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Chandrayaan-2

Chandrayaan-2 composite

Mission type Lunar orbiter, lander, rover


Operator Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

SATCAT no. 2019-042A

Website www.isro.gov.in/chandrayaan2-home-0

Mission duration Orbiter: > 1 year

Vikram lander ≤ 14 days[1]

Pragyan rover: ≤ 14 days[1]

Spacecraft properties

Manufacturer Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

Launch mass Combined (wet): 3,850 kg (8,490 lb)[2][3][4]

Combined (dry): 1,308 kg (2,884 lb)[5]

Orbiter (wet): 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)[3][4]

Orbiter (dry): 682 kg (1,504 lb)[5]

Vikram lander (wet): 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)[3][4]

Vikram lander (dry): 626 kg (1,380 lb)[5]

Pragyan rover: 27 kg (60 lb)[3][4]

Power Orbiter: 1 kW[6]

Vikram lander: 650 W

Pragyan rover: 50 W

Start of mission

Launch date 22 July 2019, 14:43:12 IST (09:13:12 UTC)[7]

Rocket GSLV Mk III[8][9]

Launch site Satish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad

Contractor Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

Moon orbiter
Orbital insertion 20 August 2019, 09:02 IST (03:32 UTC) [10][11]

Orbital parameters

Periapsis altitude 100 km (62 mi)[12]

Apoapsis altitude 100 km (62 mi)[12]

Inclination 90° (polar orbit)

Moon lander

Spacecraft component rover

Landing date 7 September 2019, 01:55 IST

(6 September 2019, 20:25 UTC) [13][11]

Chandrayaan programme

← Chandrayaan-1

Chandrayaan-3 →

Chandrayaan-2 mission explained

Chandrayaan-2 (Sanskrit: [t͡ɕən̪d̪ɾəjaːna d̪ʋi]; transl. Moon-craft,[14][15][16] pronunciation (help·info)) is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research
Organisation (ISRO)[17][18], after Chandrayaan-1.[19][20] It consists of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. [21] The main scientific
objective is to map the location and abundance of lunar water via Pragyan, and ongoing analysis from the orbiter circling at a lunar polar orbit of 100 × 100 km.[22][23][24]

The mission was launched to the Moon from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch
Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).[8][9][25] The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning maneuvers for the landing. [26] Vikram and the rover were scheduled to
land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region[27] at a latitude of about 70° south at approximately 1:50 am on 7 September 2019. However, at about 1:52 am IST, the lander
deviated from its intended trajectory at around 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) from landing and communication was lost. [28]

Contents

 1History

 2Objectives

 3Design
o 3.1Orbiter
o 3.2Vikram lander
o 3.3Pragyan rover

 4Payload
o 4.1Orbiter
o 4.2Vikram lander
o 4.3Pragyan rover

 5Mission profile
o 5.1Launch
o 5.2Geocentric phase
o 5.3Selenocentric phase
o 5.4Planned landing site and landing failure

 6Reactions

 7Team

 8Charts

 9See also

 10References

 11External links

History
On 12 November 2007, representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan-2
project.[29] ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander. The Indian government approved the mission in a meeting of
the Union Cabinet, held on 18 September 2008 and chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.[30] The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries
conducting a joint review.[31][32]

Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 per schedule,[33] the mission was postponed in January 2013 [34] and rescheduled to 2016 because Russia was unable to develop the
lander on time.[35][36] Roscosmos later withdrew in wake of the failure of the Fobos-Grunt mission to Mars, since the technical aspects connected with the Fobos-Grunt mission were also used in
the lunar projects, which needed to be reviewed.[35] When Russia cited its inability to provide the lander even by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission independently. [34][37]

The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was first delayed to April and then to October to conduct further tests on the vehicle.[38][39] On 19 June 2018, after the program's
fourth Comprehensive Technical Review meeting, a number of changes in configuration and landing sequence were planned for implementation, pushing the launch to the first half of
2019.[40] Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019. [41]

Chandrayaan-2 launch was initially scheduled for 14 July 2019, 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time), with the landing expected on 6 September 2019. [20] However, the launch was
aborted due to a technical glitch and was rescheduled. [42][7][43] The launch occurred on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST) on the first operational flight of a GSLV MK III M1. [44]

