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Chapter 1: Introduction to Fracture Mechanics

1.1 Introduction

Conventional design philosophy

Mechanics 1.1 Introduction Conventional design philosophy Changes • Improved NDE • Defect is not the end
Mechanics 1.1 Introduction Conventional design philosophy Changes • Improved NDE • Defect is not the end
Mechanics 1.1 Introduction Conventional design philosophy Changes • Improved NDE • Defect is not the end

Changes

Improved NDE

Defect is not the end of life

Cost of Replacement & Repair

Possibility of continued service

is not the end of life • Cost of Replacement & Repair • Possibility of continued

Fracture Mechanics

Historical failures

Failure of Liberty Ships

During World War II Built more than 2500 Liberty Class Ships About 700 experienced sever structural failures about 145 broke into two parts.

Reasons:

- Flaws in welded joints

- High strength materials were used (Low fracture toughness)

- Low temperature further reduced the fracture toughness.

1982 National Bureau of Standards Study

Costs associated with:

- Direct losses and imputed costs

- Over design of structures because of

- non-uniform material quality

- inspection, repair, and replacement of degraded component

About $120 Billion/year

Savings that can be achieved from:

Current Fracture Mechanics Technology about $35B (30%)

Future Fracture Mechanics Technology: additional $28B.

1.2 Evolution of Structural Design

Empirical Adaptation of Previous Successful Designs: Trial & Error Procedures Strength of Materials Approach
Empirical Adaptation of Previous
Successful Designs:
Trial & Error Procedures
Strength of Materials Approach
Theory of Elasticity with Large
factor of Safety
Recognition of Stress
Concentrations
s
1+2 a/R
= s nom
Fracture Mechanics
Largest Tolerable Flaw for Given Load/
Safe Operating Load for Given Flaw Size
by the Use of LEFM
K(a, s ,B) =KIc
Damage Tolerance Approach:
- Rate of Growth of Flaws
- Critical Size in Service

The Pyramids The great Cathedrals in Europe

19th Century discoveries by Cauchy and others

Inglis (1913, USA) Kolosov (USSR) Paradox

@ R=0, s

nom

-> 0

Griffith (1922) Theory of Rupture

s nom 2b R 2a s nom
s
nom
2b
R
2a
s
nom

Later Developments by Obriemoff (1930) Westergaard (1939) Irwin & Orowan (1948)

Rice & Cherepanov (mid 60)

1.3 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF FRACTURE MECHANICS

1. 15th Century - Leonardo de Vinci Strength tests on iron wires of different lengths. Strength is inversely proportional to volume of the material

2. 19th Century - Cauchy Stress-strain relation ship at singularities & Stress concentration

3. 1922 Griffith's fracture theory First quantitative relation between the strength of material and crack size.

(a) Interatomic strength theory Crystalline properties can be calculated based on its lattice properties

Theoretical strength, s th =

its lattice properties Theoretical strength, s t h = E g b E = Elastic modulus

Eg

b

E

= Elastic modulus

b

= Equilibrium atomic spacing

g = Total interatomic separation

energy

s

For many materials g = Eb/40; yields

s th ª

E / 6

b Atomic model for theoretical strength
b
Atomic model for
theoretical strength

s

(b) Fracture Theory Using Inglis mathematical equations for stress concentration, showed for brittle materials like glass "Surface energy dissipated by forming new crack surfaces is equal to the resistance to the crack growth"

Westergaard extended Griffith's theory and showed that the fracture strength of cracked bodies is

2Eg s f = p a a is the crack length
2Eg
s f =
p a
a is the crack length
a
a

Cracked bod

Limitations:

1. g is valid for brittle materials

2. Calculation of g was not clear

3. Value of g was much larger for engineering materials.

4. 1948 George Irwin (US Naval Research laboratory) Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

- Extended Griffith's theory to metals

- Developed mathematical methods to calculate fracture parameter and measurement of critical fracture parameters (toughness)

s f =

E(g+g p ) p a
E(g+g p )
p a

g p = Plastic energy at the crack tip

Since the numerator is a material property, we can define as

s = K

p a ,
p a ,

Where K = Stress intensity factor at the crack tip

s = remote stress

We can relate K to G, rate of change of total potential energy w.r.t. crack length a.

G = K 2 /E *

E * = effective elastic modulus

This theory is called Griffith-Irwin-Orowan Theory of Fracture

5. James Rice (1967) and Cherepanov (1966) Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics

J

Where P

cracked body.

=

a

is the total potential energy of nonlinear (elastic plastic) material

1.4 Mathematical Definition of crack

1.4.1 Definition Crack is an elliptical notch with a semi-major axis length a (crack length) and semi-minor length, b, is zero. In other words, radius of curvature at the crack tip is zero.

Elliptical notch s nom 2b 2a s nom
Elliptical notch
s nom
2b
2a
s nom

Crack

nom 2a nom
nom
2a
nom

1.4.2 Stress Flow Around a Notch & Crack

1.4.2.1 Loading transverse to the major axis Notch

Stress concentration (K t ): s

R min is the radius of curvature at the tip of the major axis.

=s nom

(

1+ 2

a/ ) R min
a/
)
R min

1.4.2.2 Loading parallel to the major axis Notch

Stress concentration (K t ): s

R max is the radius of curvature at the tip of the major axis.

=s nom

(

1+ 2

a/ ) R max
a/
)
R max

Crack

Stress intensity factor (K):

K =s nom

Crack Stress intensity factor (K) = 0 Stress intensity factor (K) = 0

s =s nom

1.5 Effect of Crack in a Structure

Static Loading

s c 2a W s c
s c
2a
W
s c
Residual Strength Diag Design strength Expected Residual highest service strength load Normal service load
Residual Strength Diag
Design strength
Expected
Residual
highest service
strength
load
Normal
service load
In-service
failure
Failure

Crack siz

Time

Fatigue Loading

s (t) 2a W s (t)
s (t)
2a
W
s (t)
Load Spectrum Tension Stress Time Compression
Load Spectrum
Tension
Stress
Time
Compression
Unstable Crack length, a Crack initiation Crack growth Cycle Time
Unstable
Crack
length, a
Crack
initiation
Crack growth
Cycle
Time

1.6 Objective of Fracture Mechanics Technology Develop prediction methods and calculate of how fast cracks will grow and how fast the residual strength will decrease.

Specifically:

1. What is the residual strength as a function of crack size?

2. What size of a crack can be tolerated at the service load (Critical crack size)?

3. How long does it take for a crack to grow from a certain initial size to a critical size?

4. What size of preexisting flaw (crack) can be permitted at the moment structure starts its life?

5. How often should the structure be inspected?

1.7 Fracture Mechanics Discipline Includes 4 disciplines:

Engineering – Load 7 Stress Analysis Applied Mechanics – Crack tip stress field & Driving Force Testing – Quantify Critical parameters & Verify Analytical Parameters Material Science – failure process at the atomic scale. Includes dislocations & impurities

FRACTURE MECHANICS

FRACTURE MECHANICS