. The only variable considered in this
study was the volumetric replacement (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) of stone
aggregate by brick aggregate. The use of brick aggregate as a replacement of stone
aggregate resulted reductions in unit weight, compressive strength, and modulus of
elasticity of concrete by about 14.5%, 33%, and 28% respectively. Different relations for
determination of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of
elasticity of mix-aggregate concrete have been tentatively proposed.

2.5. Syed Ishtiaq Ahmad, A.M.ASCE and Sushanta Roy, “Creep Behavior and Its
Prediction for Normal Strength Concrete Made from Crushed Clay Bricks as
Coarse Aggregate”, Journal of materials in civil engineering © ASCE / March 2012
DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000391.
This journal aims to study the effect of crushed clay bricks as coarse aggregate on
creep behavior of concrete; a comprehensive testing program was conducted. Concrete
cylinder specimens having characteristic or specified compressive strength of 17.2, 24.0,
and 27.5 MPa were prepared from both natural stone and crushed clay brick aggregate.
Mix design ratios were evaluated in a way so that volumetric content of coarse aggregate,
both brick and stone, remained same for all concrete samples. Specimens were subjected
to creep testing at the 7th and 28th day after casting and creep strain data were recorded
up to 300 days. Results show that although strength and other environmental parameters
remain the same, concrete made from crushed clay brick as coarse aggregate have a
higher creep strain than that of concrete made from natural stone aggregate. This increase
in creep strain ranges from 30% to as high as 45% for the 300-day loading history
considered. Additionally, to select an appropriate model to predict creep in brick
aggregate concrete, the effectiveness of five widely used prediction models were
8

examined. Predicted creep strain from ACI 209R, CEB-FIP, B3, GL2000, and Eurocode
2 models were compared with experimental results. By using statistical analysis, the
authors established that prediction of creep by GL2000 model is closest to the
experimental results. Finally, a modification factor has been proposed that may be
incorporated so that prediction of creep strain by the GL2000 model in brick aggregate
concrete becomes more realistic.

2.6. Tarek Uddin Mohammed, Aziz Hasan Mahmood, “Effects of maximum


aggregate size on UPV of brick aggregate concrete”, Ultrasonics 69
(2016) 129–136

Investigation was carried out to study the effects of maximum


aggregate size (MAS) (12.5 mm, 19.0 mm, 25.0 mm, 37.5 mm, and 50.0
mm) on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of concrete. For investigation, first
class bricks were collected and broken to make coarse aggregate. The
aggregates were tested for specific gravity, absorption capacity, unit
weight, and abrasion resistance. Cylindrical concrete specimens were
made with different sand to aggregate volume ratio (s/a) (0.40 and
0.45), W/C ratio (0.45, 0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375 kg/m3
and 400 kg/m3). The s p e c i m e n s were tested for c o m p r e s s i v e strength
and Young’s modulus. UPV through wet specimen was measured using
Portable Ultrasonic Non-destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT).
Results indicate that the pulse velocity through concrete increases with
an increase in M A S . Relationships between UPV and compressive
strength; and UPV and Young’s modulus of concrete are proposed for
different maximum sizes of brick aggregate.

2.7. Md. Kobir Hossain, Mohammad Abdur Rashid, and Md. Rezaul Karim,
“Effect of Cement Content and Size of Coarse Aggregate on the Strength of Brick
Aggregate Concrete” DUET Journal, Vol. 2, Issue 2, June 2015.
9

This journal describes the effects of size of coarse aggregate and cement content
on the compressive strength of brick aggregate concrete have been reported in this paper.
A total of 108 numbers of concrete cylinder (150mm×300mm) were tested using six
nominal sizes (12.5, 19.0, 25.0, 32.0, 38.0 and 50.0 mm) of coarse aggregate and six
cement contents (150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 kg/m3 of concrete) considering water-
cement ratio of 0.5 by weight. Test results reveal that the strength of concrete increases
with the increase in cement content of concrete. The strength of concrete also increases
with the increase in size of coarse aggregate for a cement content of 150 kg/m3.
However, for concrete with cement content more than 150 kg/m3, strength increases with
the increase in size of coarse aggregate upto 25 mm and decreases as the aggregate size
increases beyond 25 mm.

2.8. Farid Debieb, Said Kenai, “The use of coarse and fine crushed bricks as
aggregate in concrete” Construction and Building Materials 22 (2008) 886–893.

In this journal describes an recycling and reuse of building rubble present


interesting possibilities for economy on waste disposal sites and conservation of
natural resources. This paper examines the possibility of using crushed brick as
coarse and fine aggregate for a new concrete. Either natural sand, coarse aggregates
or both were partially replaced (25, 50, 75 and 100%) with crushed brick aggregates.
Compressive and flexural strengths up to 90 days of age were compared with those of
concrete made with natural aggregates. Porosity, water absorption, water
permeability and shrinkage were also measured. The test results indicate that it is
possible to manufacture concrete containing crushed bricks (coarse and fine) with
characteristics similar to those of natural aggregates concrete provided that the
percentage of recycled aggregates is limited to 25% and 50% for the coarse and fine
aggregates, respectively.
10

2.9. Mohamed R. Afify and Noha M. Soliman, “Improvement Properties of Recycle


Concrete using Clay Brick as a Coarse Aggregate “,International Journal of
Current Engineering and Technology Vol.4, No.1 (February 2014).
This paper presents an investigation to establish the improvement properties of
recycle concrete using clay brick as a coarse aggregate. Plan concrete specimens cast
with concrete containing such recycle aggregate were cast and tested in the research.
Using crushed clay brick was manufactured by local factories as an aggregate with
replacement ratio as 100 % by volume of coarse aggregate. The main variable taken into
consideration were the aggregate type, cement and water content as well as the chemical
and mineralogical admixtures content. The mechanical properties as the compressive
strength, the tensile strength and flexural strength of fifteen concrete mixes were
measured in the experimental work at 7, 28, 90 and 180 days when they curing in salt
solution and in the water. The results show that the hardened properties of recycled
concrete improved by reducing the water/ cement, increasing admixture/ cement and
using silica fume. Curing in salts decreased the compressive strength of recycled concrete
compared to curing in water.

2.10. Mohammad Abdur Rashida, Tanvir Hossaina, and M. Ariful Islamb,


“Properties of higher strength concrete made with crushed brick as coarse
aggregate”, Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 37(1) (2009) 43-52
In this journal describes an investigation was conducted to achieve concrete of
higher strength using crushed brick as aggregate and study the mechanical properties. It
was found that higher strength concrete (c f = 4500 to 6600 psi1) with brick aggregate is
achievable whose strength is much higher than the parent uncrushed brick. Test results
show that the compressive strength of brick aggregate concrete can be increased by
decreasing its water-cement ratio and using admixture whenever necessary for
workability. The compressive strength as well as the tensile strength and the modulus of
elasticity of the concrete were studied. The cylinder strength is found about 90% of the
cube strength. The ACI Code relations for determining the modulus of rupture was found
11

to highly underestimate the test values., whereas the code suggested expression for elastic
modulus gives much higher values than the experimental ones for brick aggregate
concrete. Relations were proposed to estimate the modulus of rupture and the modulus of
elasticity of brick aggregate concrete of higher strengths.

