Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

Name: Pamela Ann U.

Mongcal
Year and Course: BSCE-2
Field Work No. 6:
Date: August 14, 2019
Time: 9:00 AM – 12:00 PM
Weather Condition: Sunny

Field Report #6:


Objectives
A. To determine the angles between two stations using a transit.
B. To determine the azimuth from south by closed traverse method.
Surveying Instruments
1. Transit
2. Tripod
3. Plumb Bob
4. Stadia Rod
5. Open Reel Plastic Tape
6. Nails
Procedure
A. Determining the Angles using a Transit
1. Proceed to an area with a wide range in order to establish multiple points.
2. Mark a point, then name it as Station 1.
3. Place the transit along with its plumb bob directly above the first point.
4. Open the upper tangent screw and set the angles on the horizontal vernier circle
to 0° and 180°.
5. After that, close the upper tangent screw and open the lower tangent screw to
sight another point. Name it as Point A.
6. Point A will have an angle value of 0°.
7. Locate another point and name it as Point B.
8. Open the upper tangent screw and sight the point.
9. After that, close the upper tangent screw and record the angle value. This will
serve as the angle between Point A and Point B.
10. Open the lower tangent screw and turn the instrument toward Point B.
11. After that, lock the lower tangent screw then open the upper tangent screw to set
the angle on the vernier circle to 0° and 180°.
12. Point B will now have an angle value of 0°.
13. Locate another point and name it as Point C.
14. Repeat Steps 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 four more times (using Points C, D, and E).
15. The last angle measurement should be between Point E and Point A.
16. Sum up all the angles that have been measured.
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = ∠𝐴𝐵 + ∠𝐵𝐶 + ∠𝐶𝐷 + ∠𝐷𝐸 + ∠𝐸𝐴
17. To compute for the error, simply subtract the sum computed in Step 16 from 360°.
𝐸𝑟𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑆𝑢𝑚 − 360°
18. To distribute the correction to be applied, simply divide the value by the number
of points then subtract each angle with the difference.
𝐸𝑟𝑜𝑟𝑟
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 =
𝑛
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟 ′ = ∠ − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑
B. Determining the Azimuths from South by Closed Traverse Method
1. Proceed to an area with a wide range in order to establish at least three traverse
stations.
2. Mark three points, and then name them as Stations 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
3. Place the transit along with its plumb bob directly above Station 1.
4. Open the upper tangent screw and set the angles on the horizontal vernier circle
to 0° and 180°.
5. To determine the magnetic north of the instrument, first lock the upper tangent
screw and then open the lower tangent screw. Use a compass and let its needle
swing freely while moving the lower plate.
6. After that, lock the lower tangent screw and then open the upper tangent screw
to sight Station 2.
7. Lock the upper tangent screw once more to read the azimuth from the south.
8. Using an open reel tape, measure the horizontal distance between Station 1 and
Station 2.
9. Record the values of the azimuth and the horizontal distance before transferring
the instrument to Station 2.
10. Place the transit along with its plumb bob directly above Station 2.
11. Open the lower tangent screw before reversing the instrument’s telescope to
sight Station 1. This is done to get the same reference angle. Close the lower
tangent screw right after.
12. Reverse the telescope back to its original position before opening the upper
tangent screw.
13. Turn the instrument to sight Station 3 before closing the upper tangent screw.
Read its azimuth from the south.
14. After that, measure the horizontal distance between Station 2 and Station 3.
15. Lastly, transfer the instrument to the last station.
16. Place the transit along with its plumb bob directly above Station 3.
17. Repeat Steps 11, 12, 13, and 14 once more. (Sight Station 1 instead)
18. To compute for the bearing of each station, remember that bearings are never
greater than 90°. Therefore, subtract the azimuth from its nearest cardinal angle
(either by 180° or 360°).
𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 360° − ∠
𝐵𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 180° − ∠

19. To compute for the angle correction, first subtract the azimuth value by 180° if it
is greater than 180° and add the azimuth value by 180° if it is less than 180°.
𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 = ∠ ± 180°
20. After that subtract the angle values computed in Step 19 from the azimuth values.
This will be the basis in determining the value of the interior angles. Compute for
the sum afterward.
𝑆𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑 = 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒1 + 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒2 + 𝐴𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒3
21. To check if the interior angles are correct, compute first for the standard sum of
the interior angles of a polygon. Find the difference between the standard sum
and the sum computed in Step 20 to determine the error.
𝑆𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 = (𝑛 − 2)180°
𝐸𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟 = 𝑆𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 − 𝑆𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑑

