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STRATION, from the original conception of Space and Form. 12mo,
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..It requires only a superficial acquaintance with the principal languages of

Europe to recognise their division into four or five main classes, each comprising
a number of subordinate dialects, which have so much in common in their stock
of words and in their grammatical structure, as irresistibly to impress us with the
conviction that the peoples by whom they are spoken, are the progeny, with
more or less mixture of foreign elements, of a common ancestry. If we compare
German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and Swedish, it is impossible in either
case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate race;
that there was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians
and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people
speaking a common language. The relation between Danish and Swedish is of
the closest kind, that between Dutch and German a more distant one, and we
cannot fail to recognise a similar relationship, though of more remote an origin,
between the Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the
other, the two together forming what is called the Germanic class of Languages.
A like gradation of resemblance is found in the other classes. The Welsh,
Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent
from a common parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of
Gaelic and Manx. On the other hand, there is a greater difference between
Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic
class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure
common to both, and so much identity traceable in the roots of the language, as
to leave no hesitation in classing them as branches of a common Celtic stock. And
so in the Slavonic class, Polish and Czech or Bohemian, as Russian and Servian,
are sister languages, while the difference between Russian and Polish is so great
as to argue a much longer separation of the national life.

In the case of the Romance languages we know historically that the countries
where Italian, Provençal, French, Spanish, &c., are spoken, were thoroughly col
onised by the Romans, and were for centuries under subjection to the empire.
We accordingly regard the foregoing class of languages as descended from Latin,
the language of the Imperial Government, and we account for their divergences,
not so much from the comparative length of their separate duration, as from
mixture with the speech of the subject nations who formed the body of the
people in the different provinces.
With Latin and the other Italic languages, Umbrian and Oscan, of which
slight remains have come down to us, must be reckoned Greek. and Albanian,
as members of a family ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic
stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collect
ive name. When we extend our survey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient
languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the
fundamental part of the words, as well as the grammatical structure of the
language, which led us to regard the great families of European speech as de
scendants of a common stock.
Throughout the whole of this vast circle the names of the numerals unmis.
takeably graduate into each other, however startling the dissimilarity may be in
particular cases, where the name of a number in one language is compared with
the corresponding form in another, as when we compare five and quinque, four
and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the simplest blood relations, as father,
mother, brother, sister, are equally universal. Many of the pronouns, the prepo
sitions and particles of abstract signification, as well as words designating the
most familiar objects and actions of ordinary life, are part of the common
Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of
Europe and of India are all descended from a single people, who had already
attained a considerable degree of civilisation, and spoke a language of grammatical
structure similar to that of their descendants. From this primeval tribe it is
supposed that colonies branched off in different directions, and becoming isolated
in their new settlements, grew up into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum
ing more and more distinctly their own peculiar features, until they gradually
developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the different classes of European
The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relationship of races be
yond the reach of history is however only an incidental result of linguistic study.
For language, the machinery and vehicle of thought, and indispensable con
dition of all mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a subject of as
high an intrinsic interest as that which Geology finds in the structure of the
Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies.
Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It
resolves them into their constituent elements, traces their growth and relation
ships, examines the changes they undergo in their use by successive generations of

men, or in the mixture of speech brought about by the vicissitudes of war or of

peaceful intercourse, and seeks in every way to elucidate the course by which the
words of a language have come to signify the meaning which they suggest to a
native ear.
The first step that must be taken in the analysis of a word, is to distinguish the
part which contains the fundamental significance, from the grammatical ele
ments used to modify that significance in a regular way, such as the inflections of
verbs and of nouns, the terminations which give an abstract or an adjectival or
diminutival sense to the word, or any similar contrivances in habitual use in the
language. It will be convenient to lay aside for separate consideration these
grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical
portion of the word. If we take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise
the termination ty as the sign of an abstract noun, and we understand the word
as signifying the state or condition of an enemy, which is felt as the immediate
parent of the English word. Now we know that enemy comes to us through the
French ennemi from Latin inimicus, which may itself be regularly resolved into
the prefix in (equivalent to our un), implying negation or opposition, and amicus,
a friend. In amicus, again, we distinguish the syllable -us as the sign of a noun in
the nominative case; -ic- as an element equivalent to the German-ig or English -y
in windy, hairy, &c., as an adjective termination indicating possession or connec
tion with; and finally the radical element am, signifying love, which is presented
in the simplest form in the verb amo, I love.
Here our power of analysis is brought to a close, nor would it advance our
knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that
the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. It would merely be
one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian
races, but the same problem would remain in either case, how the syllable am
could be connected with the thought of love. Thus sooner or later the Etymol
ogist is brought to the question of the origin of Language. The scientific ac
count of any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how
the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper signi
ficance among the founders of Language. The speech of man in his mother
tongue is not, among children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature.
The expression itself of mother-tongue shows the immediate source from whence
the language of each of us is derived. The child learns to speak from the inter
course of those in whose care he is placed. If an English infant were removed
from its parents and committed to the charge of a Greek or a Turkish home, he
would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up in
the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brothers.
Thus language, like writing, is an art handed down from one generation to
another, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand
distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the
line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at
which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be

queathed to him by his ancestors, or we must at last arrive at a generation which

was not taught their language by their parents. The question then arises, how
did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable
an art? Must we suppose that our first parents were supernaturally endowed
with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variously modified in
different lines of descent through countless ages, during which the race of man
spread over the earth in separate families of people, until languages were pro
duced between which, as at present, no cognisable relation can be traced
Or is it possible, among the principles recognised as having contributed ele
ments more or less abundant in every known language, to indicate a sufficient
cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of men who had not
yet acquired the command of that great instrument of thought, though in
every natural capacity the same as ourselves?
When the question is brought to this definite stage, the same step will be
gained in the science of language which was made in geology, when it was re
cognised that the phenomena of the science must be explained by the action of
powers, such as are known to be active at the present day in working changes on
the structure of the earth. The investigator of speech must accept as his start
ing-ground the existence of man as yet without knowledge of language, but en
dowed with intellectual powers and command of his bodily frame, such as we
ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the same way that the geologist takes his
stand on the fact of a globe composed of lands and seas subjected, as at the pre
sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests, frosts, earthquakes, and sub
terranean fires.
A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural origin of language
has been raised by the modern German school of philosophers, whose theory
leads them to deny the possibility of man having ever existed in a state of mutism.
“Man is only man by speech,' says W. v. Humboldt, “but in order to discover
speech he must already be man.' And Professor Max Müller, who cites the
epigram, adopts the opinion it expresses. “Philosophers, he says (Lectures on
the Science of Language, p. 347), “who imagine that the first man, though left
to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in
vented words for every new conception that arose in his mind, forget that man
could not by his own power have acquired the faculty of speech, which is the
distinctive character of mankind, unattained and unattainable by the mute crea
tion.' The supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confusion
between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language.
The possession of the faculty of speech means only that man is rendered ca
pable of speech by the original constitution of his mind and physical frame, as a
bird of flying by the possession of wings; but inasmuch as man does not learn to
speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it becomes
a legitimate object of inquiry how the skilled use of the tongue was originally

It is surprising that any one should have stuck at the German paradox, in the
face of the patent fact that we all are born in a state of mutism, and gradually
acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those
who are cut off by congenital deafness from all opportunity of hearing the speech
of others, remain permanently dumb, unless they have the good fortune to meet
with instructors, by whom they may be taught not only to express their thoughts
by manual signs, but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadvantage
of not hearing their own voice.
Since then it is matter of fact that individuals are found by no means wanting
in intelligence who only attain the use of speech in mature life, and others who
never attain it at all, it is plain that there can be no metaphysical objection to the
supposition that the family of man was in existence at a period when the use of
language was wholly unknown. How man in so imperfect a state could manage
to support himself, and maintain his ground against the wild beasts, is a question
which need not concern us.
The high reputation of Professor Max Müller as a linguist, and the great
popularity of his Lectures on Language, have given to the doctrine which
he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of
the doctrine itself, or by any light which it throws on the fundamental problems
of Language. He asserts (p. 369) that the 4oo or 5oo roots to which the
languages of different families may be reduced, are neither interjections nor
imitations, but ‘phonetic types produced by a power inherent in human
nature. Man in his primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces
remain at the present day, the instinct being lost when the purpose for which it
was required was fulfilled, as the senses become weaker when, as in the case of
scent, they become useless.’ By such an instinct the primitive Man was en
dowed with the faculty of giving articulate expression to the rational conceptions
of his mind. He was “irresistibly impelled to accompany every conception of
his mind by an exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence
with the thought which called it forth, in a manner analogous to that in which a
body, struck by a hammer, answers with a different ring according as it is com
posed of metal, stone, or wood.t -

At the same time it must be supposed that the instinct which gave rise to the
expression of thought by articulate sound, would enable those who heard such
sounds to understand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered
them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been
almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that
clusters of roots, more or"less synonymous, would gradually be reduced to one
definite type (p. 371). Thus a stock of significant sounds would be produced
from whence all the languages on earth were developed, and when ‘the creative
faculty, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the
* It was an instinct, an instinct of the mind as irresistible as any other instinct.—p. 370.
+ The faculty peculiar to man in his primitive state by which every impression from without
received its vocal expression from within must be accepted as a fact.—p. 370, n.

brain a phonetic expression, had its object fulfilled in the establishment of lan
guage, the instinct faded away, leaving the infants of subsequent generations to learn
their language of their parents, and those who should be born deaf to do as well
as they could without any oral means of communicating their thoughts or
By other writers of the same philosophical school the instinct is retained in
permanence, in order to account for the vitality of words during the vast period
of time, from the first branching off of the pristine Arian stock into different
families, down to the present day. It is practically such an instinct which
Curtius demands as the basis of any theory of language, in the very valuable in
troduction to his Grunzüge der Griech. Etym., p. 91.
In all the languages of the Indo-European family, he says “from the Ganges to
the Atlantic the same combination sta designates the phenomenon of standing,
while the conception of flowing is as widely associated with the utterance plu
or slightly modified forms. This cannot be accidental. The same conception
can only have been united with the same vocal utterance for so many thousand
years, because in the consciousness (gefühl) of the people there was an inward
bond between the two, that is, because there was for them a persistent tendency
to express that conception by precisely those sounds. The Philosophy of Speech
must lay down the postulate of a physiologic potency of sounds (einer physiolo
gischen geltung der laute), and it can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words,
than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the
things signified by them produce on the soul of the speaker. The signification
thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance: the conception, says W. v. Hum
boldt, is as little able to cast itself loose from the word as man can divest himself
of his personal aspect.'
It is a fatal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to
principles of which we have no distinct experience. If it were true that there is
in the constitution of man a physiologic connection between the sounds sta and
plu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it must be felt by all
mankind alike, and it should have led to the universal use of those roots for the
expression of the same ideas in other languages as well as those of the Indo
European stock. But in my own case I have no consciousness of any such con
nection. I do not find that the sound sta of itself calls up any idea in my mind,
and to an unlearned English ear it is as closely connected with the ideas of
stabling, of stamping, and of starting, as it is with that of standing. We know
that our children do not speak instinctively at the present day, and to say that
speech came in that way to primitive Man is simply to avow our inability to
give a rational account of its acquisition. A rational theory of language should
indicate a process supported at every step by the evidence of actual experience,
by which a being, in every other respect like ourselves, might have been led from
a state of mutism to the use of Speech. Nor are the elements of a rational answer
to the problem far to seek, if we are content to look for small beginnings, and do

not regard the invention of language as the work of some mute genius of the

ancient world, forecasting the benefits of oral communication and elaborating of

himself a system of vocal signs.
* If in the present state of the world,' says Charma, “ some philosopher were to
wonder how man ever began these houses, palaces, and vessels which we see
around us, we should answer that these were not the things that man began with.
The savage who first tied the branches of shrubs to make himself a shelter was
not an architect, and he who first floated on the trunk of a tree was not the
creator of navigation.’ A like allowance must be made for the rudeness of the
first steps in the process when we are required to explain the origin of the com
plicated languages of civilised life.
If language was the work of human intelligence we may be sure that it was
accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and when the true mode of procedure
is finally pointed out, we must not be surprised if we meet with the same appa
rent disproportion between the grandeur of the structure and the homeliness of
the mechanism by which it was reared, which was found so great a stumbling
block in geology when the modern doctrines of that science began to prevail.
The first step is the great difficulty in the problem. If once we can imagine
a man like ourselves, only altogether ignorant of language, placed in circum
stances under which he will be instinctively led to make use of his voice, for the
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual
apprehension, we shall have an adequate explanation of the first act of speech.
Now if man in his pristine condition had the same instincts with ourselves he
would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, have expressed
his needs by means of gestures or signs addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the
present day, thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him,
would signify his hunger by pointing to his mouth and making semblance of eat
ing. Nor is there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under
stand gestures of such a nature. ‘Tell me,’ says Socrates in the Cratylus, “if
we had neither tongue nor voice and wished to call attention to something,
should we not imitate it as well as we could with gestures 2 Thus if we wanted
to describe anything either lofty or light, we should indicate it by raising the
hands to heaven; if we wished to describe a horse or other animal, we should
represent it by as near an approach as we could make to an imitation in our own
person.' -

The instinctive tendency to make use of significant gestures was clearly shown
in the case of Laura Bridgman, who being born blind and deaf afforded a singu
lar opportunity for studying the spontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after
Laura had learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany this artificial
mode of communicating her thoughts with the imitative or symbolical gestures
which were taught her by Nature. “When Laura once spoke to me of her own
crying when a little child,’ says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to Knowledge,
vol. 2), “she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers down
the face, indicating the copious flow of tears.' She would also accompany her
yes and no with the ordinary nod and shake of the head which are the natural

expression of acceptance and aversion,” and which in her case were certainly not
learned from observation of others. -

To suppose then that primitive Man would spontaneously make use of gestures
to signify whatever it was urgently needful for him to make known to others, is
merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are
conscious in ourselves. But strong emotion naturally exhales itself in vocal
utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jumps for joy. And
this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are com
monly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not hearing their own voice. It
was accordingly necessary to check poor Laura when inclined to indulge in this
mode of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ‘God had given her much
voice,' and would occasionally retire to enjoy the gift in her own way in private.
Man then is a vocal animal, and when an occasion arose on which the sign
making instinct was called forth by the necessities of the case, he would as readily
be led to imitate sound by the voice as shape and action by bodily gestures.
When it happened in the infancy of communication, that some sound formed
a prominent feature of the matter which it was important to make known, the
same instinct which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter
admitted of being so represented, would give rise to the use of the voice in imi
tation of the sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised.
A person terrified by a bull would find it convenient to make known the
object of his alarm by imitating at once the movements of the animal with his head,
and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt
at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation
of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by signs like these that Hood describes
his raw Englishman as making known his wants in France.
Moo! I cried for milk—
If I wanted bread
My jaws I set agoing,
And asked for new-laid eggs
By clapping hands and crowing.
Hood's Own.

There would be neither sense nor fun in the caricature if it had not a basis of
truth in human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom
the author wrote.
A jest must be addressed to the most superficial capacities of apprehension, and
therefore may often afford better evidence of a fact of consciousness than a train
of abstruse reasoning. It is on that account that so apt an illustration of the
only comprehensible origin of language has been found in the old story of the
Englishman at a Chinese banquet, who being curious as to the composition of a
dish he was eating, turned round to his native servant with an interrogative
Quack, quack? The servant answered, Bowwow ! intimating as clearly as if he
* Me turneth thet neb blithelich touward to thinge thet me loveth, and frommard to thinge
thet me hateth.-Ancren Riwle, 254.

spoke in English that it was dog and not duck that his master was eating. The
communication that passed between them was essentially language, comprehen
sible to every one who was acquainted with the animals in question, language
therefore which might have been used by the first family of man as well as by
persons of different tongues at the present day. -

The imitations of sound made by primitive Man, in aid of his endeavours to

signify his needs by bodily gestures, would be very similar to those which are
heard in our nurseries at the present day, when we represent to our children
the lowing of the cow, the baaing of the sheep, or the crowing of the
cock. The peculiar character of the imitation is given at first by the tone of
voice and more or less abrupt mode of utterance, without the aid of distinct con
sonantal articulation, and in such a manner we have no difficulty in making imita
tions that are easily recognised by any child acquainted with the cry of the animal.
The lowing of the cow is imitated by the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound
oo-ooh 1 or, with an initial m or b, which are naturally produced by the opening
lips, mooh! or booh! In the same way the cry of the sheep is sounded in our nur
series by a broken baa-aa-ah 1 in Scotland bae ( or mae By degrees the imitative
colouring is dropped, and the syllables moo or laa pronounced in an ordinary
tone of voice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the
sheep, and, thus being associated with the animals in question in the mind of the
child, might be employed to lead his thoughts to the animal itself instead of the
cry which it utters, or, in other words, might be used as the name of the animal.
It so happens that the English nurse adds the names cow and lamb, by which
she herself knows the animals, to the syllables which are significant to the child,
who thus learns to designate the animals as moo-cow and baa-lamb, but nothing
of this kind could take place at the commencement of language, when neither
party was as yet in possession of a name for the object to be designated, and in
some cases the same syllables by which the nurse imitates the cry are used with
out addition as the name of the animal itself. The bark of a dog is represented
in our nurseries by the syllables low-wow, and the child is first taught to know
the dog as a bowwow. The syllables moo (mu, muh) and mae (mē, māh) in the
South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat, and with
Swabian children muh and māh are the names of the cow and sheep or goat
(Schmid). In parts of England the imitative moo is lengthened out into mully,
in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing; and mully or mully cow is the
children's name of the cow. The Northamptonshire dairymaid calls her cows to
milking, come Moolls, come Moolls! (Mrs Baker). On the same principle among
Swabian children the name of Molle, Molli, or Mollein, is given to a cow or calf.
It is true that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children,
but it makes no difference in the essential nature of the contrivance, by whom the
sign is to be understood; and where we are seeking, in language of the present
day, for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others
by the exercise of the voice, the more undeveloped the understanding of the per
son to whom the communication is addressed, the closer we shall approach to the

conditions under which language must have sprung up in the infancy of Man.
Where then can the principle which first gave it significance be sought for with
so much reason, as in the forms of speech adapted to the dawning intellect of our
own children, and in the process by which it is made comprehensible to them 2
Dr Lieber, in his paper on the vocal sounds of Laura Bridgman above cited, gives
an instructive account of the birth of a word under his own eyes.
“A member of my own family,' he says, “showed in early infancy a pecu
liar tendency to form new words, partly from sounds which the child caught,
as to woh for to stop, from the interjection woh / used by wagoners when
they wish to stop their horses; partly from symphenomenal emission of sounds.
Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in
the nursery the word nim for everything fit to eat. I had watched the growth
of this word. First, he expressed his satisfaction at seeing his meal, when hungry,
by the natural humming sound, which all of us are apt to produce when approving
or pleased with things of a common character, and which we might express thus,
hm. Gradually, as his organs of speech became more skilful and repetition made
the sound more familiar and clearer, it changed to the more articulate um and
im. Finally an n was placed before it, nim being much easier to pronounce than
im when the mouth has been closed. But soon the growing mind began to
generalise, and nim came to signify everything edible; so that the boy would
add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. He would now
say good nim, bad nim, his nurse adopting the word with him. On one occasion
he said fie nim, for bad, repulsive to eat. There is no doubt that a verb to mim
for to eat would have developed itself, had not the ripening mind adopted the
vernacular language which was offered to it ready made. We have, then, here
the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound,
and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning, as the organs
of speech, as well as the mind of the utterer, became more perfect. And is not
the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language
now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue?'
Dr Lieber does not seem to have been aware how frequent a phenomenon it
is which he describes, nor how numerous the forms in actual speech connected
with the notion of eating which may be traced to this particular imitation. A
near relation of my own in early childhood habitually used mum or mummum for
food or eating, analogous to Magyar mammogmi, Gr. Happāv (Hesych.), in chil
dren's language, to eat. Heinicke, an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb
cited by Tylor (Early Hist., p. 72), says: “All mutes discover words for them
selves for different things. Among over fifty whom I have partially instructed
or been acquainted with, there was not one who had not uttered at least a few
spoken names which he had discovered for himself, and some were very clear and
distinct. I had under my instruction a born deaf-mute, nineteen years old, who
had previously invented many writeable words for things. For instance, he called
to eat, mumm, to drink, schipp, &c." In ordinary speech we have the verb to
mump, to move the lips with the mouth closed, to work over with the mouth,

as to mump food (Webster); to mumble, to chew with toothless gums; Swedish

mummsa, to mump, mumble, chew with difficulty (Oehrlauder); Bavarian mem
meln, memmezen, mumpſen, mumpfeln, to move the lips in continued chewing;
mampfen, to eat with a full mouth; on. mumpa, to fill the mouth, to eat
greedily (Haldorsen). With a different development of the initial sound we have
Galla djam djeda, djamdjamgoda (to say djam, make djamdjam), to smack in eat
ing; South Jutland hiamsk, voracious, greedy; at hiamske i sig, to eat in a greedy
swinish manner (Molbech); Swedish dialect gamsa, jamsa (yamsa), jammla,
jumla, to chew laboriously, to mumble, leading to the Yorkshire yam, to eat;
yamming, eating, or more particularly the audibility of the masticating process
(Whitby Gl.). To yam is a slang term for eating among sailors. In the Negro
Dutch of Surinam nyam is to eat; myam nyam, food (Tylor, Primitive Culture, 1.
186). The Chinese child uses nam for eat, agreeing with Fin. nama (in chil
dren's language), Sw. namnam, Wolof nabenabe, delicacies, tidbits; Zooloo nam
bita, to smack the lips after eating or tasting, and thence to be tasteful, to be plea
sant to the mind; Soosoo (W. Africa) nimmim, to taste; Wei (W. Africa) mimi,
palatable, savory, sweet (Koelle). And as picking forbidden food would afford
the earliest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing, it is probable that
we have here the origin of the slang word nim, to take or steal (indicated in the
name of Corporal Nym), as well as the Sw, dial. nimma, Gothic niman, to take.
Nimm'd up, taken up hastily on the sly, stolen, snatched (Whitby Gl.). “Mother
well, the Scotch poet,' says the author of Modern Slang, ‘thought the old word
nim (to snatch or pick up) was derived from nam, nam, the tiny words or cries
of an infant when eating anything which pleases its little palate. A negro pro
verb has the word: Buckra man nam crab, crab nam buckra man. Or, in the
buckra man's language: White man eat [or steal] the crab, and the crab eats
the white man."—p. 180.
The traces of imitation as a living principle giving significance to words have
been recognised from the earliest period, and as it was the only principle on
which the possibility of coining words came home to the comprehension of every
one, it was called Onomatopoeia, or word-making, while the remaining stock of
language was vaguely regarded as having come by inheritance from the first
establishers of speech. ‘’Ovoparotrotta quidem,' says Quintilian, “id est, fictio no
minis, Graecisinter maximas habita virtutes, nobis vix permittitur. Et sunt plurima
ita posita ab is qui sermonem primi fecerunt, aptantes adfectibus vocem. Nam
mugitus et sibilus et murmur inde venerunt.' And Diomedes, ‘’Ovoparotrotta est
dictio configurata ad imitandam vocis confusae significationem, ut tinnitus aeris,
clangorque tubarum. Item quum dicinus valvos stridere, oves balare, aves tin
nire."—Lersch, Sprach-philosophie der Alten, iii. 130-1. Quintilian instances the
words used by Homer for the twanging of the bow (Aiyês Bióc), and the fizzing
of the fiery stake (toiſe) in the eye of Polyphemus.
The principle is admitted in a grudging way by Max Müller (2nd Series, p.
298): “There are in many languages words, if we can call them so, consisting of
mere imitations of the cries of animals or the sounds of nature, and some of them
have been carried along by the stream of language into the current of nouns and
verbs.' And elsewhere (p. 89) with less hesitation, ‘That sounds can be rendered
in language by sounds, and that each language possesses a large stock of words
imitating the sounds given out by certain things, who would deny
We could not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera
causa in the origination of language. Yet in general he revolts against so simple
a solution of the problem.
‘I doubt, he says, speaking of words formed on the bowwow principle,
‘whether it deserves the name of language.” “If the principle of onomatopoeia
is applicable anywhere it would be in the formation of the names of animals.
Yet we listen in vain for any similarity between goose and cackling, hen and cluck
ing, duck and quacking, sparrow and chirping, dove and cooing, hog and grunting,
cat and mewing, between dog and barking, yelping, snarling, and growling. We
do not speak of a lowwow, but of a dog. We speak of a cow, not of a moo; of
a lamb, not of a laa."—Lect. p. 363.
We shall answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in
the greater part of the instances specified by Müller is a plain onomatopoeia in
one language or another; that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other
language if not in English, and that this plan of designation is widely spread over
every region of the world, and applied to every kind of animal which utters a
notable sound. As far as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to
any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance of a particular
animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. When once it is admitted
that there is an instinctive tendency to imitation in Man, it seems self-evident
that he would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that
he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. And it is only on this
principle that we can account for the great variety of the terms by which the
cries of different animals are expressed. Indeed, we still for the most part recog
nise the imitative intent of such words as the clucking of hens, cackling or
gaggling of geese, gobbling of a turkey-cock, quacking of ducks or frogs, cawing
or quawking of rooks, croaking of frogs or ravens, cooing or crooing of doves,
hooting of owls, bumping of bitterns, chirping of sparrows or crickets, twittering
of swallows, chattering of pies or monkeys, neighing or whinnying of horses,
purring or mewing of cats, yelping, howling, barking, snarling of dogs, grunting
or squealing of hogs, bellowing of bulls, lowing of oxen, bleating of sheep, baaing
or maeing of lambs.
While ewes shall bleat and little lambkins mae.-Ramsay.

But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought to mind without drawing with it
the thoughts of the animal itself. Thus the imitative utterance, intended in the
first instance to represent the cry, might be used, when circumstances required,
for the purpose of bringing the animal, or anything connected with it, before the
thoughts of our hearer, or, in other words, might be used as the designation of
the animal or of anything associated with it. If I take refuge in an African

village and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously point to a neighbour
ing thicket, I shall intimate pretty clearly to the natives that a lion is lurking in
that direction. Here the imitation of the roar will be practically used as the
name of a lion. The gestures with which I point will signify that an object of
terror is in the thicket, and the sound of my voice will specify that object as a
lion. -

The signification is carried on from the cow to the milk which it produces, when
Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. In the same way
the representation of the clucking of a hen by the syllables cock 1 cock 1 gack /
gack 1 (preserved in It. coccolare, Bav. gackern, to cluck) gives rise to the forms
coco, kukó, and gaggele or gagkelein, which are used as the designation of an egg
in the nursery language of France, Hungary, and Bavaria respectively. In
Basque, kokoratz represents the clucking of a hen, and koko (in children's speech)
the egg which it announces (Salaberry). It is among birds that the imitative
nature of the name is seen with the clearest evidence, and is most universally ad
mitted. We all are familiar with the voice of the cuckoo, which we hail as the
harbinger of spring. We imitate the sound with a modulated hoo-hoo, harden
ing into a more conventional cook-coo, and we call the bird cuckoo with a continued
consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. The voice of the bird is
so singularly distinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re
present the sound in different languages. In Lat. it is cuculus (coo-coo-l-us), in
Gr. kökkvå, in G. kuckuck (cook-cook) or guckguck. In Sanscrit the cry is written
kuhū, and the bird is called kuhtºka, kuhû-rava (rava, sound), whose sound is
kuhû–(Pictet, Origines Indo-Européennes). We represent the cry of birds of
the crow kind by the syllable cau, or quawk, which is unmistakeably the source
of the name in the most distant dialects, as Du. Kauwe, kae, Picard cau, a daw,
Sanscr. káka, Arabic kák, ghāk, Georgian quaki, Malay gāgak, Barabra koka,
Manchu kaha, a crow (Pictet). British Columbia kahkah, a crow. Long
fellow in his Hiawatha gives Kahkahgee as the Algonquin name of the raven.
The imitative nature of such names as these have been recognised from the
earliest times, and a Sanscrit writer of at least the 4th century before Christ is
quoted by Müller (Lect. i. 38o, 4th ed.). “Káka, crow, is an imitation of the
sound (káku kāku, according to Durga), and this is very common among birds.'
But already Philosophy was beginning to get the better of common sense, and
the author continues: “Aupamanyava however maintains that imitation of the
sound does never take place. He therefore derives káka, crow, from apaká
layitavya; i. e. a bird that is to be driven away.' Another Sanscrit name for
the crow is kärava (whose voice is ká), obviously formed on the same plan with
Kuhurava (whose voice is kuhſ) for the cuckoo. Yet the word is cited by Mül
ler as an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatopoeists. Kárava, he
says, is supposed to show some similarity to the cry of the raven. But as soon as
we analyse the word we find that it is of a different structure from cuckoo or
cock. It is derived from a root ru or kru, having a general predicative power,
and means a shouter, a caller, a crier (p. 349, 1st ed.). Sometimes the hoarse

sound of the cry of this kind of bird introduces an r into the imitative syllable,
and we use the verb to croak to designate their cry, while crouk, in the North of
England, is the name for a crow. So we have Polish Arukač, to croak, Kruk, a
crow; Lith. Kraukti, to croak, krauklys, a crow; Du. Kraeyen, to caw or croak,
Araeye, G. Krähe, a crow. The corresponding verbal forms in German and Eng
lish Arāhen, to crow, have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the cry of the
cock, but the word is not less truly imitative because it is adapted to represent
different cries of somewhat similar sound. In South America a crowlike bird is
called caracara.
The crowing of a cock is represented by the syllables hikeriki in G., coqueri
cot in Fr., cacaracá in Languedoc, leaving no doubt of the imitative origin of
Illyrian kukurékati, Malay kukuk, to crow, as well as of Sanscr. kukkuta, Fin.
kukko, Esthonian kikkas, Yoruba koklo, Ibo akoka, Zulu kuku, and E. cock.
The cooing or crooing (as it was formerly called) of a dove is signified in G.
by the verbs gurren or girren, Da. Kurre, girre, Du. Korren, kirren, koeren. To a
Latin ear it must have sounded tur, tur, giving turtur (and thence It. tortora,
tortóſa, Sp. tºrtola, and E. turtle) as the Lat. name of the bird, the imitative
nature of which has been universally recognised from its reduplicate form. Alba
nian tourre, Heb. tdr, a dove. In Peru turtuli is one kind of dove; cuculi
another. Hindi, ghughu, Pers. Kuku, gugu, wood-pigeon. -

The plaintive cry of the peewit is with no less certainty represented in the
names by which the bird is known in different European dialects, in which we
recognise a fundamental resemblance in sound, with a great variety in the par
ticular consonants used in the construction of the word: English peewit, Scotch
peeweip, teewhoop, tuquheit, Dutch Kievit, German kielitz, Lettish Kiekuts, Magy.
bibits, likuts, Swedish kowipa, French dishuit, Arabic tàtwit. The consonants t,
p, k, produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate sounds, and
when an interchange of these consonants is found in parallel forms (that is,
synonymous forms of similar structure), either in the same or in related dialects,
it may commonly be taken as evidence that the imitative force of the word has
been felt at no distant period.
The hooting of the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation, and accord
ingly it has given rise to a great variety of names the imitative character of which
cannot be mistaken. Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ululare, or Gr.
GA0A0&ew, to cry loudly. In French we have hulotte from huller, to howl or
yell, as Welsh hwan from hu'a, to hoot. Lat. bubo, Fr. hibou, It. gufo, German
buhu, uhu, Mod.Gr. coucouva, coccovaec, Walachian coucouveike, Algonquin kos
Áos-koo-0, are all direct imitations of the repeated cry.
‘The cry of the owl,' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xi. p. 219, ‘ku-ku
Au-va-i is in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the name, in which
sometimes the first, sometimes the second part, and sometimes both together,
are represented.'
Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language (p. 24) observes that if the vocabu
lary of almost any savage nation is examired, the name of an animal will gen

erally be found to be an onomatopoeia, and he cites from Threlkeld's Australian

Grammar Kong-ko-rong, the emu; pip-pi-ta, a small hawk; kong-kong, frogs;
all expressly mentioned by the author as taking their names from their cry. No
one will doubt that the name of the pelican karong-karong is formed in the same
manner. Mr Bates gives us several examples from the Amazons. “Sometimes
one of these little bands [of Toucans] is seen perched for hours together among
the topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkably loud, shrill,
and yelping cry. These cries have a vague resemblance to the syllables tocano,
tocano, and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds.”—Naturalist on the
Amazons, i. 337. Speaking of a cricket he says, “The natives call it tanand, in
allusion to its music, which is a sharp resonant stridulation resembling the sylla
bles ta-na-nā, ta-na-nā, succeeding each other with little intermission.’—i. 250.
We may compare the Parmesan tamanāi, loud noise, rumour; Arabic tantanat,
sound, resounding of musical instruments.—Catafogo.
The name of the cricket indeed, of which there are infinite varieties, may
commonly be traced to representations of the sharp chirp of the insect. Thus
E. cricket is from crick, representing a short sharp sound, as . G. schrecke,
(heuschrecke), schrickel, from schrick, a sharp sound as of a glass cracking
(Schmeller). G. schirke, Fin. sirkka, may be compared with G. zirken, oe. chirk,
to chirp ; Lith, swirplys with G. schwirren, to chirp; Lat. gryllus, G. grille, with
Fr. grillen, to creak; Bret, skril with N. skryle, Sc. skirl, to shrill or sound
sharp. The Arabic sarsor, Corean sirsor, Albanian tsentsir, Basque quirquirra
carry their imitative character on their face.
The designation of insects from the humming, booming, buzzing, droning
noises which they make in their flight is very common. We may cite Gr.
£opſ39Atoc, the humble- or bumble-bee, or a gnat; Sanscr. bambhara, bee, bamba,
fly, “words imitative of humming '—Pictet; Australian bumberoo, a fly (Tylor);
Galla bombi, a beetle; German hummel, the drone or non-working bee; Sanscr.
druna, a bee, Lithuanian tranas, German drohne, a drone, to be compared with
Sanscr. dhran, to sound, German drönen, to hum, resound, Danish drön, din,
peal, hollow noise, Gaelic dranndan, humming, buzzing, growling. The drone
of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the
tune is playing. The cockchafer is known by the name of the buzzard in the
North of England.
“And I eer'd un a bumming away
Like a buzzard-clock o'er my eead.’—Tennyson, Northern Farmer.
Basque burrumba, a muttering noise as of distant thunder; a cockchafer
(Salaberri). The Welsh chuyrnu, to buzz (corresponding to Swedish hurra and
E. whirr), gives rise to chuyrnores, a hornet, and probably indicates that G.
horniss and E. hornet are from the buzzing flight of the animal, and not from its
sting considered as a horn. The name of the gnat may be explained from
Norse gnetta, knetta, to rustle, give a faint sound, Danish gnaddre, to grumble.
Coming to the names of domestic animals we have seen that the lowing of
the ox is represented by the syllables boo and m00. In the N. of England it is
b 2

called booing, and a Spanish proverb cited by Tylor (Prim. Cult. 188) shows
that the same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. “Habló el
buey e dijó bu /' The ox spoke and said boo / From this mode of representing the
sound are formed Lith. bubauti (to boo-boo), to bellow like a bull, Zulu bubula,
to low, and (as we apply the term bellowing to the loud shouting of men) Gr.
ſ}oáw, to shout, Lat. boo, to shout, to make a loud deep sound. From the same
imitative syllable are Lith. bulenti, to grumble as distant thunder; biºlnas, a
drum ; bićbléti, to bump as a bittern; Illyr. bubati, to beat hard, to make a noise;
Galla boa, to boohoo, to weep.
In barbarous languages the notion of action is frequently expressed, and a
verbal form given to the word by the addition of elements signifying make or
say. Thus from mamook, make, the traders' jargon of Columbia has
mamook-poo, to make poo, to shoot; mamoo-heeheek, to make laugh, to
amuse.—Tylor. The Galla uses goda, to make, and djeda, to say, in the
same way, and from billil, imitation of a ringing sound, it has bilbilgoda,
to ring, to sound. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language
in a more compendious way by the addition of an l, a k or g, or a 2 to the im
itative syllable. Thus from miau, representing the mew of a cat, the Fr. forms
miau-l-er, as the Illyr. (with a subsidiary k), maukati, to mew. From baa, or
bae, are formed Lat. ba-l-are, Fr. be-l-er, to baa or bleat; from lau, represent
ing the bark of a dog, Piedmontese fº lau, or lau-1-2, to make bow, to bow
wow or bark. The Piedm. verb is evidently identical with our own hawl, to
shout, or with on. laula, to low or bellow, whence baula, a cow, lauli, loli,
w. buila, a bull. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bullen, agreeing exactly
with Lith. bullus and E. bull. On the same principle, from the imitative moo
instead of boo, the Northampton dairymaid calls her cows mool/s.
The formation of the verb by a subsidiary k or g gives Gr. pivkáopal, Illyr.
mukati, bukati, Lat. mugire, OFr. mugler, bugler, Da. lºge, to low; and thence
Lat. buculus, a bullock, bucula, a heifer, Fr. bugle, a buffalo, bullock, a name
preserved in our bugle-horn. With these analogies, and those which will presently
be found in the designations of the sheep or goat and their cries, it is truly sur
prising to meet with linguistic scholars who deny that the imitative boo can be
the origin of forms like Gr. Boüc, Lat. bos, bovis, It. bue, ox, Norse bu, cattle, w.
bu, Gael. bo, Manx booa, Hottentot bou (Dapper), Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor), a
cow. Yet Geiger, in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868], p. 167,
plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin is inadmissible. His analysis
leads him to the conclusion that the words Boüc and cow may be traced to a
common origin in the root gwav, and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of
the animal. But when I find that the ox is widely called Boo among different
families of men from Connemara to Cochin China, it seems to me far more cer
tain that the name is taken from the booing of the animal than any dogmas can
be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots.
The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa, tae,
mah, mae, as that of the cow by boo, or moo, and in Hottentot baa was the

name of a sheep, as bou of an ox. In the Wei of W. Africa baa, in Wolof

bae, a goat.
With a subsidiary k or g the imitative syllable produces Swiss bäggen, báàg
gen, Magy. Bek-eg-ni, beg-et-ni, Illyr. beknuti, to bleat, and thus explains the origin
of forms like Sw. lágge (Rietz), a sheep or ewe, Gr. Bākm, Bikov (Hesych.), a
sheep or goat, Illyr. bekavica, a sheep, It. becco, a goat. From the imitative mae,
we have Sanscr. menáda (náda, sound, cry), a goat; and with the subsidiary & or
g, Gr. punkáopal, punkáčw, Illyr. meketati, mecati, G. meckern, Magy. mečegni, Gael.
meigeal, Vorarlberg måggila (corresponding to Fr. meugler, for the voice of the
ox), to bleat; Gr. punkáčec, goats, lambs.
The same radical with a subsidiary l gives Gael. meil, Manx meilee, to bleat,
showing the origin of Scotch Mailie, as the proper name of a tame sheep, and of
Gr. HiiNov (maelon), a sheep or a goat, and Circassian maylley, a sheep (Löwe).
The name of the hog is another instance where Müller implicitly denies all
resemblance with the characteristic noises of the animal. And it is true there is
no similarity between hog and grunt, but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig
may be imitated at least as well by the syllables hoc'h, hoc'h (giving to c'h the
guttural sound of Welsh and Breton), as by grunt. In evidence of the aptness of
this imitation, we may cite the cry used in Suffolk in driving pigs, remembering
that the cries addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by
themselves. “In driving, or in any way persuading, this obstinate race, we have
no other imperative than hooe! hooe! in a deep nasal, guttural tone, appropri
ately compounded of a groan and a grunt.”—Moor's Suffolk words, in v. sus-sus.
Hence Breton hoc'ha, to grunt, and hoc'h, houc'h, w. huch, a hog, leaving little
doubt as to the imitative origin of the E. name. In like manner we find Lap
pish snorkeset, to grunt, undoubtedly imitative, and snorke, a pig; Fin. maskia, to
smack like a pig in eating, and naski, a pig. If Curtius had been aware of the
Sc. grumpf, a grunt, and grumphie, a sow, he would hardly have connected
Hesychius' ypópºpac, a sow, with the root ypápw, applied to the rooting of the ani
mal with its snout. Moreover, although the imitation embodied in Lat. grun
nire, Fr. grogner, and E. grunt, does not produce a name of the animal itself,
it gives rise to It. grugno, Fr. groin, E. grunny, the snout of a pig, and thence
groin, the snout-shaped projections running out into the sea, by which the shingle
of our southern coast is protected. And obviously it is equally damaging to
Müller's line of argument whether the onomatopoeia supplies a name of the ani
mal or only of his snout. -

