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IDETC/CIE 2015

August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

DETC2015-47015

WITH SCALE INVARIANT FEATURE TRANSFORM

Computer vision Institute Mechatronics Embedded Systems and Automation Lab

Nanchang Hangkong University School of Engineering

Nanchang, Jiangxi, University of California

China, 330063 Merced, CA, 95343,

Email address: guimei.zh@163.com Email address: ychen53@ucmerced.edu

ABSTRACT 1 INTRODUCTION

Image matching is one of the most important problems in Fraction calculus, a mathematical discipline dealing with

computer vision. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) al- the derivative and integral of arbitrary order, is an extension

gorithm has been proved to be effective for detecting features for of integer one. It was proposed in the 17th and develope-

image matching. However SIFT algorithm has limitation to ex- d in the 19th[1]. Many definitions of fractional calculus have

tract features in textile image or self-similar construction image. been proposed and the most popular definitions among them

Fortunately fractional differentiation has advantage to strength- involve: Riemann-Liouville definition[2], Grünwald-Letnikow

en and extract textural features of digital images. Aiming at the definition[3] and Caputo definition[4], where R-L definition and

problem, this paper proposes a new method for image matching G-L definition can perform convolution operation, so they are

based on fractional differentiation and SIFT. The method calcu- wildly used in the fields of signal processing. But Caputo def-

lates the image pyramid combining the Riemann-Liouville(R-L) inition is more suitable for boundary analysis, thus it has been

fractional differentiation and the derivative of the Gaussian func- found in engineering computation. Recently, more and more

tion. Thus image feature has been enhanced, and more feature fractional differential-based methods were applied in the fields

points can be extracted. As a result the matching accuracy is of image processing, such as edge detection[5,6,7], noise remov-

improved. Additionally, a new feature detection mask based on ing[8], image enhancement[9,10], image segmentation[11] and

fractional differential is constructed. The proposed method is a image encryption[12]. However all these applications have lim-

significant extension of SIFT algorithm. The experiments car- itation in image low-lever processing. In this paper, we aim our

ried out with images in database and real images indicate that interests at middle-lever image processing using fractional order,

the proposed method can obtain good matching results. It can like image matching. Image matching is one of the most im-

be used for matching textile image or some self-similar construct portant problems in computer vision, it has been used in many

image. fields, such as object recognition, image retrieval, robot naviga-

tion and so on. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) al-

gorithm[13,14] has been approved to be effective for extracting

features for image matching. However SIFT algorithm always

fails in extracting accurate feature points in textile or similar-

∗ Corresponding author. Tel: +86 13870995902; +86 791 87638712. E-mail: like structure image. As a result, the match accuracy is not high

guimei.zh@163.com (G. M. Zhang), chen53@ucmerced.edu (Y, Q. Chen) as expected. Generally, the textile detail feature of image has

fractal-like structure, and the fractional differentiation is an ef- here ∗ is the convolution operator, and (3) can be rewritten by

fective tool to cope with this fractal problem. Based on this fact,

we combine R-L definition-based fractional differentiation and α d d

SIFT to match textile image, and propose a new feature detection a Dt f (t ) = (a I 1−α f (t)) = (h(t, α ) ∗ f (t))

dt t dt

mask based on fractional differentiation. The proposed method −α · t −α −1

is a significant extension of the application of SIFT algorithm. = h′ (t, α ) ∗ f (t) = ∗ f (t), (5)

Γ(1 − α )

The outline of this paper is as follows. In Section 2, we in-

troduce the definition of R-L fractional differentiation and con-

struction method of fractional differentiation mask. In Section 3 so we get the fractional differential operator, as follow

a new SIFT algorithm is proposed based on fractional differenti-

ation. Some experiment results and analysis are given in Section −α · t −α −1

h′ (t, α ) = , (6)

4. Finally, the paper is concluded in Section 5. Γ(1 − α )

2 RIEMANN-LIOUVILLE DEFINITION-BASED FRAC-

TIONAL DIFFERENTIAL OPERATOR

a0 = 1,

As mentioned above, G-L definition and R-L definition can

−α ·1−α −1

perform convolution operation when being used in image pro-

) ,

a1 = Γ(1−−αα −1

cessing, furthermore, calculation simply is an important charac- −α ·2

a2 = Γ(1−α ) , (7)

teristic of R-L definitionso in this paper we propose a new SIFT

..

algorithm based on R-L fractional differentiation. In addition,

.

a = −α ·n−α −1 .

we construct a new fractional differential operator. n Γ(1−α )

2.1 Riemann-Liouville Fractional Differential Defini- Fractional operation can be also expanded to 2-D space eas-

tion ily, based on (7), we construct fractional differential mask from

Let Ω = [a, b](−∞ < a < b < ∞) is a finite real interval. The eight directions, its size is (2n + 1) × (2n + 1), denoted as Fig.1.

left R-L fractional integral of order is defined as As we know, the mask is decided by two parameters, one is mask

size n, the other is the order α of fractional differentiation. We

∫ t

α 1 usually select the optimal parameters based on experiments.

a It f (t) = (t − τ )α −1 f (τ )d τ ,t ∈ [a, b], (1)

Γ(α ) a

∫ ∞

Γ(z) = e−t t z−1 dt. (2)

0

left R-L fractional differentiation of order α , a Dtα f (t) is given by

α d

a Dt f (t ) = (a I 1−α f (t))

dt t

∫

1 d t

= (t − τ )−α f (τ )d τ ,t ∈ [a, b]. (3)

Γ(1 − α ) dt a FIGURE 1: (2n + 1) × (2n + 1) Fractional differentiation mask.

