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A Converter Based On Energy Injection Control For

AC-AC, AC-DC, DC-DC, DC-AC Conversion


Mei Su Ziyi Zhao Qi Zhu Hanbing Dan
School of Information Science School of Information Science School of Information Science School of Information Science
and Engineering and Engineering and Engineering and Engineering
Central South University Central South University Central South University Central South University
Changsha, China Changsha, China Changsha, China Changsha, China
sumeicsu@mail.csu.edu.cn zhaoziyi@csu.edu.cn zhu_qi@csu.edu.cn daniel698@sina.cn

Abstract—Unlike the traditional converter, this paper analyses HF Transformer


the feature of the converter based on energy injection control, PD1 PD2 SD2 SD1
which can achieve the AC-AC, AC-DC, DC-DC and DC-AC
conversion. The detailed operations of the switches in energy P1 P2 P3 PD3 Cp Cs
S3
SD3
S2 S1
injection mode and free oscillation mode are described. K1 K3
Simulations are developed to analyze the feature of the four V K2 P4 Lp Ls K4 R
conversions. The simulation results verify the correctness and PD4 M S4
SD4
effectiveness of the converter.
The primary side The secondary side
Keywords—Energy Injection Control, Zero Current Switching,
AC-AC converter, AC-DC converter, DC-DC converter, DC-AC
converter Fig. 1. The topology of the converter.

I. INTRODUCTION II. ANALYSIS OF THE CONVERTER


Nowadays, with the increasing progress of power
electronics, power converter is widely used in industry, A. Description of the Converter
including drives and renewable energy [1]-[3]. As the necessary By controlling the switches in different combination, we can
connector in electrical system, the power converter is a device make the converter work in energy injection and free oscillation
implementing energy conversion [4]-[6]. In order to meet modes. The key of the converter is to maintain the resonant tank
different needs of industrial application, many topologies have full of energy. In the free oscillation mode, because of the non-
been proposed. In general, there are four types of power ideal components, there are power losses in the resonant tank,
conversion, such as AC-AC, AC-DC, DC-DC, DC-AC [7]-[10]. and the circuit can not oscillate infinitely. In energy injection
Usually, one power converter can only realize one conversion. mode, the resonant tank is fed by the power supply. Energy is
In order to expand the application range of power converter, the injected into the tank and boosts the resonant current. Through
study of multifunctional topology gets more and more attention. the accurate detection of resonant current, the zero current
This paper analyses a unique converter, which is shown in switching is guaranteed and the high performance of converter
Fig. 1. The converter mainly consists of two Buck converters is obtained.
and a high-frequency (HF) transformer. The HF transformer is As seen, the topology is symmetric. There is no limitation
used to provide electrical isolation for the two Buck converters. for the source and the load. The source and the load of the
The primary inductor ‫ܮ‬௣ and capacitor ‫ܥ‬௣ of transformer are converter can be exchanged. For the sake of analysis, assume V
utilized to constitute the series resonant tank, so as the secondary is the source and R is the load. Due to the unique feature of the
inductor ‫ܮ‬௦ and capacitor ‫ܥ‬௦ . The resonant tank reduces the topology, the converter can achieve AC-AC, AC-DC, DC-DC,
switching loss and Electron-Magnetic Interference (EMI). Each DC-AC conversion.
Buck converter is composed of two bidirectional switches (K1-
K4), and each bidirectional switch is realized by two IGBTs (P1- B. AC-AC Conversion
P4 or S1-S4) with antiparallel diodes (PD1-PD4 or SD1-SD4).
When the source is AC power supply. According to the
polarity of AC source and the direction of resonant current, the
operations of the converter are divided into four modes, which
is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(c) are energy injection
mode, Fig. 2(b) and Fig. 2(d) are free oscillation mode.