2.11. Mohammed Tarek Uddin, Ariful Hasnat, Mohammad Abdul Awal, and
Shamim Z. Bosunia, “Recycling of Brick Aggregate Concrete as Coarse Aggregate”
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering January 29, 2014. Doi: 10.1061/ (ASCE)
MT.1943-5533.0001043
In this paper presents an extensive investigation was carried out for recycling of
demolished brick aggregate concrete as coarse aggregate. For this, demolished concrete
blocks were collected from 33 different building sites of different ages and broken into
pieces as coarse aggregate. Due to the lack of availability of stone aggregate in
Bangladesh, most of the old structures are constructed with brick chips as coarse
aggregate, therefore the recycled aggregate investigated in this study is different from the
recycled aggregate investigated in other countries which are mostly made of stone chips.
The properties of recycled aggregate, such as specific gravity, absorption capacity, and
abrasion were tested. More than 700 cylinder concrete specimens of diameter 150 mm
and height 300 mm were made with water-to-cement ratio 0.45 and 0.55. Concrete
specimens were tested at 7, 14, and 28 days for compressive strength, tensile strength,
and Young’s modulus. The results are compared with virgin brick aggregate. Extended
study was also conducted on partial replacement (10% ~50%) of virgin brick aggregate
with recycled brick aggregate. Also, in-situ strength of an old structure has been
compared with the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete made with the
recycled aggregate collected from the same structure. Based on this investigation, it is
revealed that recycled brick aggregate can be used as coarse aggregate for making
concrete of strength 20.7 to 31.0 MPa. For the same mix design, the recycled aggregate
concrete produces almost similar strength compared to the virgin first class brick
aggregate concrete commonly used in Bangladesh. However, relatively better
12

performance of recycled aggregate concrete is found for W/C = 0.45. No significant


change in compressive strength of concrete is found for up to 50% replacement of virgin
aggregate by recycled aggregate. By recycling, it is possible to make concrete with more
strength compared to the in situ strength of concrete of old structures.

2.12. Ghanim Hussein Qoja and Youkhanna Zayia Dinkha, “Performance of


concrete made with crushed clay bricks as coarse aggregate” Journal of University
of Duhok, Vol. 20,No.1 (Pure and Eng. Sciences), Pp 561-569, 2017
Because of economic considerations and thermal insulation requirements, it seems
necessary therefor to produce lightweight concrete obtained by crushing an enormous
tons of building demolition wastes have been produced. In this study, it is intended to
investigate smashed and the possibility of using crushed clay bricks to replace the coarse
aggregate (gravel) in concrete mixes. Four nominal normal concrete mixes and four more
mixes of crushed clay brick aggregate were prepared and tested. The crushed clay brick
aggregates were produced by crushing the brick units (locally available and manufactured
in Iran) manually and collected into described size (20 mm). From the analysis of the
results, it was found that the unit weight of the crushed brick concrete ranged from (1685-
1760) kg/m3 and its compressive strength was about 61% of that of the natural aggregate
concrete while the flexural strength was 70% of natural aggregate concrete. Also, the
relation between compressive and flexural strength for the lightweight concrete produced
is similar to that of normal concrete. Moreover, the results indicated the suitability of the
crushed clay brick aggregate concrete to be used in buildings.

2.13. Shohana Iffat, “The characteristics of brick aggregate concrete on a basis of


dry density and durability” Malaysian Journal of Civil Engineering 28(1):50-58
(2016)
In this paper an experimental program conducting on compressive strength,
density, absorption capacity and percent voids of hardened concrete is described. The
variation of these properties with maturity of concrete was main focus of this experiment.
Also, water and chloride permeability of commonly practiced concrete mixes are also
13

evaluated through this paper. Comparison is made between two types of concrete’s
property test results. One of them is lightweight concrete made with crushed brick (BC)
as primary coarse aggregate. Crushed brick is a locally available construction material in
Indian subcontinent. Another type of concrete is a denser one, made with crushed stone
(SC) as primary coarse aggregate. The comparisons on test results are presented with
respect to time and water cement ratios. It was observed from the experiment that,
strength and density increases with maturity of concrete and percent void and absorption
capacity decreases with time. Better results were obtained from stone aggregate concrete
than brick aggregate concrete in cases of all of the tests. A minimum water cement ratio
is also recommended to ensure minimum level of durability through this paper.

2.14. Mohd. Sarfaraz Banda, Md. Shamim Hossain, Md. Ruhul Amin, “A Study on
Cube and Cylinder Strength of Brick Aggregate Concrete”, IOSR Journal of
Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) Volume 9, Issue 3 (Sep. - Oct.
2013), PP 65-72
This journal describes the main objective of this research was to make comparison
of strength between cube and cylinder using brick aggregate concrete. For this purpose,
nine sets of mix proportions were made and studied the variation of strength between
cube and cylinder. Along with this, variation of strengths between standard and small
cylinders was also observed. Moreover, concrete was designed for two specified
compressive strengths (3000 psi and 4500 psi) by American Concrete Institute (ACI) mix
design procedure. Then it was casted and tested in laboratory with proper care. From the
analysis of the test results, it had been found that cylinder strength was approximately 86
to 90 percent of cube strength and small cylinder strength was approximately 91 to 94
percent of standard cylinder strength.

2.15. Samia Hachemi and Abdelhafid Ounis, “Performance of concrete containing


crushed brick aggregate exposed to different fire temperatures” European Journal
of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 2015 Vol. 19, No. 7, 805–824 .
14

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of high


temperatures applied to a conventional concrete made with natural coarse aggregate
(NCA) and different water/cement ratios (w/c of 0.6, 0.42 and 0.27). The experimental
results of physical and mechanical properties were compared with those obtained with
recycled brick aggregate (RBA) produced by replacing 30% of NCA by RBA. The
following parameters: compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, concrete mass loss,
apparent volume, apparent density and water porosity were examined in this experiment.
A scanning electron microscopy study was made to appreciate the change of surface
texture. The results show that concrete could be produced using RBA and reveals that at
high temperatures, recycled aggregate concrete preformed similar or even better than
natural aggregate concrete. Hence, this paper is a contribution to the general
understanding of the impact of RBA in concrete at high temperatures, and emphasises the
important influence of RBA on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete.

2.16 Ali A. Aliabdo, Abd-Elmoaty M. Abd-Elmoaty, Hani H. Hassan


“Utilization of crushed clay brick in concrete industry” Alexandria Engineering
Journal (2014) 53,151-168.

This paper presents a comprehensive experimental program regarding the use of


recycled aggregates produced from demolition of brick buildings is presented. The
brick wastes were crushed, sorted and classified into coarse and fine aggregates as
well as powder, Crushed Brick Powder (CBP). The first phase of the research focuses
on the effect of incorporating recycled aggregates on physico-mechanical properties
of paste, mortar and concrete. Non-traditional tests including X-ray diffraction
(XRD), thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA) and micro-structural analysis (MSA)
were performed. The second phase of the program explores the effect of using
recycled aggregates on properties of concrete masonry units. A total of 44 mixtures
were utilized throughout the program. Results show cement paste when modified
with 25% CBP achieves smaller pore size and lower weight loss under high
temperature than reference paste. Furthermore, the use of recycled aggregates
15

reduces the overall unit weight of concrete masonry units. Actually, modified
concrete masonry units incorporating recycled aggregates achieve lower unit weight,
higher thermal resistance and absorption rate than reference units. Although
considerable strength reduction is noticeable by substitution, compressive strength
levels meet the Egyptian specifications limitations. Critical replacement ratios are
suggested to produce load bearing-concrete masonry units. Based on experimental
evidences, it can be stated that the use of recycled aggregate and dust made of clay
bricks is promising in many applications where the thermal resistance, cost and
environmental aspects are imperative.