Objectives
The primary objectives of Chandrayaan-2 are to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Scientific goals include studies of lunar
topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.[45] The orbiter will map the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it. The
onboard radar will also map the surface while studying the water ice in the south polar region and thickness of the lunar regolith on the surface.[46]

Design
The mission was launched on a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) with an approximate lift-off mass of 3,850 kg (8,490 lb) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on
Sriharikota Island.[2][12][9][47] As of June 2019, the mission has an allocated cost of ₹978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which includes ₹603 crore for space segment and ₹375 crore as
launch costs on GSLV Mk III.[48][49] Chandrayaan-2 stack was initially put in an Earth parking orbit of 170 km perigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle.[50]

Orbiter

Chandrayaan-2 orbiter at integration facility

The orbiter will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi).[51] The orbiter carries eight scientific instruments; two of them are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1. The
approximate launch mass was 2,379 kg (5,245 lb).[3][4][33][52] The Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) will conduct high-resolution observations of the landing site prior to separation of the
lander from the orbiter.[51][1] The orbiter's structure was manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and delivered to ISRO Satellite Centre on 22 June 2015.[53][54]

 Dimensions: 3.2 × 5.8 × 2.2 m[24]

 Gross lift-off mass: 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)[2]

 Propellant mass: 1,697 kg (3,741 lb)[5]

 Dry mass: 682 kg (1,504 lb)[5]

 Power generation capacity: 1000 W [24]

 Mission duration: 1 year in lunar orbit, which may be extended to 2 years. [55]
Vikram lander
Rover Pragyan mounted on the ramp of Vikram lander

Images of the Earth captured by Chandrayaan-2 Vikram lander camera LI4[56]

The mission's lander is called Vikram (Sanskrit: विक्रम, lit. 'Valour[57]') Pronunciation (help·info) named after Vikram Sarabhai (1919–1971), who is widely regarded as the founder of the Indian
space programme.[58]

The Vikram lander will detach from the orbiter and descend to a low lunar orbit of 30 km × 100 km (19 mi × 62 mi) using its 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines. It will then perform a
comprehensive check of all its on-board systems before attempting a soft landing, deploy the rover, and perform scientific activities for approximately 14 days. The approximate combined mass
of the lander and rover is 1,471 kg (3,243 lb).[3][4]

The preliminary configuration study of the lander was completed in 2013 by the Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad.[34] The lander's propulsion system consists of eight 50 N (11 lbf)
thrusters for attitude control and five 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines derived from ISRO's 440 N (99 lbf) Liquid Apogee Motor.[59][60] Initially, the lander design employed four main liquid
engines, but a centrally mounted engine was added to handle new requirements of having to orbit the Moon before landing. The additional engine is expected to mitigate upward draft of lunar
dust during the soft landing.[47] Vikram can safely land on slopes up to 12°. [61][62]

The first Moon image captured by Chandrayaan-2, taken at a height of about 2,650 km from the lunar surface on August 21, 2019.

Some associated technologies include a high resolution camera, Laser Altimeter (LASA),[63] Lander Hazard Detection Avoidance Camera (LHDAC), Lander Position Detection Camera
(LPDC),[64] Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC), an 800 N throttleable liquid main engine,[53] attitude thrusters, Ka band radio altimeters (KaRA),[65][66] Laser Inertial Reference &
Accelerometer Package (LIRAP),[67] and the software needed to run these components.[1][51] Engineering models of the lander began undergoing ground and aerial tests in late October 2016,
in Challakere in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka. ISRO created roughly 10 craters on the surface to help assess the ability of the lander's sensors to select a landing site. [68]

 Dimensions: 2.54 × 2 × 1.2 m[24]

 Gross lift-off mass: 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)[2]

 Propellant mass: 845 kg (1,863 lb)[5]

 Dry mass: 626 kg (1,380 lb)[5]

 Power generation capability: 650 W

 Mission duration: ≤14 days (one lunar day)[1]


Pragyan rover
Main article: Pragyan (rover)
Pragyan rover of the Chandrayaan-2 mission