Among the designations of a dog the term cur, signifying a snarling, ill-bred
dog, may with tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. Kurra,
to snarl, growl, grumble, G. kurren, to rumble, grumble. Kurren und murren,
ill-natured jangling; Sc. curmurring, grumbling, rumbling. The G. Kurre, oe.
curre-fish (as Da. Anurfisk, from knurre, to growl, mutter, purr), is applied to
the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter.
It is probable also that E. hound, G. hund, a dog, may be identical with Esthon.
hunt (gen. hundi), a wolf, from hundama, to howl, corresponding to ohG. hunon,

to yelp, Sc. hune, to whine. So Sanscr. httrava (whose cry is ht!), a jackal
The nursery names of a horse are commonly taken from the cries used in the
management of the animal, which serve the purpose as well as the cries of the
animal itself, since all that is wanted is the representation of a sound associated in
a lively manner with the thought of the creature to be named.
In England the cry to make a horse go on is gee, and the nursery name for a
horse is geegee. In Germany hott is the cry to make a horse turn to the right;
ho, to the left, and the horse is with children called hotte-párd (Danneil), hutt
jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.). In Switzerland the nursery name is hottihuh, as
in Yorkshire highty (Craven Gloss.), from the cry hait, to turn a horse to the
right. In Finland, humma, the cry to stop or back a horse, is used in nursery
language as the name of the animal. The cry to back a horse in Westerwald is
huf / whence houſe, to go backwards. The same cry in Devonshire takes the
form of haap / haap back / Provincial Da. hoppe dig / back! From the cry thus
used in stopping a horse the animal in nursery language is called hoppe in Frisian
(Outzen), houpy in Craven, while hipp-peerdken in Holstein is a holly horse or
child's wooden horse. Thus we are led to the Fr. holin, E. holly, a little am
bling horse, G. hoppe, a mare, Esthonian hollo, hobben, a horse.
In the face of so many examples it is in vain for Müller to speak of onomato
poeia as an exceptional principle giving rise to a few insignificant names, but ex
ercising no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. ‘The ono
matopoeic theory goes very smoothly as long as it deals with cackling hens and
quacking ducks, but round that poultry-yard there is a dead wall, and we soon
find that it is behind that wall that language really begins.”—2nd Series, p. 91.
“There are of course some names, such as cuckoo, which are clearly formed by an
imitation of sound. But words of this kind are, like artificial flowers, without a
root. They are sterile and unfit to express anything beyond the one object which
they imitate.” “As the word cuckoo predicates nothing but the sound of a par
ticular bird, it could never be applied for expressing any general quality in which
other animals might share, and the only derivations to which it might give rise
are words expressive of a metaphorical likeness with the bird.’—1st Series, p. 365.
The author has been run away with by his own metaphorical language. An
onomatopoeia can only be said to have no root because it is itself a living root, as
well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it was an offshoot from
some anterior stock. If a certain character is strongly marked in an animal, the
name of the animal is equally likely to be used in the metaphorical designation
of the character in question, whether it was taken from the cry of the animal or
from some other peculiarity. The ground of the metaphor lies in the nature of
the animal, and can in no degree be affected by the principle on which the name of
the species is formed. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers becomes a
transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased, when he found
himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cuckold, coquette, cockade,
coquelicot, as springing from his types of a lifeless stock. If onomatopoeias can

be used in giving names to things that bear a metaphorical likeness to the ori
ginal object, what is there to limit their efficiency in the formation of language?
And how can the indication of such derivatives as the foregoing, be reconciled
with the assertion that there is a sharp line of demarcation between the region of
onomatopoeia and the ‘real' commencement of language? The important ques
tion is not what number of words can be traced to an imitative source, but
whether there is any difference in kind between them and other words.
The imitative principle will in no degree be impugned by bringing forwards
any number of names which cannot be shown to have sprung from direct imita
tion, for no rational onomatopoeist ever supposed that all names were formed on
that principle. It is only at the very beginning of language that the name would
necessarily be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal.
As soon as a little command of language was attained, a more obvious means of
designation would frequently be found in something connected with the appear
ance or habits of the animal, and it is a self-evident fact that many of the animals
with which we are familiar are named on this principle. The redbreast, white
throat, redpole, lapwing, wagtail, goatsucker, woodpecker, swift, diver, creeper,
speak for themselves, and a little research enables us to explain the name in in
numerable other cases on a similar plan. Nor will there be any presumption
against an imitative origin even in cases where the meaning of the name remains
wholly unknown. When once the name is fully conventionalised all conscious
ness of resemblance with sound is easily lost, and it will depend upon accident
whether extrinsic evidence of such a connection is preserved. There is nothing
in the E. name of the turtle or turtle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the
animal, and if all knowledge of the Lat. turtur and its derivatives had been lost,
there would have been no grounds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the
word. It is not unlikely that the oN. hross, E. horse, may have sprung from a
form corresponding to Sanscr. hresh, to neigh, but as we are ignorant of any
Indian name corresponding to horse, or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr.
hresh, it would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a pos
sibility. Even in case of designations appropriated to the cries of particular
animals or certain kinds of sound, it is commonly more from the consciousness of
a natural tendency to represent sound in this manner, and indeed from the con
viction that it is the only possible way of doing so, that we regard the words as
intentionally imitative, than from discerning in them any intrinsic resemblance
to the sounds represented. The neighing of a horse is signified by words strik
ingly unlike even in closely related tongues; Fr. hennir, It. nitrire, Sp. rinchar,
relinchar, Sw. wrena, wrenska, G. frenschen, wiehern, Du. runniken, ginniken,
brieschen, Sanscr. hresh, Bohem. Mehtati, Lettish sweegt. Yet we cannot doubt
that they all take their rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin
With the designations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar
ticulate noises of our own, as sigh, sob, moan, groan, cough, laugh (originally pro
nounced with a guttural), titter, giggle, hickup (Sanscr. hikká, Pl.D. hukkup,

snukkup), snore, snort, wheeze, shriek, scream, the imitative nature of which will
be generally admitted.
The sound of a sneeze is peculiarly open to imitation. It is represented in e.
by the forms a-kishoo! or a-atcha / of which the first is nearly identical with the
Sanscr. root kshu, or the w. tisio (tisho), to sneeze. From the other mode of
representing the sound a child of my acquaintance gave to his sister the name of
Atchoo, on account of her sneezing; and among American tribes it gives rise to
several striking onomatopoeias cited by Tylor; haitshu, atchini, atchian,
aritischane, &c. -

It is certain that where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing
a sound of any kind to the thoughts of another, an attempt would be made to
imitate it by the voice. And even at the present day it is extremely common to
give life to a narration by the introduction of intentionally imitative words, whose
only office it is to bring before the mind of the hearer certain sounds which
accompany the action described, and bring it home to the imagination with the
nearest approach to actual experience.
‘Bang, bang, bang! went the cannon, and the smoke rolled over the
trenches.’ “Hoo, hoo, hoo! ping ping, ping ! came the bullets about their ears.'
“Haw, haw, haw roared a soldier from the other side of the valley.” “And at
it both sides went, ding, dong ! till the guns were too hot to be worked.”—Read,
White Lies, 1865.
To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound
‘plump.’ ‘Plump! da fiel he in das wasser.' So smack represents the sound of a
sharp blow, and to cut a thing smack off is to cut it off at a blow. Ding
dong, for the sound of a large bell, ting-ting, for a small one; tick-tack,
for the beat of a clock; pit-a-pat, for the beating of the heart or the
light step of a child; thwick-thwack, for the sound of blows, are familiar
to every one. The words used in such a manner in German are especially
numerous. Klapp, klatsch, for the sound of a blow. “He kreeg enen an de
oren: klapp / segde dat': he caught it on the ear, clap / it cried—Brem. Wtb.
A smack on the chops is represented also by pratz, plitsch-platsch.-Sanders.
Puff, pump, bumm, for the sound of a fall; knack, for that of breaking;
Anarr, for the creaking of a wheel, fitsche-fatsche, for blows with a rod, stripp
strapp-stroll, for the sound of milking.
When once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it
may be used to signify anything that produces such a sound, or that is accom
panied by it. Few words are more expressive than the E. lang, familiarly used
to represent the sound of a gun and other loud toneless noises. Of a like forma
tion are Lettish bunga, a drum; delles-bungotais (debbes, heaven), the God of
thunder; Zulu bongo, for the report of a musket (Colenso); Australian lung
bung ween, thunder (Tylor); Veigbengben, a kind of drum. To bang is then to
do anything that makes a noise of the above description, to beat, to throw
violently down, &c. Let. bangas, the dashing of the sea; Veigbangba, to ham
mer, to drive in a nail; on. banga, to hammer; Da. tanke, to knock, beat, throb.

The sharp cry of a chicken or a young child is represented by the syllables

pi, pu.
We sall gar chekinnis cheip and gaislingis pew.—Lyndsay.
In Austria pi / pi/ is used as a call to chickens (Tylor). Fr. piou, piou,
peep, peep, the voice of chickens (Cot.); piailler, piauler, E. pule, to cry like
a chick, a whelp, or a young child; Gr. ºritičw, Lat. pipilo, pipio, Mantuan
far pipi, to cry pi, pi, to cheep like a bird or a young child. It. pipiare,
pipare, to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk; pigolare, pigiolare, to squeak,
pip as a chicken.—Florio. Magyar pip, cry of young birds; pipegni, pipelni,
to peep or cheep; pipe, a chicken or gosling; Lat. pipio, a young bird;
It. pippione, pigione, piccione, a (young) pigeon. The syllable representing a
sharp sound is then used to designate a pipe, as the simplest implement for pro
ducing the sound. Fr. pipe, a fowler's bird call; G. pfeife, a fife or musical pipe.
At last all reference to sound is lost, and the term is generalised in the sense of any
hollow trunk or cylinder.
In cases such as these, where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on, it is
easy to follow out the secondary applications, but where without such a clue we
take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a
word, we must beware of fanciful speculations like those of De Brosses, who finds
a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an initial st; excavation and hollow
in sc; mobility and fluid in fl, and so forth. It seems to him that the teeth
being the most fixed element of the organ of voice, the dental letter, t, has been un
consciously (machinalement) employed to designate fixity, as k, the letter proceed
ing from the hollow of the throat, to designate cavity and hollow. S, which he
calls the nasal articulation, is added to intensify the expression. Here he abandons
the vera causa of the imitation of sound, and assumes a wholly imaginary principle
of expression. What consciousness has the child, or the uneducated man, of the
part of the mouth by which the different consonants are formed
But even the question as to the adaptation of certain articulations to represent
particular sounds will be judged very differently by different ears. To one the
imitative intention of a word will appear self-evident, while another will be
wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it is
supposed to represent. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric Man
can find no adaptation to sound in the words laugh, scream, bleat, cry, and
whimper. He asks, “What is there in whimper which is mimetic? and if simper
had been used instead, would there have been less onomatopoeia 2 Is rire like
laugh? Yet to a Frenchman, doubtless, rire seems the more expressive of the

In language, as in other subjects of study, the judgment must be educated by a

wide survey of the phenomena, and their relations, and few who are so prepared
will doubt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above cited
from Wilson.
Evidence of an imitative origin may be found in various circumstances, not

ably in what is called a reduplicate form of the word, where the significant
syllable is repeated with or without some small variation, either in the vowel or
consonantal sound, as in Lat. murmur (by the side of G. murren, to grumble),
turtur, susurrus (for sur-sur-us); tintinno, tintino, along with tinnio, to ring;
pipio, to cry pi, pi; It. tontonare, tomare, to thunder, rattle, rumble (Fl.);
gorgog'iare (to make gorgor), to gurgle; Mod. Gr. Yapyaptºw (to make gargar),
to gargle; Bop;3opúčw, It. borbogliare (to make borbor), to rattle, rumble, bubble,
along with Du. borrelen, to bubble; Zulu rarava, to fizz like fat in frying;
. Hindoo tomtom, a drum ; W. Indian chack-chack, a rattle made of hard seeds in
a tight-blown bladder (Kingsley), to be compared with Sc. chack, to clack, to
make a clinking noise, or with Manchu kiakseme (seme, sound), sound of dry
wood breaking.
If laugh were written as it is pronounced, laaff, there would be nothing in
the word itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. The imitation begins
to be felt in the guttural ach of G. lachen, and is clearly indicated in the redupli
cate form of the Du. lachachen, to hawhaw or laugh loud, preserved by Kilian.
The same principle of expression is carried still further in the Dayak kakakkaka,
to go on laughing loud; Manchu Kaka-kiki, or kaka-faka, Pacific aka-aka, loud
laughter. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian wiiti, to laugh, by quoting from
the ‘Tournament of Tottenham,'
We te he quoth Tyb, and lugh.
In other cases the imitative intention is witnessed by a variation of the vowel
corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Thus crack
signifies a loud hard noise; crick, a sharp short one, like the noise of a glass
breaking; creak, a prolonged sharp sound. Clack expresses such a sound as that
of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other; click, a short sharp
sound, as the click of a latch or a trigger; cluck, a closed or obscure sound.
Hindustani karak is rendered, crash, crack, thunder; kuruk, the clucking of a
hen; Karkarānā, to crackle like oil in boiling; kirkirānā, to gnash the teeth;
kurkurina, to cluck, to grumble. To craunch implies the exertion of greater
force than when we speak of crunching such a substance as frozen snow or a
biscuit. The change through the three vowels, i, a, u, in German, is very com
mon. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knaks, kniks, knuks, as representing
the sound made when something breaks; Anaks, of a loud strong sound; Kniks,
of something fine and thin, like a glass or the chain in a watch; Anuks, when it
gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated or springing back. In the same way
we have Knarren, to creak; knirren, to grate the teeth; knurren, to growl,
grumble; garren, girren, gurren, to jar, coo, rumble, &c. Sometimes the ex
pression is modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel. Thus
in Zulu the sonants b and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirants
p and k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Pefuzela, to Pant; befu
zela, to pant violently (Colenso). But perhaps the expressive power of a word
is brought home to us in the most striking manner when the same significa

tion is rendered by identical or closely similar forms in widely distant languages.

The noise of pieces of metal striking together, or of bells ringing, is represented
in Manchu by the syllables kiling-kiling, kiling-kalang, to be compared with G.
Áling-kling, the tingling sound of a little bell (Ludwig); kling-klang, the sound of
a stringed instrument, the clink of glasses; Lat. clango, E. clank, clink. Manchu
kalar-kilir, for the clinking of keys or tinkling of bells, is identical with G. klirren,
the gingling of glasses, chinking of coin, clash of arms. Manchu tang-lang,
Chinese tsiang-tsiang, for the ringing of bells, correspond to E. ding-dong, and
illustrate the imitative nature of tingle, jingle, jangle. Manchu quar-quar, for the
croaking of frogs, agrees with G. Quarren, to croak; Manchu hak for the sound of
coughing or clearing the throat, with our expression of hawking or of a hacking
cough. Manchu pour-pour represents the sound of boiling water, or the bubbling
up of a spring, corresponding in E. to the purling of a brook, or to Du. borrelen,
to bubble up. Manchu kaka, as Fr. caca and Finnish áákká, are applied to the
excrements of children, while cacá / is used in E. nurseries as an exclamation of
disgust or reprobation, indicating the origin of Gr. kakóc, bad. Manchu tehout
chou-tchatcha, for the sound of privy whispering, brings us to Fr. chuchoter, for
chut-chut-er, to say chut, chut, to whisper. The whispering of the wind is repre
sented in Chinese by the syllables siao-siao (Müller, I. 368), answering to the
Scotch sough or sooch. The imitative syllable which represents the purling of a
spring of water in the name of the Arabian well Zemzem, expresses the sound of
water beginning to boil in E. simmer. The syllables bil-bil, which represent a
ringing sound in Galla billil-goda (to make billil), to ring or jingle, and bilbila,
a bell, are applied to the notes of a singing bird or a pipe in Albanian billil, a
nightingale, a boy's whistle, Turk. billbill, a nightingale. The sound of champ
ing with the jaws in eating is imitated by nearly the same syllables in Galla
djamdjamgoda (to make djamdjam), Magyar csamm-ogni, csam-csogni, and E. champ.
The Turcoman kalabálac'h, uproar, disturbance (F. Newman), has its analogues in
E. hullabaloo and Sanscr. hala-halá-ſabda (£alda, sound), shout, tumult, noise.
The E. pitapat may be compared with Australian pitapitata, to knock, to pelt as
rain, Mantchu patapata, Hindustani bhadbhad for the sound of fruits pattering
down from trees, Fr. patatras for the clash of falling things, Maori pata, drops of
rain (Tylor, Prim. Calt. i. 192). The Galla gigiteka, to giggle, is based on the
same imitation as the E. word, and the same may be said of Zulu kala, cry, wail,
sing as a bird, sound, compared with Gr. ka)\{w, and E. call; as of Tamil muro
muro and E. murmur. The Australian represents the thud of a spear ora bullet strik
ing the object by the syllable toop, corresponding to which we have Galla tub
djeda (to say tub), for a box on the ear; Sanscr. tup, tubh, and Gr. rvir (in römrw,
triarov), to strike. The imitation of the same kind of sound by a nasal intonation
gives the name of the Indian tomtom, and Gr. ripravov, a drum; Galla tuma, to
beat, tumtu, a workman, especially one who beats, a smith. The Chinook jar
gon uses the same imitative syllable in tumtum,” the heart; tumwata, a water
* “Mme P. bent her head, and her heart went thump, thump, at an accelerated note.”
Member for Paris, 1871.

fall, and it is also found in Lat. tum-ultus, w, tymmestl, disturbance, in e. thump,

As. tumbian (to beat the ground), to dance, and Fr. tomber, to fall.
The list of such agreements might be lengthened to any extent. But although
the resemblance of synonymous words in unrelated languages affords a strong pre
sumption in favour of an imitative origin, it must not be supposed that the most
striking dissimilarity is any argument whatever to the contrary. The beating of
a drum is represented in E. by rubadub, answering to G. brumberum, Fr. rataplan
or rantanplan, It. tarapatan, parapatapan. We represent the sound of knocking
at a door by rat-tat-tat-tat, for which the Germans have poch-poch or puk-puk
(Sanders). We use bang, the Germans puff, and the French pouf, for the
report of a gun. Mr Tylor indeed denies that the syllable puff here imitates the
actual sound or bang of the gun, but he has perhaps overlooked the constant
tendency of language to signify the sound of a sudden puff of wind and of the
collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. The It. buffetto signifies as well a
buffet or cuff, as a puff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. So in Fr. we have
souffler, to blow, and soufflet, a box on the ear or a pair of bellows, while E.
blow is applied as well to the force of the wind as to a stroke with a solid body.
The use of G. puff, to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is uni
versally recognised by the dictionaries. ‘ Der puff, the sound of a blow or shock;
bang, blow, thump.’—Nöhden.
No doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is slippery
ground, and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been
maintained on such fanciful grounds as to throw ridicule on the general theory,
or has been claimed for words which can historically be traced to antecedent ele
ments. Nevertheless, it is easy in every language to make out numerous lists of
words to the imitative character of which there will in nine cases out of ten be
an all but universal agreement. Such are bump, thump, plump, thwack, whack,
smack, crack, clack, clap, flap, flop, pop, snap, rap, tap, "pat, clash, crash, smash,
swash, splash, slash, lash, dash, craunch, crunch, douse, souse, whizz, fizz, hiss,
whirr, hum, boom, whine, din, ring, bang, twang, clang, clank, clink, chink,
jingle, tingle, tinkle, creak, squeak, squeal, squall, rattle, clatter, chatter, patter,
mutter, murmur, gargle, gurgle, guggle, sputter, splutter, paddle, dabble, bubble,
blubber, rumble.
Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these, the derivation of words
from direct imitation, without the intervention of orthodox roots, is revolting to
the feelings of Professor Müller, who denounces the lawlessness of doctrines that
“would undo all the work that has been done by Bopp, Humboldt, and Grimm,
and others during the last fifty years—and throw etymology back into a state of
chronic anarchy.” “If it is once admitted that all words must be traced back to
definite roots, according to the strictest phonetic rules, it matters little whether
those roots are called phonetic types, more or less preserved in the innumerable
impressions taken from them, or whether we call them onomatopoeic and inter
jectional. As long as we have definite forms between ourselves and chaos, we
may build our science like an arch of a bridge, that rests on the firm piles fixed

in the rushing waters. If, on the contrary, the roots of language are mere ab
stractions, and there is nothing to separate language from cries and interjections,
then we may play with language as children play with the sands of the sea, but
we must not complain if every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built
on the beach.'—2nd Series, p. 94.
If Grimm and Bopp had established an immovable barrier between us and
chaos, it might save some trouble of thought, but the name of no master of the
Art will now guarantee the solidity of the ground on which we build; we must
take it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. The work of every
man has to stand the brunt of water and of fire, and if wood, hay, or stubble is
found in the building of Grimm or Bopp, or of any meaner name, it is well that
it be burnt up.
We come now to the personal interjections, exclamations intended to make
known affections of the mind, by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under
the influence of the affection indicated by the interjection. Thus ah!, the interj.
of grief, is an imitation of a sigh; ugh 1, the interj. of horror, of an utterance at
the moment of shuddering.
At the first beginning of life, every little pain, or any unsatisfied want, in the
infant, are made known by an instinctive cry. But the infant speedily finds that
his cry brings his mother to his side, that he has only to raise his voice in order
to get taken up and soothed or fed. He now cries no longer on the simple im
pulsion of instinct, but with intelligence of the consolation which follows, and
it is practically found that the child of the unoccupied mother, who has time to
attend to every little want of her nurseling, cries more than that of the hard
working woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to
themselves. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to
all his wants and feelings of discomfort, and wilfully enforces the utterance as a
call for the consolation he desires. But when the infant petulantly cries as a
call for his mother, he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the
cat which comes whining to its master to get the door opened for it. The pur
pose of the cry, in the case of the animal or of the infant, is simply to call the
attention of the mother or the master, without a thought of symbolising to them,
by the nature of the cry, the kind of action that is desired of them. It is not
until the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother, and cries
for the purpose of making her suppose that he is in pain, that he has taken the
first step in rational speech. The utterance of a cry with such a purpose may
be taken as the earliest type of interjectional expression, the principle of which is
clearly enounced by Lieber in his account of Laura Bridgman, formerly cited.
* Crying, wringing the hands, and uttering plaintive sounds, are the sponta
neous symphenomena of despair. He in whom they appear does not intention
ally produce them. He however who beholds them, knows them, because they
are spontaneous, and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisa
tion; and thus they become signs of despair. Henceforth rational beings may
intentionally produce them when they desire to convey the idea of despair.’

The principle which gives rise to interjections is precisely the same as that
which has been so Jargely illustrated in the naming of animals. If I wish to
make a person of an unknown language think of a cow, I imitate the lowing of
the animal; and in the same way when I wish him to know that I am in pain, or
to think of me as suffering pain, I imitate the cry which is the natural expression
of suffering. And as the utterance used in the designation of animals speedily
passes from the imitative to the conventional stage, so it is with the interjec
tions used to express varieties of human passion, which are frequently so toned
down in assuming an articulate form as to make us wholly lose sight of the in
stinctive action which they represent, and from whence they draw their signifi

The nature of interjections has been greatly misunderstood by Müller, who

treats them as spontaneous utterances, and accordingly misses their importance
in illustrating the origin of language. He says, “Two theories have been started
to solve the problem [of the ultimate nature of roots], which for shortness' sake
I shall call the Bowwow theory and the Poohpooh theory. According to the
first, roots are imitations of sounds; according to the second, they are involuntary
interjections.”—1st Series, p. 344. And again, ‘There are no doubt in every
language interjections, and some of them may become traditional, and enter into
the composition of words. But these interjections are only the outskirts of real
language. Language begins where interjections end. There is as much differ
ence between a real word such as to laugh, and the interjection ha ha! as there
is between the involuntary act and noise of sneezing and the verb to sneeze.” “As
in the case of onomatopoeia, it cannot be denied that with interjections too some
kind of language might have been formed; but not a language like that which
we find in numerous varieties among all the races of men. One short interjec
tion may be more powerful, more to the point, more eloquent than a long speech.
In fact, interjections, together with gestures, the movements of the muscles, of
the mouth, and the eye, would be quite sufficient for all purposes which language
answers with the majority of mankind. Yet we must not forget that hum!
ugh tut! pooh! are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures which
usually accompany these exclamations.'—p. 369—371. And to the same effect
he cites from Horne Tooke. ‘The dominion of speech is founded on the down
fall of interjections. Without the artful intervention of language mankind would
have had nothing but interjections with which to communicate orally any of their
feelings. The neighing of a horse, the lowing of a cow, the barking of a dog,
the purring of a cat, sneezing, coughing, groaning, shrieking, and every other in
voluntary convulsion with oral sound, have almost as good a title to be called
parts of speech as interjections have. Voluntary interjections are only employed
where the suddenness and vehemence of some affection or passion return men to
their natural state and make them forget the use of speech, or when from some
circumstance the shortness of time will not permit them to exercise it.'—Diver
sions of Purley, p. 32. When the words of Tooke are cited in opposition to the
claims of interjections to be considered as parts of speech, it should be remem

bered, that to say that the cries of beasts have almost as good a title to the name
of language as interjections, is practically to recognise that some additional func
tion is performed by interjections, and the difference thus hazily recognised by
Tooke is, in truth, the fundamental distinction between instinctive utterance and
rational speech.
The essence of rational speech lies in the intention of the speaker to impress
something beyond the mere sound of the utterance on the mind of the hearer.
And it is precisely this which distinguishes interjections from instinctive cries. It
is not speaking when a groan of agony is wrung from me, but when I imitate a
groan by the interjection ah / for the purpose of obtaining the sympathy of my
hearer, then speech begins. So, when I am humming and hawing, I am not
speaking, but when I cry hm / to signify that I am at a loss what to say, it is not
the less language because my meaning is expressed by a single syllable. It is
purely accident that the syllables haha, by which we interjectionally represent the
sound of laughter, have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the grammatic
al part of our language, as is actually the case in some of the North American
dialects, for example, in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnehaha, explained
as signifying the laughing water. The same imitation may be clearly discerned
in Magy. hahota, loud laughter, in Fin. hahottaa, hohottaa, and somewhat veiled
in Arab. Kahkahah, Gr. Kaxážw, kayyáčw, Lat. cachinno, to hawhaw or laugh
loud and unrestrainedly.
Müller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of
animals and other natural sounds, and others from interjections, and thus, he says,
some kind of language might have been formed, which would be quite sufficient
for all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men, yet not a
language like that actually spoken among men. But he does not explain in what
fundamental character a language so formed would differ from our own, nor can
he pretend to say that the words which originate in interjections are to be dis
tinguished from others.
To admit the mechanism as adequate for the production of language, and yet
to protest that it could not have given rise to such languages as our own, because
comparatively few of the words of our languages have been accounted for on this
principle, is to act as many of us may remember to have done when Scrope and
Lyell began to explain the modern doctrines of Geology. We could not deny
the reality of the agencies, which those authors pointed out as in constant opera
tion at the present day on the frame-work of the earth, demolishing here, and
there re-arranging, over areas more or less limited; but we laughed at the suppo
sition that these were the agencies by which the entire crust of the earth was
actually moulded into its present form. Yet these prejudices gradually gave way
under patient illustrations of the doctrine, and it came to be seen by every one that
if the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workers could have produced the
effects attributed to them, by continued operation through unlimited periods of
time, it would be unreasonable to seek for the cause of the phenomena in
miracle or in convulsions of a kind of which we have no experience in the history

of the world. And so in the case of language, when once a rational origin of
words has been established on the principle of imitation, the critical question
should be, whether the words explained on this principle are a fair specimen of
the entire stock, whether there is any cognisable difference between them and
the rest of language; and not, what is the numerical proportion of the two
classes, whether the number of words traced to an imitative origin embraces a
fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language.
There can be no better key to the condition of mind in which the use of
speech would first have begun, than the language of gesture in use among the
deaf-and-dumb, which has been carefully studied by Mr Tylor, and admirably de
scribed in his ‘Early History of Mankind.’ ‘The Gesture-language and Picture
writing,' he says, “insignificant as they are in practice in comparison with speech
and phonetic writing, have this great claim to consideration, that we can really
understand them as thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything, and by
studying them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the
human mind which underlies anything which has as yet been traced in even the
lowest dialect of language, if taken as a whole. Though, with the exception of
words which are evidently imitative, like peewit and cuckoo, we cannot at present
tell by what steps man came to express himself by words, we can at least see how
he still does come to express himself by signs and pictures, and so get some idea
of the nature of this great movement, which no lower animal is known to have
made or shown the least sign of making.’ ‘The Gesture-language is in great
part a system of representing objects and ideas by a rude outline-gesture, imitat
ing their most striking features. It is, as has been well said by a deaf-and-dumb
man, a Picture-language. Here at once its essential difference from speech be
comes evident. Why the words stand and go mean what they do is a question to
which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer, and if we had been taught
to say stand where we now say go, and go where we now say stand, it would be
practically all the same to us. No doubt there was a sufficient reason for these
words receiving the meanings they now bear, but so far as we are concerned there
might as well have been none, for we have quite lost sight of the connection be
tween the word and idea. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea
and sign not only always exists, but is scarcely lost sight of for a moment. When
a deaf-and-dumb child holds his two first fingers forked like a pair of legs, and
makes them stand and walk upon the table, we want no teaching to tell us what
this means nor why it is done. The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-and
dumb is the language of signs. The evidence of the best observers tends to prove
that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own minds
without the aid of speaking men. The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from
their own experience how Gesture-signs originate.
The following account is given by Kruse, a deaf-mute himself, and a well
known teacher of deaf-mutes, and author of several works of no small ability:—
“Thus the deaf-and-dumb must have a language without which no thought can be
brought to pass. But here nature soon comes to his help. What strikes him

most, or what makes a distinction to him between one thing and another, such
distinctive signs of objects are at once signs by which he knows these objects, and
knows them again; they become tokens of things. And whilst he silently
elaborates the signs he has found for single objects, that is, whilst he describes
their forms for himself in the air, or imitates them in thought with hands,
fingers, and gestures, he developes for himself suitable signs to represent ideas,
which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of different kinds in his mind, and
recalling them to his memory. And thus he makes himself a language, the so
called Gesture-language, and with these few scanty and imperfect signs a way for
thought is already broken, and with his thought, as it now opens out, the lan
guage cultivates itself, and forms further and further.’
Mr Tylor proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the Deaf-and-Dumb
Institution at Berlin:—
‘To express the pronouns I, thou, he, I push my fore-finger against the pit
of my stomach for I, push it towards the person addressed for thou, point with
my thumb over my right shoulder for he. When I hold my right hand flat
with the palm down at the level of my waist, and raise it towards the level of
my shoulder, that signifies great; but if I depress it instead, it means little. The
sign for man is taking off the hat; for child, the right elbow is dandled upon the
left hand. The adverb hither and the verb to come have the same sign, beckon
ing with the finger towards oneself. To hold the first two fingers apart, like a
letter V, and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. To touch the ear
and tongue with the forefinger is to hear, and to taste. To speak is to move
the lips as in speaking, and to move the lips thus while pointing with the fore
finger out from the mouth is name, or to name, as though one should define it to
point out by speaking. To pull up a pinch of flesh from the back of one's hand
is flesh or meat. Make the steam curling up from it with the forefinger, and it
becomes roast meat. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips
and flap with the arms, and that means goose ; put the first sign and these to
gether, and we have roast goose. To seize the most striking outline of an object,
the principal movement of an action, is the whole secret, and this is what the
rudest savage can do untaught, nay, what is more, can do better and more easily
than the educated man.'
In the Institutions, signs are taught for many abstract terms, such as when or
yet, or the verb to be, but these, it seems, are essentially foreign to the nature of
the Gesture-language, and are never used by the children among themselves.
The Gesture-language has no grammar, properly so called. The same sign stands
for the agent, his action, and the act itself, for walk, walkest, walked, walker, the
particular sense in which the sign is to be understood having to be gathered
from the circumstances of the case. ‘A look of inquiry converts an assertion
into a question, and fully serves to make the difference between The master is
come, and Is the master come 2 The interrogative pronouns who 2 what 2 are
made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner; in fact, by a num
ber of unsuccessful attempts to say, he, that. The deaf-and-dumb child's way of

asking, Who has beaten you? would be, You beaten ; who was it?' Where
the inquiry is of a more general nature, a number of alternatives are suggested.
‘The deaf-and-dumb child does not ask, What did you have for dinner yester
day? but, Did you have soup 2 did you have porridge? and so forth.-What is
expressed by a genitive case or a corresponding preposition may have a distinct
sign of holding in the Gesture-language. The three signs to express the gar
dener's knife, might be the knife, the garden, and the action of grasping the
knife, putting it into his pocket, or something of the kind. But the mere
putting together of the possessor and possessed may answer the purpose.'
The vocal signs used at the first commencement of speech would differ from
the gestures which they supplemented or replaced only in being addressed to the
ear instead of the eye. Each separate utterance would be designed to lead the
hearer to the thought of some scene of existence or sensible image associated with
the sound which the utterance is intended to represent, and it might be used to
signify a substantive object, or a quality, or action, according to the circumstances
of the case. The deaf-mute touches his lip to signify either the lip itself or the
colour red, and the word lip might equally have been used in both these senses,
as, in fact, the term pink is applied indifferently to a particular flower and a mix
ture of white and red, or orange to a certain fruit and its peculiar colour. An
imitation of the sound of champing with the jaws might with equal propriety
signify either something to eat or the act of eating, and on this principle we have
above explained the origin of words like mum or nim, which may occasionally be
heard in our nurseries expressing indifferently the senses of eat or of food. Nor is
this comprehensiveness of signification confined to the self-developed language of
children. In ordinary English the same word may often be used in such a con
struction as to make it either verb or noun, substantive or adjective, or sometimes
interjection or adverb also. When I speak of going to hunt or to fish, gram
marians would call the word a verb. When I speak of joining the hunt or catching
a fish, it is a substantive. In the expression of a hunt-ball or fish-dinner the prior
element is used to qualify the meaning of the following noun, and thus performs
the part of an adjective. The syllable bang represents a loud dull sound, and when
it is uttered simply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound,
as when I say, Bang ! went the gun, it is called an interjection. But when it is
meant to indicate the action of a certain person, as when I say, Do not bang the
door, it is a verb. When it expresses the subject or the object of action, as in the
sentence, He gave the door a bang, it is a noun. When I say, He ran bang up
against the wall, bang qualifies the meaning of the verb ran, and so is an adverb.
But these grammatical distinctions dependentirely upon the use, in other instances
or in other languages, of appropriate modifications of the significant syllable,
whether by additions or otherwise, in expressing such relations as those indicated
above. The office of all words at the beginning of speech, like that of the Inter
jections at the present day, would be simply to bring to mind a certain object of
thought, and it would make no difference in the nature of the word whether that
object was an agent, or an act, or a passive scene of existence. The same word