2.17. Mohammed Tarek Uddin, Aziz Hasan Mahmood, Md. Rubayet Ibna Kamal,
S.M.Yashin ,Zia Uddin Ahmed Zihan, “Effects of maximum size of brick
aggregate on properties of concrete” Construction and Building Materials 134
(2017) 713-726.

This paper presents an effects of maximum aggregate size (12.5 mm,


19.0 mm, 25.0 mm, 37.5 mm, and 50.0 mm) on properties of concrete made with
different sand to total aggregate volume ratio (0.40 and 0.45), W/C ratio (0.45,
0.50, and 0.55), and cement content (375 kg/m 3 and 400 kg/m3) were
investigated. Considering the variables, a total of 552 concrete cylinder
specimens of diameter 100 mm diameter and height 200 mm were made for 52
numbers of independent cases. Brick aggregates were tested for specific gravity,
absorption capacity, unit weight, and abrasion resistance. Concrete specimens
were tested for compressive strength, stress-strain curve, splitting tensile strength,
and Young’s modulus. Results have revealed that for higher cement content
(400 kg/m3), concrete made with small aggregates give more compressive
strength. However, for a cement content of 375 kg/m3, and W/C ratio of 0.45, the
compressive strength is increased with an increase in maximum aggregate size up
to 37.5 mm. The compressive strength of concrete increases with an increase in
Sand to Aggregate (s/a) ratio from 0.40 to 0.45. Relationships between
16

mechanical properties o f concrete, and stress-strain relationships are proposed


for different maximum aggregate sizes.

2.18. Fatih Bektas, “Alkali reactivity of crushed clay brick aggregate” Construction
and Building Materials 52 (2014) 79-85.

In this journal describe a use of recycled aggregate in concrete is a viable


alternative when it is economically feasible. Recycled red clay brick either from
construction rubble or from brick manufacturing rejects has been widely investigated as
concrete aggregate. While engineering properties of clay brick aggregate has been the
focus of numerous studies, research on the durability characteristics is limited. This paper
presents the findings of a laboratory study that investigates the alkali reactivity of crushed
red clay brick aggregate. Mortar mixes, in which crushed brick constitutes 10%, 25%,
50% and 100% of aggregate, and concrete mixes, which contained 0%, 50% and 100%
crushed coarse brick aggregate, were produced. Expansion was deter-mined by
employing mortar bars and concrete prisms that were subjected to ASR-promoting
conditions (e.g., elevated temperature, high humidity, enhanced alkaline environment).
Effects of clay brick aggregate on engineering properties (i.e., compressive strength,
flexural strength, and static elastic modulus) of concrete were also investigated using
cylindrical and prismatic specimens conditioned as the other specimens for ASR testing.
Additionally, microstructural investigation was carried out on samples using scanning
electron microscope. The test results showed that the clay brick aggregate caused linear
expansion proportional to its quantity. Based on a 0.05% expansion at 6 months criterion
for the mortar bars stored at 38 LC over water none of the brick aggregate levels were
deleteriously expansive. On the other hand, 10%, 25% and 50% brick aggregate mixtures,
when tested in sodium hydroxide solution at 80 LC, produced significant expansions
according to 0.10% expansion limit at 14 days. Microscope investigation confirmed the
presence of alkali silica gel. Ettringite formation was also observed in the specimen’s
examined. Compressive and flexural strengths of concrete were found to be negatively
affected by the sodium hydroxide that was added to the mixing water. The clay brick
17

aggregate concretes experienced expansion, however, no visual cracking was observed


and there was no measured loss in engineering properties (i.e., compressive strength,
flexural strength, and static elastic modulus) when compared to the control mix.

2.19. Paulo B. Cachim, “Mechanical properties of brick aggregate concrete”,


Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 1292-1297.
This paper presents the results of a research program carried out at University of
Aveiro, Portugal to evaluate the properties of concrete made with crushed bricks
replacing natural aggregates. Two types of brick were investigated. The bricks were
crushed in order to obtain a usable aggregate. The properties investigated were the
workability and the density of fresh concrete, and the compressive strength, tensile
splitting strength, modulus of elasticity and stress–strain behaviour of hardened concrete.
Replacement ratios of natural aggregates by 15% and 30% were investigated as well as
water/cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. Strength indexes were used to assess the
effectiveness of aggregate replacement. The results of concrete produced with recycled
aggregates were compared with a reference concrete produced with natural limestone
aggregates currently used in Portugal. Observed results indicate that ceramic residuals
could be used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in concrete without reduction
of concrete properties for 15% replacement and with reductions up to 20% for 30%
replacement. The type and the manufacturing process of bricks seem to influence the
properties of the resulting concrete. The properties and aesthetics of concrete with bricks
indicate the possibility of using this type of concrete in precast applications.

2.20. Syed Ishtiaq Ahmad, a and Sushanta Roy, “Creep Prediction Model for
Concrete Made of Crushed Clay Bricks as Coarse Aggregate” Applied Mechanics
and Materials Vols. 166-169 (2012) pp 994-997
In this journal describe a simple design office oriented empirical model containing
only two parameters has been developed to predict creep behavior of concrete made of
crushed clay bricks as coarse aggregate. For this, concrete samples having three different
normal compressive strengths in the range of 18.9 up to 24.0 N/mm2 are first prepared
18

and then tested for their creep deformation. For each of the samples, a hyperbolic
equation is developed from their creep-time behavior. These equations are then combined
and modified according to statistical norms to finally obtain a generalized equation.
Comparison of creep strain obtained from this equation with that of experimental values
show that the proposed model can closely predict creep in brick aggregate made concrete.

2.21. Tanja Kalman Sipos, Ivana Milic evic, Rafat Siddique , “Model for mix design
of brick aggregate concrete based on neural network modelling”, Construction and
Building Materials 148 (2017) 757-759
This article proposes an optimized quantitative model for proportioning concrete
mixtures based on cement content, water-cement ratio and percentage of recycled
aggregate replacement according to preferred recycled brick aggregate concrete (RBAC)
compressive strength. A database compiled from 147 experimental tests of RBAC
compressive strength was processed by neural network modelling to achieve a reliable
prediction, which was investigated by three-fold validation. The performance of the
representative neural network model was verified by parametric analysis with a brief
review of the influence of each RBAC component. The focus of the main results is
enhancement of the neural network modelling results and consequently new
interpretation and conceptualization for theoretical advancement and practical applied
research on RBAC concrete content.