Riemann-Liouville Definition

From (1), the fractional integral can be rewritten by convo-

lution formula, 3 IMAGE MATCH ALGORITHM COMBINED FRAC-

TIONAL DIFFERENTIATION AND SIFT

1−α t −α ∗ f (t) SIFT algorithm is proposed by David Lowe, it can extract

a It f (t) = = h(t, α ) ∗ f (t), (4)

Γ(1 − α ) distinctive features from images which can be used to perform

reliable matching between different views of an object or scene. (12).

The features are invariant to image scale, rotation, and partially

invariant, addition of noise, and change in illumination. Large √

numbers of features can be extracted from images with SIFT al- m(x, y) = (Lα (x + 1, y) − Lα (x − 1, y))2 + (Lα (x, y + 1) − Lα (x, y − 1))2 ,

gorithms. However SIFT algorithm does not work well when (11)

an image include lots of textile details or fractal-like structure,

in this case many feature points will not be extracted effective- Lα (x, y + 1) − Lα (x, y − 1)

ly. Fortunately fractional differential has advantage to strengthen θ (x, y) = arctan . (12)

Lα (x + 1, y) − Lα (x − 1, y)

and extract textural features and retain low-frequency componen-

t. So we combine Gaussian kernel function and fractional differ-

entiation operator, and propose a new image match algorithm, Then we statistics keypoints histogram in its 3 × 3 window,

the detail is as follows: the orientation corresponding to peak value is that of the key-

Step 1. Extreme point detection in scale-space: we com- point.

bine Gaussian kernel and R-L fractional differentiation to get the Step 4. Keypoints SIFT feature vector generation: To ensure

formula in scale space. rotation invariance, we first rotate coordinate axis to keypoints

principal orientation. Second we select size 16 × 16 window cen-

tered at the keypoint, and divide it into 4 × 4 small window. And

Lα (x, y, σ ) = G(x, y, σ ) ∗ w(i, j) ∗ I(x, y), (8) then we calculate eight directions gradient histogram in each s-

mall window. Finally, we can get a 128 dimension SIFT feature

descriptor for each keypoint. After that, similarity can be mea-

where ∗ is the convolution operator,α is the order of fractional

−(x2 +y2 )

sured by using Euclid distance.

differentiation. G(x, y, σ ) = 2πσ

1

2e

2σ 2 is the Gaussian kernel

function, w(i, j) is differential operator, and I(i, j) denotes two

dimension image. In order to detect extreme point in scale space, 4 EXPERIMENTS RESULT AND ANALYSIS

we use two different scale Gaussian kernels to convolute with the 4.1 Parameter Analysis

input image, such as: This section aims at analyzing the relation between match

accuracy and the parameters α and n. Fig.2 shows the original

image and transformed image by being rotated 60◦ degree and

Dα (x, y, σ ) = (G(x, y, kσ ) − G(x, y, σ )) ∗ w(x, y) ∗ I(x, y) scaled. Fig.2a is original image, Fig.2b is the transformed image.

= Lα (x, y, kσ ) − Lα (x, y, σ ), (9)

it with its neighbors. If it is bigger or less than all adjacent pixels,

it is considered an extreme point.

Step 2. Keypoint selection and localization: unfold the (9)

and we can obtain the (10) as follow.

∂ DT 1 ∂ 2D

D(X) = D + X + XT X, (10) (a) Original image (b) Transformed image

∂X 2 ∂ X2

FIGURE 2: Lena image.

where X = (x, y, σ ). To locate keypoint accurately and decide it-

s scale, we introduce three dimensional quadratic function to fit

local extreme point, and eliminate the ones which have low con- In this experiment, a typical image, Lena image is used for

trast (and are therefore sensitive to noise) or are poorly localized analysis. First we fix masks size 5 × 5 and vary the order, α

along an edge. varies from 0.1 to 0.95, the interval is chosen as 0.05, the re-

Step 3. keypoints principal orientation assignment: To lation curve between match accuracy and α is shown in Fig.3.

achieve rotation invariance, we assign the principal orientation It can be seen that match accuracy increases as parameter α in-

of each keypoint using the gradient distribution of its neighbor- creases, but when α is 0.3-0.4, the match accuracy get the max-

hood pixels. Based on the location and scale of keypoint, we can ima(100%), and then match accuracy decreases as parameter α

compute pixels gradient and orientation using formula (11) and increases. The reason is that when parameter α is bigger or less,

image density contrast is reduced. The fact is not benefit for 4.2 Contrast Experiments

extracting more features, which will result in lower match accu- This section aims at evaluating the proposed method by

racy. It can also be seen from Fig.3, when parameter α is 0.5 or comparing with the original SIFT algorithm.