moo would serve to designate the lowing of the cow or the cow itself. It is only
when a word, signifying an attribute of this person or of that, coalesces with the
personal pronouns, or with elements expressing relations of time, that the verb
will begin to emerge as a separate kind of word from the rest of speech. In the
same way the coalescence with elements indicating that the thing signified is the
subject or the object of action, or expressing the direction of motion to or from
the thing, or some relation between it and another object, will give rise to the
class of nouns. We have in Chinese an example of a language in which neither
verb nor noun has yet been developed, but every syllable presents an independent
image to the mind, the relations of which are only marked by the construction of
the sentence, so that the same word may signify under different circumstances
what would be expressed by a verb, a noun, or an adjective in an inflectional
language. The syllable ta conveys the idea of something great, and may be used
in the sense of great, greatness, and to be great. Thus tafu signifies a great man;
fu ta, the man is great.—Müller I. 255. The sense of in a place is expressed in
Chinese by adding such words as cung, middle, or nei, inside, as Kuo cung, in the
empire. The instrumental relation is indicated by the syllable y, which is an old
word meaning use; as y ting (use stick), with a stick. It is universally supposed
that the case-endings of nouns in Greek, Latin, and Sanscrit have arisen from the
coalescence of some such elements as the above, as in the case of our own com
pounds, whereto, whereof, wherefore, whereby, wherewith, the subsidiary element
being slurred over in pronunciation, and gradually worn down until all clue to its
original form and signification has been wholly lost. It is otherwise with the
personal inflections of the verbs, whose descent from the personal pronouns is in
many cases clear enough.
Interjections are of the same simple significance as the words in Chinese, or
as all words must have been at the first commencement of speech. Their mean
ing is complete in itself, not implying a relation to any other conception. The
purpose of the interjection is simply to present a certain object to the imagina
tion of the hearer, leaving him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any
preceding or following words, as if successive scenes of visible representation were
brought before his eyes. The term is chiefly applied to exclamations intended
to express a variety of mental or bodily affections, pain, grief, horror, contempt,
wonder, &c., by imitating some audible accompaniment of the affection in ques
tion. Thus the notion of pain or grief is conveyed by an imitation of a sigh or
a groan; the idea of dislike and rejection by an imitation of the sound of spit
ting. The interjection will be completely accounted for in an etymological
point of view, when it is traced to a recognised symphenomenon (as Lieber calls
it) of the affection, that is, to some outward display of the affection, that admits
of audible representation. Why the affection should display itself in such a
manner is a question beyond the bounds of etymological inquiry, but is often
self-evident, as in the case of spitting as a sign of dislike.
The interjections which occupy the most prominent place in the class are
perhaps those which represent a cry of pain, a groan, a sigh of oppression and
£ 2

grief. Such are G. ach, Gael. ach, och, ochan, w. och, E. ah, oh, It. ai, ahi, ohi,
Gr. oi, º, Lat. ah, oh, oi, hei, Illyr. jao, jaoh. A widespread form, representing
probably a deeper groan, is seen in Gr. ovat, Lat. vac, It. guai, w. guae, Illyr.
vaj, Goth. wai, ohG. u’á, wºu'a, As. wa, witu'a, E. woe, on. vei.
The representation of a sigh or groan by the syllable ah! ah! assumes the
shape of a substantive or a verb in w. och, ochan, G. ach, a groan or lamentation;
w. ochi, ochain, G. achen, ächzen, to groan, Gr. ixopat, to bewail oneself, aka
xt{w (to cry ach! ach!) dyéw, ſixvvut, to grieve, to mourn. It passes on to
signify the cause of the groaning in As. ace, ace, e. ache, pain, suffering, and in
Gr. axoc, pain, grief. The form corresponding to Lat. vac, however, has more
generally been used in the construction of words signifying pain, grief, misery.
G. weh, pain, grief, affliction; die wehen, the pangs of childbirth; kopfweh,
zahnweh, headache, toothache; wehen (Schmeller), to ache, to hurt; Let. wai
iát, to injure; Illyrian vaj, w. guae, It. guajo, misfortune, woe.
It is very common in an early stage of speech to form verbs by the addition
of elements signifying say or make to an imitative syllable. Thus in the lan
guage of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacak
(where c stands for a click with the tongue); the chirping of birds by the syllable
tirr or trrr; the champing of the jaws by djamdjam ; and cacak djeda (to say
cacak) is to crack; tirr-djeda, to chirp; djamdjam goda (goda, to make), to
smack or make a noise as swine in eating. A similar formation is frequent in
Sanscrit, and is found in G. weh schreien, weh klagen, to cry woe to lament;
wehthun, to do woe, to cause pain, to ache. A more artificial way of express
ing action is to replace the elements signifying say or make by the sound of an
l, n, or r, in Gr, mostly a x, at the close of the radical syllable. Thus the Latin
has la-l-are, to cry laa the Piedmontese, far lau-lau, and more artificially
lau-l-ć, to make bow-wow, to bark; Fr. miau-l-er, to cry miau / Albanian
miau-l-is, miau-n-is, I mew; Gr. aidºw, to cry al, ai, to lament, opéºw, to cry
otpot, ah me! Yapyaptºw, to sound yapyap, to gargle. In this way from the
root guai, wai, representing a cry of pain, are formed E. wai-l, It. guaj-ire, guaj
ol-ire, to yell or cry out pitifully, to lament, Bret. gue-l-a, to weep, N. vei-a, on.
vei-n-a (to cry vei !), to yell, howl, lament, G. weinen, to weep.
We get a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in the way in which the
interjection sometimes coalesces with the personal pronoun. The utterance of
the interjection alone would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker
himself, but when joined with the mention of another person, the exclamation
would refer with equal clearness to the suffering of the person designated. Pae
tibil Pae victis / Woe unto thee! Woe unto them Accordingly, when the
speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as the sufferer, he adds the pro
noun of the first person. Hei mihi / Ah me / Aye me / Sp. Ay di me / Gr.
oipo, It, ohimé/ oimé/ Illyr. vajme / Let. waiman / woe is me. And so com
plete is the coalescence of the interjection and the pronoun in some of these
cases, as to give rise to the formation of verbs like a simple root. Thus from
oipo, springs oipółw, to wail, lament; from oimé, oimare, to wail or cry alas

(Florio); from Let. waiman / waimanas, lamentation, waimanát, to lament,

showing the formation of the oe. waiment, of the same signification. Now if
we examine the purport of the utterance ohimé / ah me / we shall see that it is
intended to let the hearer know that the speaker is in pain or grief, and thus has
essentially the same meaning with the Gr. 3xopat I bemoan myself, I cry ach!
I am in pain. And no one doubts that the uai of 3xopat is the pronoun of the
first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion
which is expressed in the clearest manner by a syllable like &X or ach, represent
ing a cry of pain.
The interjection in Italian coalesces also with the pronoun of the second and
third person: ohitu ! alas for thee, ohisé! alas for him (Florio), suffering to thee,
to him, corresponding to Gr. ixegat, dxerat, although in these last the identity
of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun is not so clearly marked as
in the case of the first person of the verb.
The effects of cold and fear on the human frame closely resemble each other.
They check the action of the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a con
vulsive shudder, under which the sufferer cowers together with his arms pressed
against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of which
will afford a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with which
it is associated. Hence, in the first place, the interjection ugh' (in German uh!
hu ! in French ouſ !) expressive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced
with a conscious imitation of the sound which accompanies a shudder. Then
losing its imitative character the representative syllable appears under the form of
ug or hug, as the root of verbs and adjectives indicating shuddering and horror.
Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver. The oe. ug or houge was used in the
sense of shudder at, feel abhorrence at.

The rattling drum and trumpet's tout

Delight young swankies that are stout;
What his kind frighted mother ugs
Is musick to the sodger's lugs.-Jamieson, Sc. Dict.

In a passage of Hardyng cited by Jamieson it is related how the Abbess of Cold

inghame, having cut off her own nose and lips for the purpose of striking the
Danish ravishers with horror,
‘Counseiled al her systers to do the same
To make their foes to houge so with the sight.
And so they did, afore the enemies came
Eche-on their nose and overlip full right
Cut off anon, which was an hougly sight.'
Here, as Jamieson observes, the passage clearly points out the origin of the word
ugly as signifying what causes dread or abhorrence, or (carrying the derivation to
its original source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh'
Ugh / the odious ugly fellow.—Countess of St Albans.

It may be observed that we familiarly use frightful, or dreadfully ugly, for the
extreme of ugliness. The radical syllable is compounded with a different termin
ation in Scotch ugsome, what causes horror.
The ugsomeness and silence of the nycht
In every place my sprete made sore aghast.—Douglas, Virgil.
From the same root are on. ugga, to fear, to have apprehension of ; uggr, fright,
apprehension; uggligr, frightful, threatening; uggsamr, timorous. Then as
things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike us with awe and terror, to
make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to
signify excessive size, a fearful size. The connection of the cry with a certain
bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of
pressing the arms against the breast, which forms a prominent feature in the
shudder of cold or horror, and is done in a voluntary way in a close embrace or
the like.

GR. Baſłat LAT. BABAe 1 PAPE"

The manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by the
instinctive opening of the mouth, is familiar to every one.
I saw a smith stand with his hammer—thus,
The whilst his iron did on his anvil cool,
With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news.-K. John.
The physical cause of the phenomenon appears to be, that the least exertion
in breathing interferes with the power of catching any very slight sounds for
which we are listening; and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth open,
when we are intently engaged in the observation of an object of apprehension or
wonder, listening for every sound that may proceed from it, the mouth instinct
ively opens in order to calm down the function of breathing, and to give the fairest
play to the sense of hearing. Now the exertion of the voice at the moment of
opening the lips produces the syllable ba, which is found as the root of words in
the most distant languages signifying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect,
wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomenon)
gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general. The repetition of the syl
lable ba, ba, gives the interjection of wonder in Greek and Latin, Bagat babae!
papae! The exclamation ba / is used in the North of France in a similar manner,
according to Hécart (Dict. Rouchi), and the same author explains babaie as one
who stares with open mouth, a gaping booby. Walloon lawi, to gaze with open
mouth (Grandgagnage); eslawi, Old English abaw, Fr. bahir, abaulir, to cause
to cry ba / to set agape, to astonish.
In himself was all his state
More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits
On princes, when their rich retinue long
Of horses led and grooms besmeared with gold,
Dazzles the crowd, and sets them all agape.—Milton.
In the remote Zulu we find balaza, to astonish. The significant syllable is

strengthened by a final d in several of the Romance dialects (‘the d being in an

cient Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.”—Quart. Rev. No. 148), as in It.
badare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tarry, stay; stare a lada, to observe,
to watch, to wait; stadigliare, Provençal badalhar, to yawn; ladar, to open the
mouth, gola badada, with open mouth; pouerto ladiero, an open door; Fr. bader,
to open (Vocab. de Berri), ladault (badaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.);
Catalan badia, Portuguese bahia, an opening where the sea runs up into the land,
a bay; Breton badalein, to yawn; lada, badaoui, to be stupified, dazzled, aston
ished. In France the simpler form of the root, without the addition of the final
d, gives Old Fr. baer, laier, béer, to be intent upon, to hanker after, to gape;
bouche béante, à gueule bée, with open mouth ; bailler, to gape or yawn. Abaier
is explained by Lacombe, ‘6couter avec 6tonnement, bouche béante, inhiare lo
quenti.” The adoption of Fr. alaier gave rise to e. abeyance, expectation, sus
pense, and oe. alie, to remain, abide, endure.
At sight of her they sudden all arose
In great amaze, ne wist which way to chuse,
But Jove all fearless forced them to abie.—F. Queen.

The same transition from the sense of earnest observation to that of expecta
tion or mere endurance until a certain end, is seen in Latin attendere, to observe,
to direct the mind to, and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait; and again in Italian
guatare, to look, to watch, compared with E. wait, which is radically identical
and was itself originally used in the sense of look.
Beryn clepyd a maryner, and bad hym sty on loſt,
And weyte aftir our four shippis aftir us doith dryve.

As the vowel of the root is thinned down from a to i in the series baer, baier,
abaier, aly, or in Gr. (xãw) xatvw, xàokw, compared with Lat. hio, to gape, we
learn to recognise a similar series in It. badare, Gothic leidan, to look out for, to
expect, await, and E. bide, abide, to wait.

A representation of a whispering or rustling sound by the utterance of a pro

longed sh or ss, or of different combinations of s with h, p, or t, is widely used for
the purpose of demanding silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listen.
Hence the interjections of silence, hush / hist / whist / pist / (Hal), Sc. whish
whisht ! G. ps! psch / pst / husch I tusch ' Da. tys / Sw, tyst / Lat. st/ It. xitto,
Piedm. cito / ciuto / Fr. chut / Turk. st'sá / Ossetic ss / sos / silence! Fernandian
sia / listen tush! Yoruba sio! pshaw! (Tylor, Prim. Cult. I. 178.)
The interjection seems in all cases to arise from a representation of a low
whispering sound, but the principle on which it acts as a demand of silence may
be explained in two ways. In the first place it may be understood as an exhort
ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or more urgently, not to let even a whisper
or a rustle be heard; but more generally perhaps it is to be understood as an in

timation to be on the watch for the least whisper that can be heard, for which
purpose it is necessary that the hearer should keep perfectly still. Thus we have
Sc. whish, whilsh, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper.—Jam.
Lat her yelp on, be you as calm’s a mouse,
Nor lat your whisht be heard into the house.
The It. xitto is used exactly in the same way; non fare zitto, not to make the
least sound; non sentirse un zitto, not a breath to be heard; stare zitto, to be
silent. Pissipissi, pst, hsht, still ; also a low whispering; pissipissare, to psh, to
hsht; also to buzz or whisper very low.—Fl. To pister or whister are provincially
used in the sense of whisper.—Hal. The w. hust (pronounced hist), a buzzing
noise, hush (Rhys), husting, whisper, speak low, correspond to E. hist / silenceſ
listen! In the same way answering to G. tusch / Da. tys / hush! the G. has tus
chen, tuscheln, to whisper; zischen, zischeln, xiischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper.
G. husch/ represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly through
the air. ‘ Husch / sausen wir husch / durch rusch und durch busch.' * Husch /
was rauscht dort in den gebüschen." In this last example it will be seen that the
interjection may be understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that
is heard in the bushes, or as an intimation to listen to it. The Gr. oićw, to give
the sound at, to hiss, signifies also, to cry hush' to command silence, showing
that the syllable at, like the Fernandian sia' was used in the sense of hush.
Hence must be explained Lat. sileo, Goth. silan (formed on the plan of Lat. ta
l-o, to cry baa), to be hushed or silent. In Gr. ovyáw, to be silent, otyáčw, to put
to silence, the root has the form of E. sigh, representing the sound of a deep-drawn
breath, or the whispering of the wind. In like manner the Sc. souch, sugh,
swouch, souf, oe, swough, Magy, sug-, suh-, representing the sound of the wind, or
of heavy breathing, lead to Sc. souch, silent, calm. To keep a calm souch ; to
keep souch, to keep silent.—Jam. Hence As. suurian, swugan, swigan, G. schwei
gen, to be silent. The syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimes
varied by the introduction of an l after the initial w, f, or h. Thus from forms
like whisper (G. wispern, wispeln), whister, pister, whist / hist / we pass to As.
wlisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, G. fispern, flüstern, to whisper,
on. hlusta, to listen, As. hlyst, gehlyst, the sense of hearing. The primitive mute
then falls away, leaving the initial l alone remaining, as in G. lispeln, to whisper,
also to lisp; Du. luysteren, to whisper, as well as to listen (Kil.); E. list / synon
ymous with hist / hark, and thence the verb to listen.
The notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice is very generally conveyed
by modifications of the syllable mu, representing the sound made with the closing
lips; mu, mum, mut, muk, mus, to which are often added a rhyming accompani
ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, hubble-bubble, helter-skelter.
Thus we have Gr. pºew pºre ypúčew, to say neither mu nor gru, not to utter a
syllable; Lat. muttio or mutio, as E. mutter, to say mut, to utter low indistinct
sounds; non muttire, non dicere muttum, to keep silence. Equivalent phrases are
Fr. ne sonner mot; It. non fare ne motto me totto (Altieri); Sp. no decir mus me
chus, ni mistar ni chistar; Du. noch mikken noch kikken; G. nicht micken, nicht

mir noch kir sagen; Swiss nicht mutz thun. The form mum may perhaps be from
a repetition of the imitative syllable mu mu, as in Wei mumu, dumb. It is used by
the author of Pierce Plowman in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking
of the avarice of the monks, he says that you may sooner
——mete the mist on Malvern hills
Than get a mum of their mouths ere money be them shewed.
Hence, by ellipse of the negative, mum / silence Fr. Mom / ne parlez plus
— Palsgr. In the same way the Fr. uses mot, as, ne sonnex mot / not a syllable !
With every step of the track leading up to the Lat. mutus, speechless, so clearly
marked out, it is impossible to hesitate between the formation of the word in the
manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr. mt!, to bind, maintained
by Müller, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to
regard the question as conclusively settled by the most confident production of
a Sanscrit root. As the Fr. uses both mom / and mot / as an injunction of
silence, so a person stands mum or mute when not a mum or a mut comes from
his mouth. Moreover, the sense of speechlessness is expressed on the same
principle in the most distant tongues. Thus from Magy. Kuk, a slight sound,
is formed kukkanni (identical with the Da. kikken in the expression noch mikken
noch kikken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb. The Vei mumu, Mpongwe imamu,
dumb, are essentially identical with our mum, silent, whence mummers, actors in
dumbshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips;
Tahitian omumo, to murmur; mamu, to be silent ; Fiji nomonomo, Chilian fiomn,
to be silent; Quiché mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb.-Prim. Cult. I.
The ideas of silence and secresy or concealment are so closely connected, that
from pºw we readily pass to uvariptov, the secret rites of Greek worship, whence
E. mystery, something hidden from the comprehension. In the same way from
the representative mus (Sp. no decir mus nichus) we have Lat. musso, to mutter,
to be silent, and thence Fr. musser, to hide; musse, a private hoard. ‘Cil que
musce les furmens, est escommengé is gens: qui abscondit frumenta maledicetur
in populis.’ Cotgrave calls hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the
parallel form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, applied
to what is done in secret, and mucker, to lay up a (secret) store. Exmoor mug
gard (muttering), sullen, displeased.—Halliwell. Gr. ºvyuác, a muttering.

The interſ. hem / ahem / him / hum / represent the sound made in clearing
the throat in order to call the attention of the hearer to the speaker. In Latin it
has frequently the force of the interj. en / (which may be merely another mode
of representing the same utterance) when the speaker points to something, or
does something to which he wishes to call attention. Hem Davum tibi: Here!
(pointing) there is Davus for you. Oves scabrae sunt, tam glabrae, hem, quam
haec est manus:—as smooth, see here ! as this hand. When addressed to a person

going away it has the effect of stopping him or calling him back. Thus Du. hem
is explained by Weiland an exclamation to make a person stand still: hem / hoor
hier, hallo! hark there. Mr Tylor notices an analogous exclamation mma / ‘hallo,
stop,' in the language of Fernando Po. Then, as the notion of bringing to a stand
naturally leads to that of stopping a person in something that he is doing, the
interj. ham / is used in Hesse as a prohibition to children. Ham / ham / Don't
touch that, leave that alone. Hum / Humme / an interj. of prohibition.—Brem.
Wtb. Hence hamm holln, to keep one in check, to restrain. Du sast mi
woll hamm holln, you shall attend to my hamm / shall stay where I chuse, do
as I direct (Danneil). The conversion of the interj. into a verb gives Du. hemmen,
hammen, to call back by crying hem / (Weiland), and G. hemmen, to restrain, keep
back, to stop or hinder a proceeding; together with the E. hem, to confine. “They
hem me in on every side.' A hem” is the doubling down which confines the threads
of a garment and hinders them from ravelling out.
The point of greatest interest about the interj. hem is that it offers a possible,
and as it seems to me a far from improbable, origin of the pronoun me, Gr. emo-,
as shown in the cases Épov, pot, tué. We have seen that the primary purpose
of the interj. is to call the attention of the hearer to the presence of the person
who utters the exclamation, and this, it must be observed, is precisely the office of
the pronoun me, which signifies the person of the speaker. Hem is often used
in Latin when the speaker turns his thoughts upon himself. Hem misera
occidiſ Ah wretched me ! I am lost. Hem scio jam quid vis dicere. Let me
see—I know what you would say. In the line
Me, Me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite tela,
we might read the passage without alteration of the meaning,
Hem Hem adsum qui feci.
The use of articulations consisting mainly of the sound of m or n to signify the
speaker himself, is so widely spread in every family of man, that this mode of
designation must be based on some very obvious principle of significance.
In an interesting paper on the pronouns of the first and second person by Dr
Lottner, in the Philological Trans. of 1859, he shows that in upwards of seventy
Negro languages the pronoun of the first person is ma, me, mi, man, na, ne, nge,
ngi, ni, in, with m and n as personal prefixes. And the word is formed on the same
plan in almost all families of language. In the Finnic family we have Ostiac ma,
Vogul am, Lap. mon; in Turkish -m as possessive affix, as in bala-m, my father.
Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean nai, Australian ngai, Kassia nga,
Kol ing, aing, Tamul man, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of
N. and S. America, mi, ne, no, na, miye, in, ane, ani, &c. The Bushmen of the Cape,
* Mr Tylor cites the derivation of G. hemmen, “to stop, check, restrain,” from the interj.
ſhem / signifying stop as an obvious extravagance. There is however so close a connection
in meaning between the interjection and the verb, that it is not easy to understand the grounds
of the censure from the mouth of one who fully admits the legitimacy of derivation from inter

whose pronoun of the first person is written mm by Lichtenstein, probably retain

the purest type of the expression, the principle of which appears to be the confine
ment of the voice within the person of the speaker, by the closure of the lips or
teeth in the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It is certain that something of this
kind is felt when we sound the voice through the nose in an inarticulate way
with closed lips, in order to intimate that we are keeping our thoughts to ourselves,
and are not prepared, or do not choose, to give them forth in speech. The sound
which we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the shape of the interj.
hm / and as it marks the absorption of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might
naturally be used to designate himself in the early lispings of language before the
development of the personal pronouns: in other words, it might serve as the basis
of the pronoun me. Nor is the formation of the pronoun on such a plan by any
means a new suggestion. -

The Grammarian Nigidius (as quoted by A. Gellius, l. x. c. 4) asserts that in

pronouncing the pronoun of the first person (ego, mihi, nos), we hem in, as it
were, the breath within ourselves (spiritum quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemus),
and hence he conceives that the word is naturally adapted to the meaning it ex
presses. He probably felt the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun
deringly extended it to ego, in the pronunciation of which there is certainly no
hemming in of the voice. It is of the nasals m, n, ng only that this character
can properly be affirmed, and these, as we have seen, seem to be indifferently
employed as the basis of me and its correlatives all over the globe. Plato in the
Cratylus speaks of the letter n as keeping the sound within the speaker, and on
that principle implicitly explains the meaning of the preposition iv, in, which is
the mere articulation of the consonantal sound in question.
The application of an interj. signifying see here / to the sense of me, would
be strictly parallel to the use of It. ci and vi, properly signifying here and there, in
the sense of us and you. Other instances of a like nature are given by W. v.
Humboldt in his essay on the connection between the adverbs of place and the
personal pronouns. Thus in the language of Tonga, mei signifies hither, motion
towards the speaker; atu, motion from the speaker to the person spoken to, and
these particles are used in construction (like It. ci and vi) for me or us and you.
‘Bea behe mei he tânga faſine’—when spoke hither the several women, i. e.
when several women spoke to me or us. So tdila, to tell; tāla mei, to tell
hither, to tell me or us ; tāla tu, to tell thither, to tell you. Here we seem to
have the very forms of the Lat. pronouns me and tu, for which it is remarkable
that the Tonga has totally different words, au and coy. In Armenian there is a
suffix s, which originally means this or here, but takes the meaning of I and my.
Thus hair-s, this father, I a father, my father. In American slang a man speaks
of himself as this child.
Another consequence of the closing of the mouth in the utterance of the
sound of m or n may explain the use of those articulations in expressing rejec
tion, refusal, negation. The earliest type of rejection is the closing of the
mouth, and the aversion of the head from the proffered breast, and the inherent

propriety of the symbolism is obvious. De Brosses observes that the articulations

n and s, both of which he considers as nasal sounds, are naturally adapted to sig
nify negation or contrariety, giving as examples the words infinity and It. Sfor
tunato. He overlooks the fact, however, that this It. s is merely the remnant of
a Lat. dis, and gives no other example of the supposed negative power of the
letter. Moreover, the reason he suggests for attributing such a significance to
the nasals is simply absurd. Of the two channels, he says (ch. xiv. § 29), by which
the voice is emitted, the nose is the least used, and it changes the sound of the
vowel, which adapts it for the interjection of doubt, and for the expression of
the privative idea. The expression of negation by means of nasals is exemplified
in Goth, mi, Lat. me, in (in composition), Gr. un, Masai (E. Africa) emme, eme, m-;
Vei ma; Haussa ji, ii, representing a sound of which it is impossible to convey a
correct idea by visible signs.—Schön. Mr Tylor cites Botocudo yna (making
the loudness of the sound indicate the strength of the negation); Tupi aan, admi;
Guato mau ; Miranha mani; Quichua ama, manan (whence manamiii, to deny);
Quiché ma, man, mana; Galla ha, hin, hm Coptic an, emmen, em, mmn;
Fernandian ‘nt, all signifying not.

The most universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life is the appe
tite for food, and it is accordingly from this source that are taken the types used
in expressing the ideas of gratification or dislike. The savage expresses his ad
miration and pleasure by smacking his lips or rubbing his belly, as if relishing
food or rejoicing in a hearty meal; he indicates distaste and rejection by signs of
spitting out a nauseous mouthful. Thus Petherick, speaking of a tribe of negroes
on the Upper Nile, says, “The astonishment and delight of these people at our
display of beads was great, and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing
of their bellies."—Egypt and the Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced
by Leichardt from the remoter savages in Australia. “They very much admired
our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog. They expressed
their admiration by a peculiar smacking or clacking with their mouth and lips.'
—Australia, p. 336.
The syllable smack, by which we represent the sound made by the lips or
tongue in kissing or tasting, is used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, &c., in
the sense of taste. Du. smaeck, taste; smaecklic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to
the taste. In the Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant
at the beginning of words, the loss of the initial s gives Esthonian maggo, makko,
taste; maggus, makke, Fin. makia, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the
lips; maisto, taste; maiskis, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies. The
initial s is lost also in Fris. macke, to kiss. The initial consonant is somewhat
varied without impairing the imitative effect in Bohemian mlaskati, to smack in
eating; mlaskanina, delicacies; and in Fin. maskia, G. Knatschen, to smack with
the mouth in eating, showing the origin of Lettish naschkeht, G. maschen, to be
nice in eating, to love delicacies; ndscherei, dainties.

Again, we have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack as
equally appropriate to represent the sound made by the tongue and palate in the
enjoyment of tasty food, and in French, claſuer de la langue is employed for the
same purpose. We speak of a click with the tongue, though we do not happen
to apply it to the smack in tasting. The Welsh has gwefusglec (gurefus, lip), a
smack with the lips, a kiss. From this source then we may derive Gr. YAvkic,
sweet, analogous to Du, smaecklic, Fin. makia, from the imitative smack. The
sound of an initial cl or gl is readily confounded with that of ti or dl, as some
people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly tick was used where we now say
click. Thus Cotgrave renders Fr. niquet, a thicke, tick, snap with the fingers.
The same combination is found in Boh. taskati, to smack in eating, tieskati, to
clap hands; and Lat. stloppus, parallel with sclopus, a pop or click with the
mouth. From the sound of a smack represented by the form thick or dlick I
would explain Lat. delicia, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling; to
gether with the cognate delicatus, what one smacks one's chops at, dainty, nice,
agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicia, dlicatus. And as we have
supposed Gr. YAvkúc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from
tlick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukis (dlucis), and ultimately dulcis,
sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with y\vºc has been
recognised on the principle of such an inversion. When the sound of an initial
tl or d! became distasteful to Latin ears, it would be slurred over in different
ways, and ducis would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and
vowel, while the insertion of an e in dlicia, dlicatus, as in the vulgar umberella
for umbrella, would produce deliciae, delicatus. It is true that an intrusive
vowel in such cases as the foregoing is commonly (though not universally) short,
but the long e in these words may have arisen from their being erroneously re
garded as compounds with the preposition de.

The attitude of dislike and rejection is typified by signs of spitting out an

unsavoury morsel, as clearly as the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs
of the relishing of food. Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his disgust at the way
in which the harmonious lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent trans
His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt,
Z spitte for disspite to see thame spylte
By sic ane wicht.—5. 44.
“Would to God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing
of lying that we would even spattle at it, and cry fy upon it and all that use it.”—
Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedish spott signifies spittle, and also derision,
contempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expression
among the savages of Australia. “The men commenced talking to them, but
occasionally interrupted their speeches by spitting and uttering a noise like pooh /
pooh" apparently expressive of their disgust.”—p. 189. It is probable that this

Australian interjection was, in fact, identical with our own pooh / and like it, in
tended to represent the sound of spitting, for which purpose Burton in his African
travels uses the native tooh / ‘To-o-h Tuh ! exclaims the Muzunga, spitting
with disgust upon the ground.'—Lake Regions of Africa, 2. 246.
The sound of spitting is represented indifferently with an initial p, as in Maori
puhwa, to spit out; Lat. spuere, to spit; respuere (to spit back), to reject with dis
dain; despuere, to express disgust or disdain; or with an initial t, as in Sanscr.
thūthū, the sound of spitting; Pers. thu kerdan, Chinook mamook tooh, Chilian
tuvcütun (to make thu, tooh, tuv), to spit; Arabic tufl, spittle; Galla twu / re
presenting the sound of spitting; tufa, to spit; tufada, to spit, to despise, scorn,
disdain; with which may be joined English tuff, to spit like a cat. In Greek
Trrºw the imitation is rendered more vivid by the union of both the initial sounds.
BluRT | PET | TRotz'

The feelings of one dwelling on his own merits and angry at the short
comings of another are marked by a frowning brow, a set jaw, and inflated cheeks,
while the breath is drawn in deep inspirations and sent out in puffs through the
nostril and passive lips. Hence the expressions ofbreathing vengeance, fuming with
anger, swelling with pride.
Sharp breaths of anger puffed
Her fairy nostrils out.—Tennyson. -

The sound of hard breathing or blowing is represented by the syllables puff, huff,
whiff, whence a huff is a fit of ill-temper; to huff, to swell with indignation or
pride, to bluster, to storm.—Johnson. The It. buffa is explained in Thomas'
Italian Dictionary ‘the despising blast of the mouth which we call shirping.'
Brescian bofa, to breathe hard, to puff, especially with anger.—Melchiori. Then,
as ill-will vents itself in derision, lºffa, beffa, a jest, a trick; beffare, to trick or
cheat; beffarsi, to laugh at ; buffone, a jester, a buffoon.
When the puff of anger or disdain is uttered with exaggerated feeling it pro
duces an explosive sound with the lips, represented by the syllable blurt, which
was formerly used as an interjection of defiance. ‘Blurt / master constable, a
fig for the constable. Florio speaks of “a blurt with one's mouth in scorn or de
rision.' To blurt a thing out is to bring it out with a sudden explosion as if spit
ting something out of the mouth. A blirt of greeting in Scotch is a burst of
A contemptuous whiff or blurt is otherwise represented by the sounds fi, pt,
prt, tt, tri. Thus w. uſ? / is explained by Davis, vox abhorrentis et exprobrantis.
Wift, a scorn or slight, a fie; uſtio, to cry shame or fie, to push away with dis
approbation.—Lewis. Sanscr.phut, philt, imitative sound of blowing; expression
of disregard, indignation, anger.—Benfey. The It. petto, a blurt, petteggiare,
pettacchiare, to blurt with the mouth or lips (Fl.), Fr. pétarade, a noise made with
the mouth in contempt (Sadler), explain the interjections on. putt/Da. pytt / Sw.
pyt / pshaw! tut! nonsense ! Norman pet / pour imposer un silence absolu.-

From the latter form of the interjection we have E. pet, a fit of ill-humour or
of anger; to take pet, to take huff, to take offence; pettish, passionate, ill-hu
moured. To pet a child is to indulge it in ill-humour, and thence a pet, a darling,
an indulged child or animal. Then as a child gives vent to his ill-humour by
thrusting out his lips and making a snout, or making a lip, as it is called in nursery
language, a hanging lip is called a pet lip in the N. of England. To pout, in De
vonshire to poutch or poutle, Illyrian pugitise, Magyar pittyesztni (pitty, a blurt
with the mouth), Genevese faire la potte, signify to show ill-will by thrusting
out the lips. Hence Genevese pottu, pouting, sulky; Magy, pittyasz, having
projecting lips; Genevese pottes, Prov. potz, lips; Languedoc pot, pout, a lip;
poutet, a kiss; poutouno, a darling. Again, as in the case of It. buffa, beffa,
above-mentioned, we pass from the expression of ill-will to the notion of a dis.
agreeable turn in Da. puds, Sw. puts (to be compared with Devon. poutch), G.
posse, a trick.
The E. tut ſ (an exclamation used for checking or rebuking—Webster) seems
to represent an explosion from the tongue instead of the lips, and gives rise to the
provincial tutty, ill-tempered, sullen (Hal), and probably tut-mouthed, having a
projecting underjaw; on. tota, snout; Sw. tut, Da, tud, a spout, compared to
the projecting lips of a sulky child.
A more forcible representation of the explosive sound is given by the intro
duction of an r, as in on. prutta 4 hesta, to sound with the lips to a horse in
order to make him go on; Sw. prusta, to snort, to sneeze; Magy. prissz,
ptrissz, as well as tissz, trilssº, sneeze. The resemblance of a sneeze to a blurt
of contempt is witnessed by the expression of a thing not to be sneezed at, not to
be scorned. Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oe. in
terjections of scorn, Prut / Pirot 1 Tprot / e. Tut 1 Fr. Trut / and G. Trotz /
The Manuel des Pecchés, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example
the man

—that is unbuxome all

Ayens his fader spirital,
And seyth Prut 1 for thy cursyng, prest.—1. 3016.

Hence are formed the oe. prute, prout, now written proud, and the Northern
E. prutten, to hold up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the
West of E. (with inversion of the liquid and vowel) takes the form of purt, to
pout, to be sulky or sullen. G. protzen, Du. pratten, to sulk; protzig, prat,
surly, proud, arrogant. Then, as before, passing from the figure of a contemptu
ous gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment we have on. pretta, to play a
trick; prettr, a trick. And as from the form pet / putt / was derived Swiss
Romance potte, a lip, so from prut ſ may be explained ohG. prort, a lip, and
figuratively a margin or border.
The imitation of the explosive sound with an initial tr, as in Magy. trilss:en
ni, to sneeze, gives It. truscare, to blurt or pop with one's lip or mouth (Fl.);
truscio di lallra, Fr. truc, a blurting or popping with the lips or tongue to en

courage a horse; on. trutta, to make a noise of such a description in driving

animals: vox est instigantis vel agentis equos aut armenta.-Gudmund. Hence
Fr. trut ſ (an interj. importing indignation), tush, tut, fy man (Cot.); from
which we pass to Sw, dialect truta, to pout with the lips, make a snout ; trutas,
to be out of temper; trut, a snout, muzzle, spout. From the same source is the
G. trutz, trotz, tratz, expressing ill-will, scorn, defiance. Trutz mit / do not sulk.
—Kladderadatsch. Zrotz lieten, to bid defiance; trotzen, to defy, to be forward
or obstinate, to pout or sulk, to be proud of; trotzig, haughty, insolent, perverse,
peewish, sulky.—Griebe. Du. trotsen, torten, to irritate, insult; Valencian trotar,
to deride, to make a jest of Sc. dort, pet, sullen humour; to take the dorts, to
be in a pet; dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty.
A special application of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure is to
send an inferior packing from one's presence. Thus from truc, representing a
blurt with the mouth, is to be explained It. truccare, to send, to trudge or pack
away nimbly (Fl.); trucca via / be off with you. Venetian trozare, to send
away. The exclamation in Gaelic takes the form of truis Z be off, said to a dog,
or a person in contempt (Macalpine). In oe. truss / was used in the same
Lyere—was nowher welcome, for his manye tales
Over al yhonted, and yhote, trusse.—Piers Pl. Vis. v. 1316.
To hete truss is an exact equivalent of G. trotz lieten. In Modern E. the expres
sion survives in the shape of trudge.
This tale once told none other speech prevailed,
But pack and trudge all leysare was to long.—Gascoigne.