2.22. M.A. Salam, M.N. Islam and M.A. Rashid, “An expert system for mix design
of brick aggregate concrete”, International Journal of Mechanical and Materials
Engineering (IJMME), Vol. 7 (2012), No. 1, 54–63.
In this journal an expert system prototype for mix design of brick aggregate
concrete called ESBAC is described in this paper. It was developed for concrete having
compressive strength up to 28 MPa (4000 psi). ESBAC is capable of selecting the
proportions of cement, mixing water and aggregates. The main issues addressed were the
knowledge acquisition process, building of the prototype and verification of its
19

performance. The knowledge was taken from technical literature and experts’ opinion.
The knowledge was represented using frames and production rules. Two case studies
were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. In these case studies, the
overall performance of the ESBAC was found to be satisfactory.

2.23 Brian Jacks Odero, R. N. Mutuku, C. K. Kabubo, “Mechanical characteristics


of normal concrete partially replaced with crushed clay bricks” International
Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 1, January
(2015), pp. 62-75
This study aims at replacing the past research work on the use of clay bricks
aggregate as possible partial substitute for conventional coarse aggregate in concrete.
Moreover, from the study, an optimum mechanical strength property of crushed clay
bricks in concrete was identified. Crushed clay bricks originate mostly from broken and
over-burnt bricks. There were considered as partial substitute for coarse aggregate in
concrete for this study. The replacement proportions were varied from 0%, 20%, 40%,
60%, 80%, and 100% by weight for natural aggregates. A detailed analysis of the results
of previous work done by various researchers are presented. Test results of this work are
of importance in assessing the mechanical properties determined through splitting tensile
tests, flexural tests, compressive tests and pull out force tests at 7 and 28 days. The study
indicates that considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the use of waste ceramic
products, but more study needs to be done on effects of shapes and sizes of these
aggregates on physical and mechanical properties of the new concrete with aggregates
partially replaced with crushed clay bricks. This may lead to better and more efficient
recycling and utilization of waste clay bricks in our environment.

2.24. S.Vijayalakshmi, D. Sri Ruban, “Experimental Investigation On Structural


Behaviour of High Performance Concrete Beams using Light Weight Aggregate
inDifferent Layers” International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and
Technology IJETST- Vol. 03, Issue 05, Pages 836-840
20

This paper deals with the development of composite concrete beams using light
weight concrete and conversional concrete. The conventional concrete is designed to
have strength of M30. Then to have the light weight concrete in beam, broken bricks will
be mixed with conventional concrete by replacing the coarse aggregate of 0%, 20% 40%,
60%, 80% and 100%. With the addition of bricks, the corresponding the density and
strength was expected to get reduces. For the corresponding density, the percentage of air
entrainment will be checked out. Finally a mix with moderate density will be choose to
use along with the conventional concrete in the composite flexural members. Our main
aim is to find the correct position to use light weight concrete in a flexural member along
with conventional concrete. The assumed positions for the light weight and the
conventional concrete in the cross section of beam are investigated under flexure. The
R.C beams are cast for the assumed cross sections. After curing, those specimens are
subject to test and the loads to deflection parameter are studied. From this report it was
concluded that, the light weight concrete can be used in beam along with the
conventional concrete.

2.25. Kasi Rekha, GSMR Bharath, Potharaju Malasani, “Residual flexural strength
of recycled brick aggregate concrete exposed to high temperatures”, International
Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET) Vol 7 No 6 Dec 2015-Jan 2016, p-
ISSN : 2319-8613
In this paper describes an experimental investigation the brick from the demolition
waste is used as a coarse aggregate to study the flexural behaviour of recycled brick
aggregate (RBA) concrete after exposure to high temperatures. The recycled brick
aggregate is replaced to granite aggregate up to 25% by its volume to produce RBA
concrete. Beam specimens of size 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were used to study the
flexural strength (modulus of rupture) of both RBA concrete and granite aggregate (GA)
concrete. Both the concretes were heated to desired temperatures from 100oC to 1000oC
in an interval of 100oC for three hours in bogie hearth furnace. The residual flexural
strengths of both heated RBA and GA concretes were presented in this research to study
21

the performance of RBAconcrete at high temperatures. The RBA concrete performed


better than that of GA concrete in flexure at high temperatures by exhibiting higher
residual strength.
22

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 General

This chapter briefly explains the methodology adopted in this project. It has
been already discussed in the previous chapter about the introduction of flexural
behavior of recycled brick aggregate concrete beam. The following methodology
has been adopted to achieve the objective of this project.

In this phase literatures of recycled brick aggregate concrete related to


various parameters are varying grades of concrete; properties related to with
addition of admixtures are collected and studied. Preliminary studies were carried
out to know about the physical properties of materials used in concrete.
23

Literature Survey

Collection of
Materials

Priliminary Study
on Materials

Mix Design

Casting of
specimens

Testing of specimen

Comparison

Result and
Conclusion
24

CHAPTER 4

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

4.1 MATERIALS USED


4.1.1 Cement
Ordinary Portland cement is composed of calcium silicate sand, aluminate sand,
and alumina ferrite. It is obtained by blending predetermined proportions lime stone clay
and other materials in small quantities which is pulverized and heated at high temperature
– around 1500˚C to produce clinker. The clinker is then ground with small quantities of
gypsum to produce a fine powder called Ordinary Portland cement [OPC]. When mixed
with water, sand and stone. It combines slowly with the water to form a hard mass called
concrete. Cement is hygroscopic material meaning it absorbs moisture, in presence of
moisture it undergoes chemical reaction termed hydration. Therefore cement remains in
good condition as long as it does not come in contact with moisture. If cement is more
than three month old then it should be tested for its strength before being taken into use.
Ordinary Portland cement confirming to IS 8112-1989 [43grade] is used for experimental
work. Laboratory test were conducted on cement to determine specific gravity,
consistency, initial and final setting time and fineness.
Properties of cement:
 Type of cement - OPC 43 grade
 Fineness - 7%
 Nominal consistency - 30%
 Initial setting time - 30 minutes
 Specific gravity - 3.15
4.1.1.1 Fineness of cement[ IS 4031 (Part I) – 1996]
 Weigh correctly 100 grams of cement (W1).
 Break down the air – set lumps in the sample with fingers.
 Then sieve the sample 900µ sieve about 15 minutes.
 Weigh the residue left on the sieve (W2).
25

Observation
W1 = 100 gm
W2 = 7 gm

W2 7
% of residue left on the sieve = x 100 = x 100 = 7%
W1 100

4.1.1.2 Standard consistency test [IS 40319 (Part 4) – 1988)

 Take about 300 gm of cement and paste was made by adding water about 24% of
the weight of cement.
 The paste is filled in Vicat apparatus mould within 3-5 minutes and the mould was
shock well to air.
 Standard plunger of 10 mm diameter and 40 mm long is attached to the Vicat
apparatus and brought down to touch the surface of paste in the test block.
 The depth of penetration of plunger was noted.
 The second trial was conducted further adding water of 1% weight of cement and
depth of penetration was noted.
 Similarly, number of trials was conducted, till the plunger penetrate upto a depth
of 5mm to 7mm from bottom and note the particular percentage of water which
allows the plunger to penetrate within the limits.
 The values are shown in table 4.1
26

Table 4.1 Standard consistency of cement

Weight of Adding percentage of Reading of


Sl Amount of
cement, water for consistency, pointer from
no water, (ml)
(gm) % bottom, mm