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978-1-5386-3758-6/18/$31.00 2018
c IEEE 1394
PD2 SD1 2(c), (d). The detailed operations of the switches are shown in
Fig. 3, and will not be repeated here.
Cp Cs
P1 P2 P3 S3 S2 S1
iR
P4 Lp Ls R
Vac M S4
t
(a)
PD2 SD1
Tc / 2 Ta / 2
P1,
Cp Cs S2
P1 P2 P3 S3 S2 S1

P4 Lp Ls R t
Vac M S4 P3,
S4

(b) t
PD2 SD1
P2,
Cp Cs S1
P1 P2 P3 S3 S2 S1
t
P4 Lp Ls R
Vac S4 P4,
M S3

t
(c)
iL
PD2 SD1

Cp Cs
P1 P2 P3 S3 S2 S1
t
P4 Lp Ls R
Vac M S4 Fig. 3. The operations of the switches in AC-AC conversion.

iR
(d)
Fig. 2. Switching operations of the converter work in AC-AC conversion. (a)
Energy injection mode in positive half cycle. (b) Free oscillation mode in
t
positive half cycle. (c) Energy injection mode in negative half cycle. (d) Free
oscillation mode in negative half cycle. Ta / 2
Tc / 2
During the positive half cycle, the switches P2, P4, S1 and S2
S3 are always turned off, while the switches P1, P3, S2 and S4
act in line with the direction of the resonant current. Fig. 2(a) t
shows the condition when the resonant current is greater than
zero. In the primary side, the switch P1 is turned on and the S4
switch P3 is turned off. The source current injects to the resonant
tank and boosts the resonant current. In the secondary side, the t
switch S2 is turned on and the switch S4 is turned off. The iL
resonant current flows through the load. Fig. 2(b) shows the
condition when the resonant current is lower than zero. In the
primary side, the switch P1 is turned off and the switch P3 is t
turned on. In the secondary side, the switch S2 is turned off and
the switch S4 is turned on. The resonant current flows through
Fig. 4. The switching operations of secondary side in AC-DC conversion.
the tank. Fig. 3 depicts the operations of the corresponding
switches in detail. ݅ோ is the resonant current, ܶ௖ is the period of
resonant current, ܶ௔ is the cycle of the source, ݅௅ is the load C. AC-DC Conversion
current. For the AC-DC conversion, the primary side is the same as
As for the negative half cycle of the AC source, the switches the AC-AC conversion, but the secondary side needs to be
P1, P3, S2 and S4 are always turned off, and the switches P2, modified for the DC output. The switching operations of the
P4, S1 and S3 are operating in PWM mode, as shown in Fig. secondary side are shown in Fig. 4. During one cycle of the AC
source, the switches S1 and S3 in secondary side are turned off.
When the resonant current is greater than zero, the switch S2 is

2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) 1395
turned on and the switch S4 is turned off, the resonant current and the switch S4 is turned off. When the resonant current is
feeds the load. When the resonant current is lower than zero, the lower than zero, the opposite is true. In the negative cycle of the
switch S2 is turned off and the switch S4 is turned on, the output voltage, the switches S2 and S4 are always turned off.
resonant current flows in the tank. When the resonant current is greater than zero, the switch S1 is
turned off and the switch S3 is turned on. When the resonant
D. DC-DC Conversion current is lower than zero, the switch S1 is turned on and the
For the DC-DC conversion, there is no negative half cycle. switch S3 is turned off. The switching operations of secondary
The switches P2, P4, S1 and S3 are turned off all the time. When side in DC-AC conversion are depicted in Fig. 7. The cycle of
the resonant current is greater than zero, the switches P1 and S2 the output voltage ܶ௢ is pre-defined.
are turned on and the switches P3 and S4 are turned off. When
the resonant current is lower than zero, the switches P1 and S2 S2
are turned off and the switches P3 and S4 are turned on. The
corresponding operations of the switches are shown in Fig. 5. t