The mission's rover is called Pragyan (Sanskrit: प्रज्ञान, lit. 'Wisdom[69][70]') Pronunciation (help·info))[71][69] The rover's mass is about 27 kg (60 lb) and will operate on solar power.[3][4] The rover
will move on 6 wheels traversing 500 meters on the lunar surface at the rate of 1 cm per second, performing on-site chemical analysis and sending the data to the lander, which will relay it to
the Mission Control on the Earth.[72][73][33][52][48] For navigation, the rover uses:

 Stereoscopic camera-based 3D vision: two 1 megapixel, monochromatic NAVCAMs in front of the rover will provide the ground
control team a 3D view of the surrounding terrain, and help in path-planning by generating a digital elevation model of the
terrain.[74] IIT Kanpur contributed to the development of the subsystems for light-based map generation and motion planning for the
rover.[75]

 Control and motor dynamics: the rover has a rocker-bogie suspension system and six wheels, each driven by
independent brushless DC electric motors. Steering is accomplished by differential speed of the wheels or skid steering. [76]

The expected operating time of Pragyan rover is one lunar day or around 14 Earth days as its electronics are not expected to endure the frigid lunar night. However, its power system has a
solar-powered sleep/wake-up cycle implemented, which could result in longer service time than planned.[77][78] Two aft wheels of the rover have the ISRO logo and the State Emblem of
India embossed on them to leave behind patterned tracks on the lunar surface, [79][80] which is used to measure the exact distance travelled, also called visual odometry.[citation needed]

 Dimensions: 0.9 × 0.75 × 0.85 m[24]

 Power: 50 W [24]

 Travel speed: 1 cm/sec.[24]

 Mission duration: ≤14 days (one lunar day)

Payload

Mission Overview

ISRO selected eight scientific instruments for the orbiter, four for the lander, [81][2][82] and two for the rover.[33] While it was initially reported that NASA and ESA would participate in the mission by
providing some scientific instruments for the orbiter, [83] ISRO in 2010 had clarified that due to weight restrictions it will not be carrying foreign payloads on this mission. [84] However, in an update
just a month before launch,[85] an agreement between NASA and ISRO was signed to include a small laser retroreflector from NASA to the lander's payload to measure the distance between
the satellites above and the microreflector on the lunar surface.[86][87]

Orbiter
Payloads on the orbiter are:[2][82]

 Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) from ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore

 Solar X-ray monitor (XSM) from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad for mapping major elements present on the
lunar surface.[33]

 Dual Frequency L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (DFSAR) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for probing
the first few tens of metres of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents, including water ice. SAR is expected to
provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the Moon. [33]
 Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for mapping of lunar surface over a wide
wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.[33]

 Chandrayaan-2 Atmospheric Compositional Explorer 2 (ChACE-2) Quadrupole Mass Analyzer from Space Physics
Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere. [33]

 Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for preparing a three-dimensional map
essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology. [33]

 Radio Anatomy of Moon Bound Hypersensitive Ionosphere and Atmosphere – Dual Frequency Radio Science experiment
(RAMBHA-DFRS) by SPL

 Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) by SAC for scouting a hazard-free spot for landing. Imagery from OHRC will help
prepare digital elevation models of the lunar surface.
Vikram lander
The payloads on the Vikram lander are:[2][82]

 Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) Seismometer by LEOS for studying Moon-quakes near the landing site [81][12][88]

 Chandra's Surface Thermo-physical Experiment (ChaSTE) Thermal probe for estimating the thermal properties of the lunar
surface[12]

 RAMBHA-LP Langmuir probe for measuring the density and variation of lunar surface plasma[81][12]

 A laser retroreflector array (LRA) by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for taking precise measurements of distance between
the reflector on the lunar surface and satellites in lunar orbit. [89][85][86] The micro-reflector weighs about 22 grams and can not be
used for taking observations from Earth-based lunar laser stations.[86]
Pragyan rover
Pragyan rover carries two instruments to determine the abundance of elements near the landing site: [2][82]

 Laser induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) from Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore. [33]

 Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscope (APXS) from PRL, Ahmedabad.