1 300 28 84 29
2 300 27 87 18
3 300 30 90 7

Standard consistency = 30%

4.1.1.3 Initial and final setting time [ IS 4031(Part V)-1988]

 A 300 gm of cement was taken and paste was made with 0.85 times of water that
was prepared to give a standard consistency.
 The time at which the water initially added was noted. The Vicat mould was filled
with the cement paste in 3 to 5 minutes.
 The surface of the paste is smoothened, making it level with the top of the mould.
 The needle was gently lowered to the surface of the paste and was quickly released
allowing it to sink into the paste by its own weight.
 The procedure was repeated until the needle fails to pierce the block for about
5mm to 7mm measured from the bottom and the time was noted using stop watch.
 The difference between the timing will give the initial setting time.
 The values are shown in table 4.2
27

Table 4.2 Initial setting time of cement

Time in Penetration
Sl no:
minutes mm
1 5 4.5
2 10 4.5
3 20 4.5
4 25 6
5 30 7

Initial setting time of cement = 30 minutes

4.1.1.4 Specific gravity of cement [ IS 2386 (Part 3) – 1963]

 Take a clean dry pycnometer with its cap and weight it (W1).
 Take about 300 gm of cement in the pycnometer and find the weight of
pycnometer with cement (W2).
 Fill the pycnometer with kerosene up to the hole in the cap and shake it to remove
the air. Then take the weight of the pycnometer with cement and kerosene (W3).
 Empty the pycnometer cleans it thoroughly. Then fill it with kerosene up to the
hole of the cap and weight (W4).
Table 4.3 Specific gravity of cement
Sl
Observations in gram Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3
no:
1 Empty weight of pycnometer, W1 25 30 27
2 Weight of pycnometer + cement, W2 40 45 43
3 Weight of pycnometer + cement + kerosene, W3 75 80 78
4 Weight of pycnometer + kerosene, W4 65 70 67
Specific gravity 3.0 3.15 3.2
28

(W2−W1)
Specific gravity, G =
((W2−W1)−(W3− W4))

Specific gravity of cement, G = 3.15

4.1.2 Fine aggregate

Aggregate which is passing through 4.75 IS sieve is termed as fine aggregate. Fine
aggregate is added to concrete to assist workability and to bring uniformity in mixture.
Usually the natural river sand is used as fine aggregate. Important thing to be considered
is that the fine aggregate should be free from coagulated lumps.

Locally available good quality river sand was used. Laboratory test were
conducted on fine aggregate to determine the different physical properties as IS 383 (Part
3)-1970.

4.1.2.1 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate [ IS 2386 (Part 1) – 1963]

 Air set lumps if any in the fine aggregate are removed with fingers.
 About 1000 gm of fine aggregate is weighed accurately
 The fine aggregate taken is sieved through set of sieves by means of hand shaking.
 The residue left after 15 minutes of sieving is weighted.
 Thus the fineness modulus can be calculated by cumulative percentage of weight
retained.
 The table showing the fineness of fine aggregate is shown below and the fineness
of aggregate is calculated by using cumulative percentage of weight retained.
 The values are shown in table 4.4
29

Table 4.4 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate

Weight Cumulative
Sl % of soil
IS sieve number retained soil % weight
no: retained % finer
(kg) retained
1 4.75 0.061 6.1 6.1 93.9
2 2.36 0.133 13.3 19.4 80.6
3 1.18 0.120 12 31.4 68.6
4 600µ 0.153 15.3 46.7 53.3
5 300µ 0.301 30.1 76.8 23.2
6 150µ 0.17 17.6 94.4 5.6
7 Pan 0.056 5.6 100 0
3.252

% 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟
Fineness modulus =
100

Fineness modulus of fine aggregate = 3.252

Grading zone II

4.1.2.2 Specific gravity of fine aggregate [IS2386 (Part 3) – 1963]

 Take a clean dry pycnometer with its cap and weight it (W1).
 Take about 500 gm of fine aggregate in the pycnometer and find the weight of
pycnometer with fine aggregate (W2).
 Fill the pycnometer with water up to the hole in the conical cap and shake it to
remove the air. Then take the weight of the pycnometer with fine aggregate and
water (W3).
 Empty the pycnometer cleans it thoroughly. Then fill it with water up to the hole
of the conical cap and weight (W4).
30

Table 4.5 Specific gravity of fine aggregate

Sl
Observations in Kg Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3
no:
1 Empty weight of pycnometer, W1 0.645 0.645 0.645
2 Weight of pycnometer + fine aggregate, W2 1.108 1.108 1.108
Weight of pycnometer + fine aggregate + water,
3 1.705 1.710 1.705
W3
4 Weight of pycnometer + water, W4 1.415 1.422 1.415
Specific gravity 2.68 2.65 2.68

(W2−W1)
Specific gravity, G =
((W2−W1)−(W3− W4))

Specific gravity of fine aggregate, G = 2.67

4.1.2.3 Bulk density and Percentage of voids in fine aggregate (compacted) [IS
27720-29-1975]

 Measure the dimensions of the cylinder and calculate its volume (V).
 The cylindrical measure is filled about 1/3 time thoroughly mixed aggregate and
tamped with strokes by tamping rod,16 mm diameter and 60 cm long.
 Level the top surface of the fine aggregate in the metal measure, with a straight
edge or tamping bar.
 Determine the weight of the fine aggregate in the measure and record the weight
(W) in Kg.
 Knowing the specific gravity in saturated condition and bulk density (compacted)
of the aggregate, the void ratio can be calculated.
 The values are shown in table 4.6
31

Table 4.6 Bulk density and percentage voids of fine aggregate (compacted)

Weight of
Empty weight Weight of cylinder + Capacity of Bulk
fine %
of cylinder, poured with fine cylinder, V density
aggregate voids
W1 (kg) aggregate, W2 (kg) (lit) (kg/lit)
(W2-W1)
3.475 6.610 3.135 2.15 1.458 45.3
3.475 6.612 3.137 2.15 1.459 44.7
3.475 6.611 3.136 2.15 1.458 45.3
Empty weight of cylinder (W1) = 3.475kg

Weight of cylinder + poured with fine aggregate, (W2) = 6.610 kg

Weight of cylinder, (W2-W1) = 3.315 kg

Diameter of cylinder = 125 mm

Height of cylinder = 175 mm

0.785𝑑2 ℎ
Capacity of cylinder =
1000

0.785𝑋1252 𝑋175
=
1000

= 2.15 lit

𝑊 3.135
Compacted unit weight or bulk density, γ = =
𝑉 2.15

= 1.458 kg/ lit

𝐺−𝛾
Percentage voids = 𝑋 100
𝐺

2.67−1.458
= 𝑋 100
2.67

= 45.3%
32

Where,

G = Specific gravity of fine aggregate (2.7)

Bulk density of fine aggregate (compacted) = 1.458 kg/lit

Percentage voids of fine aggregate (compacted) = 45 %

4.1.2.4 Bulk density and Percentage of voids in fine aggregate (loose) [IS 27720-29-
1975]

 Measure the dimensions of the cylinder and calculate its volume (V).
 Fill the cylindrical measure to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, the fine
aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5 cm above the top of the
measure.
 Level the top surface of the fine aggregate in the metal measure, with a straight
edge or tamping bar.
 Determine the weight of the fine aggregate in the measure and record the weight
(W) in Kg.
 Knowing the specific gravity in saturated condition and bulk density (loose) of the
aggregate, the void ratio can be calculated.
 The values are shown in table 4.7
33