0.55, the match accuracy become lower, that is because in this Experiment 1: standard image experiment

case more features are detected so that more match pairs are also

gotten, resulting in adding false match.

TABLE 1: Match data of Fig.2 using original SFIT and proposed

method (different α ).

in (a) in (b) pairs pairs accuracy

Original SIFT 340 159 56 2 96.43%

0.1 677 296 70 1 98.57%

0.2 822 361 99 0 100.0%

FIGURE 3: The relation between accuracy and α . 0.3 852 396 91 0 100.0%

Proposed

method 0.4 817 415 99 0 100.0%

(differ- 0.5 811 408 99 2 97.98%

ent

In addition, we fix parameter α as 0.3, vary the parameter α) 0.6 802 400 97 1 98.97%

n to analysis the relation between n and match accuracy. The 0.7 838 357 91 1 98.90%

experiment result is shown in Fig.4.

It can be seen from Fig.4 that match accuracy decreases as 0.8 758 341 89 1 98.88%

parameter n increases. The reason is that when parameter n in- 0.9 687 309 69 2 97.10%

creases, the fractional mask weaken some high frequency com-

ponent, this fact is not benefit for extracting more features, which

will result in lower match accuracy. In addition, it can also be

seen when n is 1 or 2, we can get the same match accuracy. But

we find in many experiments when n is 2, that is mask size is

5 × 5, more features can be detected and more match pairs will

be obtained.

(c) Proposed method (α = 0.6) (d) Proposed method (α = 0.9)

In conclusion, the relation curve between match accuracy

and fractional mask parameters can guide one to select optimal

parameters. We use Lena image to take experiment, as shown in Fig.2.

In this experiment, we fix n as 2, then mask size is 5 × 5, the

order α varies from 0.1 to 0.9, the experiment data are shown in

Tab.1, and the match results are shown in Fig.5.

From Tab.1, it is noted that fractional differentiation-based

SIFT is capable of detecting more features, thus the match pairs

and match accuracy is improved. When alpha varies from 0.2 to

0.4, the match accuracy gets 100%. Additionally, it can also be

(a) Original SIFT algorithm (b) Proposed method (α = 0.2)

seen that when alpha is 0.3, the number of features get maxima

in Fig.2(a), but in Fig.2(b), the number of features get maxima

when alpha is 0.4. That means the optimal parameter alpha is

different in different image.

Experiment 2: real image experiment

In addition, we use real image to test the validity of proposed

method and compare it with original SIFT. As shown in Fig.6,

Fig.6(a) and Fig.6(b) are two images taken at two different view-

(c) Proposed method (α = 0.4) (d) Proposed method (α = 0.6)

points. The experiment results are shown in Tab.2 and Fig.7. It

can be seen from Tab.2, the match accuracy is improved. In ad-

FIGURE 7: Some match results of Fig.6.

dition, more feature are detected when α is 0.4, and the match

accuracy gets maxima.

5 CONCLUSIONS

A new SIFT algorithm based on R-L fractional differential

was proposed in this paper. In addition a fractional differential

mask is constructed. The R-L fractional differentiation is em-

ployed in SIFT algorithm so that our method can extract more

textile detail features. Experiment results show more feature

(a) Image 1 (b) Image 2 points are detected, thus the match accuracy is improved. The

experiments carried out with images in database and real images

FIGURE 6: Real image. indicate that the proposed method can obtain good matching re-

sults. It can be used for matching textile image or some self-

similar construct image. The method proposed in this paper is an

important extension of SIFT algorithm. However, different im-

age always respondent to different optimal parameters, so how

to optimize the fractional order is still keep open. Future works

TABLE 2: Match data of Fig.6 using original SFIT and proposed involve designing the optimization algorithm of fractional order

method(different α ) and applying this algorithm in ultrasonic image processing sys-

tem.

Points Points Match False Match

in (a) in (b) pairs pairs accuracy

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Original SIFT 611 698 109 3 97.25%

The authors would like to acknowledge the supports

0.2 904 1534 87 2 97.70% from the National Natural Science Foundation of China(No:

Proposed 61462065, 61263046, 61165011).

method 0.4 1116 1868 96 0 100.0%

(differ- 0.5 1102 1787 90 1 98.89%

ent

α) 0.6 1067 1837 108 2 98.15% REFERENCES

[1] K.B. Oldham, J. Spanier, ”The Fractional Calculus”, Aca-

0.7 945 1690 121 1 99.17%

demic, New York, NY,1974.

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Werke, pp. 331-344,1876. mask: A fractional differential-based approach for multi-

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