There is a strong analogy between the senses of taste and smell, as between
sight and hearing. When we are sensible of an odour which pleases us we snuff
up the air through the nostrils, as we eagerly swallow food that is agreeable
to the palate; and as we spit out a disagreeable morsel, so we reject an offens
ive odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected air through the
protruded lips, with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the
interjections of disgust. ‘Piff! Phew! Phit!' exclaims a popular writer, they
have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from our
lips when we are compelled to hold our noses.”—Punch, Sept. 2, 1863.
The sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like whew, fu,
pu. The interj. whew / represents a forcible expiration through the protruded
lips, ‘a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scorn, or
dislike' (Webster). Sc. quhew, NE. whew, expresses the sound made by a body
passing rapidly through the air. To whew, Maori whic, to whistle; whiu, a stroke
with a whip; Áowhiuwhiu, to blow, to winnow.
The derivatives from the form pu or fu are extremely numerous. ON. pua, G.
pusen, pfausen, pusten, Gr. ºvgåw, Lith. pitsu, puttu, pasti, Gael. puth (pronounced
puh), Illyr. puhati, Fin. puhhata, puhkia, Hawaii puhi, Maori pāhipúhi, pupilhi,

Quichuapuhuni (Tylor), Zulu pupuza, Malay puput,to puff or blow. The Sanscrit
pút, phūt, imitative sound of blowing (Benfey), with puphusa, the lungs, may be
compared with Maori pāka, to pant, and piſka-pitka, the lungs. Again, we have
Magy. funi,” fuvni, Galla bufa, afufa, Quiché puba (Tylor), Sc. fuſſ, It. buffare,
E. puff, to blow. -

From forms like the foregoing we pass to the interjections expressing disgust
at a bad smell. Sanders in his excellent G. dictionary explains pu / as an interj.
representing the sound made by blowing through the barely opened lips, and
thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty. “Hapuh / wie stank der alte
mist.' The sense of disgust at a bad smell is expressed in like manner by Lat.
phui / phu / fu / fi / (Forcell.), Venetian puh / fi / (Patriarchi), Fr. pouah / fi /
Bret. foei / fech / E. faugh / foh / phew / Russ, fu / tſu/
It is obvious that the utterance of these interjections of disgust has the effect
of announcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and if the
utterance is accompanied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be
equivalent to an assertion that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be
necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to
get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of offensive smell.
Accordingly we have Sanscr. på, pátika, stinking; páti, putrid, stinking matter,
civet ; pily, to stink, to putrefy ; Gr. ribo, to rot; Lat, puteo, putor, putidus,
puter, putresco, pus; Fr. puer, to stink; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says
that the ‘meat says pu, meaning that it stinks. Timorese poëp, putrid; Quiché
pohir, to rot; puz, rottenness; Tupi puri, nasty (Tylor). At the same time
from a form corresponding to Bret. foei / and E. faugh / the Lat. has foeteo and
foetidus, fetid, alongside of puteo and putidus. From the form fu / are Old Norse
füinn, rotten; füki, stench or anything stinking; füll, stinking, rotten; fºla,
stench. In the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus
says Jah fuls ist: by this time he stinketh. Modern Norse fál, disgusting, of bad
taste or smell, troublesome, vexatious, angry, bitter. Han va fål aat os, he was
enraged with us. The E. equivalent is foul, properly ill smelling, then anything
opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look, dirty, turbid (of
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair, underhand in the transactions of
life. on. Fúlyrdi, foul words; fülmenni, a scoundrel. From the adjective again
are derived the verb to file or defile, to make foul; and filth, that which makes

The disagreeable impressions of smell produce a much more vivid repugnance

than those of taste, and being besides sensible to all around, they afford the most
convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure. And probably the earliest
expression of these feelings would occur in teaching cleanliness to the infant.
* This representation of the sound of blowing or breathing may not improbably be the
origin of the rootſu, Sanscrit bhu, of the verb to be. The negro who is without the verb to be
in his own language supplies its place by live. He says, Your hat no lib that place you put him
in.—Farrar, Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my acquaintance would say,
Where it *** where is it? Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life.

The interjection fy! expresses in the first instance the speaker's sense of a bad
smell, but it is used to the child in such a manner as to signify, That is dirty; do
not touch that; do not do that; and then generally, You have done something
displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridge
man, who was born deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ºff or fi when dis
pleased at being touched by strangers. -

When used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobation the interj. often
assumes a slightly different form from that which expresses disgust at a bad smell.
Thus in E. faugh / or foh / express disgust, fie / reprobation. In G. perhaps pfu /
or pfui / are chiefly employed in a moral sense; fui / or fi / with respect to smell.
Pfui dich an / pſu die menschen an / shame on them. But the line cannot be
very distinctly drawn, and in Platt Deutsch the expression is fu dik an / as in
Grisons fudi / shame on you. / commonly expresses reprobation, but it is
also used with respect to smell. Fi / qu'il sent mauvais. Faire fi d'une chose, to
turn up one's nose at it, to despise it.
When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprobation of those to
whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when we
observe the equivalence of expressions like pfu dich / fie on you, and shame on
you, we shall easily believe that pu ! as an expression of reprehension, is the
source of Lat. pudet, it shames me, it cries pu / on me; pudeo, I lie under pu /
I am ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh back, I
throw back with disdain; and probably refuto, to reject, disdain, disapprove, is
derived in the same way from the other form of the interj. fu / being thus
analogous to G. pfuien, anpfuien, N. fijne, to cry fie! on, to express displeasure:
ein fynte hund, a scolded dog. The expression then passes on to signify the feel
ings which prompt the utterance of the interj.; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus
from Russ. fu / is formed fukat (properly to cry fu /), to abhor, to loathe; from
w.ffi / fie / fiaidd, loathsome ; fieiddio, to loathe, to detest; and so doubtless
from the same form of the interj. is to be explained the Goth..ſjan, on. ffá, As.
Jian, to hate, and thence Goth. Jijand, G. feind, an enemy, and on. ffandi, pro
perly an enemy, then, as E. fend, the great enemy of the human race. From
the same source are E. foe (oN.Jīāi ?) and feud, enmity or deadly quarrel.
The aptness of the figure by which the natural disgust at stench is made the
type of the feelings of hatred, is witnessed by the expression of “stinking in the
nostrils said of anything that is peculiarly hateful to us.
Professor Müller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to
gether the Sanscrit roots pily, to decay, the source of puteo, and E. foul, and piy,
to hate, corresponding to fjan and fiend (II. 93). But he does not explain
where he supposes the confusion to take place, and there is in truth no inconsist
ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in
question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the interjection
of disgust; the one comprising G. puh / Fr. pouah / E. faugh / foh / addressed
especially to smells; the other answering to G. pfui / Fr. ft / E. fe/ and express
ing aversion in a more general way. From the first of these we derive puteo and

foul; from the second, fjan and fiend. If we suppose the analogous forms pu !
and pi / to have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it
would give a rational account of the roots pily and piy, which Müller is content
to leave untouched as ultimate elements, but we ought not to be charged with
confounding them together because we trace them both to a common principle.

A small class of words is found in all languages analogous to, and many of
them identical with, the E. forms, mamma, papa, mammy, daddy, baby, babe, pap
(in the sense of breast, as well as of soft food for children), expressing ideas most
needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. A
long list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof. I. C. E. Busch
man in the Trans. of the Berlin Acad. der Wiss. for 1852, a translation of which
is given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc. vol. vi. It appears that words of
the foregoing class are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma,
da, ta, na, or al, ap, am, at, an. We find ma, me, mi, mu, mam, mama, meme,
moma, mother, and less frequently nearly all the same forms in the sense of father;
pa, la, pap, lap, bab, papa, baba, pala, fafe, fabe, father; ba, baba, bama, fa,
fafa, fauna, be, li, bo, bibi, mother; ta, da, tat, tata, tad, dad, dada, dade, tati, titi,
father; de, tai, dai, deda, tite, mother; nma, man, nanna, ninna, nang, nape, father;
na, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes
are rung on ab, aba, abba, avva, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abol, ubaba, abban, father;
amba, alai, aapu, ibu, ewa, mother; at, aat, ata, atta, otta, aita, atya, father; hada,
etta, ote, mother; anneh, ina, una, father; ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, inan,
unina, ananak, mother. La Condamine mentions abla or baba, or papa and mama,
as common to a great number of American languages differing widely from each
other, and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations.
“If we regard these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently
those which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard
them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and
mother.'—De Brosses, i. 215.
The speech of the mother may perhaps unconsciously give something of an
articulate form to the meaningless cooings and mutterings of the infant, as the song
of the mother-bird influences that of her young. At any rate these infantile
utterances are represented in speech by the syllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to
forms like E. babble, maſſle, faffle, famble, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child,
to talk unmeaningly; op. mamelen, labelen, to babble, mutter; mammer, to mut
ter; Gr. Bagá40, to say ba, la, to speak inarticulately (whence Gáčw, to speak);
Mod.Gr. Hapow\ičw, to mumble, mutter, &c. Accordingly the joyful or eager
utterances of the child when taken up by the mother, or when offered the breast,
would sound to her as if the infant greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as
if it called for the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself
and teach her child the intelligent use of them. Thus Lat. mamma, the infantile
term for mother, has remained, with the dim. mamilla, as the name of the breast,
d 2

and the same is the case with Fin. mamma, Du, mamme, mother, nurse, breast;
mammen, to give suck. When one of the imitative syllables as ma had thus been
taken up to designate the mother, a different one, as la, pa, or ta, would be ap
propriated by analogy as the designation of the father.
Besides the forms corresponding to Lat. mamma, mamilla, papilla, E. pap, for
the breast, a class of names strongly resembling each other are found all over the
world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitation of the sound of sucking.
Thus we have Sanscr. chásh, to suck; chuchi, the breast; chuchuka, the nipple /
Tarahumara (Am.) tschitschi, to suck; Japan. tschitschi, tsitsi, the breast, milk;
Manchu tehetchen, Magy. tsets, Tung. tycen, tygen (Castren), Samoiede ssuso (to
be compared with Fr. sucer, to suck), ssudo, Kowraregasusu, Malay soosoo, Gudang
tyutyu, Chippeway totosh, Mandingo siso, Bambarra sing, Kurdish ciciek, It. (in
nursery language) cioccia, Albanian sissa, G. zitze, E. (nursery) diddy, titty, teat,
Malay dada, Hebrew dad, G. dialects didi, titti, the breast or nipple; Goth. dadd
jan, to suck (Pott. Dopp. 33).
The name of the baly himself also is formed on the same imitative principle
which gives their designation to so many animals, viz. from the syllables ba, ta,
representing the utterance of the infant. The same principle applies to others of
these infantile words. The nurse imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the
infant, as she jogs it to sleep upon her knee, by the syllables na, na, la, la. To
the first of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninna nanna; far la ninna
nanna, to lull a child; ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language
nanna, bed, sleep. Far la nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to
sleep. In the Mpongwe of W. Africa nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern
coast lala, has the sense of sleep. In Malabar, nin, sleep (Pott). The imitation
gives a designation to the infant himself in It. ninna, a little girl; Milanese man,
manin, a caressing term for an infant. Caro el mi man, my darling baby. Sp.
niño, a child. In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation is transferred to a person
of childish stature, as in Mod.Gr. viviov, a young child, a simpleton, and in e.
ninny it is transferred to a person of childish understanding. From the imi
tative la, la, are G. lallen, to speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in
other cases, the sense is extended to speaking in general in Gr. Aaxéw, to chatter,
babble, talk. From the same source are Lat. lallo, and E. luſ/, primarily to sing
a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe. In Servian the nurses' song sounds lyu,
Iyu, whence /yulyuti, to rock; lyulyashka, a cradle.

Another important element of speech, of which a rational explanation may

perhaps be found in infantile life, is the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very
name of which shows that it corresponds to the act of pointing out the object to
which we wish to direct attention. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, point
ing to an object signifies that, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as is
seen at every turn in an account of the making of the will of a dumb man .
quoted by Tylor. The testator points to himself, then to the will, then touches

his trowsers' pocket, ‘the usual sign by which he referred to his money,' then
points to his wife, and so on. But, indeed, we do not need the experience of
the deaf-and-dumb to show that pointing to an object is the natural way of call
ing attention to it. Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable ta for vari
ous purposes, as to express, Please, Thank you, Good-bye; mostly supplement
ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to
which it has reference. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for
what it desired. ‘Ta / cheese' (pointing towards it), give me that cheese.
Ta / in a different tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted, and
may be rendered, that is it, that gratifies me. When it says ta-ta / on being
carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards
those whom it is quitting, implying the direction of its good will towards them,
as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Sanders (Germ. Dict.) describes dada as
a word of many applications in G. nurseries, as, for instance, with reference to
something pretty which the child desires to have. The Fr. child, according to
Menage, says da-da-da, when he wants something, or wants to name something.
* The child,’ says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted,
‘sees an object, and says tal' (and at the same time points to it with his finger,
I add); ‘we may translate this by there (it is), or that it is, or carry me thither,
or give me it, and by a variety of expressions besides, but the truth is, that every
one of these interpretations is wrong, because it replaces the teeming fulness of
the infantile word by a clearer but less rich expression of our more abstract lan
guage. Yet if a choice between the different translations must be made, I trust
that few of my readers will refuse me their consent, when saying: there the ad
verb is by far the most adequate."—Phil. Trans. 1859. We may carry the
matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of
pointing, all the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the
case. It is preserved in mature language in G. da, the fundamental signification
of which is to signify the presence of an object. ‘Dá / nehmen Sie!’ ‘Dá /
Ihr präsent.’ Dieser da (as Lat. is-te), this here. Bav. der da-ige, a specified
person, as it were by pointing him out. A doubling of the utterance gives Gr.
rööe (or in Attic more emphatically roëi), this here; as well as Goth. thata (ta-ta),
E. that. The primitive import of the utterance is completely lost sight of in Lat.
da, give; properly (give) that, to be compared with the nursery da-da, by
which a G. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. In the expression Da,
nehmen Sie, with which something is handed over to another, the word da repre
sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. In the language of Tonga,
as Dr Lottner observes, the verb to give is almost invariably replaced by the ad
verbs signifying hither or thither, ‘nay, seems to have been lost altogether.’
Mei ia giate au = hither this to me = give me this. Shall I thither this to thee =
shall I give you this.
When we seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta / with the act of
pointing,” we shall find it, I believe, in the inarticulate stammerings of the infant
* Lottner's explanation is not satisfactory. He adopts in the main the view of Schwartze,

when he sprawls with arms and legs in the mere enjoyment of life. The utter
ance so associated with the muscular action of the child sounds in the ear of the
parent like the syllables da-da-da, which thus become symbolical of muscular
exertion, whether in the more energetic form of beating, or of simply stretching
out the hand, as in giving or pointing.
The syllable da is used to represent inarticulate utterance in Swiss dadern,
dodern, to chatter, stutter, tattle, and this also seems the primitive sense of Fr.
dadée, childish toying, speech, or dalliance.—Cot. Dada in German nurseries
has the sense of smacks or blows. Das kind hat dada bekommen. The same
sense is seen in Galla dadada-goda (to make dadada), to beat, to knock, and in
Yoruba da, strike, beat, pay.

The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first glance so void of any re
ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical belief in
the imitative origin of language. ‘That sounds can be rendered in language by
sounds,’ says Müller, “and that each language possesses a large stock of words
imitating the sounds given out by certain things, who would deny And who
would deny that some words originally expressive of sound only might be trans
ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound But how are
things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing—how are the ideas of going,
moving, standing, sinking, tasting, thinking, to be expressed ?'—2nd Series, p.
89. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage:
by analogy, or metaphor, which is the transference of a word from one significa
tion to another; the conveyance of a meaning by mention of something which
serves to put us in mind of the thing to be signified. But in several of the in
stances specified by Müller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with
sound. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by re
ference to the smacking of the lips and tongue in the enjoyment of food. The
idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual
existence, of which any one may, and one in particular must, in every mode of
expressing the idea, have been the type from which the name was originally
taken. In the case of the word go itself, for which Johnson gives seventy
meanings, the original is that which he places first, to walk, to move step by step,
a sense which lends itself in the most obvious manner to imitative expression, by
a representation of the sound of the footfall. The connection between thought
and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing
the idea of thinking. Thus Gr. ºpáčw is to say; ºpáčopal, to say to oneself, to

speaking of the demonstrative in his Coptic Grammar:—“Every object is to the child a living
palpable thing. When it cannot reach anywhere with its hand, then instinctively it utters a
cry, in order to cause to approach that which has awakened its interest.” “I add," says Lottner:—
“When the soul, becoming aware of the cry issuing forth from its own interior, takes it up as
a sign for the indefinite outward reality, which is the object of its desire, and shapes it into an
articulate sound, then we have a pronoun demonstrative.'

think, while Adyoc signifies both speech and thought. In some of the languages
of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in the belly. Maori mea and
Aºi both signify to speak as well as to think.
The connection between the senses of taste and smell is so close that expres
sions originally taken from the exercise of the one faculty are constantly transferred
to the other. The G. schmecken, to smack or taste, is used in Bavaria in the sense
of smell, and schmecker, in popular language, signifies the nose. So from Lat.
sapere (which may probably spring from another representation of the sound of
smacking) comes sapor, taste, and thence E. savour, which is applied to impres
sions of smell as well as to those of the palate, while sapere itself, properly to dis
tinguish by taste, is extended to the exercise of the understanding, to have dis
cernment, to be wise. Sapiens, a man of nice taste, also wise, discreet, judicious.
In the same way the Goth. snutrs, As. snotor, wise, prudent, may be explained
from the Gael. snot, to sniff, snuff the air, smell, and figuratively, suspect; Bav.
snitten, to sniff, smell, search; on. snudra, to sniff out. Here it will be seen the
expression of the idea of wisdom is traced by no distant course to an undoubted
The same sort of analogy as that which is felt between the senses of smell and
taste, unites in like manner the senses of sight and hearing, and thus terms ex
pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to
analogous phenomena of the visible world. In the case of sparkle, for example,
which is a modification of the same imitative root with Sw, spraka, Lith. sprageti,
to crackle, rattle, the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signi
fied by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions on the ear.
Fr. pétiller is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle, then to
sparkle, and, in the domain of movement, to quiver. Du. tintelen, to tinkle, then
to twinkle, to glitter.
Again, &clat (in Old Fr. esclat), properly a clap or explosion, is used in the
sense of brightness, splendour, brilliancy. The word bright had a similar origin.
It is the equivalent of G. pracht, splendour, magnificence, which in ohG. signified
a clear sound, outcry, tumult. Bavarian bracht, clang, noise. In As. we have
beorhtian, to resound, and beorht, bright. In the old poem of the Owl and the
Nightingale bright is applied to the clear notes of a bird.
Heo—song so schille and so brihte
That far and ner me hit iherde.—l. 1654.
Du. schateren, scheteren, to make a loud noise, to shriek with laughter; schiteren,
to shine, to glisten; Dan. Knistre, knittre, gmittre, to crackle; gnistre, to sparkle.
Many striking examples of the same transference of signification may be quoted
from the Finnish, as kiliná, a ringing sound, a brilliant light; kilid, tinkling, glit
tering; wilistd, to ring as a glass; willata, wilella, wilahtaa, to flash, to glitter;
kimistã, to sound clear (parallel with E. chime), kimmaltaa, kiimottaa, to shine, to
glitter, &c. In Galla, bilbila, a ringing noise as of a bell; billilgoda (to make, to ring, to glitter, beam, glisten. Sanscr. marmara, a rustling sound ; Gr.
puappaaipw, to glitter.

The language of painters is full of musical metaphor. It speaks of harmoni

ous or discordant colouring, discusses the tone of a picture. So in modern slang,
which mainly consists in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perhaps,
in truth, not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinary language
had their origin), we hear of screaming colours, of dressing loud. The specula
tions of the Ancients respecting the analogies of sound and signification were
extremely loose, as may be seen in the Cratylus, where Socrates is made to explain
the expressive power of the letter-sounds. The letter r, he says, from the mo
bility of the tongue in pronouncing it, seemed to him who settled names an ap
Propriate instrument for the imitation of movement. He accordingly used it for
that purpose in Ötiv and floi, flow and flux, then in rpópoc, rpaxic, spotsw,
6patiew, iptirety, kepparičew, pupſ&iv, tremour, rough, strike, break, rend, shatter,
whirl. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing l, he used it in
forming the imitative words Attoc, smooth, Airapóc, oily, KoMAóðnc, gluey,
ôXtabávely, to slide. And observing that n kept the voice within, he framed the
words £včov, #vrác, within, inside, fitting the letters to the sense.
Much of the same kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine, which
has been often quoted.
‘The Stoics,' he says, “hold that there is no word of which a clear account
cannot be given. “And because in this way you might say that it would be an
infinite task if you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which you
explained the origin of the former one, it was easy to suggest the limitation:
Until you come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the
sound of the word and the thing signified, as when we speak of the tinkling (tin
nitum) of brass, the neighing of horses, the bleating of sheep, the clang (clango
rem) of trumpets, the clank (stridorem) of chains, for you perceive that these
words sound like the things which are signified by them. But because there are
things which do not sound, with these the similitude of touch comes into play, so
that if the things are soft or rough to the touch, they are fitted with names that
by the nature of the letters are felt as soft or rough to the ear. Thus the word
lene, soft, itself sounds soft to the ear; and who does not feel also that the word
asperitas, roughness, is rough like the thing which it signifies? Voluptas, pleasure,
is soft to the ear; crur, the cross, rough. The things themselves affect our feel
ings in accordance with the sound of the words. As honey is sweet to the taste,
so the name, mel, is felt as soft by the ear. Acre, sharp, is rough in both ways.
Lana, wool, and vepres, briars, affect the ear in accordance with the way in which
the things signified are felt by touch.
It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the
words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and

* Et quia hoc modo suggerere facile ſuit, sidiceres hoc infinitum esse quibus verbis alterius
verbi originem interpretaris, eorum rursus a te originem quaerendam esse, donec perveniatur
eout rescum sono verbi aliqua similitudine concinnat, &c.-Principia Dialecticae, c. v. in
vol. i. of his works.

the thing which it signified: that from thence the invention of names proceeded
to take hold of the resemblance of things between themselves; as when, for ex
ample, the cross is called crur because the rough sound of the word agrees with
the roughness of the pain which is suffered on the cross; while the legs are called
crura, not on account of the roughness of pain, but because in length and
hardness they are like wood in comparison with the other members of the
It is obvious that analogies like the foregoing are far too general to afford any
satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. If
any word that sounded rough might signify anything that was either rough or
rigid or painful it would apply to such an infinite variety of objects, and the limits
of the signification would be so vague, that the utterance would not afford the
smallest guidance towards the meaning of the speaker. Still it is plain that there
must be some analogy between sound and movement, and consequently form, in
virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions.
The connection seems to lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we
are conscious in the utterance of a rough sound, or in the apprehension
of a rough surface. We regard the sound of r as rough compared with
that of l, because the tongue is driven into vibration in the utterance
of r, making us sensible of an effort which answers to the resistance felt
in the apprehension of a rough surface, while in l the sound issues without re
action on the vocal organs, like the hand passing over a smooth surface. A greater
degree of roughness is when the inequalities of the surface are separately felt, or in
sound, when the vibratory whir passes into a rattle. In a still higher degree of
roughness the movement becomes a succession of jogs, corresponding to the ine
qualities of a rugged surface or a jagged outline, or, in the case of the voice, to the
abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Again, we are conscious of mus
cular effort when we raise the tone of the voice by an actual rise of the vocal ap
paratus in the throat, and it is precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatus
in the utterance of a high or low note, that makes us consider the netes as high
or low. There are thus analogies between sound and bodily movement which
enable us, by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound, to signify
varieties of movement, together with corresponding modifications of figured sur
face and outline. The word twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of
a short sharp sound, but it is applied by analogy to a vibratory movement that is
wholly unaccompanied by sound. The feeling of abruptness in sound is given by
a syllable ending with one of the mutes, or checks as they are called by Müller,
consisting of the letters b, d, g, p, t, k, the peculiarity of which in pronunciation
is that “for a time they stop the emission of breath altogether' (Lect. ii. p. 138).
Hence in pronouncing a syllable ending in a mute or check we are conscious
of an abrupt termination of the vocal effort, and we employ a wide range of syl
lables constructed on that principle to signify a movement abruptly checked, as
shag, shog, jag, jog, jig, dag, dig, stag (in stagger, to reel abruptly from side to
side), job, jib, stab, rug, tug; Fr. sag-oter, to jog; sac-cade, a rough and sudden

jerk, motion, or check. The syllable suk is used in Bremen to represent a jog in
riding or going. "Datgeit jummer suk / suk 1 of a rough horse. Ene olde suksuk,
an old worthless horse or carriage, a rattletrap. Sukkeln, G. schuckeln, schockeln, to
jog. On the same principle we have G. Zack, used interjectionally to represent a
sharp sudden movement; zacke, a jag or sharp projection; zickzack, E. zigzag,
applied to movement by impulses abruptly changing in direction, or the figure
traced out by such a movement; the opposition in the direction of successive im
pulses being marked by the change of vowel from i to a. The production of
sound, however, is so frequent a consequence of movement, that we never can be
sure, in cases like the foregoing, that the word does not originally spring from
direct imitation. Such seems certainly the case with the syllables tick, tack, tock,
representing sharp short sounds of different kinds, and analogous movements.
Thus we have E. tick-tack for the beat of a clock; Parmesan tic-toc for the beat
of the heart or the pulse, or the ticking of a watch; Bolognese tec-tac, a cracker;
It. tech-tech, toch-toch, tecche-tocche, for the sound of knocking at a door.
Hence tick or tock for any light sharp movement. To tick a thing off, to mark
it with a touch of the pen; to take a thing on tick, to have it ticked or marked
on the score; to tickle, to incite by light touches. Bolognese tocc, Brescian toch,
the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door, lead to Spanish tocar, to
knock, to ring a bell, to beat or play on a musical instrument, and also (with the
meaning softened down) to Italian toccare, French toucher, to touch. The Mi
lanese toch, like English tick, is a stroke with a pen or pencil, then, figuratively, a
certain space, so much as is traversed at a stroke; on bell tocch distrada, a good
piece of road; then, as Italian tocco, a piece or bit of anything.
The same transference of the expression from phenomena of sound to those of
bodily substance takes place with the syllables muk, mik, mot, tot, kuk, kik, &c.,
which were formerly mentioned as being used (generally with a negative) to ex
press the least appreciable sound. The closeness of the connection between such
a meaning and the least appreciable movement is witnessed by the use of the same
word still to express alike the absence of sound or motion. Accordingly the G.
muck, representing in the first instance a sound barely audible, is made to signify
a slight movement. Mucken, to mutter, to say a word; also to stir, to make the
least movement.
The representative syllable takes the form of mick or kick in the Dutch phrase
noch micken noch kicken, not to utter a syllable. Then, passing to the significa
tion of motion, it produces Dutch micken, Illyrian migati, to wink; micati
(mitsati), to stir; Lat. micare, to glitter, to move rapidly to and fro. The analogy
is then carried a step further, and the sense of a slight movement is made a step
ping-stone to the signification of a material atom, a small bodily object. Hence
Lat. and It. mica, Spanish miga, Fr. mie, a crum, a little bit. The train of thought
runs through the same course in Dutch kicken, to utter a slight sound; Fr. chicoter,
to sprawl like an infant; Welsh cicio, and E. kick, to strike with the foot. Then
in the sense of any least portion of bodily substance, It. cica, Fr. chic, chiquet, a
little bit; chique, a quid of tobacco, a playing-marble, properly a small lump of

clay; Sp. chico, little. In the same way from the representation of a slight sound
by the syllable mot, mut, as in E. mutter, or in the Italian phrase non fare ne motto
we totto, not to utter a syllable, we pass to the Yorkshire phrase, neither moit nor
doit, not an atom; e. mote, an atom, and mite, the least visible insect; Du. mot,
dust, fragments; It. motta, Fr. motte, a lump of earth.
The use of a syllable like tot to represent a short indistinct sound is shown in
the Italian phrase above quoted; in o.N. taut, N. tot, a whisper, murmur, mutter;
E. totle, to whisper (Pr. Pm.); titter, to laugh in a subdued manner. The ex
pression passes on to the idea of movement in E. tot, to jot down or note with a
slight movement of the pen; totter, tottle, to move slightly to and fro, to toddle
like a child; titter, to tremble, to seesaw (Halliwell); Lat. titillo, to tickle (pro
vincially tittle), to excite by slight touches or movements. Then, passing from the
sense of a slight movement to that of a small bodily object, we have E. tot,
anything small; totty, little (Halliwell); Da. tot, Sc. fait, a bunch or flock of
flax, wool, or the like ; It tozzo, a bit, a morsel; e. tit, a bit, a morsel, anything
small of its kind, a small horse, a little girl; titly, tiny, small; titlark, a small
kind of lark; titmouse (Du. mossche, a sparrow), a small bird; tittle, a jot or little
bit. It. citto, zitto, a lad; citta, zitella, a girl. The passage from the sense of a
light movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat, a light quick blow,
and a small lump of something; to dot, to touch lightly with a pen, to make a
slight mark; and dot, a small lump or pat.—Halliwell. To jot, to touch, to jog,
to note a thing hastily on paper; jot, a small quantity.
The change of the vowel from a or otoi, or the converse, in such expressions
as zigzag, ticktack, seesaw, belongs to a principle which is extensively applied in
the development of language, when an expression having already been found for
a certain conception, it is wished to signify something of the same fundamental
kind, but differing in degree or in some subordinate character. This end is com
monly attained by a change, often entirely arbitrary, either in the vowel or the
initial consonant of the significant syllable. The vowel changes from i to a in
tick-tack, for the beating of a clock, not because the pendulum makes a different
sound in swinging to the right or to the left, but simply in order to symbolise the
change of direction. A similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is
noticed by Mr Tylor in the language of gesture, where a wise man being symbol
ised by touching the tip of the nose with the forefinger, the same organ is touched
with the little finger to signify a foolish man. In a similar way the relations of
place, here, there, and out there, corresponding to the personal pronouns, I, you,
and he, are frequently distinguished by what appears to be an arbitrary change of
the vowel sound. Pott (Doppelung p. 48) cites from the African Tumale, gni,
gno, gnu, for the three personal pronouns, where the vowels follow in regular scale
(i, e, a, o, u) according to the proximity of the object indicated. But the same
language has re this, ri that, where the order is inverted. The following table is
from Tylor (Prim. Cult. i. 199).
Javan. iki, this; ika, that; iku, that, further off; Malagasy io, here (close
at hand); eo, there (further oft); ad, there (at a short distance).

Japan ko, here; ka, there.

Canarese ivanu, this; ivanu, that (intermediate); uvanu, that.
Tamul i, this; á, that.
Dhimas isho, ita, here; usho, uta, there.
Abchasian abri, this; ubri, that.
Ossetic am, here; um, there.
Magyar ez, this; az, that.
Zulu apa, here; apo, there; lesi, this ; leso, that; lesiya, that in the distance.
Yoruba na, this ; ni, that.
Fernandian olo, this; ole, that.
Sahaptin (America) kina, here; kuna, there.
Mutsun me, here; nu, there.
Tarahumara ibe, here; ale, there.
Guarani nde, ne, thou; nai, ni, he.
Botocudo ati, I; oti, thou, you, to.
Carib ne, thou; ni, he. -

Chilian tva, this ; tvey, that.

Here, as Mr Tylor remarks, no constant rule is observed, but sometimes i and
sometimes a is used to denote the nearer object.
Of a similar nature is the distinction of sex by a change of vowel, as in Italian
o for the male, and a for the female. Fin. ukko, an old man; akka, an old woman;
Mangu chacha, mas; cheche, femina; ama, father; eme, mother. Carib baba,
father; bibi, mother. Ibu (Afr.) nna, father; nne, mother. It is probably
to a like principle of distinction that the k, k (it), qu, w, which form the initial
element of the interrogative in Sanscr., Gr., Lat., and G. respectively, owe their
origin. The interrogative pronouns who 2 or what ? are expressed in gesture
by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner, in fact (says Tylor), by a
number of unsuccessful attempts to say he, that. Then, as the act of pointing was
represented in speech by the particle ta, it seems that the interrogative signification
was given by the arbitrary change from ta to ka, from whence may be explained the
various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Germanic
On the other hand, there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to
the modification of meaning which it is made to denote. The vowels a and o
are pronounced with open throat and full sound of the voice, while we compress
the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the
pronunciation of i or e. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the voweli
in expressing diminution of action or of size. A young relation of mine adopted
the use of baly as a diminutival prefix.” Baby-Thomas was his designation for
the smaller of two servants of that name. But when he wishes to carry the di
minution further, he narrows the sound of the word to bee-kee, and at last it be
comes a beebee-beebee thing. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Afr.)
bi, child, young one; bibio, little, small (Pott. Ioo). It seems to me probable that
• Wei den, child, also little.

this sense of the thinness of the sound of i or ee is simply embodied in the

diminutival wee. ‘A little wee face with a little yellow beard."—Merry Wives.
A further development of the significant sound gives the nursery weeny,” surviv
ing in regular speech in G. wenig, little, few ; Sc. wean, a child. And perhaps
the e. tiny may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny,
analogous to winy-piny, fretful, speaking in a pipy tone of voice. It will be ob
served that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the narrow vowel:
“a little tee--ny thing,' making the voice as small as possible.
The consciousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in the pro
nunciation of the sound ee leads to the use of syllables like peep, keek, teet, to sig
nify a thing making its way through a narrow opening, just beginning to appear,
looking through between obstacles. Da. at pippe frem is to spring forth, to make
its way through the bursting envelope, whence Fr. pepin, the pip or pippin, the
germ from whence the plant is to spring. The Sw. has titta frem, to peep through,
to begin to appear; titta, to peep, in old E. to teet.
The rois knoppis tetand furth thare hed -

Gan chyp and kythe thare vernale lippis red.—Douglas Virgil, 401. 8.
The peep of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to lift and the first streaks
of light to push through the opening.
The sound of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables trapp-trapp
trapp ; from whence Du. trap, a step, trappen, to tread, Sw. trappa, stairs. The
change to the short compressed i in trip adapts the syllable to signify a light quick
step : Du. trippen, trippelen, to leap, to dance (Kil.); Fr. trépigner, to beat the
ground with the feet. Clank represents the sound of something large, as chains;
clink, or chink, of smaller things, as money. To sup up, is to take up liquids by
large spoonfuls; to sip, to sup up by little and little, with lips barely open. Top,
nab, knob, signify an extremity of a broad round shape; tip, nil, nipple, a similar
object of a smaller size and pointed shape.
Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on
the ear, the simplest mode of representing the continued sound is by the repetition
of a syllable resembling the elementary impulse, as ding-dong, G. bim-lam, It.
din-din, don-don, for the sound of bells; murmur, for a continuance of low and
indistinct sounds; pit-a-pat, for a succession of light blows; low-wow, for the
barking of a dog, &c. In barbarous languages the formation of words on this
principle is very common, and in the Pacific dialects, for instance, they form a con
siderable proportion of the vocabulary. From cases like the foregoing, where an
imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying the continued repetition
of a certain phenomenon, the principle of reduplication, as it is called, is extended
to express simple continuance of action, or even, by a further advance in abstrac
tion, the idea of action in general, while the special nature of the action intended
is indicated by the repeated syllable. In some African languages repetition is
habitually used to qualify the meaning of the verb. Thus we have Wolof sopa,
• ‘A little weeny thing.' I have known Weeny kept as a pet-name by one who had been
puny in childhood.