Table 4.7 Bulk density and percentage voids of fine aggregate (loose)

Weight of
Empty weight Weight of cylinder + Capacity of Bulk
fine %
of cylinder, W1 Weight of loose fine cylinder density
aggregate voids
(kg) aggregate, W2 (kg) (lit) (kg/lit)
(W2-W1)
3.475 6.395 2.92 2.15 1.358 49.1

3.475 6.393 2.91 2.15 1.353 49.3

3.475 6.392 2.91 2.15 1.353 49.3

Empty weight of cylinder (W1) = 3.475 kg

Weight of cylinder + Weight of loose fine aggregate, (W2) = 6.395 kg

Weight of cylinder, (W2-W1) = 2.92 kg

Diameter of cylinder = 125 mm

Height of cylinder = 175 mm

0.785𝑑2 ℎ
Capacity of cylinder =
1000

0.785𝑋1252 𝑋175
=
1000

= 2.15 lit

𝑊 2.92
Loose unit weight or bulk density, γ = =
𝑉 2.15

= 1.358 kg/liter

𝐺−𝛾
Percentage voids = 𝑋 100
𝐺
34

2.67−1.358
= 𝑋 100
2.67

= 49%

Where,

G = Specific gravity of fine aggregate (2.7)

Bulk density of fine aggregate (loose) = 1.358 kg/lit

Percentage voids of fine aggregate (loose) = 49 %

4.1.2.5 Moisture content of fine aggregate (IS: 2386-3-1963)

 Take empty weight of container (M1)


 Take weight of container with wet fine aggregate (M2)
 Take weight of container with dry fine aggregate (M3)
(𝑀2−𝑀3)
 Moisture content of fine aggregate =
(𝑀3−𝑀1)

 The values are shown in table 4.8

Table 4.8 Moisture content of fine aggregate

Mass of oven
Mass of FA
dried FA Moisture
Mass of excluding
excluding content (%)
container (M1) container weight 𝑾𝟑 − 𝑾𝟐
container weight x 100
𝑾𝟑
(M2)
(M3)

400 2000 1980 1.5


400 2010 1995 1.25
400 2005 1985 1.60
35

Mass of container (M1) = 400


Mass of FA excluding container weight (M2) = 2000
Mass of oven dried FA excluding container weight (M3) = 1980
(𝑀2−𝑀3)
Moisture content of fine aggregate = x 100
𝑀3

Average moisture content of fine aggregate = 1.45%

4.1.2.6 Water absorption test on fine aggregate (IS: 2386-3-1963)


 Take some amount of fine aggregate (C)
 The fine aggregate sample is immersed in clean water
 It is kept in water for next 24 hours
 Then it is weighed (A)
 Weight of oven dried sample (D)
 Weight of pycnometer and water (B)
 The observations have to be tabulated and average percentage of water
absorption is worked out.
 The values are shown in table 3.8

Table 4.9Water absorption test on fine aggregate

Weight of
Weight of
Weight of pycnometer Weight of
oven dried % of water
sample (C) +sample+ pycnometer +
sample (D) absorption
(gm) water (A) water (B) (gm)
gm
(gm)
500 1835 1540 495 1.00
500 1835 1540 495 1.00
500 1834 1539 494 1.01
36

Weight of sample (C) = 500 gm

Weight of pycnometer+ samples+water (A) = 1835 gm

Weight of pycnometer+water (B) = 1540 gm

Weight of oven dried sample (D) = 495 gm

(𝐶−𝐷)
Percentage of water absorption = x 100 = 1.01
𝐷

Average percentage of water absorption = 1.0 %

4.1.2.7 Bulking of sand (IS: 2386-3-1963)

 Put sufficient quantity of the sand loosely into a container. Until it is about two-
thirds full. Level off the top of the sand and pushing steel rule vertically down
through the sand at the middle to the bottom, measure the height. Suppose this is h
cm.
 Empty the sand out of the container into another container where none of it will be
lost. Half fill the first container with water. Put back about half the sand and rod it
with a steel rod, about 6 mm in diameter, so that its volume is reduced to a
minimum. Then add the remainder of the sand and rod it in the same way,. Smooth
and level the top surface of the inundated sand and measure its depth at the middle
with the steel rule. Suppose this is h’ cm.
 In a 250-ml measuring cylinder, pour the damp sand until it reaches the 200-ml
mark. with water and stir the sand well. Then fill the cylinder. It will be seen that
the sand surface ‘is now below its original level.
37

Table 4.10 Bulking of sand

Volume of dry %moisture content Volume of wet % bulking


loose sand (V1) added (%) loose sand (V2) (V2-V1)/V1
500 2 560 12
500 4 580 16
500 6 630 26
500 8 640 28
500 10 650 30
500 12 660 32
500 14 680 36
500 16 700 40
500 18 720 44
500 20 750 50
500 22 730 46
500 24 700 40
500 26 700 40
500 28 700 40
500 30 660 40
500 32 640 32
500 34 630 28
500 36 620 26
500 38 620 24
500 40 610 24
500 42 580 16
500 44 530 06
500 46 500 0
38

4.1.3 Recycled Brick Aggregate

The coarse aggregate used in this project is recycled brick aggregate, an


construction waste. The demolished brick concrete were collected from the local site and
they are well seasoned. The seasoned brick aggregate is crushed manually. The size of
the recycled brick aggregate used is 2.36mm to 10mm. Light weight recycled brick
aggregate has different texture, size and properties than normal aggregate. So the
aggregates are crushed edges will be rough and spiky that leads to be bonding.

4.1.3.1 Specific gravity of recycled brick aggregate (IS: 2386-3-1963)

 Take a clean dry pycnometer with its cap and weight it (W1).
 Take about 1000 gm of brick aggregate in the pycnometer and find the weight of
pycnometer with brick aggregate (W2).
 Fill the pycnometer with water up to the hole in the cap and shake it to remove the
air. Then take the weight of the pycnometer with coarse aggregate and water (W3).
 Empty the pycnometer cleans it thoroughly. Then fill it with water up to the hole
of the cap and weight (W4).
 The values are shown in table 4.11
Table 4.11 Specific gravity of brick aggregate

S.No Observation (gm) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3


1 Empty weight of pycnometer 645 645 645
2 Weight of oven dry sample, D 505 505 505
3 Weight of SSD sample, C 625 625 625
4 Weight of sample+ pycnometer + water, A 1160 1161 1160
5 Weight of pycnometer + water, B 845 844 845
5 Specific gravity 2.66 2.68 2.66

(D) (505)
Specific gravity, G = =
(𝐷)−(A− B)) (505) – (1160 – 845)
39

Specific gravity of Brick aggregate, G = 2.66%

4.1.3.2 Fineness modulus of brick aggregate [ IS 2386 (Part 1) – 1963]

 Air set lumps if any in the brick aggregate are removed with fingers.
 About 1000 gm of coconut shell is weighed accurately
 The brick aggregate taken is sieved through set of sieves by means of hand
shaking.
 The residue left after 15 minutes of sieving is weighted.
 Thus the fineness modulus can be calculated by cumulative percentage of weight
retained.
 The table showing the fineness of brick aggregate is shown below and the fineness
of aggregate is calculated by using cumulative percentage of weight retained.
 The values are shown in table 4.12
Table 4. 12Fineness modulus of brick aggregate