Diagram
Precautions
1. Make sure that the surveying instrument (transit) has been levelled properly and
that the legs of the tripod are secured to the ground.
2. The instrument man should hold the stadia rod properly, so that the surveyor can
sight the points/stations correctly.
3. When using a plum bob, it should be directly above the given points.
4. Always set the horizontal vernier circle at A to 0° and at B to 180° before
measuring another angle.
5. It is a must to have the same reference point all throughout the activity.
6. To successfully perform a closed traverse method, make sure that the last reading
will be back to the first traverse station.
7. When measuring horizontal distances with an open reel tape, check if it is levelled
and completely straight before recording down the values.
8. Recheck the data at least twice before performing the next step in order to avoid
errors in the activity.
Data Gathered
A. Determining the Angles using a Transit
∠𝐴𝐵 = 130°51′ 00" ∠𝐵𝐶 = 39°30′ 40"
∠𝐶𝐷 = 29°01′ 00" ∠𝐸𝐴 = 122°48′ 00"
∠𝐷𝐸 = 47°05′ 00”
B. Determining the Azimuths from South by Closed Traverse Method
Station Azimuth from the Bearing Length
South
1–2 83°02′ 00 𝑆83°02′ 𝑊 19.04 m
2–3 204°08′ 00 𝑁24°08′ 𝐸 24.8 m
3–1 337°06′00 𝑆22°54′ 𝐸 22.7 m

Computation and Results


A. Determining the Angles using a Transit

Given:
∠𝐴𝐵 = 130°51′ 00" ∠𝐷𝐸 = 47°05′ 00"
∠𝐵𝐶 = 39°30′ 40" ∠𝐸𝐴 = 122°48′ 00"
∠𝐶𝐷 = 29°01′ 00"
Solution:
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = ∠𝐴𝐵 + ∠𝐵𝐶 + ∠𝐶𝐷 + ∠𝐷𝐸 + ∠𝐸𝐴
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = 130°51′ 00"+39°30' 40"+29°01' 00"+47°05' 00" + 122°48′ 00"
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = 369°15′ 40"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 𝑆𝑢𝑚 − 360°


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 369°15′ 40" − 360°
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟 = 9°15′40"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 =
𝑛
9°15′40"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 =
5
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 = 1°51′08"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐴𝐵 = ∠𝐴𝐵 − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐴𝐵 = 130°51′ 00" − 1°51′08"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐴𝐵 = 128°59′52"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐵𝐶 = ∠𝐵𝐶 − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐵𝐶 = 39°30′ 40" − 1°51′08"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐵𝐶 = 37°39′32"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐶𝐷 = ∠𝐶𝐷 − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐶𝐷 = 29°01′ 00" − 1°51′08"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐶𝐷 = 27°09′52"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐷𝐸 = ∠𝐷𝐸 − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐷𝐸 = 47°05′00" − 1°51′08"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐷𝐸 = 45°13′52"

𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐸𝐴 = ∠𝐸𝐴 − 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑


𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐸𝐴 = 122°48′ 00" − 1°51′08"
𝐶𝑜𝑟𝑟′𝐸𝐴 = 120°56′52"
Check:
𝑆𝑢𝑚′ = ∠𝐴𝐵′ + ∠𝐵𝐶′ + ∠𝐶𝐷′ + ∠𝐷𝐸′ + ∠𝐸𝐴′
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = 128°59′ 52+37°39'32 + 27°09′ 52+45°13'52 + 120°56′52"
𝑆𝑢𝑚 = 360°00′ 00"
Conclusion
Based on the previous activities done, points on the ground are somewhat related to
each other either through their horizontal distances or their horizontal angles. In the first
part of the activity, horizontal angles can be measured through the use of surveying
equipment such as the basic transit.
There were five points that somewhat resembled a circle, allowing the students to
measure an approximate total angle of 360°. If the recorded angles are either less than or
more than 360°, simply compute for the difference and then divide it by the number of points
measured. Subtract or add the value to each angle in order to have the corrected angle value.
The second part of the activity allowed the students to practice the closed traverse
method. A closed traverse method refers to a type of survey wherein the first station of a
circuit is also the last station of the said circuit. An azimuth, on the other hand, is an angle
between 0° and 360° measured either clockwise from the north or the south.
The first thing to do in order to determine the azimuth is to find the magnetic north
through the use of a compass. After that, sight a point than read its azimuth before
transferring the instrument to another station. Reverse the telescope to get the reference
angle, then reverse it back to sight another station. To check if the angles within the points
are correct, simply solve for the total interior angles. Find the error, then divide it by the
number of stations; then distribute the correction to each angle.