to love, sopasopa, to love constantly; Mpongwe kamba, to speak, kamba-gamla,

to talk at random; Kenda, to walk, Kendagenda, to walk about for amusement.
Again, from Maori muka, flax, muka-muka (to use a bunch of flax), to wipe
or rub; mawhiti, to skip, mawhitiwhiti, a grasshopper; puka, to pant, puka
puka, the lungs, the agent in panting; Malay ayun, to rock, ayunayunan, a
cradle. That the principle is not wholly lifeless ºn English is witnessed by the
verb pooh-pooh, to say pooh! to, to treat with contempt.
It is obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in time may
be applied to continuance or extension in space. Thus in the Pacific loa, loloa,
signify long; lololoa, very long (Pott. 97). And generally, repetition or contin
uance of the significant sound expresses excess in degree of the quality signified.
Mandingo ding, child; if very young, ding-ding; Susa di, child; didi, little child
(p. 99). Madagascar ratsi or ratchi, bad; ratsi-ratsi, or rātchi, very bad. ‘In the
Gaboon the strength with which such a word as mpolu is uttered, serves to show
whether it is great, very great, or very very great, and in this way, as Mr Wilson re
marks in his Mpongwe grammar, the comparative degrees of greatness, smallness,
hardness, rapidity and strength, &c., may be conveyed with more accuracy than
could readily be conceived."—Tylor, Prim. Cult. i. 196. The same principle of
expression is in familiar use with ourselves, although not recognised in written
language; as when we speak of an e-nó--rmous appetite, or a little tee--ny thing.
The use of reduplicate forms is condemned by the taste of more cultivated
languages, and the sense of continuance is expressed in a more artificial way by
the frequentative form of the verb, as it is called, where the effect of repetition is
given by the addition of an intrinsically unmeaning element, such as the syllable
et, er, or el, acting as a sort of echo to the fundamental syllable of the word.
Thus in E. racket, a clattering noise, or in Fr. cliqu-et-is, clash of weapons, the
imitative syllables, rack and clique, are echoed by the rudimentary et, instead of
being actually repeated, and the words express a continued sound of rack, rack, or
click, click.
It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only, properly speaking, be used
as an echo to hard sounds, but many devices of expression are extended by analogy
far beyond their original aim, and thus et or it are employed in Lat. and Fr. to
express repetition or continuance in a general way, without reference to the par
ticular nature of the repeated phenomenon. So from clamo, to call, clamito, to
keep calling, to call frequently; from Fr. tache, a spot, tach-et-er, to cover with
spots. The elements usually employed in E. for the same purpose are composed of
an obscure vowel with the consonants l or r, on which the voice can dwell for a
length of time with a more or less sensible vibration, representing the effect on
the ear when a confused succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur.
Thus in the pattering of rain or hail, expressing the fall of a rapid succession of
drops on a hard surface, the syllable pat imitates the sound of a single drop, while
the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of
the shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which it is
composed. In like manner to clatter is to do anything accompanied by a suc

cession of noises that might be represented by the syllable clat; to crackle, to

make a succession of cracks; to rattle, dabble, bubble, guggle, to make a succes
sion of noises that might be represented individually by the syllables rat, dal, bub,
gug. The contrivance is then extended to signify continued action unconnected
with any particular noise, as grapple, to make a succession of grabs; shuffle, to
make a succession of shoves; draggle, waggle, joggle, to continue dragging, wag
ging, jogging. The final el or er is frequently replaced by a simple l, which, as
Ihre remarks under gnalla, has something ringing (aliquid tinnuli) in it. Thus
to mewl and pule, in Fr. miauler and piauler, are to cry mew and pew ; to wail
is to cry wae : Piedmontese bau-l-ć, or fê lau, to make bau-bau, to bark like
a dog.
By a further extension the frequentative element is made to signify the simple
employment of an object in a way which has to be understood from the circum
stances of the case. Thus to knee-l is to rest on the bent knee; to hand-le, to em
ploy the hand in dealing with an object. In cases like these, where the frequent
ative element is added to a word already existing in the language, the effect of
the addition is simply to give a verbal signification to the compound, an end which
might equally be attained by the addition of verbal inflections of person and tense,
without the intervention of the frequentative element.
It seems accordingly to be a matter of chance whether the terminal l is added
or omitted. The Fr. miauler and béler correspond to E. mew and baa ; the G.
&nie-en to E. kneel. In e. itself, to hand, in some applications, as to handle, in
others, is used for dealing with an object by the hand.
The application of the frequentative el or er to signify the agent or the in
strument of action (as in As. rynel, a runner, or in E. rubber, he who rubs, or what
is used in rubbing) is analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition
of the significant syllable, as shown above in the case of Malay ayunayunan, a
cradle or rocker from ayun, to rock, or Maori puka-puka, the lungs (the puffers of
the body), from puka, to puff.
The same element is found in the construction of adjectives, as in As.ficol, fickle,
to be compared with G. fickfacken, to move to and fro, and in As. wancol, G.
wankel, wavering, by the side of wanken, wankeln, to rock or wag.
When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language,
we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used with a con
scious intention of directly imitating sound, such as flap, crack, smack, or the in
terjections ah / ugh 1 But sometimes the signification is carried on, either by a
figurative mode of expression, or by association, to something quite distinct from
the sound originally represented, although the connection between the two may
be so close as to be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. Thus
the word flap originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface,
as the wing of a bird or the corner of a sail. It then passes on to signify the
movement to and fro of a flat surface, and is thence applied to the moveable
leaf of a table, the part that moves on a hinge up and down, where all direct
connection with sound is lost. In like manner crack imitates the sound made

by a hard body breaking, and is applied in a secondary way to the effects of the
breach, to the separation between the broken parts, or to a narrow separation
between adjoining edges, such as might have arisen from a breach between them.
But when we speak of looking through the crack of a door we have no thought
of the sound made by a body breaking, although it is not difficult, on a moment's
reflection, to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow open
ing which is our real meaning. It is probable that smack is often used in the
sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue in the
enjoyment of food, which is the origin of the word.
When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense, it is obviously a mere
chance how long, or how generally, the connection with the sound it was
originally intended to represent, will continue to be felt in daily speech. Some
times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign language, or in
forms that have become obsolete in our own, when the unlettered man can only
regard the word he is using as an arbitrary symbol. A gull or a dupe is a person
easily deceived. The words are used in precisely the same sense, but what is
the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousness of
the metaphors which give them their meaning 2 Most of us probably would be
inclined to connect the first of the two with guile, deceit, and comparatively few
are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird.
When several other instances are pointed out in which a young bird is taken as
the type of helpless simplicity, it leaves no doubt that this is the way in which
the word gull has acquired its ordinary meaning. Dupe comes to us from the
French, in which language it signifies also a hoopoe, a bird with which we have
so little acquaintance at the present day, that we are apt at first to regard the
double signification as an accidental coincidence. But when we find that the
names by which the hoopoe is known in Italian, Polish, Breton, as well as in
French (all radically distinct), are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dupe,
we are sure that there must be something in the habits of the bird, which, at
a time when it was more familiarly known, made it an appropriate type of the
character its name in so many instances is used to designate. We should
hardly have connected ugly with the interjection ugh / if we had not been
aware of the obsolete verb ug, to cry ugh' or feel horror at, and it is only the
accidental preservation of occasional passages where the verb is written houge,
that gives us the clue by which huge and hug are traced to the same source.
Thus the imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use
and the loss of intermediate forms, until all suspicion of the original principle of
their signification has faded away in the minds of all but the few who have made
the subject their special study. There is, moreover, no sort of difference either
in outward appearance, or in mode of use, or in aptness to combine with other
elements, between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitative
source, and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. It
would be impossible for a person who knew nothing of the origin of the words
huge and vast, to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de

rived from the imitation of sound; and when he was informed that huge had
been explained on this principle, it would be difficult to avoid the inference that
a similar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Nor can we doubt that a
wider acquaintance with the forms through which our language has past would
make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now
appears to be wholly arbitrary. And why should it be assumed that any words
whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ?
If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as far as it goes; if it affords an adequate
account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehensible by
the ear, it behoves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of
its reach, to specify the kind of thought for which it is inadequate to find ex
pression, and the grounds of its shortcomings. And as the difficulty certainly
does not lie in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound, it can
only be found in the limited powers of metaphor, that is, in the capacity of one
thing to put us in mind of another. It will be necessary then to show that
there are thoughts so essentially differing in kind from any of those that have
been shown to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation, as to escape
the inference in favour of the general possibility of that mode of expression.
Hitherto, however, no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue.
The arguments of objectors have been taken almost exclusively from cases where
the explanations offered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on
the face of them, or are founded in manifest blunder, or are too far-fetched to
afford satisfaction; while the positive evidence of the validity of the principle,
arising from cases where it is impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative
origin, is slurred over, as if the number of such cases was too inconsiderable to
merit attention in a comprehensive survey of language.
That the words of imitative origin are neither inconsiderable in number, nor
restricted in signification to any limited class of ideas, is sufficiently shown by
the examples given in the foregoing pages. We cannot open a dictionary with
out meeting with them, and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found
in abundance.
No doubt the number of words which remain unexplained on this principle
would constitute much the larger portion of the dictionary, but this is no more
than should be expected by any reasonable believer in the theory. As long as
the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretty close to the
original form. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imita
tion, and the word is used in a secondary sense, it immediately becomes liable to
corruption from various causes, and the imitative character is rapidly obscured.
The imitative force of the interjections ah! or ach / and ugh / mainly depends
upon the aspiration, but when the vocable is no longer used directly to represent
the cry of pain or of shuddering, the sound of the aspirate is changed to that of
a hard guttural, as in ache (ake) and ugly, and the consciousness of imitation is
wholly lost.
In savage life, when the communities are small and ideas few, language is

liable to rapid change. To this effect we may cite the testimony of a thoughtful
traveller who had 'unusual opportunities of observation. ‘There are certain
peculiarities in Indian habits which lead to a quick corruption of language and
segregation of dialects. When Indians are conversing among themselves they
seem to have pleasure in inventing new modes of pronunciation and in distort
ing words. It is amusing to notice how the whole party will laugh when the
wit of the circle perpetrates a new slang term, and these words are very often
retained. I have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian crews.
When such alterations occur amongst a family or horde which often live many
years without communication with the rest of their tribe, the local corruption of
language becomes perpetuated. Single hordes belonging to the same tribe and
inhabiting the banks of the same river thus become, in the course of many years'
isolation, unintelligible to other hordes, as happens with the Collinas on the
Jurua. I think it very probable, therefore, that the disposition to invent new
words and new modes of pronunciation, added to the small population and habits
of isolation of hordes and tribes, are the causes of the wonderful diversity of lan
guages in South America."—Bates, Naturalist on the Amazons, i. 330.
But even in civilised life, where the habitual use of writing has so strong a
tendency to fix the forms of language, words are continually changing in pro
nunciation and in application from one generation to another; and in no very
long period, compared with the duration of man, the speech of the ancestors be
comes unintelligible to their descendants. In such cases it is only the art of
writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. If English, French, and
Italian were barbarous unwritten languages no one would dream of any re
lation between bishop, evéjue, and vescovo, all immediate descendants of the Latin
episcopus. Who, without knowledge of the intermediate diurnus and giorno,
would suspect that such a word as jour could be derived from dies 2 or without
written evidence would have thought of resolving Goodbye into God be with you
(God b' w' ye), or topsyturvy into topside the other way (top si' t' o'er way)
Suppose that in any of these cases the word had been mimetic in its earlier form,
how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation in the later! If
we allow the influences which have produced such changes as the above to
operate through that vast lapse of time required to mould out of a common stock
such languages as English, Welsh, and "Russian, we shall wonder rather at the
large than the small number of cases, in which traces of the original imitation
are still to be made out.
The letters of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of language.
The letters are signs which represent articulate sounds through the sense of sight,
as words are signs which represent every subject of thought through the sense of
hearing. Now the significance of the names by which the letters are known in
Hebrew and Greek affords a strong presumption that they were originally pic
torial imitations of material things, and the presumption is converted into moral
certainty by the accidental preservation in one or two cases of the original por
traiture. The zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used

as the symbol of Aquarius among the signs of the zodiac is found in Egyptian
hieroglyphics with the force of the letter n.” If we cut the symbol down to the
three last strokes of the zigzag we shall have the n of the early Greek in
scriptions, which does not materially differ from the capital N of the present
But no one from the mere form of the letter could have suspected an inten
tion of representing water." Nor is there one of the letters, the actual form of
which would afford us the least assistance in guessing at the object it was meant
to represent. Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat
ive origin of the oral signs, that the aim at imitation can be detected in only a
third or a fifth, or whatever the proportion may be, of the radical elements of
our speech Nevertheless, a low estimate of the number of forms so traceable
to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational
theory of language.
Mr Tylor fully admits the principle of onomatopoeia, but thinks that the
evidence adduced does not justify ‘the setting up of what is called the Inter
jectional and Imitative theory as a complete solution of the problem of original
language. Valid as this theory proves itself within limits, it would be incautious
to accept a hypothesis which can perhaps account for a twentieth of the crude
forms in any language, as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen
twentieths which remain. A key must unlock more doors than this, to be taken
as the master key’ (Prim. Cult. i. 208). The objection does not exactly meet
the position held by prudent supporters of the theory in question. We do not
assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged
* The evidence for the derivation of the letter N from the symbol representing water (in
Coptic noun) cannot be duly appreciated unless taken in conjunction with the case of the
letter M. The combination of the symbols 1 and 2, as shown in the subjoined illustration,
occurs very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of MN. The lower symbol is used for
m, and thus in this combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m, although it
is said to be never used independently for that letter.
2^^^^^ j vºº

5 Lºſ •uy ºy My H.
9 N 0\\ 11 M H12
. 3 13
Now if the two symbols be epitomised by cutting them down to their extremity, as a lion
is represented (fig. 13) by his head and fore-legs, it will leave figures 3 and 4, which are iden
tical with the M and N of the early Phoenician and Greek. Figures 5, 6, 7, are forms of
Phoenician M from Gesenius; 8, ancient Greek M ; 9, Greek N from Gesenius; 10 and 11
from inscriptions in the British Museum.
e 2

as, for instance, the use of a change of vowel in many languages to express com
parative nearness or distance of position) has had its origin in imitation of sound.
Our doctrine is not exclusive. If new “modes of phonetic expression, un
known to us as yet,' should be discovered, we shall be only in the position of the
fathers of modern Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former
ages began to be discovered, and we shall be the first to recognise the efficiency of
the new machinery. Our fundamental tenet is that the same principle which
enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by means of
bodily gesture, would prompt him to the use of vocal signs for the same purpose,
leading him to utterances, which either by direct resemblance of sound, or by
analogies felt in the effort of utterance, might be associated with the notion to
be conveyed. The formation of words in this way in all languages has been
universally recognised, and it has been established in a wide range of examples,
differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of
abstraction of the idea, or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense, as
to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every
kind of thought. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If
man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of his ordinary
intelligence, it will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over the first steps
of his progress by some supernatural go-cart, in the shape either of direct in
spiration, or, what comes to the same thing, of an instinct unknown to us at the
present day, but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable him to
communicate with his fellows, and then withdrawn when its purpose was accom
Perhaps after all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the
rational origin of Language, is an excusable repugnance to think of Man as
having ever been in so brutish a condition of life as is implied in the want of speech.
Imagination has always delighted to place the cradle of our race in a golden age
of innocent enjoyment, and the more rational views of what the course of life
must have been before the race had acquired the use of significant speech, or
had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence, are felt by
unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of a
beneficent Creator. But this is a dangerous line of thought, and the only safe
rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well
pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which
it is actually allotted to Man (without any choice of his own) to carry on his
life. What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be in
compatible either with the goodness of God or with His views of the dignity of
the human race. And God is no respecter of persons or of races. However
hard or degrading the life of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us, it can
be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were
exposed to a similar struggle.
We have only the choice of two alternatives. We must either suppose that
Man was created in a civilised state, ready instructed in the arts necessary for

the conduct of life, and was permitted to fall back into the degraded condition
which we witness among savage tribes; or else, that he started from the lowest
grade, and rose towards a higher state of being, by the accumulated acquisitions
in arts and knowledge of generation after generation, and by the advantage
constantly given to superior capacity in the struggle for life. Of these alterna
tives, that which embodies the notion of continued progress is most in accord
ance with all our experience of the general course of events, notwithstanding
the apparent stagnation of particular races, and the barbarism and misery occa
sionally caused by violence and warfare. We have witnessed a notable advance
in the conveniences of life in our own time, and when we look back as far as
history will reach, we find our ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians.
Beyond the reach of any written records we have evidence that the country was
inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered
in caves, and carried on their warfare with the wild beasts with the rudest wea
pons of chipped flint. Whether the owners of these earliest relics of the human
race were speaking men or not, who shall say? It is certain only that Language
is not the innate inheritance of our race; that it must have begun to be acquired
by some definite generation in the pedigree of Man; and as many intelligent and
highly social kinds of animals, as elephants, for instance, or beavers, live in har
mony without the aid of this great convenience of social life, there is no ap
parent reason why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an in
definite period before they acquired the use of speech; whether before that epoch
the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the name of Man, or not.
Geologists however universally look back to a period when the earth was peo
pled only by animal races, without a trace of human existence; and the mere
absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one as
repugnant to a thorough belief in the providential rule of the Creator. Why
then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges
over the interval to the appearance of Man, and supposes that one of the races of
the purely animal period was gradually raised in the scale of intelligence, by the
laws of variation affecting all procreative kinds of being, until the progeny, in
the course of generations, attained to so enlarged an understanding as to become
capable of appreciating each other's motives; of being moved to admiration and
love by the exhibition of loving courage, or to indignation and hate by malignant
conduct; of finding enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their
fellows, or of their own reflected thoughts; and sooner or later, of using imitative
signs for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of another mind

AS. Anglo-Saxon. Fl. Florio, Italian-Eng. dict.

AElfr. Gr. Elfric's Grammar at the 168o. -

end of Somner's Dict. F.O. Faery Queen.

B. Bailey's Engl. Dict., 1737. Fr. French.
Bav. Bavarian. Fris. Frisian.
Bigl. Biglotton seu Dict. G. German.
Teutonico-Lat. 1654. Gael. Gaelic.
Boh. Bohemian or Czech. Grandg Grandgagnage, Dict. de
Brem. Wtb. Bremisch - Nieder - Säch la langue Wallonne,
siches Wörterbuch, 1845.
1768. Gris. Romansch, Rhaeto-Ro
Bret. Bas-Breton or Celtic of mance, or language of
Brittany. the Grisons.
Carp. Carpentier, Supplement to Hal. Halliwell's Dict. of Ar
Ducange, 1766. chaic and Provincial
Castr. Couzinié, Dict. de la words, 1852.
langue Romano - Cas Idiot. Idioticon or Vocabulary
traise, 1850. of a dialect.
Cat. Catalan. Illyr. Illyrian. -

Cimbr. Cimbrisch, dialect of the Jam. Jamieson, Dict, of Scot

Sette Commune. tish Language.
Cot. Cotgrave, Fr.-Eng. Dict. K. or Kil. Kilian, Dict. Teutonico
Da. or Dan. Danish. Lat.
dial. Provincial dialect. Küttn. Küttner's Germ. - Eng.
Dief. Diefenbach, Vergleichen Dict., 1805.
des Wörterbuch der Lang. Dict. Languedocien
Gothischen Sprache, Franç. par Mr L. S. D.,
1851. 1785.
Dief. Sup. Diefenbach, Supplement Lap. Lapponic or language of
to Ducange, 1857. Lapland.
Dú. Dutch. Lat. Latin.
Duc. Ducange, Glossarium Me Let. Lettish.
diae et Infimae Latini Lim. Beronie, Dict. du patois
tatis. du Bas-Limousin (Cor
D.V. Douglas' Virgil. rèze).
E. English. Lith. Lithuanian.
Esth. Esthonian. Magy. Hungarian or Magyar.
Fin. Finnish. M.H.G. Middle High German.

Mid. Lat. Latin of the Middle Ages. Roquef. Roquefort, Gloss. de la

N. Norwegian or Norse. Langue Romaine.
O. Old. Rouchi Patois of the Hainault.
OHG. Old High German. Hécart, Dict. Rouchi
ON. Old Norse, Icelandic. Franç.
Palsgr. Palsgrave, l'Esclaircisse R.R. Chaucer's translation of
ment de la langue Fran the Roman de la Rose
çoise. Russ. Russian.
Pat. de Brai. Dict. du patois du Pays Sc. Lowland Scotch.
de Brai, 1852. Schm. Schmeller, Bayerisches
Piedm. Piedmontese. Wörterbuch.
Pl.D. Platt Deutsch, Low Ger Serv. Servian.
man dialects. Sp. Spanish.
Pol. Polish. , Sw. Swedish.
P.P. Piers Plowman. Swab. Swabian.
Prov. Provençal. Swiss Rom. Swiss Romance, the Fr.
Pr. Pnn. Promptorium Parvulo patois of Switzerland.
runn. Venet. Venetian.
Pig. Portuguese. W. Welsh.
R Richardson's Eng. Dict. Walach. Walachian or Daco-Ro
Rayn. Raynouard, Dict. Proven. mance.

çal, 1836. | Wall. Walloon.




An asterisk (*) is prefixed to words where the etymology of the first edition has been
materially altered.


A, as a prefix to nouns, is commonly remaining with us in the restricted ap

the remnant of the AS. on, in, on, among, plication to Banns of Marriage. Passing
as abacž, AS. on-baec ; away, AS. on into the Romance tongues, this word be
wasg ; alike, AS. on-lic. came bando in Italian and Spanish, an
In the obsolete adown it represents the edict or proclamation, bandon in French,
As. of, of or from ; AS. oſ-dune, literally, in the same sense, and secondarily in
from a height, downwards. that of command, orders, dominion,
As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to power :
the Goth. us, out of ; OHG. ur, ar, er, ir, Thai, Wallace said, Thou spekis of mychty
G. er, implying a completion of the Fra . thing,
action. Bruce had resavit his crown,
I thoucht have maid Ingland at his bandown,
Thus G. erwachen, to awake, is to wake So wttrely it suld beyn at his will,
up from a state of sleep ; to abide, is to What plesyt him, to sauff the king or spill.
wait until the event looked for takes Wallace.
place; to arise, to get up from a recum Hence to embandom or abandon is to
bent posture. bring under the absolute command or
Ab-, Abs-, A- In Lat. compounds, entire control of any one, to subdue, rule,
away, away from, off. To abuse is to use have entire dominion over.
in a manner other than it should be ; ab And he that thryll (thrall) is is nocht his,
Zution, a washing off; to abstain, to hold All that he has embandownyt is
away from. Lat. a, ab, abs, from. Unto his Lord, whatever he be.—Bruce, i. 244.
Abaft. AS. aeſtan, be-a-ſtan, baſtan, He that dredeth God wol do diligence to plese
after, behind. Hence on-baeſtan, abaft. God by his werkes and abandon himself with all
The word seems very early to have ac his might well for to do.—Parson's Tale.
quired the nautical use in which alone Thus we see that the elliptical expres
it survives at the present day. sion of “an abandoned character,’ to
which the accident of language has at
Every man shewid his connyng tofore the ship tached the notion of one enslaved to vice,
and &aſt.—Chaucer, Beryn. 843.
might in itself with equal propriety have
Abandon. Immediately from Fr. been used to signify devotion to good.
abandomner, and that from the noun Again, as that which is placed at the
bandon (also adopted in English, but now absolute command of one party must by
obsolete), command, orders, dominion. the same act be entirely given up by the
The word Bam is common to all the lan original possessor, it was an easy step
guages of the Teutonic stock in the from the sense of conferring the com
ºr of proclamation, announcement, mand of a thing upon some particular
- -

person, to that of renouncing all claim to In the original—

authority over the subject matter, without Moult m'esbah is de la merveille.
particular reference to the party into Yield you madame en hicht can Schir Lust say,
whose hands it might come ; and thus in A word scho could not speik scho was so abatd.
modern times the word has come to be - K. Hart in Jamieson.
used almost exclusively in the sense of Custom, which has rendered obsolete
renunciation or desertion. ‘Dedicio— befrash and obeish, has exercised her
abaundunement,’ the surrender of a authority in like manner over abay or
castle.—Neccham. abaw, burny, astony.
The adverbial expressions at abandon, The origin of esbahir itself is to be
bandomly, abandomly, so common in the found in the O Fr. baer, beer, to gape,
‘Bruce’ and “Wallace’ like the OFr. d an onomatopoeia from the sound Ba,
son bandon, a bandon, may be explained, most naturally uttered in the opening of
at his own will and pleasure, at his own the lips. Hence Lat. Baba: A Mod.
impulse, uncontrolledly, impetuously, de Prov. Bah / the interjection of wonder;
terminedly. ‘Ainsi s'avancerent de and the verb esbahir, in the active form,
grand volonté tous chevaliers et ecuyers to set agape, confound, astonish, to strike
et prirent terre.”—Froiss. vol. iv. c. 118. with feelings the natural tendency of
To Abash. Originally, to put to con which is to manifest itself by an involun
fusion from any strong emotion, whether tary opening of the mouth. Castrais, ſa
of fear, of wonder, shame, or admiration, *aba, to excite admiration.—Cousinié.
but restricted in modern times to the Zulu babaza, to astonish, to strike with
effect of shame. Abash is an adoption wonder or surprise.
of the Fr. esbahir, as sounded in the In himself was all his state
greater number of the inflections, esba More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits
/hissons, esbahissais, esbahissant. In or On princes, when their rich retinue long
der to convert the word thus inflected Of horses led, and grooms besmeared with gold,
into English it was natural to curtail Dazzles the crowd, and sets them all agape. Milton.
merely the terminations ons, ais, ant, by
which the inflections differed from each Wall. bawi, to look at with open mouth;
other, and the verb was written in Eng eshawi, to abaw or astonish.-Grandg.
See Abide.
lish to abaisse or abaish, as ravish, polish,
furnish, from ravir, fo/ir, ſournir. To Abate. Fr. ałbattre, to beat
Many English verbs of a similar deriv down, to ruin, overthrow, cast to the
ation were formerly written indifferently ground, Cotgr. Wall. abate, faire tomber,
with or without a final sh, where custom (Grandg.); It. abòaſere, to overthrow, to
has rendered one or other of the two pull down, to make lower, depress,
modes of spelling obsolete. Thus obey weaken, to diminish the force of any
was written obeisse or obeyshe, betray, thing ; abòaſere le vela, to strike sail ;
befrash. affałere da/ frezzo, to bate something
Speaking of Narcissus stooping to of the price; abbatersi, to light upon, to
drink, Chaucer writes: hit, to happen, to meet with ; abbatersi
In the water anon was sene in una terra, to take possession of an
estate. Hence the OE. law term abate
His nose, his mouth, his eyen shene,
And he thereof was all abashed, ment, which is the act of one who in
His owne shadow had him befrashed, trudes into the possession of lands void
For well he wened the forme to see by the death of the former possessor,
Of a childe of full grete beauti.-R. R. 1520. and not yet taken up by the lawful heir ;
In the original— and the party who thus pounces upon
Et il maintenant s'eſha hit the inheritance is called an abator. See
Car son umbre sile trahif Beat, Bate.
Car il cuida voir la figure Abbot, Abbey, Abbess. More cor
D'ung enfant bel a demesure. rectly written abbat, from Lat. abbas,
On the other hand, burny was formerly aôbaſis, and that from Syrian abòa,
father. The word was occasionally writ
in use as well as burnish ; abay or adaw ten
as well as abaisse or abaish : abba in Latin. It was a title of re
spect formerly given to monks in general,
I saw the rose when I was nigh, and it must have been during the time
It was thereon a goodly sight—
For such another as I gesse that it had this extended signification
Aforne ne was, ne more vermeille, that it gave rise to the Lat. abbatia, an
I was abawid for merveille.—R. R. 3645. abbey, or society of abbots or monks.

Epiphanius, speaking of the Holy places, baier, beer, with the frequentative bail/er,
says, ºxsi ès i airi) dºec x,\tovc cat xi\ta to open the mouth, to gape; gueule bee,
réAAta, it contains a thousand monks and &ouche beſante, as go/a badada, bocca ba
a thousand cells.--Ducange. In process data above mentioned.
of time we meet with protestations from Quant voit le serpent, qui baaille,
St Jerome and others against the arro Corant seus lui, geule baee.—Raynouard.
gance of assuming the title of Father, Both forms of the verb are then figur
and either from feelings of such a nature, atively applied to signify affections cha
or possibly from the analogy between a racterized by involuntary opening of the
community of monks and a private mouth, intent observation, or absorption
family, the name of Abbot or Father was in an object, watching, listening, expect
ultimately confined to the head of the ation, waiting, endurance, delay, suffer
house, while the monks under his control ing. It. badare, to attend to, to mind, to
were called Brothers. take notice, take care, to desire, covet,
Abele. The white poplar. Pol. biało aspire to, to stay, to tarry, to abide ;
drzew, literally white tree, from biaſo, abbadare, to stay, to attend on ; bada,
white. delay, lingering, tarrying; femere a bada,
* To Abet. OFr. affeffer, to de to keep in suspense. Corresponding
ceive, also to incite ; inciter, animer, forms with the d effaced are OFr. baer,
exciter.—Roquef. Prov.abet, deceit, trick; baier, baſer, to be intent upon, attendre
ačetar, to deceive, beguile. avec empressement, aspirer, regarder,
Luine peut-il mie guiler, songer, desirer (Roquef); abayer, écouter
Ni engigner ni abſter.—Fabl. II. 366. avec 6tonnement, bouche beante, inhiare
loquenti (Lacombe).
Both senses of the word may be ex I saw a smith stand with his hammer—thus—
plained from Norm. abet, Guernsey beth, The whilst his iron did on the anvil cool,
a bait for fish ; beſter, Norm. affeiter, to With open mouth swallowing a tailor's news.
bait the hook.--Héricher, Gloss. Norm. K. John.
From the sense of baiting springs that Here we have a good illustration of the
of alluring, tempting, inciting, on the one connection between the figure of opening
hand, and alluring to his own destruc the mouth and the ideas of rapt attention,
tion, deceiving, beguiling on the other. waiting, suspense, delay. The verb at
See Bait.
tend, which in E. signifies the direction of
Abeyance. OFr. ałęiance, droit en the mind to an object, in Fr. attendre
ałeſiance, a right in suspense; abeyance, signifies to suspend action, to wait. In
expectation, desire.—Gloss. de Champ. other cases the notion of passive waiting
From abahier, abaier, affayer, to be in is expressed by the figure of looking or
tent upon, to desire earnestly, to expect, watching. Thus G. warten, to wait, is iden
wait, watch, listen. See Abide. tical with It. guardare, to look, and E. wait
To Abide, Abie. Goth. beidan, us was formerly used in the sense of look.
beidan, to expect; gabeidan, to endure; The passage which in our translation is
zasócisms, expectation; us&eisnei, endur “Art thou he that should come, or do we
ance, forbearance. AS. bidan, abidan, to Zook for another,’ is in AS. “we sceolon
expect, wait, bide ; ON. bida, to wait, othres abidan.” The effacement of the d
endure, suffer; b. bama, to suffer death ; in Du. beijen, in Dan. bie compared with
IDan. bie, Du. beijaſen, beijen, verbeijen Sw. bida, and in E. abie, compared with
(Bosworth), to wait. We have seen abide, is precisely analogous to that in
under Abash that the involuntary open Fr. bºer, baier compared with It. badare,
ing of the mouth under the influence of abadare, or in Fr. crier compared with
astonishment was represented by the It gridare.
syllable ba, from whence in the Romance Certes (quoth she) that is that these wicked
dialects are formed two series of verbs, shrewes be more blissful that abien the torments
one with and one without the addition of that they have deserved than if no pain of Justice
a terminal d to the radical syllable. ne chastised them.—Chaucer, Boethius.
Thus we have It. badare, badigliare, to At sight of her they suddaine all arose
gape, to yawn. Cat. and Prov. badar, to In great amaze, ne wist what way to chuse,
open the mouth, to open; bader, ouvrir But Jove all feareless forced them to aby.—F. Q.
(Vocab. de Berri); Prov, gola badada, It is hardly possible to doubt the iden
It. bocca badata, with open mouth ; Cat. tity of E. abie, to remain or endure, with
*adia, a bay or opening in the coast. the verb of abeyance, expectation or sus
Without the terminal d we have baer, pense, which is certainly related to It.
1 *

fadare, as E. abie to Goth. beidan, AS. Thus abie for abuy and abie from
bidan. Thus the derivation of badare abide are in certain cases confounded
above explained is brought home to E. together, and the confusion sometimes
bide, abide, abie. extends to the use of abide in the sense
Abie, 2. Fundamentally distinct from of abuying or paying the penalty.
abie in the sense above explained, al If it be found so some will dear abide it.
though sometimes confounded with it, is Jul. Caesar.
the verb abie, properly affrºy, and spelt How dearly I abide that boast so vain.
indifferently in the older authors abºgge, Milton, P. L.
aðeye, abigg, abidge, from AS. abiºgan, Disparage not the faith thou dost not know,
ahyºgan, to redeem, to pay the purchase Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear.
Mids. N. Dr.
money, to pay the penalty, suffer the
consequences of anything ; and the sim Able. Lat. habilis (from habeo, to
ple buy, or bie, was often used in the have ; have-like, at hand), convenient,
Saille SCInSe. fit, adapted ; Fr. habile, able, strong,
Sithe Richesse hath me failed here,
powerful, expert, sufficient, fit for any
She shall able that trespass dere.—R. R.
thing he undertakes or is put unto.—
Algate this selie maide is slaine alas !
Cotgr. It. abile, Prov. abi/h.
Alas ! to dere abought she her beaute. It will be remarked on looking at a
Doctor's Tale. series of * that in the earlier
Thou slough my brother Morgan instances the sense of the Lat. habilis is
At the mete full right closely preserved, while in later examples
As I am a doughti man the meaning is confined to the case of
His death thou bist (buyest) tonight. fitness by possession of sufficient active
Sir Tristrem.
For whoso hardy hand on her doth lay
It derely shall ačie, and death for handse/fay. God tokeneth and assigneth the times, abling
Spenser, F. Q. hem to her proper offices.—Chaucer, Boeth.
And when he fond he was yhurt, the Pardoner In the original,
he gan to threte, Signat tempora propriis
And swore by St Amyas that he should abigg Aptans officiis Deus.
With strokes hard and sore even upon the rigg. That if God willing to schewe his wrathe, and
Prol. Merch. 2nd Tale.
to make his power knowne, hath sufferid in
Ac for the lesynge that thou Lucifer lowe til Eve grete pacience vessels of wrathe able unto death,
Thou shalt abygge bitter quoth God, and bond &c.—Wickliff in Richardson.
him with cheynes.—P. P.
To enable a person to do a thing or to
To buy it dear, seems to have been disable him, is to render him fit or unfit
used as a sort of proverbial expression for doing it.
for suffering loss, without special refer Divers persons in the House of Commons
ence to the notion of retribution.
were attainted, and therefore not legal nor
The thingis fellin as they done of werre habilitate to serve in Parliament, being disabled
Betwixtin hem of Troie and Grekis ofte, in the highest degree.—Bacon in R.
For some day boughtin they of Troie it dere
And eſte the Grekis foundin nothing softe The Fr. habiller is to qualify for any
The folke of Troie. Tr. and Cr,purpose, as habi//er du chanvre, de la
It will be seen from the foregoing ex vo/a://e, to dress hemp, to draw fowls, to
amples how naturally the sense of buying render them fit for use ; whence habili
or paying the purchase-money of a thing ments are whatever is required to qualify
passes into that of simply suffering, in for any special purpose, as habiliments
which the word is used in the following of war ; and the most general of all
passages. qualifications for occupation of any kind
O God, forbid for mother's fault being simply clothing, the Fr. habi//e-
The children should ałye.—Boucher. ment has become appropriated to that
If he come into the hands of the Holy Inquisi special signification.
tion, he must ahye for it.—Boucher. Aboard. For on board, within the
i.e. must suffer for it. walls of a ship. ON. bord, a board, the
The connection between the ideas of side of a ship. Inman bords, within the
remaining or continuance in time and ship, on board ; at Aasta /yri Öord, to
continuance under suffering or pain is throw overboard.
apparent from the use of the word en Abolish. Fr. abolir, from Lat. abo/eo,
durance in both applications. In this to erase or annul. The neuter form
way both abide and its degraded form abolesco, to wear away, to grow out of
abie come to signify suffer. use, to perish, when compared with

adolesco, to grow up, coalesco, to grow -

Ethiopia Land
together, shows that the force of the Beſigeth utan.—Caedmon.
radical syllable ol, al is growth, vital for ligeth butan, it compasseth the whole
progress. Pl. D. aſ-olen, aſ-oolden, to land of Ethiopia.
become worthless through age. De mann Above. As. uſan, be-uſan, buſan,
olet gang aſ, the man dwindles away. abuſam, Du. boven, OE. abowen, Sc.
The primitive idea seems that of beget affoon, above, on high. In Barbour's
ting or giving birth to, kindling. QSw. Bruce we find both abowyne and abow,
a/a, to beget or give birth to children, as withoutyn and without.
and also, as AS. alan, to light a fire; the Abraid.—Abray. To affray or abraid,
analogy between life and the progress of now obsolete, is common in our older
ignition being one of constant occur writers in the sense of starting out of
rence. So in Lat. alere capillos, to let sleep, awaking, breaking out in language.
the hair grow, and alere ſlammam, to AS. abragdan, abredan, to awake, snatch
feed the flame. In English we speak of away, draw out. The radical idea is to
the vital spark, and the verb to kindle is do anything with a quick and sudden
used both in the sense of lighting a fire, motion, to start, to snatch, to turn, to
and of giving birth to a litter of young. break out. See To Bray.
The application of the root to the notion To Abridge, Abbreviate, to short
of fire is exemplified in Lat. adolere, en, or cut short. Of these synonymous
adolescere, to burn up (adolescunt ignibus terms the former, from Fr. abrºger, seems
arae. Virg.); while the sense of beget the older form, the identity of which with
ting, giving birth to, explains soboſes Lat. abbreviare not being at once ap
(for sub-ol-es), progeny, and in-d-oles, parent, abbreviate was subsequently form
that which is born in a man, natural ed direct from the latter language.
disposition. Then, as the duty of nour Abréger itself, notwithstanding the
ishing and supporting is inseparably con plausible quotation from Chaucer given
nected with the procreation of offspring, below, is not from G. abbrechen, AS.
the OSw. ala is made to signify to rear, abraecan, but from Lat. abbreviare, by the
to bring up, to feed, to fatten, showing change of the v and i into u and j respect
that the Latin alere, to nourish, is a ively. The Provençal has breu for
shoot from the same root. In the same brevis; breugetat for brevitas; abbreujar,
way Sw.fida signifies to beget, and also to abridge, leading immediately to Fr.
to rear, to bring up, to feed, to main abréger, and other cases may be pointed
tain. Gael. d.laich, to produce, bring out of similar change in passing from Lat.
forth, nourish, nurse ; d.l, brood, or young to the Romance languages. Lat. levis
of any kind; oil, Goth. alan, o/, to rear, becomes leu in Prov., while the verb alle
educate, nurse. The root el, signifying viare is preserved in the double form of
life, is extant in all the languages of the alleviar and alleujar, whence the Fr.
Finnish stock. alléger, which passed into English under
Abominable. — Abominate. Lat. the form allegge, common in Chaucer and
abominor (from ab and omen, a portent), his contemporaries, so that here also we
to deprecate the omen, to recognize a had the double form al/egge and alleviate,
disastrous portent in some passing oc precisely corresponding to abridge and
currence, and to do something to avert abbreviate. In like manner from Lat.
the threatened evil. Quod abominor, gravis, Prov. grew, heavy, hard, severe;
which may God avert. Thence to regard greugetat, gravity, agreuſar, Fr; aggré
with feelings of detestation and abhor ger, OE. agredge, to aggravate. ‘Things
rence. that greatly agredge their sin.”—Parson's
To Abound. Abundant. See -und-. Tale.
About. AS. utan, outward, without, No doubt if we had not so complete a
be-utan, butan, ynbutan, ombutan, abutan, pedigree from brevis, the idea of breaking
about ; literally, around on the out off would suggest a very plausible deriva
side. tion from G. abbrechen, to break off;
Sometimes the two parts of the word AEurg abbrechen, to cut short.—Küttner.
are divided by the subject to which it ‘And when this olde man wende to en
relates, or the particle be is separated force his tale by resons, all at once be
from the preposition and joined to the gonne thei to rise for to breken his tale
preceding verb. and bidden him full ofte his words for to
Ymb hancred utan, about cockcrow. aôregge.”—Chaucer, Melibaeus.
Thonne seo aeſtre Abroach. For on broach, from Fr.