CHACE2

XSM

CLASS

ILSA MEMS sensor package

LRA
LIBS

APXS

ChaSTE

Mission profile
Animation of Chandrayaan-2

Geocentric phase

Selenocentric phase
Lunar landing phase

Overall motion of Chandrayaan-2

Earth · Moon · Chandrayaan-2

Timeline of operations [90][91]

Result

Phase Date Event Detail References

Apogee / Perigee /
Aposelene Periselene

45,475 km 169.7 km
22 July 2019 09:13:12 UTC Launch Burn time: 16 min 14 sec [44]
(28,257 mi) (105.4 mi)

45,163 km
Geocentric phase 24 July 2019 09:22 UTC 1st orbit-raising maneuver Burn time: 48 sec 230 km (140 mi) [92]
(28,063 mi)

54,829 km
25 July 2019 19:38 UTC 2nd orbit-raising maneuver Burn time: 883 sec 251 km (156 mi) [93]
(34,069 mi)
71,792 km
29 July 2019 09:42 UTC 3rd orbit-raising maneuver Burn time: 989 sec 276 km (171.5 mi) [94]
(44,609 mi)

89,472 km
2 August 2019 09:57 UTC 4th orbit-raising maneuver Burn time: 646 sec 277 km (172 mi) [95]
(55,595 mi)

142,975 km
6 August 2019 09:34 UTC 5th orbit-raising maneuver Burn time: 1041 sec 276 km (171 mi) [96]
(88,841 mi)

13 August 2019 20:51 UTC Trans-lunar injection Burn time: 1203 sec — — [97]

Lunar orbit insertion 18,072 km


20 August 2019 03:32 UTC Burn time: 1738 sec 114 km (71 mi) [98]
1st lunar bound maneuver (11,229 mi)

21 August 2019 07:20 UTC 2nd lunar bound maneuver Burn time: 1228 sec 4,412 km (2,741 mi) 118 km (73 mi) [99]

Selenocentric phase
28 August 2019 03:34 UTC 3rd lunar bound maneuver Burn time: 1190 sec 1,412 km (877 mi) 179 km (111 mi) [100]

30 August 2019 12:48 UTC 4th lunar bound maneuver Burn time: 1155 sec 164 km (102 mi) 124 km (77 mi) [101]

1 September 2019 12:51 UTC 5th lunar bound maneuver Burn time: 52 sec 127 km (79 mi) 119 km (74 mi) [102]

2 September 2019 7:45 UTC Vikram separation — 127 km (79 mi) 119 km (74 mi) [103]

3 September 2019 3:20 UTC 1st deorbit burn Burn time: 4 sec 128 km (80 mi) 104 km (65 mi) [104]

3 September 2019 22:12 UTC 2nd deorbit burn Burn time: 9 sec 101 km (63 mi) 35 km (22 mi) [105]

Vikram lunar landing

6 September 2019 UTC (planned) Powered descent

6 September 2019 UTC (planned) Vikram landing Communication lost before landing

7 September 2019 UTC (planned) Pragyan rover deployment — —


Chandrayaan-2 lifting off on 22 July 2019

Launch
Chandrayaan-2 launch was initially scheduled for 14 July 2019, 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time). [20] However, the launch was aborted 56 minutes and 24 seconds before launch
due to a technical glitch, so it was rescheduled to 22 July 2019.[42][7] Unconfirmed reports later cited a leak in the nipple joint of a helium gas bottle as the cause of cancellation. [43][106][107]

Finally Chandrayaan-2 was launched on-board the GSLV MK III M1 launch vehicle on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST) with better-than-expected apogee as a result of the cryogenic
upper stage being burned to depletion, which later eliminated the need for one of the apogee-raising burns during the geocentric phase of mission.[44][108][109] This also resulted in the saving of
around 40 kg fuel onboard the spacecraft.[110]

Immediately after launch, multiple observations of a slow-moving bright object over Australia were made, which could be related to upper stage venting its propellants after concluding its main
burn.[111][112]

Geocentric phase

Chandrayaan-2 trajectory

After being placed into a 45,475 × 169 km parking orbit by the launch vehicle,[44] the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft stack gradually raised its orbit using on-board propulsion over 22 days. In this
phase, one perigee-raising and five apogee-raising burns were performed to reach a highly eccentric orbit of 142,975 × 276 km[96] followed by trans-lunar injection on 13 August 2019.[97] Such
long Earth-bound phase with multiple orbit-raising manoeuvres exploiting the Oberth effect was required because of the limited lifting capacity of the launch vehicle and thrust of the spacecraft's
on-board propulsion system. A similar strategy was used for Chandrayaan-1 and the Mars Orbiter Mission during their Earth-bound phase trajectory.[113] On 3 August 2019, the first set of Earth
images were captured by the LI4 camera on the Vikram lander, showing North American landmass.[56]