Weight of % of
Cumulative
Sl brick retained
IS sieve number % weight
no: aggregate brick % finer
retained
retained (kg) aggregate
1 80mm 0 0 0 100
2 40mm 0 0 0 100
3 20mm 0.315 31.5 31.5 68.5

4 12.5mm 0.590 59 90.5 9.5

5 11.2mm 0.045 4.5 95 5


6 10mm 0.025 2.5 97.5 2.5
7 4.75mm 0.020 2.0 99.5 0.5
8 Pan 0.005 0.5 100 0
40

% 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟 290
Fineness modulus = =
100 100

Fineness modulus of fine aggregate = 2.9%

4.1.3.3 Water absorption test on brick aggregate (IS: 2386-3-1963)


 Take some amount of brick aggregate (W1)
 The brick aggregate sample is immersed in clean water
 It is kept in water for next 24 hours
 Then it is weighed (W2)
 The observations have to be tabulated and average percentage of water
absorption is worked out.
 The values are shown in table 4.13
Table 4.13 Water absorption test on brick aggregate

Weight Weight of Weight of


Weight of
Weight of of SSD pycnometer oven
pycnometer % of water
sample sample +sample+ dried
+ water (B) absorption
(gm) (C) water (A) sample
(gm)
(gm) (gm) (D) gm
1000 625 1160 845 505 23.7
1000 625 1162 847 506 23.5
1000 625 1160 845 505 23.7

Weight of SSD sample (C) = 625 gm

Weight of oven dried sample (D) = 495 gm

(𝐶−𝐷)
Percentage of water absorption = x 100 = 1.01
𝐷

(625−505)
= x 100 = 1.01
505
41

Average percentage of water absorption = 23.7 %

4.1.3.4 Bulk density of brick aggregate (compacted) IS: 2386-3-1963

 Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the
metal measure and record the volume “V” in liter
 Fill the cylindrical metal measure about 1/3rd full with thoroughly mixed aggregate
and tamp it 25 times using tamping bar.
 Add another layer of 1/3rd volume of aggregate in the metal measure and give
another 25 strokes of tamping bar.
 Finally fill aggregate in the metal measure to over-flowing and tamp it 25 times.
 Remove the surplus aggregate using the tamping rod as a straight edge
 Determine the weight of the aggregate in the measure and record that weight “W”
in Kg
 The values are shown in table shown in table 4.14

Table 4.14 Compacted bulk density of brick aggregate

Weight of cylinder + Weight of


Empty weight Capacity of Bulk
Weight of rodded brick %
of cylinder, W1 cylinder density
brick aggregate, W2 aggregate voids
(kg) (lit) (kg/lit)
(kg) (W2-W1)
3.475 5.365 1.890 2.15 0.879 67

3.475 5.368 1.893 2.15 0.880 67

3.475 5.366 1.891 2.15 0.879 67

Empty weight of cylinder (W1) = 3.475 kg

Weight of cylinder + Weight of rodded brick aggregate, (W2) = 5.365 kg


42

Weight of cylinder, (W2-W1) = 1.890 kg

Diameter of cylinder = 125 mm

Height of cylinder = 175 mm

0.785𝑑2 ℎ
Capacity of cylinder =
1000

0.785𝑋1252 𝑋175
=
1000

= 2.15 lit

𝑊 1.890
Loose unit weight or bulk density, γ = =
𝑉 2.15

= 0.879 kg/liter

𝐺−𝛾
Percentage voids = 𝑋 100
𝐺

2.66−0.879
= 𝑋 100
2.66

= 67%

4.1.3.5 Bulk density of brick aggregate (loose) IS: 2386-3-1963

 Measure the volume of the cylindrical metal measure by pouring water into the
metal measure and record the volume “V” in liter
 Fill the cylindrical measure to overflowing by means of a shovel or scoop, the
aggregate being discharged from a height not exceeding 5cm above the top of the
measure
 Level the top surface of the aggregate in the metal measure, with a straightedge or
tamping bar
 The values are shown in table shown in table 4.15
43

Table 4.15 Loose bulk density of brick aggregate

Weight of
Empty weight Weight of cylinder + Capacity of Bulk
brick %
of cylinder, W1 Weight of loose brick cylinder density
aggregate voids
(kg) aggregate, W2 (kg) (lit) (kg/lit)
(W2-W1)
3.475 5.05 1.575 2.15 0.733 72.4

3.475 5.06 1.585 2.15 0.737 72.2

3.475 5.07 1.595 2.15 0.741 72.1

Empty weight of cylinder (W1) = 3.475 kg

Weight of cylinder + Weight of loose brick aggregate, (W2) = 5.05 kg

Weight of cylinder, (W2-W1) = 1.575 kg

Diameter of cylinder = 125 mm

Height of cylinder = 175 mm

0.785𝑑2 ℎ
Capacity of cylinder =
1000

0.785𝑋1252 𝑋175
=
1000

= 2.15 lit

𝑊 1.575
Loose unit weight or bulk density, γ = =
𝑉 2.15

= 0.773 kg/liter

𝐺−𝛾
Percentage voids = 𝑋 100
𝐺
44

2.66−0.773
= 𝑋 100
2.66

= 72.4%

4.1.5 Water
Water is an important ingredient of concrete as it actively participates in the
chemical reaction with cement. The quantity and quality of water is required to be
watched into carefully so that it can form the strength giving cement gel. Portable water
is used for making mortar. The pH value of water lies between 6 and 8 that indicate the
water is free from organic matters. Water is needed to chemically react with the cement
(hydration) and to provide workability with the concrete. The amount of water in the mix
in pounds compared with the amount of cement is called the water/cement ratio. The
lower the w/c ratio, the stronger the concrete (higher strength, less permeability).
45

CHAPTER 5

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

5.1 INTRODUCTION

The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their


relative amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required, strength,
durability, and workability as economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix
design. The proportioning of ingredient of concrete is governed by the required
performance of concrete in 2 states, namely the plastic and the hardened states. If the
plastic concrete is not workable, it cannot be properly placed and compacted. The
property of workability, therefore, becomes of vital importance.

The compressive strength of hardened concrete which is generally considered to


be an index of its other properties, depends upon many factors, e.g. quality and quantity
of cement, water and aggregates; batching and mixing; placing, compaction and curing.
The cost of concrete is made up of the cost of materials, plant and labour. The variations
in the cost of materials arise from the fact that the cement is several times costly than the
aggregate, thus the aim is to produce as lean a mix as possible. From technical point of
view the rich mixes may lead to high shrinkage and cracking in the structural concrete,
and to evolution of high heat of hydration in mass concrete which may cause cracking.

The actual cost of concrete is related to the cost of materials required for
producing a minimum mean strength called characteristic strength that is specified by the
designer of the structure. This depends on the quality control measures, but there is no
doubt that the quality control adds to the cost of concrete. The extent of quality control is
often an economic compromise, and depends on the size and type of job. The cost of
labour depends on the workability of mix, e.g., a concrete mix of inadequate workability
may result in a high cost of labour to obtain a degree of compaction with available
equipment.
46

Requirements of concrete mix design

The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning of mix ingredients
are:
a) The minimum compressive strength required from structural consideration

b) The adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the compacting
equipment available.

c) Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to give adequate


durability for the particular site conditions

d) Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to temperature cycle in


mass concrete.