brocher, to pierce. To set a tun abroach In the same way the G. stassen, to
is to pierce it, and so to place it in con thrust, butt, push with the horns, &c., is
dition to draw off the contents. also applied to the abutting of lands.
Right as who set a tonne abroche Ahre lander stos.sen an einander, their
He perced the hard roche. lands abuſ on each other. So in Swedish
Gower in Richardson. stofa, to strike, to thrust, to butt as a
Wall. abroki, mettre in perce.—Grandg. goat; stofa Zi/sammtans, to meet together,
See Broach. to abuſ.
Abroad. On broad, spread over the Abyss. Gr. 63vadoc, unfathomable,
surface, far and wide, and hence arbitra from 3 and 3vagóc or Bubic, depth.
rily applied in the expression of going Academy. Gr. dračilusia, a garden
abroad to going beyond the limits of one's in the suburbs of Athens where Plato
own country. taught.
But it (the rose) ne was so sprede on brede, Accede.—Access.-Accessory. Lat.
That men within might know the sede.—R. R. accedere, accessum, to go or come to, to
arrive at, approach. To support, to be of
Abscess. Lat. abscessus, Fr. abscez, the party or side of any one, to assent to,
a course of ill humours running out of to approve of Hence accessory, an aider
their veins and natural places into the or abetter in a crime. See Cede.
empty spaces between the muscles.— Fr. accès from accessus, a fit or sudden
Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with attack of a disorder, became in OE. airesse,
draw, draw to a head. See -cess. pl. ares, still preserved in the provincial
To Abscond. To withdraw for the
ares, the ague.—Halliwell.
purpose of concealment; Lat. abscondo, to A charm—
hide away; condo, to put by. The which can helin thee of thine airesse.
To Absorb. Lat. ab and sorbeo, to Tro, and Cress. 2, 1315.
suck up. See Sherbet.
To Abstain. —Abstemious. Lat. ab Accent. Lat. accentus, modulation of
stineo, to hold back from an object of de the voice, difference in tone, from accino,
sire, whence abstemious, having a habit accentum, to sing to an instrument, to ac
cord. See Chant.
of abstaining from. Vini abstemius, Pliny,
abstaining from wine. So Fr. 6tamer, to Accomplice. Fr. com//ice, Lat. com
tin, from étain. Alex, bound up with, united with one in
Absurd. Not agreeable to reason a project, but always in a bad sense.
or common sense. Lat. absurdus. The Accomplish. Fr. accomplir, Lat. com
figure of deafness is frequently used to Alere, to fill up, fulfil, complete.
express the failure of something to serve Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Form
the purpose expected from things of its ed in analogy to the Lat. concordare, dis
kind. Thus ON. dau/r, deaf; dau/r /i/r, cordare, from concors, discors, and con
a dull colour; a deaf nut, one without a sequently from cor, the heart, and not
chorda, the string of a musical instrument.
kernel; Fr. lanterne sourde, a dark lan —Diez. The Swiss Romance has cor
tern. So Lat. surdus, deaf; surdus locus,
a place ill adapted for hearing; surda dere, cordre, synonymous with G. gonnen,
vota, unheard prayers. Absurdum, what to consent heartily with what falls to
is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to another; Wall. Æeure, voir de bon gré
the understanding. qu'un &vénement arrive à quelqu'un,
Est hoc auribus, animisque hominum absurdum. qu'une chose ait lieu ; mesſeure, missgön
Cic. nen.—Grandg.
To Abut. Fr. bout, end: aboutir, to Fr.Tocoste,
Accost. Lat. costa, a rib, a side;
a rib, costé, now cóſé, a side;
meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself
is from OFr. boſer, botter, boutin, to
coste-à-coste, side by side. Hence accoster,
to join side to side, approach, and thence
strike, corresponding to E. butt, to strike to greet.
with the head, as a goat or ram. It is Accoutre. From the Fr. accoutrer,
clear that the full force of the metaphor formerly accoustrer, to equip with the
is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of habiliments of some special office or oc
France and England as cupation,-an act of which in Catholic
two mighty monarchies, countries the frequent change of vest
Whose high upreared and abutting fronts ments at appointed periods of the church
The narrow perilous ocean parts asunder.
service would afford a striking and fami
Abuttals or boundaries are translated liar example.
capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capitare. Now the person who had charge of the

vestments in a Catholic church, was the Goth. akran, notwithstanding Grimm's

sacristan; in Lat. custos sacrarii or ec quotation of Cajus,
clesiæ (barbarously rendered custrix, Glandis appellatione omnis fructus continetur.
when the office was filled by woman), in
OFr. cousteur or coustre, coutre; Ger. Grimm is himself inclined to explain
Alister, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.— akran, fruit, as the produce of the akr, or
Ludwig. corn-field, but a more satisfactory deriva
Ad custodem sacrarii pertinet cura vel custo tion may probably be found in OHG.
diurn templi–vela westesque sacrae, ac vasa sacro wuocher, increase, whence G. wucher, ON.
rum.—St Isidore in Ducange. okr, interest, usury, from the same root
The original meaning of accoutrer with Lat. augere, Goth. aukan, to in
would thus be to perform the office of crease; erale-wucher, the increase of the
sacristan to a priest, to invest him with field, fruits of the earth.-Notker. The
the habiliments of his office; afterwards ON. okran, facneratio, is formally identical
to invest with the proper habiliments of with Goth. akram.
any other occupation. Acoustic. Gr. akovaruroc, connected
Accrue. Fr. accroitre, accru, from with hearing; tıxoëw, to hear.
Lat. crescere, to grow. Thence accrite, a To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov.
growth, increase, Cotgr., and E. accrue, accoindar, to make known; OFr. coint,
to be in the condition of a growth, to be informed of a thing, having it known,
added to something as what naturally from Lat. cognitus, according to Diez;
grows out of it. but this seems one of the cases in which
Ace. Fr. as, It. asso, the face marked it must be doubtful whether the Romance
with the number one on cards or dice, word comes from a Lat. original, or from
from Lat. as, assis, which signifies a single a corresponding Teutonic root. The G.
one.—Diez. has kund (from Kennen, to know), known,
Achromatic. Producing an image manifest; Æund machen, to make known,
free from iridescent colours. Gr. 3, priva in precisely the same sense with the Prov.
tive, and xptopa, colour. coindar, the d of which seems better to
Ache. A bodily pain, from Ach / the agree with the G. word than with the Lat.
natural expression of pain. So from G. cognitus, G. Áundig, having knowledge
ach / alas ! the term is applied to woe, of a thing.
grief. Mein ach ist deine freude, my woe To Acquit. From Lat. Quietus, at
is your joy.—Küttn. Achen, to utter rest, was formed Fr. Quitte, whence ac
cries of grief. The Gr. dxoc, pain, grief, quitter, to set at rest with respect to some
is formed on the same principle. impending claim or accusation. See
To Achieve. Prov. cap, Fr. chef, head, Quit, Quite.
and thence the end of everything; de Acre. Gr. dypóc; Lat. ager, Goth.
chief en chief, from end to end; venir à ałrs, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker,
cheſ, to gain one's end, to accomplish; a field of cultivated land; thence a mea
Prov. acabar, Fr. achever, to bring to a sure of land, so much as may be ploughed
head, to accomplish, achieve. in a day.
Acid.—Acrid.—Acerbity. Lat. aceo, Acrostic.—A poem in which the first
to be sharp or sour; acor, sourness; letters of the verses compose one or more
acidus, sour, tart; acetum, vinegar, sour words, from Gr. drpov, tip, arixoc, a verse.
wine. From the same root acer, acris, Act.—Active.—Actor. See Agent.
sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, Acute. The syllable ac is the founda
sharpness; acerbus, sharp, bitter, sour tion of many words connected with the
like an unripe fruit. See Acute. idea of sharpness both in Lat. and Gr.,
Acme. Gr. druń, a point: the highest as ākh, Lat. acies, a point or edge, akic,
degree of any quality. See Acute. -íčoc, a pointed instrument, a sting; Lat.
Acolyte. Gr. &kóAov0oc, an attendant, acus, a needle, properly a prick, as shown
ãroMov6:w, to follow, attend. by the dim. aculeus, a prickle or sting;
Acorn. As. acern, a cerem, accern; acuo, to give a point or edge to, to sharp
ON. akarºt, Dan. agern, Du. aker, G. en; acutus, sharpened, sharp. Words
ecker, eichel, Goth. akran, fruit. The from the same source signifying sharp
last of the AS. spellings shows us an early ness of a figurative kind are seen under
accommodation to the notion of oak-corn, Acid.
a derivation hardly compatible with the Ad-, in composition. Lat. ad, to. In
other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, combination with words beginning with
or with the more general signification of c, f, g, l, n, A, v, the d of ad is assimilated
to the following consonant, as in affºro W. neidr, Goth. madrs, ON. madra ; OHG
for adſºro, affaro for adºaro, &c. na/ra, madra, G, natter, AS. madre, nea
Adage. Lat. adagium, a proverb. der, OE. medare.
To Adaw. Two words of distinct Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ire
meaning and origin are here confounded: land, says,
1st, from AS. dagian, da gian, to become Selde me schal in the lond any foule wormys se
day, to dawn, OE. to daw, to dawn, adaw, For medres ne other wormes ne mow ther be
or adawn, to wake out of sleep or out of noght.—p. 43.
a swoon. “I adawe or adawne as the day Instead of meda're Wickliff uses eddre,
doth in the morning when the sonne as Mandeville ew/e for what we now call
draweth towards his rising.” “I adawe newſ, or the modern affron for OE. ma
one out of a swounde,’ ‘to dawe from from. In the same way Bret. aer, a ser
swouning, to dawne or get life in one pent, corresponds to Gael. mathair, pro
that is fallen in a swoune.”—Palsgrave in nounced maer. It seems mere accident
Halliwell. which of the two forms is preserved.
A man that waketh of his slepe The forms with an initial n are com
He may not sodenly wel taken kepe monly referred to a root signifying to
Upon a thing, ne seen it parfitlypierce or cut, the origin of Goth. meth/a,
Til that he be adawed veraily.—Chaucer.
OHG. nádaſ, Bret. madog, E. needle, and
So Da. dial. morgne sig, to rouse one are connected with W. naddu, and with
self from sleep, from morgen, morning. G. schneiden, to cut. Perhaps the ON.
2nd, to reduce to silence, to still or mötra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence
subdue, from Goth. thahan, M.H.G. dagen, mötru-gras, a nettle, may be a more pro
bable origin. There is little doubt that
gedagen, to be silent, still; ON. thagga, to the
silence, lull, hush. ON. eitr, AS. atter, venom, matter, is
from OHG. eiten, to burn.
As the bright sun what time his fiery train To Addle. To earn, to thrive.
Towards the western brim begins to draw,
Gins to abate the brightness of his beame With goodmen's hogs or corn or hay
And fervour of his flames somewhat adawe. I addle my ninepence every day.—Hal.
F. Q. v. ch. 9. Where ivy embraceth the tree very sore
So spake the bold brere with great disdain, Kill ivy, or tree will addle no more.
Little him answered the oak again, -
Tusser in Hal.
But yielded with shame and grief adawed, ON. od/ask, to get, also, naturaliter pro
That of a weed he was overcrawed.
Shep. Cal. cedere, to run its course, to grow, in
crease. Henni odladist sottin: the sick
Hessian dachen, tdgen, to allay, to still ness increased. Sw. odla, to till, to cul
pain, a storm, &c. “Der Schmerz dach/ tivate the soil, the sciences, the memory.
sich nach und nach.” Dachen, to quell To earn is to get by cultivation or labour.
the luxuriance of over-forward wheat by ON. odli, ed/i, adal, nature, origin; AS.
cutting the leaves. Gedaeg, cowed, sub ethel, native place, country.
missive. “Derist ganz gedaeg gewor Addle. Liquid filth, a swelling with
den: he is quite cowed, adawed. Com matter in it.—Hal. Rotten, as an addle
pare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, egg. An addle-pool, a pool that receives
become calm. the draining of a dunghill. Sw, dial.
To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or Áo-ade/, the urine of cows; adla or ala,
unite with, the signification of dare in mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of
composition being in general to dispose horses. W. had/u, to decay, to rot.
of an object. Thus reddere, to put back; Adept. Lat. adipiscor, adeffus, to ob
subdere, to put under; condere, to put by. tain. Alchymists who have obtained the
Adder. A poisonous snake. As a fºr, grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which
aftern, Pl. D. adder, Bav. after, ader, gave them the power of transmuting
adern. ON. eitr-orm, literally poison metals to gold, were called adºpti, of
snake, from eifr, AS. after, venom (see whom there were said to be twelve always
Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation in being.—Bailey. Hence an adºpt, a
would be perfectly satisfactory, were it proficient in any art.
not that a name differing only by an To Adjourn. Fr. jour, a day; ad
initial n (which is added or lost with equal journer, to cite one to appear on a cer
facility), with a derivation of its own, is tain day, to appoint a day for continuing
still more widely current, with which how a business, to put off to another day.
ever Diefenbach maintains the foregoing To Adjust. Fr. adjuster, to make to
to be wholly unconnected. Gael, mathair, meet, and thence to bring to agreement.
Dès iceljor sont dessevrées Advantage, something that puts one
Qu' unc puisne furent adjostées forwards, gain, profit.
Les osz.-Chron. Norm. 2, 10260.
Adventure.—Advent. Lat. advenire,
The bones were severed, which were to come up to, to arrive, to happen; ad
never afterwards united. See Joust. ventus, arrival; E. advent, the coming of
Adjutant. One of the officers who our Lord upon earth. OFr. advenir,
assists the commander in keeping the ac to happen, and thence aventure, a hap
counts of a regiment. Lat. adjutare, fre pening, chance, accident, a sense pre
quentative from adjuvare, to assist; It. served in E. fer adventure, perhaps. The
aiutante, an assistant; aiutante de campo, word was specially applied to events as
an aidecamp. made the subject of poetical or romantic
Admiral. Ultimately from Arab. amir, narration, and so passed into the Teu
a lord, but probably introduced into the tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving
Western languages from the early Byzan rise to G. abenfeuer, ON. a. ſintyr, Sw.
tine forms dumpāc, dumpaioc, the last of &/wentyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat,
which, as Mr Marsh observes, would hazardous enterprise, or the relation of
readily pass into Mid. Lat. amiralius such, a romantic story. “The Aunters of
(with a euphonic /), admiraldus. The Arthur at Tarnwathelan,’ is the title of
initial al of Sp. almirante, O Cat. almi an old E. romance.
ra// is probably the Arab. article, and the To Advise.—Advice. The Lat. visum,
title was often written alamir in the early from videri, gave rise to It. wiso, OFr.
Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address vis. Visum mihi ſuit, it seemed to me,
of letters of credence given by K. James would be rendered in OIt. ſu viso a me,
II. of Aragon in 1301, quoted by Marsh OFr. ce m'est vis-Diez. In the Ro
from Capmany, ran,—‘Al muy honorado man de la Rose, advis is used in the
e muy noble alamir Don Mahomat Aben same sense, advis m'estoit, it seemed to
naçar rey de Granada e de Malaga, y me; vous ſust advis, it seemed to you.
Amiramuçlemin,’ and in the same pass Hence advis, It. avviso, OE. avise, view,
age the King calls himself Almirante and sentiment, opinion. Advised/y, avisedly,
Captain-general of the Holy Roman with full consideration.
The erchbishope of Walys seide ys avyse,
In eo conflicto (i.e. the battle of Antioch in ‘Sire,' he seide, ‘gef ther is any mon so wys
the first crusade) occisusest Cassiani magni regis That beste red can thereof rede, Merlin that
Antiochiae filius et duodecim Admiraldi regis is."—R. G. I.44.
Babiloniae, quos cum suis exercitibus miserat ad
ferenda auxilia regi Antiochiae; et quos Admiral To be avised or advised of a thing
dos vocant, reges sunt qui provinciis regionum would thus be, to have notice of it, to be
praesunt.—Ducange. informed of it.
So that aslayne and adreynt twelve princes were Of werre and of bataile he was full azi re.
ded R. Brunne.
That me clupeth amyrayls.-R. G. 402.
Whence advice in the mercantile sense,
Adroit. Fr. adroit, handsome, nimble, notice, news.
ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, To advise, in the most usual accepta
prosperous, Cotgr.; saison adroite, con tion of the term at the present day, is to
venient season.—Dict. Rom. From droit, communicate our views to another, to
right, as opposed to left, as is shown by give him our opinion for the purpose of
the synonymous adertre, adestre, from guiding his conduct, and advice is the
derfer, explained by Cotgr. in the same opinion so given.
terms. We also use dexterous and adroit In OFr. adviser, like It. avvisare,
as equivalent terms. See Direct. was used in the sense of viewing, per
Adulation. Lat. adulari, to fawn, to ceiving, taking note.
flatter. Si vy ung songe en mon dormant
Adult. Lat. adultus, from adolesco, to Qui moult fut bel à adviser.—R. R. 25.
grow, grow up. See Abolish. Avise is frequently found in the same
Adultery. Lat. adu/ter, a paramour, sense in our elder authors.
originally probably only a young man, He looked back and her avicing well
from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a Weened as he said that by her outward grace
son, boy, paramour or fornicator.— That fairest Florimel was present there in place.
Deutsch. Mundart. 2, 370.
To Advance.—Advantage. Fr. azan Advocate. Lat. advocare, to call on
cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avant, It. or summon one to a place, especially for
avanti, before, forwards; Lat. ab ante. some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c.,

to call to one's aid, to call for help, to Affable.—Affability. Lat. affiliffs,

avail oneself of the aid of some one in a that may be spoken to, easy of access or
cause. Hence advocatus, one called on approach. Fari, to speak.
to aid in a suit as witness, adviser, legal To Affeer. From Lat. forum, a mar
assistant, but not originally the person ket, Fr. Jeur, market-price, fixed rate,
who pleaded the cause of another, who whence afferer, or affeurer, to value at
was called patronus. a certain rate, to set a price upon. From
Advowson. From the verb advocare the latter of these forms the OE. expres
(corrupted to advoare), in the sense ex sion to affºre an amerciament, to fix the
plained under Advocate, was formed ad amount of a fine left uncertain by the
vocatio (advoazio), OFr. advoeson, the court by which it was imposed, the
patronage or right of presentation to an a/cerers being the persons deputed to
ecclesiastical benefice.—Duc. determine the amount according to the
As the clergy were prohibited from ap circumstances of the case. ‘Et quod
pearing before the lay tribunals, and even amerciamenta praedictorum tenentium
from taking oaths, which were always re afferentur et taxentur per sacramentum
quired from the parties in a suit, it would parium suorum.”—Chart. A.D. 1316, in
seem that ecclesiastical persons must Duc.
always have required the service of an Affiance.—Affidavit. From ſides, was
advocate in the conduct of their legal formed M. Lat. affidare, to pledge one's
business, and we find from the authorities faith. Hence affidavit, a certificate of
cited by Ducange, that positive enact some one having pledged his faith; a
ment was repeatedly made by councils written oath subscribed by the party,
and princes, that bishops, abbots, and from the form of the document, ‘Affidavit
churches should have good advocates or A. B., &c.” The loss of the d, so common
defenders for the purpose of looking after in like cases, gave Fr. affier, to affie, to
their temporal interests, defending their pawn his faith and credit on.—Cotgr. In
property from rapine and imposition, and like manner, from Lat. conſidere, Fr. con
representing them in courts of law. In ſier; from It. disſidare, Fr. dºſier, to defy.
the decline of the empire, when defence To Affile, OE. Fr. affi/er, It. affi/are,
from violence was more necessary than to sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr.
legal skill, these advocates were natur fi/, an edge, Lat. Jiſum, a thread.
ally selected among the rich and power Affinity. Lat. affinis, bordering on,
ful, who alone could give efficient pro related to. Finis, end, bound.
tection, and Charlemagne himself is the To Afford. Formed from the adv.
advocatus of the Roman Church. ‘Quem forth, as to utter from out, signifying to
postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocatum put forth, bring forwards, offer. ‘I ſorde
Sancti Petri contra leges Langobardo as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and
rum.”—Vita Car. Mag. j'offers à vendre. I can ſorde it no better
The protection of the Church naturally cheape. What do you ſorde it him for 2
drew with it certain rights and emolu Pour combien le lui offrez vous à ven
ments on the part of the protector, in dre?'—Palsgr.
cluding the right of presentation to the And thereof was Piers proud,
benefice itself; and the advocatio, or And putte hem to werke,
office of advocate, instead of being an And yaf hem mete as he myghte aforthe,
And mesurable hyre.—P. P. 4193.
elective trust, became a heritable pro
perty. Advocatus became in OFr. ad For thei hadden possessions wher of
zoué, whence in the old Law language thei myghten miche more avorthi into
of England, advowee, the person entitled almes than thei that hadden litil.—Pe
to the presentation of a benefice. As it cock, Repressor 377, in Marsh.
was part of the duty of the guardian or For thon moni mon hit walde him for
protector to act as patronus, or to plead 3even half other thridde lot thenne he
the cause of the Church in suits at law, ise;e that he ne mahte na mare 3efor
the advowee was also called patron of the thian: when he sees that he cannot afford,
living, the name which has finally pre cannot produce more.— Morris, O. E. Ho
vailed at the present day. milies, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon
Adze. AS. adesa, ascia. AS. Vocab. thet thu maht forthien : do thy alms of
in Nat. Ant. that thou can afford.—Ibid. p. 37.
AEsthetics. The science of taste. Gr. Affray.—Afraid.—Fray. Fr. ºffrayer,
atoºnaic, perception by sense, alo Omrixòg, to scare, appal, dismay, affright; ºffroi,
endued with sense or perception. terror, astonishment, amazement; ſºy

eler, fright, terror, scaring, horror.— geant-cyme, an encounter; forgeanes, to

Cotgr. wards, against. OSw, gen, gen, op
The radical meaning of effrayer is to posite, again; gena, to meet; genom,
startle or alarm by a sudden noise, from through; Bret. gin, opposite; amn tu
OFr. effroi, noise, outcry; faire effroi, gin, the other side, wrong side; gin
to make an outcry. , ‘Toutefois ne fit otsch-gān, directly opposite, showing the
oncques effroi jusqu'à ce que tous les origin of the G. reduplicative gegen,
siens eussent gagné la muraille, puis against.
s'écrie horriblement.”—Rabelais. “Sail Agate. Lat. achates. According to
lirent de leurs chambres sans faire effroi Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily
ou bruit.”—Cent. Nouv. Nouv. Hence E. where agates where found.
fray or affray in the sense of a noisy dis Age. From Lat. etat-em the Prov. has
turbance, a hurlyburly. efat, edat, OFr. eded, edage, eage, aage,
In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaucer &ge.
calls the sudden storm of wind, rain, and Hély esteit de grant eded.—Kings 2. 22.
hail, which drenched the partisans of the Kidurerat a trestutton edage.
Leaf to the skin, an affray : Chanson de Roland in Diez.
And when the storm was clene away passed,
Tho in the white that stode under the tree Aé, life, age.
They felt nothing of all the great affray, The form edage seems constructed by
That they in grene without had in ybe. the addition of the regular termination
The radical meaning is well preserved age, to ed, erroneously taken as the radi
in Chaucer's use of afray to signify rous cal syllable of eded, or it may be a subse
ing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which quent corruption of eage, eage (from
could not be explained on Diez’ theory of ae-tas by the addition of the termination
a derivation from Lat. frigidus. age to the true radical aº), by the inorganic
Me met thus in my bed all naked insertion of a d, a modification rendered
And looked forthe, for I was waked in this case the more easy by the resem
With small foules a grete hepe, blance of the parallel forms edat, eded.
That had afraide me out of my sleepe, * Agee. Awry, askew. From ſee / an
Through noise and swetenese of her song. exclamation to horses to make them move
Chaucer, Dreame.
I was out of my swowne affraide
on one side. turn Or move to one

Whereof I sigh my wittes straide side; crooked, awry.—Hal. To ſee, to

And gan to clepe them home again. move, to stir. “He wad majce.’ To move
Gower in Rich. to one side. In this sense it is used with
The ultimate derivation is the imitative respect to horses or cattle in draught.—
root, frag, representing a crash, whence Jam.
Lat. fragor, and Fr. Jracas, a crash of Agent.—Agile.—Agitate. — Act.—
things breaking, disturbance, affray. Actual. Lat. ago, actum (in comp. -īgo),
Thence effrayer, to produce the effect of to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to
a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, do; agito, to drive, to stir up, to move to
alarm. Flagor (for fragor), ekiso (dread, and fro. Actio, the doing of a thing;
horror).-Gloss. Kero in Diez. actus, tºs, an act, deed, doing.
To Affront. Fr. affronter (from Lat. * To Agg. To provoke, dispute.—Hal.
frons, frontis, the forehead), to meet face Apparently from mag in the sense of
to face, to encounter, insult. See Front. gnaw, by the loss of the initial m. Mag
After. Goth. Aſar, after, behind; ging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight but
affar, affaro, behind; aftana, from be constant pain; maggy, Knaggy, touchy,
hind; aſſuma, aſtumist, last, hindmost. irritable, ill-tempered.—Hal. A nagging,
AS. aſt, a ſtant, after, afterwards, again. finding fault peevishly and irritably.—
ON. aftan, aftan, behind; aftan dags, Mrs B. Sw, dial. magga, to gnaw, bite,
the latter part of the day, evening; aſtar, to irritate; agga, to irritate, disturb.
aſ/ast, hinder, hindmost. According to ON. magga, to gnaw, to grumble, wrangle.
Grimm, the final far is the comparative "Aghast. Formerly spelt agazed, in
termination, and the root is simply aſ, consequence of an erroneous impression
the equivalent of Gr. 476, of, from. Com that the fundamental meaning of the word
pare after with Goth. aſar, AS. oſer-mon, was set a-gazing on an object of astonish
ment and horror.
with after-moon.
Again. AS. ongean, omgen, agen, op The French exclaimed the devil was in arms,
posite, towards, against, again; gean, op All the whole army stood agazed on him.—H. vi.
posite, against; gean-baeran, to oppose; Probably the word may be explained
from Fris, guzuysſe, Dan. gyse, Sw, dial. —Baker. In the same way in Sc. one is
gysa, gåsa sig, to shudder at; gase, gust, said to be ſºng ſain, nervously eager,
horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of unable to keep still. See Goggle.
these forms we pass to Sc. gousty, gous Agony. Gr. Aytºv, as āyopá, an as
trous, applied to what impresses the mind sembly, place of assembly, esp. an as
with feelings of indefinite horror; waste, sembly met to see games; thence the
desolate, awful, full of the preternatural, contest for a prize on such an occasion;
frightful. a struggle, toil, hardship. ‘Ayww.ia, a con
Cald, mirk, and goustie is the night, test, gymnastic exercise, agony; tıyov
Loud roars the blast ayont the hight.—Jamieson. Kouai, to contend with, whence antagonist,
He observed one of the black man's feet to be one who contends against.
To Agree. From Lat. gratus, pleas
cloven, and that the black man's voice was hough
and goustie.—Glanville in Jam. ing, acceptable, are formed It. grado,
The word now becomes confounded Prov, grat, OFr. gret, Fr. grº, will,
with ghostly, the association with which pleasure, favour; and thence It, agradire,
has probably led to the insertion of the ſh to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar,
in Agitº itself as well as aghast. Fr. agreer, to receive with favour, to give
gistrment. From Lat. facere the one's consent to, to agree. Prov. agrad.
Fr. had gésir, to lie; whence giste, a able, agreeable. See Grant.
lodging, place to lie down in ; giste d'une Ague. A fever coming in periodical
/levre, the form of a hare. Hence agister, fits or sharf attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp,
to give lodging to, to take in cattle to Jºëvre aigue, acute fever.
feed; and the law term agis/ment, the It is a remarkable fact that the Lepchas, when
suffering from protracted cold, take fever and
profit of cattle pasturing on the land. gºtte in sharp attacks.-Hooker, Himalayan
Aglet. The tag of a point, i.e. of the Journal.
lace or string by which different parts Senon febre aguda
of dress were formerly tied up or fastened Vos destrenha 'l costats.
together. Hence any small object hang Sinon qu'une fievre argue vous presse les cotés.
ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a Raynouard.
tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, The confinement to periodical fever is
&c.—Junius. Fr. aiguil/ette, diminutive a modern restriction, from the tendency
of aiguille, a needle, properly the point of language constantly to become more
fastened on the end of a lace for drawing specific in its application.
it through the eyelet holes; then, like E. For Richard lay so sore seke,
Aoint, applied to the lace itself. On knees prayden the Crystene host—
Agnail, Angnail. A swelled gland. Through hys grace and hys vertue
It. ghiandole, agite/s, glandules, wartles He turnyd out of his agu,
or kernels in the flesh or throat, in the R. Coer de Lion, 3o45.
groin or armpits.-Fl. Fr. agassin, a Aid. Lat. adjuvare, adjutum ; adju
corne or agneſe in the foot.—Cot. A fare, to help. Prov. adjudar, afudar,
false etymology seems to have caused the aidar, Fr. aider, to help.
name to be applied also to a sore between Aidecamp. Fr. aide du camp, It, afu
the finger and nail. The real origin is It. fante di campo, an officer appointed to
anguinaglia (Lat. inguem), the groin, assist the general in military service.
also a botch or blain in that place; Fr. To Ail. AS. eglian, to pain, to grieve,
angonailles, botches or sores.—Cot. to trouble, perhaps from the notion of
Ago.—Agone. Here the initial a pricking; egde, e.g/a, festuca, arista, car
stands for the OE. y, G. ge, the augment duus—Lye, whence ai/s, the beard of
of the past participle; ago, agone, for yºgo, corn (Essex). AS. egde, troublesome,
ygone, gone away, passed by ; long ago, Goth. ag/o, affliction, tribulation, agſus,
long gone by. difficult, agls, shameful
For in swiche cas wimmen have swiche sorrwe To Aim. Lat. a-stimare, to consider,
Whan that hir husbonds ben from hem ago. to reckon, to fix at a certain point or
Knight's Tale. rate; Prov. estimar, to reckon; ades/i-
Agog. Excited with expectation, jig mar, adesmar, azesmar, aesmar, to calcu
ging with excitement, ready to start in ate, to prepare; ‘A son colpacesmat,' he
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally has calculated or aimed his blow well
on the jog, or on the start, from gog, sy Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate,
nonymous with fog or shog, gog-mire, a to reckon—“Li chevaliers des'ost a treis
quagmire.—Hal. ‘He is all ago.g. to go.' mille esma.' He reckons the knights of

his host at 3000—Rom. de Rou; esmer, tions, Las "Ai las/ Helas / Ah wretched
me ! Alas !
to purpose, determine, to offer to strike,
to aim or level at.—Cotgr. M’aviatz gran gaug donat
Air. Lat. ačr, Gr. 3 hp, doubtless con A: /assa / can pauc m'a durat.—Raynouard.
tracted from Lat. ather, the heavens, Gr. You have given me great joy, ah wretched me !
aibhp, the sky, or sometimes air. Gael. how little it has lasted.
aethar, athar, pronounced ayar, aar, the Las / tant en ai puis soupiré,
air, sky, W. awyr. Et doit estre /asse clamée
Aisle. The side divisions of a church, Quant ele aime sans estre amée.—R. R.
like wings on either side of the higher Alchemy. The science of converting
nave. Fr. aisle, aile, a wing, from Lat. base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. dipxmuia;
aril/a, ala. xmusia.-Suidas. Arab. al-kim?á, without
By a like analogy, les ailes du neg, the native root in that language.—Diez.
nostrils; les ailes d'une forêt, the skirts of Alcohol. Arabic, al Kohl, the impal
a forest.—Cotgr. pable powder of antimony with which
Ait. A small flat island in a river, for the Orientals adorn their eyelids, any
eyot, from eye, an island. thing reduced to an impalpable powder,
Ajar. On char, on the turn, half open, the pure substance of anything separated
from AS. ceorran, to turn. from the more gross, a pure well-refined
Like as ane bull dois rummesing and rare spirit, spirits of wine. To alcoholise, to
When he eschapis hurt one the altare, reduce to an impalpable powder, or to
And charris by the ax with his neck wycht rectify volatile spirit.—B.
Gif one the forehede the dynt hittis not richt. Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room
D. V. 46, 15.
railed off to hold a bed of state; hence a
Swiss achar, Du. aen Karre, akerre, hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed,
ajar. side-board, &c.; Arab. cobba, a closet
Ende vonden de dore a&erre staende,
Wallewein, 9368.
(Lane); alcoča, a cabinet or small cham
ber.—Engelberg. Cabrera thinks Sp.
See Char, Chare. alcoba a native word Arabized by the
The host—set his hond in Kenešozve—
Moors. AS. bed-coſa, vel bur, cubicu
Wenist thow, seid he to Beryn, for to skorne me?
lum.—AFlf. Gl. ON. Kofi, Da. Kove, a hut,
Beryn, IIo5. a small compartment.
Alder. As. alr; E. dial. aller, ow/er;
It. schembare, sghembare, to go aside G. eller, erle; Du. els; Sw. al.; Pol.
from ; schimbiccio, a crankling or crooked o/s2a, o/szyna, Lat. alnus.
winding in and out; sedere a schimbiccio, Alderman. AS. eald, old; ealdor, an
to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler.
do; as ghembo, aschembo, aschencio, aslope, Hundredes ealdor, a ruler of a hundred,
askance.—Fl. Du. schampen, to slip, to a centurion; ealdor-biscoſ, an archbishop;
graze, to glance aside. ealdor-man, a magistrate.
Alacrity. Lat. alacer, -cris, eager, Ale. As. eaſe, eala, ealu, aloth, ON.
brisk; It allegro, sprightly, merry. 6/, Lith. alus, from an equivalent of
Alarm.—Alarum. It all arme, to Gael. 6/, to drink; as Bohem. Aiwo, beer,
arms the call to defence on being sur from fiti, to drink.
prised by an enemy. Alembic.—Lembic. A still. It lam
This said, he runs down with as great a noise bicco, lembicco, Sp. alambigue, Arab. al
and shouting as he could, crying aſ arme, help,
help, citizens, the castle is taken by the enemy, anbiy, it does not appear, however, that
come away to defence.—Holland's Pliny in the word admits of radical explanation in
Richardson. the latter language.—Diez.
Hence, E. alarum, a rousing signal of Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere,
martial music, a surprise; Fr. al/armer, to raise up; erta, the steep ascent of a
to give an alarum unto; to rouse or hill; erfo, straight, erect; star erto, to
affright by an alarum—Cotgr.; and gen stand up; star a ſerta, allerta, to be
upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon
erally, to alarm, to excite apprehension. an
The alarum or larum of a clock is a loud eminence. Hence alert, on one's
ringing suddenly let off for the purpose guard, brisk, lively, nimble.
of rousing one out of sleep. G. lairm, up In this place the prince finding his rutters
roar, alarm. [routiers] alert (as the Italians say), with the ad
vice of his valiant brother, he sent his trumpets
Alas. From Lat. ſassus, Prov. Was, to the Duke of Parma.-Sir Roger Williams, aº
wearied, wretched. Hence the exclama 1618, in Rich.