Selenocentric phase
After 29 days from its launch, the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft stack entered lunar orbit on 20 August 2019 after performing a lunar orbit insertion burn for 28 minutes 57 seconds. The three-
spacecraft stack was placed into an elliptical orbit that passes over the polar regions of the Moon, with 18,072 km (11,229 mi) aposelene and 114 km (71 mi) periselene.[98] By 1 September
2019 this elliptical orbit was made nearly circular with 127 km (79 mi) aposelene and 119 km (74 mi) periselene after four orbit-lowering maneuvers[99][100][101][102] followed by separation
of Vikram lander from the orbiter on 7:45 UTC, 2 September 2019. [103]

Planned landing site and landing failure


Main article: Pragyan (rover)

Landing site [114] Coordinates

Prime landing site


70.90267°S 22.78110°E

Alternate landing site


67.87406°S 18.46947°W

Two landing sites were selected, each with a landing ellipse of 32 km x 11 km.[114] The prime landing site (PLS54) is at 70.90267 S 22.78110 E (~350 km north of the South Pole-Aitken
Basin rim[27][114]), and the alternate landing site (ALS01) is at 67.874064 S 18.46947 W. The prime site is on a high plain between the craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N,[115][27] on the near side
of the Moon.

Vikram separated from Chandrayaan-2 on 7 September 2019 and was scheduled to land on the Moon at around 1:50 a.m. IST. The initial descent was considered within mission parameters,
passing critical braking procedures as expected. The final part of the landing had been called "15 minutes of terror", a period where most of the maneuvering and braking was to be done by the
on-board computers on Vikram, with mission control unable to make corrections. At 1:52 a.m., a brief communications loss with the NASA Deep Space Network caused an initial
communications glitch but they were able to recover; at this point, telemetry showed the craft travelling vertically at 60 me tres per second (200 ft/s) and horizontally at 48 metres per second
(160 ft/s) roughly 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the intended landing site.[28] A few minutes later, with the craft about 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) above the surface and moments from landing, ISRO
abruptly lost all communications with the craft. The craft may have made a crash-landing and may not be functional.[116][117]

Reactions
Chandrayaan-2, if successful, would have been a significant achievement for India's space program and would have made India the fourth country to soft-land a probe on the Moon, following
Russia, USA and China.[118] Also, in addition to being one of the most significant mission ISRO had undertaken, it was also the first mission to be led by two women, Muthaya Vanitha, the
project director and Ritu Karidhal, the mission director. Chadrayaan-2 was built to serve as a prototype for future missions to Mars and to send Indian astronauts into space. Both the launch
and the attempted landing were also broadcasted nationally. The Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, later issued a public statement where he praised the ISRO scientist for the mission
saying "There is no failures in Science, only experiments and experiences."[119]

Many twitter users and national celebrities came in support with the Indian Space Agency and thanked for the attempted landing with a hashtag "ProudofYou" on the microblogging site Twitter.

This was the third attempted landing on the Moon in 2019, following the Chinese Chang'e 4 which successfully landed in January, and the Israeli Beresheet, which crashed on the lunar surface
during the final landing process April 2019.[120]

Team

A view of Mission Operations Complex (MOX-1), ISTRAC[121] prior to the fourth Earth-bound burn.[95]

The list below lists most scientists and engineers who were key to the development of Chandrayaan-2 project:[122][123][124]

 Mylswamy Annadurai – Project Director, Chandrayaan-2[when?]

 Ritu Karidhal – Mission Director, Chandrayaan-2

 Muthayya Vanitha – Project Director, Chandrayaan-2

 Chandrakanta Kumar – Deputy Project Director (Radio frequency systems), Chandrayaan-2

 Amitabh Singh – Deputy Project Director (Optical Payload Data Processing, SAC), Chandrayaan-2[125]

Charts

Speed and distance of Chandrayaan-2 around the Earth

Distance to Moon's surface

See also
 Spaceflight portal

 Solar System portal

 India portal

 Chandrayaan programme

 Chandrayaan-1

 Exploration of the Moon

 List of current and future lunar missions

 List of ISRO missions

 Lunar resources

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