5.2 INDIAN STANDARD 10262:2009 METHOD OF MIX PROPORTIONING

The step-in-step procedure adopted for the selection of mix proportions for M30 grade of
concrete with the following data:

5.2.1 STIPULATIONS FOR PROPORTIONING

Grade designation : M30


b) Type of cement : OPC 43 Grade
c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate : 20mm
d) Minimum cement content : 320 kg/m3 (IS 456:2000)
e) Maximum water-cement ratio : 0.45 (Table 5 of IS 456:2000)
f) Workability : 75-100mm slump
g) Exposure condition : Moderate (For Reinforced Concrete)
h) Degree of supervision : Good
i) Type of aggregate : Crushed Angular Aggregates
j) Maximum cement content : 360 kg/m3
k) Chemical admixture type : Naphthalene based Super Plasticizer
47

5.2.2 TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS


a) Cement used : OPC 43 Grade
b) Specific gravity of cement: 3.15
c) Chemical admixture: Naphthalene based Super Plasticizer
d) Specific gravity of 1) Coarse aggregate 20mm : 2.74
2) Fine aggregate : 2.67
3) Recycled brick aggregate: 2.66
e) Water absorption:
1) Coarse aggregate : 0.5 %
2) Fine aggregate : 1.0 %
3) Recycled brick aggregate: 23.7%
f) Free (surface) moisture:
1) Coarse aggregate: Nil (Absorbed Moisture also Nil)
2) Fine aggregate: Nil
g) Sieve analysis:
1) Coarse aggregate: Conforming to all in aggregates of Table 2 of IS 383
2) Fine aggregate: Conforming to Grading Zone II of Table 4 of IS 383

5.2.3 TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPORTIONING


f’ck =fck + 1.65 s
where
f’ck = target average compressive strength at 28 days,
fck = characteristics compressive strength at 28 days, and
s = standard deviation.

From Table I of IS 10262:2009,

Standard Deviation, s = 5 N/mm2.

Therefore, target strength = 30 + 1.65 x 5

= 38.25 N/mm2.
48

5.2.4 SELECTION OF WATER/CEMENT RATIO


From the Table 5 of IS 456
Maximum water-cement ratio = 0.45
Based on trial, adopt W/C ratio = 0.40
Hence ok.

5.2.5 SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT


From Table 2 of IS 10262:2009, maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 litre
(for 25 to 50 mm slump range)

Estimated water content for 100 mm slump = 186+ (6/186) = 197 litre.

(Note: If Super plasticizer is used, the water content can be reduced up to 20% and
above.) Based on trials add of 1% of Super plasticizer water content reduction of 20% has
been achieved, Based on trial 29% has achieved. Hence the arrived water content =
197x0.71 = 140 litre.

5.2.6 CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT


Adopted w/c Ratio = 0.40
Cement Content = 140/0.40
= 350 kg/m3
From Table 5 of IS 456, Minimum cement content for ‘Severe’ exposure conditions
320kg/m3
= 350 kg/m3 > 320 kg/m3
Hence ok.

5.2.7 PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE


AGGREGATE CONTENT

From Table 3 of (IS 10262:2009) Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20


mm size aggregate and fine aggregate (Zone II) for water-cement ratio of 0.50 =0.62 .
49

In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.40. Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate is
required to be increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement ratio
is lower by 0.06. The proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.02 (at
the rate of -/+ 0.01 for every ± 0.05 change in water-cement ratio).

Therefore, corrected proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for the water-cement ratio
of 0.40 = 0.62

NOTE – In case the coarse aggregate is not angular one, then also volume of coarse
aggregate may be required to be increased suitably based on experience & Site
conditions.

Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate =0.62


Volume of fine aggregate content = 1 – 0.62= 0.38

5.2.8 MIX CALCULATIONS FOR BRICK AGGREGATE

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:

a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3

b) Volume of cement = [Mass of cement] / {[Specific Gravity of Cement] x 1000}


= 350/ {3.15 x 1000}
= 0.111m3

c) Volume of water = [Mass of water] / {[Specific Gravity of water] x 1000}


= 140/ {1 x 1000}
= 0.140m3

d) Volume of chemical admixture (Super plasticizer) (@1% by mass of cementitious


material ),Specific gravity =1.2

= 350/{3(100x1.2) x 1000}

= 0.003 m3
50

e) Volume of all in aggregate = [a-(b+c+d)]


= [1-(0.11+0.140+0.003)]
= 0.746 m3

f) Mass of coarse aggregate= e x Volume of Coarse Aggregate x Specific Gravity of Fine


Aggregate x 1000
= 0.746x 0.62x 2.66 x 1000
= 1230 kg/m3

g) Mass of fine aggregate= e x Volume of Fine Aggregate x Specific Gravity of Fine


Aggregate x 1000
= 0.746x 0.38x 2.67x 1000
= 757 kg/m3

5.2.9 MIX PROPORTIONS


Cement = 350 kg/m3
Water = 140 l/m3
Fine aggregate = 757 kg/m3
Coarse aggregate 20mm = 1230 kg/m3
Chemical admixture = 3 kg/m3
Water-cement ratio = 0.40
Mix Proportion By weight = 1:2.16:3.51

5.2.10 MIX CALCULATIONS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE (CONVENTIONAL)


The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:
a) Volume of concrete = 1 m3

b) Volume of cement = [Mass of cement] / {[Specific Gravity of Cement] x 1000}


= 350/ {3.15 x 1000}
= 0.111m3

c) Volume of water = [Mass of water] / {[Specific Gravity of water] x 1000}


= 140/ {1 x 1000}
= 0.140m3

d) Volume of chemical admixture (Super plasticizer) (@1% by mass of cementitious


material), Specific gravity =1.2

= 350/{3(100x1.2) x 1000}

= 0.003 m3
51

e) Volume of all in aggregate = [a-(b+c+d)]


= [1-(0.11+0.140+0.003)]
= 0.746 m3

f) Mass of coarse aggregate= e x Volume of Coarse Aggregate x Specific Gravity of Fine


Aggregate x 1000
= 0.746x 0.62x 2.74 x 1000
= 1267 kg/m3

g) Mass of fine aggregate= e x Volume of Fine Aggregate x Specific Gravity of Fine


Aggregate x 1000
= 0.746x 0.38x 2.67x 1000
= 757 kg/m3

5.2.11 MIX PROPORTIONS


Cement = 350 kg/m3
Water = 140 l/m3
Fine aggregate = 757 kg/m3
Coarse aggregate 20mm = 1267 kg/m3
Chemical admixture = 3 kg/m3
Water-cement ratio = 0.40
Mix Proportion by weight = 1:2.16:3.62
52

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

Initially the literature survey has been made regarding Flexural behavior of brick
aggregate concrete. After the completion of the literature survey the flowchart for
methodology has been prepared. The physical properties of materials are also determined.
The preliminary test results are within the range to be obtained.

Future works:

In future the following works will be done:

 Mix design for Brick aggregate concrete and normal mix of M30 concrete
 Casting
 Testing (Workability, compressive strength, Split tensile strength, Flexural
strength, Durability test )
 Comparison of results
53

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