P1, S4
S2
t
t
P3, S1
S4
t
t
iR S3

t
t
iR

Fig. 5. The switching operations in DC-DC conversion. t

E. DC-AC Conversion Tc / 2 To / 2

When the converter is designed to achieve DC-AC


conversion, the operations of the switches in DC-AC mode are Fig. 7. The switching operations of secondary side in DC-AC conversion.
similar with AC-DC mode due to the symmetry of the topology.
As seen in Fig. 6, ܶ௢ is the output voltage period. In the primary III. SIMULATION
side, the switches P2 and P4 are turned off in one cycle of the
output voltage. When the resonant current is greater than zero, To verify the functionality and effectiveness of the
the switch P1 is turned on and the switch P3 is turned off. When converter, some simulations are carried out under
the resonant current is lower than zero, the switch P1 is turned Matlab/Simulink. The dead-time is not taken into account. The
off and the switch P3 is turned on. parameters are listed in TABLE I. ‫ܥ‬௢ is the output filter and  is
the resistive load.
P1
TABLE I. SIMULATION PARAMETERS

t Parameters Values
ࢂࢇࢉ (RMS) 60V/50Hz
P3 ࢂࢊࢉ 100V
ࡸ࢖ 423ૄ۶
t ࡸ࢙ 423ૄ۶
࡯࢖ 0.15ૄ۴
iR
࡯࢙ 0.15ૄ۴
‫ۻ‬ 211ૄ۴
࡯࢕ 0.68ૄ۴
t ‫܀‬ 400ё

Tc / 2 To / 2
Fig. 8 shows the waveforms of AC-AC conversion. Fig. 8(a)
Fig. 6. The switching operations of primary side in DC-AC conversion. is the AC power supply. Fig. 8(b) is the resonant current. When
the AC power supply goes across the zero point, the energy
In the secondary side, the switches S1 and S3 are turned off injected into the resonant tank becomes less. And the envelope
during the positive cycle of the output voltage. When the of the resonant current is degraded. The peak and valley values
resonant current is greater than zero, the switch S2 is turned on

1396 2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)
of the resonant current are 11.5A and 0.8A, respectively. Fig. Fig. 9 is the output DC voltage of AC-DC conversion. The
8(c) is the AC output voltage with the peak value 360V, which AC power supply is same as Fig. 8(a). Compare with Fig. 8(b),
is in phase with the input voltage. Fig. 9 indicates the output DC voltage is obtained by
rectification of the output AC voltage. The peak value of the DC
100 voltage is 360V.
80
60 15
40
20 10
0
-20 5

-40
0
-60
-80
-5
-100
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-10
(a)
-15
15
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

10 (a)
450
5
400
0 350

-5 300

250
-10
200

-15 150
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
100
(b)
50
400
0
300 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

200 (b)
100 Fig. 10. The waveforms of the DC-DC conversion. (a) The resonant current. (b)
The output DC voltage.
0

-100 50

40
-200 30

20
-300 10

0
-400 -10
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
-20

-30
(c) -40

-50
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
Fig. 8. The waveforms of AC-AC conversion. (a) The AC power supply. (b)
The resonant current. (c) The AC output voltage. (a)
1000

800

600
400
400

200
350
0

-200
300
-400

-600
250
-800

200 -1000
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05

150 (b)
100 Fig. 11. The waveforms of the DC-AC conversion. (a) The resonant current. (b)
50
The output AC voltage.

0
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05
Fig. 10 shows the waveforms of the DC-DC conversion. Fig.
10(a) is the resonant current. Since the source is DC power
supply, the amplitude of the resonant current maintains 13.7A.
Fig. 9. The output DC voltage of AC-DC conversion.
Fig. 10(b) is the output DC voltage with the amplitude of 400V.

2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) 1397
Fig. 11 shows the waveform of the DC-AC conversion. Fig. [1] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics, 2nd
11(a) is the resonant current. Fig. 11(b) is the output AC voltage. ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 1995.
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IV. CONCLUSION Apr. 2007.
This paper analyses the converter that can realize the AC- [5] D. Chen, J. Liu, "The uni-polarity phase-shifted controlled voltage mode
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AC, AC-DC, DC-DC and DC-AC conversion. Due to the energy on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 899-905, July 2006.
injection control, the converter can achieve the four conversions.
[6] Y. Sun, W. Xiong, M. Su, X. Li, H. Dan and J. Yang, "Topology and
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Science Foundation of China under Grant 61573384 and Grant [9] C. Mi, H. Bai, C. Wang and S. Gargies, "Operation, design and control of
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1398 2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)