Algates. From the NE. gaſes, ways; som a gull sati.” The aurox horn was as
ON. gala, a path, Sw, gata, way, street. fair as if it were all gold. So ac-/ius, all
All ways, at all events, in one way or bright; ar-ºld, modern Sw. aſ/-/id, all
another. time.... As a ſc, each, is probably de-/ic,
Algates by sleight or by violence ever-like, implying the application of a
Fro' year to year I win all my dispence. predicate to all the members of a series.
Friar's Tale.
In every, formerly evereche, everilä, for
A/ways itself is used in the N. of Eng a/re-deſc, there is a repetition of the element
land in the sense of however, neverthe signifying continuance. But every and
less. – Brocket. Swagates, in such a a// express fundamentally the same idea.
A very one indicates aſ/ ſhe individuals
Algebra. From Arab. el fabr, putting of a series; every man and all men are
together. The complete designation was the same thing.
e/jabr wa el mogábala, the putting to To Allay, formerly written aſſegge, as
gether of parts and equation. From a to say was formerly to segge. Two dis
corruption of these words algebraic cal tinct words are confounded in the modern
culation is called the game of A/gebra aſſay, the first of which should properly
and A/muckrabala in a poem of the 13th be written with a single /, from AS. alec
century cited by Demorgan in N. & Q. gan, to lay down, to put down, suppress,
Sed quia de ludis fiebat sermo, quid illo tranquillise. Speaking of Wm. Rufus, the
Pulcrior esse potest exercitio numerorum, Sax. Chron, says,
Quo divinantur numeri plerique per unum
Ignoti notum, sicut ludunt apud Indos, Eallan folce behet eallan tha unrihte to aleg
genne, the on his brothor timan wasran ;
Ludum dicentes Algebrae almudgrađalaryne.
De Vetulá. translated in R. of Gloucester,
He º God and that folcan beheste that was
Mogółala, opposition, comparison, equal this,
ity.—Catafogo. To alegge all luther lawes that yholde were be
Alien. Lat. alienus, belonging to fore
another, due to another source; thence, And better make than were suththe he was ybore.
foreign. The joyous time now nigheth fast
To Alight. Dan. Jeffe, Du. Wigten That shall alegge this bitter blast,
And slake the winter sorrowe.
(from lef, ligt, light), signify to lift, to Shepherd's Calendar.
make light or raise into the air. At ſette
nogeţ fra jorden, to lift something from In the same way the Swed. has wādref
the ground. At lette een aſsada/en, Du. /ägger sig, warken /ăgger sig, the wind
jemand uit den gade/ Zigſen, to lift one is laid; the pain abates. So in Virgil,
from the saddle. To alight indicates venti fosuére, the winds were laid.
If by your art, my dearest father, you have
the completion of the action thus de Put the wild waters in this roar, alay them.
scribed; to be brought by lifting down to Tempest.
the ground; to lift oneself down from the So to aſſay thirst, grief, &c.
saddle, from out of the air. The other form, confounded with alegge
Aliment.—Alimony. Lat. aliment from alcºgan in the modern allay, is the
fum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, old allºgge, from Fr. alléger, It alleg
from alo, I nourish, support. giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate,
Alkali. Arab. al-Qaſi, the salt of ashes. tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly
—Diez. In modern chemistry general to the sense of alay from aleºgan, that it
ised to express all those salts that neutra is impossible sometimes to say to which
lise acids. of the two origins the word should be re
All. Goth. al/s, ON. al/r; AS. eaſ/. ferred.
Notwithstanding the double / I have Lat. Zevi's, light, easy, gentle, becomes
long been inclined to suspect that it is a in Prov. leu, whence deviar, leujar, to
derivative from the root 6, &, e, ei, aye, assuage; alleviar, al/eujar, OFr. aſſéger,
ever. Certainly the significations of ever to lighten, to assuage, precisely in the
and all are closely related, the one im same way that from Örevis, abbreviaré,
plying continuance in time, the other are formed Prov. brew, abreujar, Fr. ad
continuance throughout an extended &rger, oe. abrºgge, to abridge.
series, or the parts of a multifarious Que m'dones joie m'heuſes ma dolor.
object. The sense of the original ar, how Quelle me donnat joie et mallegeât ma dou
ever, is not always confined to continu leur.—Rayn.
ance in time, as is distinctly pointed out Per Dieu aleujate m'aquest ſays'
For God's sake lighten me this burden.
by Ihre. ‘Urar-hornet war swa ſagurt
It would have brought my life again, century under the forms alodīs, alodies,
For certes evenly I dare well saine aſodium, alaudum, and in Fr. aleu, aleu
The sight only and the savour
Aleggid much of my languor.—R. R. franc, franc-aloud, franc-aloi, franc
In the original,
aſſeuſ. The general sense is that of an
estate held in absolute possession. “Meae
Le voir sans plus, et l'oudeur praedium possessionis hereditariae, hoc
Si m'alégeoient ma douleur.
est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago An
So in Italian, degavensi.”—Charta an. 839, in Duc.
Fate limosina et dir messi accio ches'allºggino i ‘Alaudum meum sive haereditatem quam
nostri martiri.
dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum
—that our torments may be assuaged, or al mearum.’ “Paternae haereditati, quam
layed. nostrates alodium vel patrimonium vo
To Alledge. Fr. Alleguer, to alledge, cant, Sese contulit.’ It is often opposed
to produce reasons, evidence, or author to a fief. “Haec autem fuerunt ea—quae
ity for the proof of.-Cotg. de allodii's sive praediis in feudum com
Lat. Megare, to intrust or assign unto; mutavit Adela.’ It is taken for an
allegare, to depute or commission one, estate free of duties. ‘Habemus vineae
to send a message, to solicit by message. agripenum unum allodialiter immunem,
‘Petit a me Rabonius et amicos allegat.” hoc est ab omni censils et vicariae red
Rabonius asks of me and sends friends hibitione liberum.” “Reddit ea terra 2
(to support his petition). Hence it came den. censis cum ante semper alodium
to signify, to adduce reasons or witnesses fuisset.” A.D. 1708.
in support of an argument. From the It can hardly be wholly distinct from
language of lawyers probably the word ON. odal, which is used in much the same
came into general use in England and sense, allodium, praedium hereditarium ;
France. 6dals-jörd, praedium hereditarium; 6da/-
Thei woll a 1<ggen also and by the godspell pre borinn, natus ad heredium avitum, scilicet
oven it, rectà linea a primo occupante; d.da/s-
Nolite judicare quenquam.—P. P. madr, dominus allodialis, strictè primus
Here we find alledge, from Lat. al/egare, occupans.—Haldorsen.
spelt and pronounced in the same man Dan. Sw. ode/, a patrimonial estate.
ner as allegge (the modern allay), from The landed proprietors of the Shetland
AS. alergan, and there is so little differ Isles are still called udal/ers, according to
ence in meaning between laying down Sir Walter Scott. The ON. 6dal is also
and bringing forward reasons, that the used in the sense of abandoned goods, at
Latin and Saxon derivatives were some Zeggia ſyrer Ódal, to abandon a thing, to
times confounded. leave it to be taken by the first occupier.
And eke this noble duke aleyde If Mid. Lat. alodīs, alodum, is identical
Full many another skill, and seide with the ON. word, it exhibits a singular
She had well deserved wrecke.—Gower in Rich.
transposition of syllables. Ihre would
Here aleyde is plainly to be understood account for allodium from the compound
in the sense of the Lat. allegare. “alldha odhol,’ mentioned in the Gothic
Allegory: , Gr. &\Amyopia, a figure of laws, an ancient inheritance, from alldr,
speech involving a sense different from aetas, antiquitas, and 6dal, inheritance, as
the apparentone; d\\oc, other, andāyopsûo, al/da-winn, an ancient friend, alder-haºſa,
to speak. a possession of long standing. See Ihre
Alley. Fr. al/če, a walk, path, passage, in v. Od.
from al/er, to go. To Allow. Two words seem here
Alligator. The American crocodile, confounded; I. from Lat. laudare, to
from the Sp. Magarto, a lizard; Lat. Ma. praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to let.
certa. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of From the Lat. laus, /audis, was formed
these under the name of alagartoes. La Prov. laws, lau, praise, approval, advice.
&arto das Indias, the cayman or South Hence laugar, alaugar, OFr. Zoer, lotter,
American alligator.—Neumann. alouer, to praise, to approve, to recom
Allodial. Allodium, in Mid. Lat., mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo
was an estate held in absolute possession was used for approbation and advice.
without a feudal superior.—Blackstone. ‘Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam
The derivation has been much disputed, primogenitam petatis duci nostro con
and little light has been thrown upon it jugem,”-I recommend. ‘Et vos illuc
by the various guesses of antiquarians. tendere penitus disſaudamus,'—we dis
The word appears as early as the ninth suade you.-Ducange. “Et leur de

manda que il looient à faire, et li loërent week was 750 cargos of clean ore, aver
tous que il descendist.” “Et il li dirent age /ey from nine to ten marks per
que je li avois loé bon conseil.”—Join monton, with an increased proportion of
ville in Raynouard. In the same way in gold.”—Times, Jan. 2, 1857.
English : From signifying the proportion of base
This is the sum of what I would have ye weigh, metal in the coin, the term alloy was
First whether ye allow my whole devise, applied to the base metal itself.
And think it good for me, for them, for you, Alluvial. Lat. aſſuo (ad and lawo, to
And if ye like it and allow it well– wash), to wash against; al/uvies, mud
Ferrex and Porrex in Richardson.
brought down by the overflowing of a
Especially laus was applied to the ap river; al/uvius (of land), produced by
probation given by a feudal lord to the the mud of such overflowing.
alienation of a fee depending upon him, To Ally. Fr. allier. Lat. ligare, to
and to the fine he received for permission tie ; al/igare, to tie to, to unite.
to alienate. ‘Hoc donum laudavit Adam Almanack. The word seems origin
Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat.”—Duc. ally to have been applied to a plan of
From signifying consent to a grant, the movements of the heavenly bodies.
the word came to be applied to the grant * Sed hae tabulae vocantur A/manach vel
itself. “Comes concessit iis et laudavit Tallignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus
terras et feuda eorum ad suam fidelitatem coelorum certificati a principio mundi
et servitium.’ ‘Facta est haec laws sive usque in finem—ut homo posset inspicere
concessio in claustro S. Marii.”—Duc. omnia quae in coelo sunt omni die, sicut
Here we come very near the applica nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa
tion of allowance to express an assign Sanctorum.”—Roger Bacon, Opus Ter
ment of a certain amount of money or tium, p. 36.
goods to a particular person or for a In the Arab. of Syria al mamážh is
special purpose. climate or temperature.
“And his allowance was a continual Almond. Gr. duvyčá\m, Lat. amyg
allowance given by the king, a daily rate da/a, Wallach. migdiſe, mandule, Sp.
for every day all his life.”—2 Kings. almendra, Prov. amandola, Fr. amande.
In this sense, however, to allow is It. mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen
from the Lat. locare, to place, allocare, Zou, ame/ſo.
to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; Alms. – Almonry. — Aumry. Gr.
It allogare, to place, to fix; Prov. aſogar, *Asmuoqiyn, properly compassionateness,
Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to put out to then relief given to the poor. This,
hire. being an ecclesiastical expression, passed
“Le seigneur peut saisir pour sa rente les direct into the Teutonic languages under
bestes pasturantes sur son fonds encore qu’elles the form of G. almosen, AS. a-lmesse,
n'appartiennent a son vassal, ains à ceux qui ont almes, OE. almesse, almose, Sc. awmous,
a/loudes les distes bestes.'—Coutume de Norman alms; and into the Romance under the
die in Raynouard. form of Prov. almosna, Fr. aumosme,
To allow in rekeninge—alloco. A/- aumóme. Hence the Fr. aumonier, E.
/ozvance — allocacio. — Pr. Prm. Wall. a/moner, awmmere, an officer whose duty
alouze'er, depenser.—Grandg: it is to dispense alms, and almonry,
Again, as the senses of Lat, laudare aumry, the place where the alms are
and aſ/ocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and given, from the last of which again it
E. allow, the confusion seems to have seems that the old form awmbrere, an
been carried back into the contemporary almoner, must have been derived.—Pr.
Latin, where allocare is used in the sense Prm. When awmry is used with refer
of approve or admit; essonium allocabile, ence to the distribution of alms, doubt
an admissible excuse. less two distinct words are confounded,
Alloy. The proportion of base metal almonry and ammary or amóry, from
mixed with gold or silver in coinage. Fr. armoire, Lat. armaria, almaria, a
From Lat. Jer, the law or rule by which cupboard. This latter word in English
the composition of the money is go was specially applied to a cupboard for
verned, It lega, Fr. Zoi, aloi. “Unus keeping cold and broken victuals.-
quisque denarius cudatur et fiat ad ſegem Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumry,
undecim denariorum.”—Duc. In the Amóry, a pantry.—Hal. Then as an
mining language of Spain the term is aumry or receptacle for broken victuals
applied to the proportion of silver found would occupy an important place in the
in the ore. “The extraction for the office where the daily dole of charity was

dispensed, the association seems to have fices were made to the gods. Lat. alfare,
led to the use of aumry or amóry, as if it which Ihre would explain from ON. elaſ,
were a contraction of almonry, from fire, and ar, or arº, a hearth; or perhaps
which, as far as sound is concerned, it AS. erºt, aºn, a place ; as Lat. Zucernia,
might very well have arisen. And vice Zaferºa, a lantern, from Zuc-ern, Zeo/izern,
versá, almonry was sometimes used in the place of a light.
the sense of armarium, almarium, a To Alter. To make something other
cupboard. Almonarium, almorietum, than what it is ; Lat. aſterare, from aſſer,
a/mteriola, a cupboard or safe to set up the other. So G. &nderſt, to change, from
broken victuals to be distributed as alms ander, the other; and the Lat. mailſo finds
to the poor.—B. See:Ambry. an origin of like nature in Esthon. mile,
Aloft. On loſt, up in the air. G. another, whence middºta, mizudina, to
Juſt, ON. Zoff, loſt, OE. /i/?, the air, the change.
sky. N. aa Zoſt, aloft, on high. Always. AS. eaſ/ne wag, ea//e warga,
* Along. AS. and/ang, G. ent/ang, the whole way, altogether, throughout.
ent/angs, Zangs, It. Zungo, Fr. le ſong de, The Servians use ////, way, for the num
through the length of AS. and Zangwie ber of times a thing happens; jedºn pitſ,
dag, throughout the length of the day. once ; d'va flat, twice, &c. Dan. eel
The term is also used figuratively to gang, one going, once ; fre-gange, three
express dependance, accordance. times. So from Du. reyse, a journey,
1 cannot tell whereon it was alonge– § twee, dry, reysen, semel, ter, bis.-
Some said it was long on the fire making, ll.

Some said it was long on the blowing. Am-, Amb-. Gr. dupi, about, around,
Canon Yeoman's Tale.
properly on both sides ; dupw, ambo, both.
This mode of expression is very gen Amalgam. A pasty mixture of mer
eral. cury and other metal, from Gr. uá\ayua,
Trop fesoient miex cortoisie an emollient, probably a poultice, and
A toute gent lon.c ce que erent. that from uaxágow, to soften.—Diez.
Fab. et Contes, 1, 160.
Amanuensis. Lat. from the habit of
They did better courtesy to each according to the scribe or secretary signing the docu
what they were, according to their condition.
ments he wrote (as we see in St Paul's
Hence se/onc, selon, according to, the Epistles) “A manu ,’ from the hand
initial element of which is the particle si, of so and so. Hence a manu servius was
se, ce, so, here, this. a slave employed as secretary.
In the same way Pol. wed/ug, accord To Amate. To confound, stupefy,
ing to, from w, we, indicating relation of quell.
place, and d/ugo, long. Upon the walls the Pagans old and young
The AS. form was gelang. ‘AEt the Stood hushed and still, amated and amazed.
is ure lyf gelang,” our life is along of Fairfax in Boucher.
thee, is dependent on thee. ‘Hii sohton OFr. amater, mater, mattir, to abate,
on hwom that gelang ware.’ They in mortify, make fade, from mat, G. maſt,
quired along of whom that happened— dull, spiritless, faint. It. matto, mad,
Lye. Walach. langă, juxta, Secundum, foolish ; Sp. matar, to quench, to slay.
penes, pone, propter. But when I came out of swooning
Aloof. To loof or luff in nautical And had my wit and my feeling,
language is to turn the vessel up into the I was all mate and wende full wele
wind. A looſ, then, is to the windward Of blode to have lost a full grete dele.
of one, and as a vessel to the windward R. R. 1737.
has it in her choice either to sail away In the original—Je fus moult vain.
or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, Derived by Diez from the expression
aloof has come to signify out of danger, check-mate, at chess.
in safety from, out of reach of. Amative, Amity. From Lat. amo, to
Nor do we find him forward to be sounded ; love, are amor, Fr. amour, love; amatus,
But with a crafty madness keeps aloof, loved ; amabilis, amicus, a loving one, a
When we would bring him on to some confession friend; and from each of these numerous
Of his true state.--Hamlet.
secondary derivatives; amorous, amative,
Alpine. Of the nature of things found amateur, amiable, amicabſe. Lat. amici
in lofty mountains; from the Alps, the fia, Fr. amitié, E. amity, &c
highest mountains in Europe. Gael. To Amay. It smagare, to discourage,
Aſp, a height, an eminence, a mountain. dispirit; Sp. desmayar, to discourage,
Altar. The fire-place on which sacri despond ; desmayar se, to faint; OPort.

amago, fright; Prov. esmagar, esmaiar, &mer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. ambar, alam
to trouble, to frighten, to grieve ; Fr. &ar, aſambre. The Ar. ambar seems to
s'esmaier, to be sad, pensive, astonied, have signified in the first instance amber
careful, to take thought.—Cotgr. Esmay, gris or grey amber, an odoriferous ex
thought, care, cark. Hence E. amay, cretion of certain fish, cast up by the
dismay, or simply may. waves, like the yellow amber, on the
shore. Hence the name was transferred
Beryn was at counsell, his heart was full woo,
And his menye (attendants) sory, distrakt, and to the latter substance.
all amayide.—Chaucer, Beryn, 2645. Ambient.—Ambition. Lat. ambio, to
So for ought that Beryn coud ethir Speke or pray go round, to environ ; also to go about
He myght in no wyse pass, full sore he gan to hunting for favour or collecting votes,
may.—Ibid. 1685. whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager
The Romance forms are, according to desire for posts of honour, &c.
Diez, derived from the Goth. magan, to Amble. Fr. ambſer, Sp. amó/ar, It.
have power, to be strong, with the ne ambiare, from Lat. ambuſo, to walk, go a
gative particle dis. Compare Dan. aſ foot's pace.
magſ, a swoon. Ambry, Aumbry, Aumber. A side
bassador. Goth. Andºah/s, a serv board or cupboard-top on which plate
ant, and/ºahti, service, ministry; OHG. was displayed–Skinner; in whose time
ambaht, a minister or ministry; ampah the word was becoming obsolete.
tan, to minister; G. ampſ, employment, Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. armario,
office. a/mario, G. almer, a cupboard. Mid.
In Middle Lat. ambascia, ambaaria, or Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cup
ambacfia, was used for business, and board, especially for keeping books,
particularly applied to the business of whence armarius, the monk in charge of
another person, or message committed the books of a monastery. “Purpuram
to another, and hence the modern sense optimam de almarić tollens' ‘thesaurum
of embassy, It. ambasciata, as the message et almarium cum ejus pertinentiis, vide
sent by a ruling power to the government licet libris ecclesiae.”—Duc. ‘Biblio
of another state; ambassador, the person theca, sive armarium vel archivum, boc
who carries such a message. Castrais, hord.”—Gloss. AElfr.
emóessa, to employ. The word was very variously written
‘Quicunque asinum alienum extra do in English. “Almoriolum—an almery,’
mini voluntatem praesumpserit, aut per —Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiqui
unum diem aut per duos in ambascia ties. And as the term was often applied
sua’—in his own business.-Lex Bur to a cupboard used for keeping broken
gund. in Duc. “Si in dominica ambascia meat, of which alms would mainly con
fuerit occupatus.”—Lex Sal. In another sist, it seems to have contracted a fal
edition, ‘Si in jussione Regis fuerit oc lacious reference to the word alms, and
cupatus.’ thus to become confounded with almonry,
Ambasciari, to convey a message. the office where alms were distributed.
“Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod The original meaning, according to
mihi jussum fuerat.”—Hincmar. in Duc. Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept,
The word ambactus is said by Festus ‘armarium, repositorium armorum.’—
to be Gallic: ‘ambactus apud Ennium Gloss. Lindenbr.
linguá Gallică servus appellatur;' and Ambush. From It. bosco, Prov. Öosc,
Caesar, speaking of the equites in Gaul, a bush, wood, thicket : It. imóoscarsi,
says, “circum se ambactos, clientesque Prov. emboscar, Fr. embitscher, to go into
habent.’ Hence Grimm explains the a wood, get into a thicket for shelter,
word from bak, as backers, supporters, then to lie in wait, set an ambush.
persons standing at one's back, as hench Amenable. Easy to be led or ruled,
man, a person standing at one's haunch from Fr. amener, to bring or lead unto,
or side. memer, to lead, to conduct. See Demean.
The notion of manual labour is pre Amercement. — Amerciament. A
served in Du. ambagº, a handicraft; am pecuniary penalty imposed upon offend
Bagſs-mann, an artisan. ON. ambaſt, a ers at the mercy of the court : it differs
female slave. It. ambasciare (perhaps from a fine, which is a punishment cer
tain, and determined by some statute.—
originally to oppress with work), to
B. In Law Latin, poni in misericordić
trouble, to grieve ; ambascia, anguish,
distress, shortness of breath. was thus to be placed at the mercy of
Amber, Ambergris. MHG. amber, the court; 6/re mis d merci, or étre amer
cić, to be amerced, and misericordia was First, an for and,
used for any arbitrary exaction. He sone come bysyde hys fone echon,
Concedimus etiam eisdem abbati et monachis An bylevede hym there al nygt, and al hys ost
et eorum successoribus quod sint quietide omni also,
bus misericordiis in perpetuum.—Charter Edw. An thogte anon amorwe strong batayle do.
I. in Duc. Et inde coram eo placitabuntur, et R. G. 319.
de omnibus misericordiis et emendationibus de Secondly, and for if or an.
bemus habere 11 solidos.-Duc.
Mereweth sore I am unto hire teyde,
When a party was thus placed at the For and I should rekene every vice
mercy of the court, it was the business of Which that she hath, ywis I were to nice.
affèerors appointed for that purpose to Squire's Prologue.
fix the amount of the amercement. See And I were so apt to quarrel as thou art, any
Affeer. man should buy the fee simple of my life for an
hour and a half.
Amnesty. Gr. duvijareta (a priv. &
uváopal, I remember), a banishing from We find an if and and iſ, or simply an
remembrance of former misdeeds. for iſ:
Amount. From mont, hill, and wal, boy —I pray thee, Launce, and if thou seest my
bid him make haste.
valley, the French formed amont and
aval, upwards and downwards respect But and if that wicked servant say in his
heart, &c.
ively, whence monter, to mount, to rise Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe.
up, and avaler, to send down, to swallow. Ben Jonson in R.
Hence amount is the sum total to which
In same sense the OSwed. aen,
a number of charges rise up when added while the om aen corresponds exactly to our
together. an iſ, om, formerly of, being the exact
Ample. Lat. amplus, large, spacious. representative of E. iſ. The Sw, an is
Amputate. Lat., amputo, to cut off, also used in the sense of and, still, yet.—
to prune; puto, to cleanse, and thence to Ihre.
cut off useless branches, to prune; futus, It is extremely difficult to guess at the
pure, clean, bright. sensible image which lies at the root of
Amulet. Lat. amulețum, a ball or the obscure significations expressed by
anything worn about the person as a the particles and conjunctions, the most
preservative or charm against evil. From time-worn relics of language; but in the
Arab. hamala, to carry. present instance it seems that both sense
To Amuse. To give one something and form might well be taken from the E.
to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken,
entertain, give cheerful occupation. For level.
merly also used as the simple muse, to The poetical contraction of even into
contemplate, earnestly fix the thoughts on. e'en shows how such a root might give
Here I put my pen into the inkhorn and fell rise to such forms as ON. emn, OSwed.
into a strong and deep amusement, revolving in arm, Dan. end. With respect to meaning,
my mind with great perplexity the amazing we still use even as a conjunction in cases
change of our affairs.-Fleetwood in Richardson.
closely corresponding to the Swed. den,
An. The indefinite article, the purport and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed.
of which is simply to indicate individ acn-nit translated by Ihre, etiamnum,
uality. It is the same word with the even now, i. e. without a sensible break
numeral one, AS. am, and the difference between the event in question and now ;
in pronunciation has arisen from a andock, quamvis, even though, or al
lighter accent being laid upon the word though ; an, yet, still, continuously;
when used as an article than when as a “he is still there,' he continues there.
definite numeral. So in Breton, the in So in Danish,_om dette end skulde ske,
definite article has become eun, while the even if that should happen ; end ikke, ne
numeral is unan. Dan, een, one, em, a, an. quidem, not even then ; end mu, even
An.—And. There is no radical dis now. When one proposition is made
tinction between an and and, which are conditional on another, the two are prac
accidental modifications of spelling ulti tically put upon the same level, and thus
mately appropriated to special applica the conditionality may fairly be expressed
tions of the particle. by even contracted into an or an. Ana
In our older writers it was not unfre lysing in this point of view the sentence
quent to make use of an in the sense in above quoted,
which we now employ and, and vice Nay, an thou dalliest, then I am thy foe,
versä and in the sense of an or iſ: it must be interpreted, Nay, understand
2 *

these propositions as equally certain, turn ; wend-iſser, brand-iſser, crateute

thou dalliest here, I am thy foe.—It de rium, ferrum in quo veru vertitur, Kil.,
pends upon you whether the first is to i. e. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs
prove a fact or no, but the second pro in which the spit turns. “Alander, Gall.
position has the same value which you landier, Lat. verutentum ; item haec an
choose to give to the former. dena.’—Catholicon Arm. in Duc. Andºva
It will subsequently be shown probable seems a mere latinisation of OE. aunayre
that the conjunction iſ is another relic of for and iron, as brondyr for broºdiron,
the same word. On the other hand, grea'yre for gridiron. “Andena, aundyre.’
placing two things side by side, or on a * /º/,0s, brandyr.’ “Craficula, gredyre.’
level with each other, may be used to —National Antiq. 178. In modern Eng
express that they are to be taken together, lish the term has been transferred to
to be treated in the same manner, to the moveable fire-irons.
form a single whole ; and thus it is that To Aneal, Anele. To give the last
the same word, which implies condition unction. I aſtec/e a sick man, 7'en/iu///e.
ality when circumstances show the un –Palsgr. Fr. //i//e, oil.
certainty of the first clause, may become Anecdote. Gr. avéxćoroc, not pub
a copulative when the circumstances of lished, from Kötöwut, to give out, to put
the sentence indicate such a signification. forth.
Ana- Gr. avá, up, on, back. Anent.—Anenst. In face of, respect
Anatomy. Gr. avarépyw, to cut up. ing. AS. ongean, opposite; foran on
See Atom. geant, ſoran gent (Thorpe's Dipl. p. 341),
Ancestor. Fr. ances/re, ance/re, from over against, opposite, in front, Sc. ſore
Lat. antecessor, one that goes before. ament. The word ament, however, does
See Cede. not seem to come directly from the AS.
Anchor. Lat, anchora, Gr. dykvpa. on gearſ. It shows at least a northern
There can be no doubt that it is from the influence from the ON. giggºtt, Sw. gent,
root signifying hook, which gives rise to opposite, gen/ ºſtver, over against. Hence
the Gr, dykºoc, curved, crooked ; dyków, on genſ, anent, and with the s, so com
an elbow, recess, corner ; 6ykm, Öykivoc, a monly added to prepositions (comp. ante,
hook ; Lat. angrºſus, an angle, uncus, a before, Prov. anſes, AS. fogeanes, &c.),
hook, crooked. antentis. ‘Azienſis men, it is impossible,
Unco alliget anchora morsu.-Virg. but not amentis God.”—Wicliff. Hence
Anchoret. A hermit. Gr. avaxºp A men'sſ, as alongst from along, whilst
mrme, one who has retired from the world; from while, against from again.
from d vaxopéw, to retire. Angel. Lat. ange/us, from Gr. "AyyeXoc,
Anchovy. Fr. anchois, It. ancioe, a messenger, one sent ; dyyáMAw, to send
Gr, dºin, Lat. aft/a, aft/ya (a/ya) ; tidings.
whence might arise, It. (a//-aga) accinga, Anger. Formerly used in the sense
Pied. Sicil. anciova, Genoes. anciua.— of trouble, torment, grievance.
Diez. He that ay has levyt fre -

Ancient. Lat. an/e, Prov. anſes, It. May not know well the propyrté,
anzi, before, whence angiano, Fr. ancien, The am gyrna the wrechyt dome
ancient, belonging to former times. That is cowplyt to ſoule thyrldome.
Bruce, i. 235.
Ancle. AS. anciſcow, G. enkel. Pro Shame——
bably a parallel formation with Gr. From whom fele angirs I have had.—R. R.
dyköAm, a loop, the bend of the arm; and
from the same root, dyrºv, the elbow, or In the original,
bending of the arm ; It. anca, the haunch, Par qui je ſuspuis moult grévé.
or bending of the hip ; OHG. ancha, Bav. From the sense of oppression, or injury,
a/l/e (genick), the bending of the neck. the expression was transferred to the
And. See An. feelings of resentment naturally aroused
Andiron. Originally the iron bars in the mind of the person aggrieved. In
which supported the two ends of the logs the same way, the word harm signifies
on a wood fire. AS. brand-isen, brand injury, damage, in English, and resent
iron, could never have been corrupted ment, anger, vexation, in Swedish.
into andiron. The Mid. Lat. has andeſia, The idea of injury is very often ex
andela, andeda, anderia. Fr. /a/ldier, pressed by the image of pressure, as in
grand chenet de cuisine.—Dict. Wallon. the word of press, or the Fr. grever, to
The Flemish wend-iſser probably ex bear heavy on one. Now the root ang.
hibits the true origin, from wenden, to is very widely spread in the sense of

compression, tightness. G. eng, com Sp. emojo, offence, injury, anger; emojar,
pressed, strait, narrow; Lat. angere, to molest, trouble, vex; It. noia, trouble,
to strain, strangle, vex, torment; angus weariness, vexation, disquiet; recars: a
tus, narrow; angina, oppression of the moja, to be tired of something; mojare,
breast ; angor, anguish, sorrow, vexation; zenire a moja, to weary, to be tedious to.
Gr. dyxw, to compress, strain, strangle, Diez cites OVenet. Ž/u te sont a inodio
whence dyx (as It...presso), near; dyxsabat, as exactly equivalent to It. Aiu fi sono a
to be grieved; dyxóvn, what causes pain moja. “Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia,”
or grief. says Vanzoni, ‘vagliono recarsi in fastidio,
Both physical and metaphorical senses in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium
are well developed in the ON. angr, in aliquem concipere.” So in Languedoc,
narrow, a nook or corner, grief, pain, odi, hate, disgust; aver en odi, to hate;
sorrow; angra, to torment, to trouble; /a car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful
Arabba-angar, crabs' pincers. to me; me venes en odi, vous m'ennuyez,
To Angle. To fish with a rod and you are tedious to me. From in odio
line, from AS. ange/, a fish-hook. Du. arose OFr. emuy, enzi (commonly re
angheſ-smoer, anghe/-roede, a fishing-line, ferred to Lat. invitus), d envi or d envis,
fishing-rod ; anghelen, to angle. Chaucer unwillingly, with regret, as hui from
has angle-hook, showing that the proper hodie. And from emuy was formed
meaning of the word angle was then lost, ennuyer, to weary, to annoy.
and by a further confusion it was sub From the same source must be ex
sequently applied to the rod. plained Du. noode, moeye, unwilling,
A fisher next his trembling angle bears.-Pope. with regret or displeasure; noode iet doen,
Anguish. Lat. angustia, a strait, gravaté aliquid facere; moode hebben,
whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from aegriferre; noeyen, moyen, officere, nocere,
postea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguish. See molestum esse.—Kil. ‘A’oode, mooyelick,
Anger. a ennuy, a regret, invitus, coactus, ingra
Anile. Lat. anilis, from anus, an tus, vel aegré, molesté; jet moode doen,
aged woman. faire quelque chose enuy; moode jet
Animal.-Animate. Lat. animus, ſtoren, ouyr enty quelque chose, graviter
the spirit, living principle, mind, properly audire."—Thesaurus Theut. Ling. 1573.
the breath, as the ruling function of life Anodyne. Gr. &váčvvoc (a priv. and
in man, analogous to spirit, from spiro, Ööövm, pain), without sense of pain,
to breathe. Gr. aveuoc, wind; dw, dinut, capable of dispelling pain.
to blow. Anomalous. Gr. divºuaxoc (a priv.
To Anneal. To fire glass in order to and bua Möc, level, fair), irregular, devi
melt and fix the vitreous colours with ating from an even surface.
which it is painted. Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter, con
And like a picture shone in glass amnealed. tinuo, sine intermissione—Lye; at one
Dryden in Worcester. time, in a moment; ever and anon, con
I ameel a potte of erthe or suche like with Answer. As and’swarian, from and,
a coloure, Je plomme.—Palsgr. Also to in opposition, and swerian, Goth.svaran,
temper glass or metals in a gradually swear. ON. svara, to answer, to
decreasing heat. It ſocare, to fire or set to engage for. It is remarkable that the
on fire, also to meal metals.-Fl.
Latin expression for answer is formed in
From AS. alan, ona'lan, to set on fire, exactly the same way from a verb spon
burn, bake. The expression cocti lateris for, to assure.
of the Vulgate, Is. xvi. 7, 11, is rendered dere, signifying to engage
ane/id tyi/ in the earlier Wickliffite The simpler idea of speaking in return is
version, and bakun tijl in the later.— directly expressed by Goth. anda-vaurd,
Marsh. G. anſ-worſ, AS. andwyrd, current side
by side with the synonymous and swar.
* To Annoy. It. annoiare, OFr. Ant. The well-known insect, con
anofer, anueir, anuier, Fr. ennuyer, to tracted from emmet, like aunt, a parent's
annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, sister, from Lat. amita.
irke, importune overmuch.-Cot. The Ante- Lat. ante, before.
origin of the word has been well explained
by Diez from the Lat: phrase esse in odio, is Ant-Anti- Gr. divri, against. What
in face of one or before one is in one
It esser in odio, to be hateful or repugnant point of view opposite or against one.
to one: Esse alieni in odio; apud aliquem Anthem. A divine song sung by two
in odio esse.—Cic. Hence was formed
opposite choirs or choruses.—B. Lat.

anti/hoſta, Gr. divripova, from divrºtovëw, To dance the anticks is explained by

to sound in answer. Prov. an//ena; Bailey to dance after an odd and ridicu
As. antºſh, whence anthem, as from AS. lous manner, or in a ridiculous dress, like
sºft, E. stem. The Fr. form antienne a jack-pudding. To go antigue/y, in
shows a similar corruption to that of Shakespear, to go in strange disguises.
Estienne, from Steft/ramus. In modern language antic is applied to
Antick. — Antique. Lat. anticus, extravagant gestures, such as those
from ante, before, as posſicias, from Aost, adopted by persons representing the
behind. characters called antics in ancient
At the revival of art in the 14th and masques. Mannequin, a puppet or an
15th centuries the recognised models of antic.—Cot.
imitation were chiefly the remains of Antidote. Gr. &vrworov, something
ancient sculpture, left as the legacy of given against, a preventative ; Śorioc, what
Roman civilisation. Hence the applica is to be given.
tion of the term antique to work of sculp Antler. Fr. andouiſ/ers, the branches
tured ornamentation, while individual of a stag's horns; but properly andouiſ/er
figures wrought in imitation or supposed is the first branch or brow-antler, sur
imitation of the ancient models, were andouſ//er the second. As the brow
called antiques, as the originals are at the antler projects forward the word has been
present day. derived from ante, before, but the ex
At the entering of the palays before the gate planation has not been satisfactorily
was builded a fountain of embowed work en made out.
grayled with anticke workes, the old God of Anvil. Formerly written amºiſt or
wine called Bacchus birling the wine, which by an viſa, As. an/i/t; Pl. D. ambo//; Du.
the conduits in the earth ran to the people
lenteously with red, white, and claret wine.—
aembe/d, ambe/d, a block to hammer on.
all's Chron. Percutere, viſ/an—Gloss. Pezron ; fillist,
verberas.-Otfried. So Lat. incus, in
Again from the same author : cudºs, from in and cudere, to strike; G.
At the nether end were two broad arches upon amboss, OHG. and/oz, from an and
three antike pillers, all of gold, burnished, bossen, to strike.
swaged, and graven full of gargills and serpentes Anxious. Lat. anarius, from ango,
—and above the arches were made sundry
antikes and devices. an:ri, to strain, press, strangle, choke,
vex, trouble.
But as it is easier to produce a certain Any. AS. aenig, from art, one, and ig,
“effect by monstrous and caricature re a termination equivalent to Goth. eigs,
presentations than by aiming at , the from eigan, to have. Thus from gabe, a
beautiful in art, the sculptures by which gift, wealth, gabeigs, one having wealth,
our medieval buildings were adorned, rich. In like manner, any is that which
executed by such stone-masons as were partakes of the nature of one, a small
to be had, were chiefly of the former quantity, a few, some one, one at the
class, and an anticæ came to signify a least.
grotesque figure such as we see on the Apanage. Lat. panis, bread, whence
spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. Prov. Aamar, aftaſtar, to nourish, to Sup
Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks port; Fr. aftanage, a provision for a
as the devil over Lincoln) from a stone picture younger child.
of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook
Lincoln College. Surely the architect intended Apart. — Apartment. Fr. d farf,
it no further than for an ordinary anticke.—Ful aside, separate. A/artmentſ, something
ler in R. set aside, a suite of rooms set aside for a
Now for the inside here grows another doubt, separate purpose, finally applied to a

whether grotesca, as the Italians, or antigue single chamber.

work, as we call it, should be received.—Re
Ape. Originally a monkey in general;
liquiae Wottonianae in R. latterly applied to the tailless species.
The term was next transferred to the To a/e, to imitate gestures, from the imi
grotesque characters, such as savages, tative habits of monkeys. But is it not
fauns, and devils, which were favourite possible that the name of the ape may be
subjects of imitation in masques and from imitating or taking off the actions
revels. of another ? Goth., ON. aſ, G. a6, of, from.
Aperient.—Aperture. Lat. afferio,
That roome with pure gold it all was overlaid
Wrought yith wild antickes which their follies aftertiºn, to open, to display; ſºario, to
playd8. bring forth. See Cover.
In the riche metal as they living were.-Spencer. Aphorism. Gr. apoptºpoc, a definite
sentence; dºopſ&o, to mark off, to define; good time, in good season ; //rendre son
opoc, a bound, landmark. d poinct, to take his fittest opportunity
Apo- Gr. diró, corresp. to Lat. ab, of, for ; quand it ſº a poinct, when the
off, from, away. - proper time came. Hence aff/oinct, fit
Apoplexy. From Gr. diroirAſiaow, ness, opportunity, a thing for one's pur
to strike down, to disable; —opat, to lose pose, after his mind ; and aft/oincter (to
one's senses, become dizzy; TAñaaw, §w, find fitting, pronounce fitting), to deter
to strike. mine, order, decree, to finish a contro
Apostle. – Epistle. Gr. GróaroMoc, versy, to accord, agree, make a composi
one sent out, from dirogréAAw, to send off, tion between parties, to assign or grant
despatch on some service. In the same over unto.—Cotgr.
way from triaráAAw, to send to, to an To Appraise. Lat. Aretium, Fr. Arir,
nounce, triaro'X'), an epistle or letter. a price, value; aft/reſcº, to rate, esteem,
Apothecary. Gr. diróðurn, a store or prize, set a price on.—Cotgr. I prise
keeping-place; droriðnut, to store or put ware, I sette a pryce of a thynge what it
away. is worthe; je aft, ise.—Palsgr. The Pl.
Appal. Wholly unconnected with Žale, D. Zaven is used both as E. praise, to
to which it is often referred. To cause to commend, and also as appraise, to set a
fall (see Pall), to deaden, to take away price on. To praise, in fact, is only to
or lose the vital powers, whether through exalt the price or value of a thing, to
age or sudden terror, horror, or the like. speak in commendation.
An old aft/alled wight, in Chaucer, is a Apprehend.—Apprentice.—Apprise.
man who has lost his vigour through age. Lat. Archendere, to catch hold of; aftpre
And among other of his famous deeds, he re /reſidere, to seize, and metaphorically to
vived and quickened again the faith of Christ, take the meaning, to understand, to
that in some places of his kingdom was sore learn.
appalled.—Fabian in R. Fr. apprendre, aft/ris, to learn,
whence the E. aft/rise, to make a thing
Apparel. From Lat. far, equal, like, known. Fr. aft/rentis, a learner, one
the MLat. diminutive pariculus, gave taken for the purpose of learning a trade.
rise to It. parecchio, Sp. parejo, Fr. Aareil, Approach. From Lat. prope (comp.
like. Hence It, aft/arecchiare, Sp. apar Aroſius), near, were formed ap/ropiare
ejar, Prov. affare/har, Fr. aft/areiller, (cited by Diez from a late author).
properly to join like to like, to fit, to suit. Walach. afroſºid, Prov. afro/char, It.
A//aret/, outfit, preparation, habiliments. affºrocciare, Fr. aft/rocher, to come near,
—Diez. to approach.
And whanne sum men seiden of the Temple Approbation. — Approve. Ap
that it was afare/id with good stones.—Wiclifprover. Lat. probus, good, probare, aft
in R. Eke if he apparaiſe his mete more deli Arodare, to deem good, pronounce good.
ciously than nede is.-Parson's Tale.
Fr. aft/rover, to approve, allow, find
Then like Fr. habi//er, or E. dress, the good, consent unto.—Cotgr.
word was specially applied to clothing, Hence an Aſprover in law is one who
as the necessary preparation for every has been privy and consenting to a crime,
kind of action. -
but receives pardon in consideration of
To Appeal. Lat. aff/c//are, Fr. aft his giving evidence against his principal.
feder, to call, to call on one for a special This false theſe this sompnour, quoth the frere,
purpose, to call for judgment, to call on Had alway bandis redy to his hond,
one for his defence, i. e. to accuse him of That tellith him all the secre they knew,
a crime. For their acquaintance was not come of new ;
To Appear.—Apparent. OFr. ap They werin his approvirs privily.—Friar's Tale.
favoir, Lat. Aareo, to be open to view. Appurtenance. Fr. aftartemir, to
Appease. Fr. aft/aiser, from pair, pertain or belong to.
* Apricot. Formerly affricock, agree
Apple. , AS. aftſ, ON. aftal, w, apaſ, ing with Lat. Ararcoſylta or praecocia, Mod.
Ir, avall, Lith. offo/ys, Russ. jabſoko. Gr. ºrpatrocktov. They were considered
To Appoint. The Fr. Aoint was used by the Romans a kind of peach, and
in the sense of condition, manner, ar were supposed to take their name from
rangement—the order, trim, array, plight, their ripening earlier than the ordinary
case, taking, one is in.-Cotgr. En peach.
Afteur foinct, in piteous case ; habi//er
Maturescunt aestate prºcocia intra triginta
ent ce poinct, to dress in this fashion.— annos reperta et primo denariis singulis venun
Cent Nouv. Nouv. A poinct, aptly, in data.-Pliny, N. H. xv. 11.

It may be doubted, however, whether some shape or other. Thus in Latin

the Lat. fra"cogita was not an adapt sors, a lot, is taken in the sense of an
ation. It is certain that the apricot oracle, and sortiſegus is a soothsayer,
was introduced from Armenia, and the one who gives oracles, or answers ques
fruit is still called bar/ºu/ in Persian. It tions by the casting of lots; and this
is far more likely that the name should doubtless is the origin of E. sorcerer,
have been imported with the fruit into sorcery. Albanian, short, a lot, shortár,
Italy than that the Persians should have a soothsayer. Now one of the points
adopted the Latin name of a native upon which the cunning man of the
fruit.—Marsh. present day is most frequently consulted
Apron. A cloth worn in front for the is the finding of lost property, and a
protection of the clothes, by corruption dispute upon such a subject among a
for ma/ron. barbarous people would naturally be re
—And therewith to wepe ferred to one who was supposed to have
She made, and with her napron feir and white supernatural means of knowing the truth.
ywash Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would
She wyped soft her eyen for teris that she outlash. naturally be called in as arbiter or dooms
Chaucer, Beryn. Prol. 31.
man. Now we find in Fin. arºa, a lot,
Still called maftern [pronounced maft symbol, divining rod, or any instrument
from in Cleveland. J. C. A.] in the N. of of divination ; ar/a-mies, (mies = man,)
E.—Hall. A'aftrum, or barm-cloth.-Pr. sortium ductor, arbiter, hariolus; arpelen,
Pm. From OFr. nafteron, properly the arweſ/a, to decide by lot, to divine; ar
intensitive of ſtaffe, a cloth, as napkin is wata, conjicio, auguror, aestimo, arbitror;
the diminutive. A/afteron, grande nappe. arwaaja, arbiter in re censendā; arwelo,
—Roquefort. A/a/eron is explained by arbitrium, opinio, conjectura ; artwaus,
Hécart, a small cloth put upon the table conjectura, aestimatio arbitraria. It will
cloth during dinner, to preserve it from be observed in how large a proportion of
stains, and taken away before dessert, a these cases the Lat. arbiter and its de
purpose precisely analogous to that for rivatives are used in explanation of the
which an apron is used. “Un beau Fin. words derived from arpa.
service de damassé de Silésie : la nappe, Arbour. From OE. herbere, originally
le maferon et 24 serviettes.”—About. Ma signifying a place for the cultivation of
delon. The loss or addition of an initial herbs, a pleasure-ground, garden, sub
n to words is very common, and fre sequently applied to the bower or rustic
quently we are unable to say whether the shelter which commonly occupied the
consonant has been lost or added. most conspicuous situation in the garden;
Thus we have nauger and auger, newt and thus the etymological reference to
and ewſe, or eſ?, maw/ and awſ, mompire herbs being no longer apparent, the spell
and umpire, and the same phenomenon ing was probably accommodated to the
is common in other European languages. notion of being sheltered by trees or
Apt. Lat. aft/us, fastened close, con shrubs (arbor).
nected, and thence fit, suitable, proper. This path—
Aqueous.-Aquatic. Lat. agua, San I followid till it me brought
scr. aff, Gr. dia, Alban. 1/ghe, water ; To a right plesaunt herbir wel ywrought,
Goth, ahva, OHG. aha, a river. Which that benchid was, and with turfis new
Freshly turnid—
Arable. Lat. aro, OE. ear, to plough. The hegge also that yedin in compas
Arbiter.—Arbitrate. The primary And closid in all the grene heråere,
sense of Lat. arbiter is commonly given With Sycamor was set and Eglatere,
as an eye-witness, from whence that of And shapin was this herbir, roſe and all,
an umpire or judge is supposed to be As is a pretty parlour.
Chaucer, Flower and Leaf.
derived, as a witness specially called in
for the purpose of determining the ques It growyth in a gardyn, quod he,
That God made hymselve,
tion under trial. But there is no recog Amyddes mannes body,
nised derivation in Latin which would The more (root) is of that stokke,
account for either of these significations. Herte highte the herber
A rational explanation may, however, be That it inne groweth.-P. P. 2. 331.
found in Fin. The word is still used in its ancient
There is a common tendency in an un meaning at Shrewsbury, where the differ
informed state of society to seek for the ent guilds have separate little pleasure
Yesolution of doubtful questions of suffi gardens with their summer-houses each
cient interest by the casting of lots in within its own fence, in the midst of an

open field outside the town, and over the we fall the more readily into this appli
gate of one of these gardens is written cation from the fact that our version of
“Shoemakers' Arbour.’ the Gr. particle is identical with arch
This lady walked outright till he might see her applied on other grounds to pre-eminence
enter into a fine close arbor: it was of trees whose in evil.
branches so interlaced each other that it could
Architect. Gr. pytrékrov (àpxi, and
resist the strongest violence of eye-sight.—Ar rékrwy, a builder, worker, from reºxw, to
cadia in R.
construct, fabricate), a chief builder.
Arch. A curved line, part of a circle, Archives. Gr. doxºlov, the court of
anything of a bowed form, as the arch of a magistrate, receptacle where the public
a bridge. Lat. arcus, a bow, which has acts were kept. The term would thus
been referred to W. givyrek, curved, appear to be connected with doxov, a
from gwyro, to bend. ruler, àpxi), government, rule (princi
* Arch, Arrant. I. Arch and its equiv
alents in the other branches of Teutonic patus), and not with pxaioc, ancient.
From 3pxsiov was formed Lat. archivum
are used with great latitude of meaning. (as Argive from 'Aoysiot), a repository for
In E. it signifies roguish, mischievous, records or public documents, and hence
sly, and must be identified with Dan. in modern languages the term archives
arrig, ill-tempered, troublesome, G. arg, is applied to the records themselves.
bad of its kind, morally bad, mischievous, Ardent.—Ardour.—Arson. Lat. ar
wanton, Du. erg, sly, malicious. G. ein deo, arsum, Fr. ardre, ars, to be on fire,
arger Anabe, Du, een erg Aind, an arch to burn ; ardor, burning heat. Fr. arson,
boy, un malin enfant, un petit rusé. The a burning or setting on fire.—Cot.
earliest meaning that we can trace is that Arduous. Lat. arduus, high, lofty,
of ON. angr, AS. earg, earh, faint-hearted, difficult to reach.
sluggish, timid, and in that sense among Area. Lat. area, a threshing-floor, a
the Lombards it was the most offensive
bare plot of ground, a court yard, an ex
term of abuse that could be employed. tent of flat surface. Applied in modern
“Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse E. to the narrow yard between the under
inertem et inutilem dixeris, et vulgari ground part of a house and the ground in
verbo, arga, vocaveris.”—Paul Warne front.
frid. “Si quis alium argam per furorem
Argue.—Argument. Lat. arguo, to
clamaverit.”— Lex. Langobard. in Duc. demonstrate, make clear or prove.
Then from the contempt felt for any Arid. Lat. aridus, from areo, to dry.
thing like timidity in those rough and Aristocracy. Gr. dparoxpartia (diptaroc,
warlike times the word acquired the the best, bravest, a noble, and kpurée), to
sense of worthless, bad, exaggerated in rule, exercise lordship), ruling by the
degree when applied to a bad quality. nobles, whence the body of the nobles
ON. argviðugr, taxed with cowardice, collectively.
contemptible, bad. Dan. det arrigste Arm. Sax. earm, Lat. armus, the
smaºs, the most arrant trash, wretched shoulder-joint, especially of a brute,
stuff. OE. arve, fainthearted. though sometimes applied to man. Con
Now thou seist he is the beste knygt, nected with ramus, a branch, by Russ.
And thou as arve coward.
ramo (pl. ramena), shoulder; Boh. ramé,
Alisaunder, 334o. forearm ; rameno, arm, shoulder, branch.
There can be no doubt that E. arrant Arms.-Army. Lat. arma, W. arſ,
is essentially the same word, the termina Gael. arm, a weapon. As the arm itself
tion of which is probably from the mas is the natural weapon of offence, it is pos
culine inflection en of the Pl. D. adjective. sible that the word arm in the sense of
§agen drog, an arrant rogue.—Brem.
weapon may be simply an application of
the same word as the designation of the
2. Arch in composition. Gr. dox#, bodily limb.
beginning, doxºlv, to be first. Apx in From the verb armare, to arm, are
comp. Signifies chief or principal, as in formed the participial nouns, It. armaţa,
ëpxteptic, apxáyye) oc, chief priest, arch Sp. armada, Fr. armée, of which the two
angel. This particle takes the form of former are confined by custom to a naval
arci in It., erg in G., arch in E.; arcí. expedition, while the Fr. armée, and our
vescowo, erº-bischof, arch-bishop. In G. army, which is derived from it, are ap
as in E. it is also applied to pre-eminence plied only to an armed body of land
in evil ; erz-befriger, an arch-deceiver; forces, though formerly also used in the
erº-witcherer, an arrant usurer. Perhaps sense of a naval expedition.
At Leyes was he and at Satalie dispose, set in order, prepare, fit out.
Whanne they were wonne, and in the grete see The simple verb is not extant in Italian,
In many a noble armée had he be.
Prol. Knight's Tale. but is preserved to us in the ON. reida,
the fundamental meaning of which seems
Aromatic. Gr. dowuarrèc, from dowpa, to be to push forwards, to lay out. At
sweetness of odours, a sweet smell. reida swerdeſ, to wield a sword; at r.
Arquebuss. It. archi/t/so affords an
/ram maſſ, to bring forth food ; aſ r. ſºft,
example of a foreign word altered in order to pay down money; at r. ſil rumiſ, to
to square with a supposed etymology. It prepare the bed; at r, hey a hesſimon, to
is commonly derived from arco, a bow, as carry hay on a horse. Sw, reda, to pre
the only implement of analogous effect pare, to set in order, to arrange; reda eff
before the invention of fire-arms, and s/ºff, to equip a vessel; reda fi/ mid
buso, pierced, hollow. But Diez has well d'agen, to prepare dinner. The same
observed how incongruous an expression word is preserved in the Scotch, to red,
a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, to red up, to put in order, to dress; to
and the true derivation is the Du. haeck
red the road, to clear the way.—Jam.
&layse, haeck-&lºsse, properly a gun fired The meaning of the Lat. Aaro, farafus,
from a rest, from /accá, the hook or seems to have been developed on an
forked rest on which it is supported, and analogous plan. The fundamental mean
&lasse, G. bitchse, a fire-arm. From ing of the simple paro seems to be to
/aecke-busse it became hargiſcòrºss, and lay out, to push forwards. Thus sºfaro
in It. archióiaso or arcobrºgia, as if from is to lay things by themselves; com/aro
arco, a bow. In Scotch it was called a
to place them side by side; fºr Aaro, to
/agöltſ of croche, Fr. argue&us d croc.— lay them out beforehand; and the It.
Jamieson. Aarare, to ward off.
Arrack. Ptg. araca, orraca, raž. To Arrest. Lat. res/are, to remain
From Arab. arac, sweat; 'arac af-famir, behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr.
sweat (juice) of the date. The name of arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize
'arac or 'araguá was first applied to the his person.
spirit distilled from the juice of the date To Arrive. Mid. Lat. adriftare, to
tree, and extended by the Arabs to dis come to shore, from 7:/a, bank, shore;
tilled spirit in general, being applied by then generalised, It. arrivare, Sp. ar
us to the rice spirit brought from the East ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive.—Diez.
Indies.—Dozy Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask.
To Arraign. In the Latin of the
Middle Ages, rationes was the term for
Sibi aliquid arrogare, to ascribe some
the pleadings in a suit; raſiones exercere,
thing to oneself; arrogazis, claiming
more than one's due.
or ad rationes stare, to plead ; miſſere or Arrow. ON. ºr, gen. Örvar, an arrow ;
Žomere ad rationes, or arraſionare (whence &r-varnar, missiles, probably from their
in OFr. arraíso//vier, areszter, aregnier, whirring through the air; ‘ārvarnar
arraigſler), to arraign, i. e. to call one to flugo hwinandi yńr haufut theim, the
account, to require him to plead, to arrows flew whizzing over their heads.-
place him under accusation. Saga Sverris. p. 26. On the same prin
Thos sal ilk man at his endyng
Be putted til an hard rekenyng, ciple It. freccia, an arrow, may be com
And be a resoned, als right es pared with Fr. ſºissement d'un trait, the
Of alle his mysdedys, mare and les. whizzing sound of an arrow.—Cot. Sw.
Pricke of Conscience, 2460. hurra, to whirl, hurl.
In like manner was formed derationare, Arsenal. It. arzana, darserta, farcanta,
to clear one of the accusation, to deraign, a dock-yard, place of naval stores and
to justify, to refute. outfit, dock. Sp. afarazana, aſaraganaſ,
Arrant. Pre-eminent in something a dock, covered shed over a rope-walk.
bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. “An From Arab. dér ciné'a, dör-aç-cizid'a,
errazzºtt usurer.”—Pr. Pnn. See Arch. dir-ac-can'a or dér-ſama, a place of con
To Array. It. arredare, to prepare struction or work. It is applied by
or dispose beforehand, to get ready. Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco
Arredare una casa, to furnish a house; leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order
uno vascello, to equip a ship. Arredo, of the Caliph Abdalmelic to build at
household furniture, rigging of a ship, Tunis “a dir-cind'a for the construction
and in the plural arred, apparel, raiment, of everything necessary for the equip
as clothing is the equipment universally ment and armament of vessels.” Pedro
necessary. OFr. arroyer, arréer, to de Alcala translates atarazana by the

Arab. dér a ciné'a.—Engelmann and thence the modern Fr. atelier, a work
Dozy. shop :
Oportet ad illius (navigii) conservationem in Quod eligantur duo legales homines qui
locum pertrahi coopertum, qui locus, ubi dictum vadant cum officiali ad visitandum omnes ar
conservatur navigium, Arsena vulgariter appel tiliarias exercentes artem pannorum.—Stat.
latur.—Sanutus in Duc. A. D. 1360, in Duc.
Arson. See Ardent. Arſi/Zement, artiſ/erie, is given by
Art. The exercise of skill or invention
Roquefort in the sense of implement,
in the production of some material object furniture, equipment, as well as instru
or intellectual effect; the rules and ment of war, and the word is used by
method of well doing a thing; skill, con Rymer in the more general sense:—
trivance, cunning. Decem et octo discos argenti, unum calicem
Art and part, when a person is both argenteum, unum parvum tintinnabulum pro
the contriver of a crime and takes part missã, &c., et omnes alias artillarias sibi com
in the execution, but commonly in the petentes.
negative, neither art nor part. From A statute of Edward II. shows what
the Lat. nec artiſer nec Aartice/s, neither was understood by artillery in that day:
contriver nor partaker. Item ordinatum est quod sit unus ar?://afor
Artery. Gr. dipr.mpia, an air-receptacle qui faciat balistas, carellos, arcos, Sagittas,
(supposed from dip, and Tmpéo, to keep, lanceas, spiculas, et alia arma necessaria pro
preserve), the windpipe, and thence any garnizionibus castrorum.
pulsating blood-channel. So, in the Book of Samuel, speaking
Artichoke. Venet. articioco, Sp. al of bow and arrows, it is said, “And
cachoſa, Arab. al-charschiºſa, It. car Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad,
cioſa.--Diez. and said, Go carry them to the city.’
Article. Lat. articulus, diminutive As. The comparison of the G. dialects
of artus, a joint, a separate element or shows that as is a contraction from al/-
member of anything, an instant of time, so, AS. cal/swa, G. aſso, als, as (Schülze,
a single member of a sentence, formerly Schmeller), OFris. aſsa, aſse, aſs, asa,
applied to any part of speech, as fum, ase, as (Richthofen). ‘aſs auch wir verge
est, Quisque (Forcellini), but ultimately ben unsern schuldigern,' as we also for
confined to the particles the and azu, the give our debtors.-Schmeller. A /so, sic,
effect of which is to designate one par omnino, taliter, ita.-Kilian. Fris. ‘aſsa
ticular individual of the species men grate bote aſsa, G. ‘eben so grosse busse
tioned, or to show that the assertion a/s,’ as great a fine as ; Fris. ‘aſsoe gract
applies to some one individual, and not a/s,’ ‘alsoe graet ende aſsoe lytich als,’ as
to the kind at large. great and as Small as ; ‘alsoe ofte a/s, as
Artillery. We find in Middle Latin often as.
the term ars, and the derivative artiſi In OE. we often find als for also.
cium, applied in general to the implement Schyr Edward that had sic valour
with which anything is done, and specially Was dede ; and Jhone Stewart alsua,
to the implements of war, on the same And Jhone the Sowllis als with tha
principle that the Gr. uſixavi), the equi And othyr als of thar company.—Bruce, xii. 795.
valent of the Lat. ars, gave rise to the Schir Edward that day wald nocht ta
word machina, a machine, and on which His cot armour; but Gib Harper,
the word engine is derived from the Lat. That men held als withoutyn per
ingenium, à contrivance. Thus a statute Off his estate, had on that day
All hale Schir Edwardis array.—Bruce, xii. 782.
of the year,1352 enacts:
Quod nulla persona—sit ausa venari in ne i. e. whom men held as without equal of
moribus consulum–sub poena perdendi—arfes, his station.
seu instrumenta cum quibus fieret venatio prae So in German, ‘ein solcher, aſser ist,’
dicta.--Duc. —such a one as he is.-Schmeller.In
Cum magnis bombardis et plurimis diversis expressions like as great as, where two
artificialić us.-Duc.
as correspond to each other, the Germans
From ars seems to have been formed the
render the first by so, the second by als;
Fr. verb artiſ/er, in the general sense of in OE. the first was commonly written
exercising a handicraft, or performing a/s, the second as,
skilled work, subsequently applied to the Thai wer
manufacturing or supplying with muni To Weris water cummyn als ner
tions of war. In testimony of the more As on othyr halff their ſayis wer.
general sense we find artiſiaria, and Bruce, xiv. Ioz.
Of all that grete tresoure that ever he biwan
synonymous asſant maybe traced through
Als bare was histowere as Job the powere man.
Sc. ask/en/, askew, to W. ysg/en/to, O Fr.
R. Brunne.
esclincher, to slip or slide. En etc/en/-
But this is probably only because the se aunt (esclenchant), obliquando. — Nec
cond as, having less emphasis upon it cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of
than the first, bore more contraction, the / on the one hand, askaunt, and of
just as we have seen in the corresponding the AE on the other, Sw. sſimta, to slide,
Frisian expressions that the first as is and E. asſant. The rudiment of the lost
rendered by aſsoe, the second by als. In / is seen in the i of It. schiancio, and
other cases the Frisian expression is just wholly obliterated in scanzare. The Du.
the converse of the G. Fris. aſsa longe schuin, N. sºyons (pron. shorts), oblique,
sa = G. so lange als, as long as ; Fris. wry, i sãjöns, awry, seem to belong to a
asa firsa—G. so weit als, as far as ; Fris. totally different root connected with E.
alsa firsa, in so far as. shun, shunt, to push aside, move aside.
Ascetic. Gr. darnrikóc (dox{w, to prac Askew. ON. skeifr, Dan. sºyaev, G.
tise, exercise as an art), devoted to the schieſ, schäſ, schieff, schie&ichſ, oblique,
practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c.
wry; ON. di sã, askew. Gr. oxatóc,
Hence the idea of exercising rigorous Lat. scavus, properly oblique, then left,
self-discipline. on the left hand ; oxadv aréua, a wry
Ash. I. The tree. AS. arsc, ON. asſºr. mouth.
2. Dust. Goth. azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, From G. schieben, to shove, as shown
Esthon. ask, refuse, dung. by Du. schuin, oblique, compared with
Ashlar. Hewn stone. OFr. aiseler, E. shun, shunt, to push aside. G. vers
Sc. aſs/air. “Entur le temple—fud un chieben, to put out of its place, to set
murs de treiz estruiz de aise/ers qui bien awry.
furent polis : —tribus ordinibus º Asperity. Lat. asſer, rough.
politorum.—Livre des, Rois. . . A mason To Aspire.—Aspirate. Lat. aspiro,
cannocht hew ain evin als/air without to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro,
directioun of his rewill.”— Jam. Fr. to breathe. The Lat. aspiro is also used
‘bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in for the strong breathing employed in
building.”—Cot. pronouncing the letter h, thence called
Fr. aiseler seems to be derived from the aspirate, a term etymologically un
aisse//e (Lat. ariſ/a), the hollow beneath connected with the spiritus asper of the
the arm or between a branch and the Latin grammarians. -

stem of a tree, applied to the angle Ass. Lat. asimus, G. esel, Pol. osiol.
between a rafter and the wall on which To Assail.—Assault. Lat. sa/ire, to
it rests, or between two members of a leap, to spring ; Fr. sai//ir, to sally, to
compound beam in centering. Aisse/ier, leap ; assai//ir, to assail, to set upon,
then, or esse/ier, in carpentry, is the whence assault, assailing or setting upon.
bracket which supports a beam, or the Assart. A cleared place in a wood.
quartering-piece which clamps a rafter to Fr. essart, Mid. Lat. e.vartum, essartum,
the wall (pièce de bois qu'on assemble assartum, sartum.
dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour Essarta vulgo dicuntur—quando forestae, ne
cintrer des quartiers (Gattel); pour for mora, vel dumeta quaelibet—succiduntur, quibus
mer les quartiers dans une charpente à succisis et radicitus evu/sis terra subvertitur et
lambris ; qui sert à former les cintres, ou excolitur.—Lib. Scacch. in Duc.
qui soutient parles bouts les entrans ou Et quicquid in toto territorio Laussiniaco di
tirans.—Trevoux). From thus serving to ruptum et exstirpatum est quod vulgo dicitur
unite the segments of a compound beam easurs.-Chart. A. D. 1196, in Duc.
the name seems to have been transferred From ex-sarifum, grubbed up.–Diez.
to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed.
to any hewn and squared stone mixed Assassin. Hashish is the name of an
with rubblestone in building. intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in
To Ask. AS. acsian, ascian, ON. askia, use among the natives of the East. Hence
G. heischen. Arab. ‘Haschischin,' a name given to the
* Asknace, Askaunt. OFr. a scanche, members of a sect in Syria who wound
de travers, en lorgnant.—Palsgr. 831. It. themselves up by doses of hashish to
schiancio, athwart, across, against the perform at all risk the orders of their
grain ; aschianciare, to go awry ; scan Lord, known as the Sheik, or Old Man
zare, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, of the Mountain. As the murder of his
walk by.—Fl. Both asſant and the enemies would be the most dreaded of

these behests, the name of Assassin was to fix a certain amount upon each indi
given to one commissioned to perform a vidual.
murder; assassination, a murder per Provisum est generaliter quod praedicta quad
ragesima hoc modo assideatur et colligatur. —
formed by one lying in wait for that Math. Paris, A. D. 1232.
special purpose.—Diez. De Sacy, Mem. Et fuit quodlibet feodum militare assessum
de l’Institut, 1818. tunc ad 40 sol.—Duc.
To Assay. Lat. erigere, to examine, Assets, in legal language, are funds
to prove by examination; “annulis ferreis for the satisfaction of certain demands.
ad certum pondus eractis pro nummo Commonly derived from Fr. asses, but in
utuntur, iron rings proved of a certain OE. it was commonly written asseth.
weight. — Caesar. Hence, eragium, a And iſ it suffice not for asseth. –P. Plowman,
weighing, a trial, standard weight. P. 94.
'Eğaytov, pensitatio ; tāayuáčw, examino, And Pilat willing to make a seeth to the people
perpendo.—Gl. in Duc. left to hem Barabbas.-Wiclif, Mark 15.
De ponderibus quoque, ut fraus penitus ampu And though on heapes that lie him by,
Yet never shall make his richesse
tetur, a nobis agantur eragia (proof specimens) Asseth unto his greediness.-R. R.
quae sine fraude debent custodiri...—Novell. The
odosii in Duc. Make acceſhe (makyn see/he–K.), satis
Habetis aginam (a balance), eragium facite, facio.—Pr. Pm. “Now then, rise and go
quemadmodun vultis ponderate.—Zeno, ibid. forthe and spekyng do asce/he to thy
servauntis’—Wicliffe ; satisfac servis tuis
From ea’agium was formed the It, sag —Vulgate. “Therefore I swore to the
gio, a proof, trial, sample, taste of any hows of Heli that the wickedness of his
thing ; assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, hows shall not be doon aseeth before with
whence Fr. essayer, to try, and E. assay, slain sacrificis and giftis.”—Wiclif. In
essay.—Mur. Diss. 27, p. 585. the Vulgate, eaſiełur. Assyth, sithe, to
To Assemble. The origin of Lat. make compensation, to satisfy. “I have
simu/, together, at once, is probably the gotten my heart's site on him.’—Lye in
radical sam, very widely spread in the Junius, v. sythe. Gael. sto!h, sith, peace,
sense of same, self. The locative case quietness, rest from war, reconciliation;
of Fin. sama, the same, is sama//a, ad sithich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile;
verbially used in the sense of at once, to W. head, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ;
gether, which seems to explain the forma Pol. Bohem. syſ, syſy, satisfied, full ;
tion of Lat. simu/. From simul, insimu/, Bohem. Sytiti, to satisfy.
were formed It. insieme, Fr. ensemb/e, The Lat. satis, enough ; ON. satt, saºtti,
together; assembler, to draw together, reconciliatio, sattr, reconciliatus, con
s'assembler, to meet or flock together ; tentus, consentiens ; sedia, saturare ; G.
whence E. assemble. In the Germanic
satt, full, satisfied,—are doubtless all
branch of language we have Goth. sama, fundamentally related.
the same; samana (corresponding to Fin. Assiduous. Lat. assiduus, sitting
sama//a), Sw. samman, G. 21/sammen, down, seated, constantly present, unre
As. te somme, to the same place, together ; mitting.
samnian, somnian, Sw. sammla, Dań. Assize.—Assizes. From assidere was
samle, G. versamme/n, to collect, to assem formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis,
ble. The OE. assemble was often used
set, seated, settled ; assise, a set rate, a
in the special sense of joining in battle. tax, as assize of bread, the settled rate for
By Carhame assemblyd thai; the sale of bread ; also a set day, whence
Thare was hard ſychting as I harde say. cour d'assice, a court to be held on a set
Wyntown in Jam. day, E. assizes.
Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suis
And in old Italian we find semóiaglia in singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui dicitur
the same sense. “La varatta era fornita. Assista in quo omnes illi qui clamorem facient
Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non recipient jus suum.—Charta Philip August. A.D.
poteo essere a la semóiag/ia.’ In the IIgo, in Duc.
Latin translation, ‘conflictui interesse Assisa in It. is used for a settled pattern
nequibat.”— Hist. Rom. Fragm. in Mu of dress, and is the origin of E. size, a
rat Orl. settled cut or make.
To Assess. Assidere, assessum, to sit To Assoil. To acquit. Lat. absol
down, was used in Middle Lat. in an zere, to loose from ; O'Fr. absolver, ab
active sense for to set, to impose a tax ; soi//er, assoiler-Roquefort. ‘To whom
assidere ta//fam, in Fr, asseoir /a taille, spak Sampson, Y shal purpose to yow a

dowtous woud, the which if ye soylen to Atmosphere. Gr. dručc, smoke, va

me, &c.; forsothe if ye mowen not assoy/e, pour.
&c. And they mighten not bi thre days Atom. Gr. drouoc (from a privative
soylen the proposicioun.’—Wyclif, Judges and réuvo, to cut), indivisible, that does
xiv. 12, &c. not admit of cutting or separation. -

To Assuage. From Lat. suavis, sweet, Atone. To bring at one, to reconcile,

agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, and thence to suffer the pains of what
soft, tranquil, O Fr. soeſ, soueſ, sweet, soft, ever sacrifice is necessary to bring about
gentle, arise, Prov. assuauzar, assuaºar, a reconciliation.
assuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. If gentilmen or other of that contrei
Hence, O Fr. assouager, to soften, to allay, Were wroth, she wolde bringen hem at on,
answering to assuaviar, as al/ager to al So wise and ripe wordes hadde she.
Chaucer in R.
Zeviare, abrºger to abbreviare, agréger to One God, one Mediator (that is to say, advo
aggraviare, soulager to sol/eviare. cate, intercessor, or an afone-maker) between
Mais moult m' assouagea l'oingture—R. R.; God and man.—Tyndall in R.
Lod. Is there division 'twixt my Lord and
translated by Chaucer, Cassio 2
Now softening with the ointment. Des. A most unhappy one ; I would do much
Tº attone them for the love I bear to Cassio.
Asthma. Gr. daQua, panting, difficult Othello.
breathing. The idea of reconciliation was expressed
To Astonish. — Astound. — Stony. in the same way in Fr.
Fr. estonner, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; Il ot amis et anemis ;
also to stonnie, benumme or dull the Or sont-il tot a un mis. -

senses of.-Cotgr. The form astonish Fab. et Contes. r. 181.

shows that estonmir must also have OE. to one, to unite, to join in one.
been in use. According to Diez, from David saith the rich folk that embraceden and
Lat. aſtomare, affortifum (strengthened oneden all hir herte to treasour of this world shall
to erſonare), to thunder at, to stun, slepe in the sleping of deth.-Chaucer in R.
to stupefy. So in E. thunder-struck is Put together and onvd, continuus ; put
used for a high degree of astonishment. together but not onya, contiguus.-Pr.
But probably the root ſon in attoniºus is Pnn.
used rather as the representative of a loud Precisely the converse of this expres
overpowering sound in general, than sion is seen in G. entzweyen, to disunite,
specially of thunder. Thus we have din, sew dissension, from enzwey, in two ;
a loud continued noise; dinț, a blow ; to sich enſzweyen, to quarrel, fall into vari
dun, to make an importunate noise; ance.—Küttn. -

dunt, a blow or stroke; to dumſ, to con Atrocious. Lat. atroar, fierce, barbar
fuse by noise, to stupefy.—Halliwell. As. ous, cruel.
stuntan, to strike, to stun, to make stupid To Attach.-Attack. These words,
with noise; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. though now distinct, are both derived
erstaunen, to be in the condition of one from the It. attaccare, to fasten, to hang.
stunned. Venet. tacare, Piedm. taché, to fasten.
Astute. Lat. asſus, subtilty, craft. Hence in Fr. the double form, attacher,
Asylum. Lat. asylum, from Gr. to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and
dow\ov (a priv., and ovXáw, to plunder, in affaquer, properly to fasten on, to begin
jure), a place inviolable, safe by the force a quarrel. S'attacher is also used in the
of consecration. same sense; s’attacher d, to coape, scuffle,
At. ON. at, Dan. ad, equivalent to grapple, fight with.-Cotgr. It attacare
E. to before a verb, at segia, to say ; Lat. un chiodo, to fasten a nail; — la guer
ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. ra, to commence war; —— la battaglia,
Athletic. Gr. 39Aoc, a contest for a to engage in battle; —— il fuoco, to set
prize ; 46Amri)c, a proficient in muscular on fire; attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire;
exercises. —— di parole, to quarrel.
Atlas. Gr. "Arkac, the name of one To attach one, in legal language, is to
who was fabled to support on his shoul lay hold of one, to apprehend him under
ders the entire vault of heaven, the globe; a charge of criminality.
thence, applied to a book of maps of the Attainder.—Attaint. Fr. attaindre
countries of the globe: which had com (OFr. attainder–Roquef.), to reach or
monly a picture of Atlas supporting the attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to
globe for a frontispiece. overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or

convict, also to accuse or charge with.- ture; It. attitudine, promptness, dis
Cotgr. The institution of a judicial ac position to act, and also simply posture,
cusation is compared to the pursuit of an attitude.
enemy; the proceedings are called a suit, Attorney. Mid. Lat. attornatus, one
Fr. poursuite en jugement, and , the put in the turn or place of another, one
agency of the plaintiff is expressed by appointed to execute an office on behalf
of another.
the verb prosegui, to pursue. . In follow
ing out the metaphor the conduct of the Li atorne est cil qui pardevant justice est
suit to a successful issue in the convic atorne pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise
tion of the accused is expressed by the pour poursuivre et pour defendre sa droiture.—
verb aftingere, Fr. attaindre, which sig Jus Municipale Normannorum, in Duc.
nifies the apprehension of the object of a
chase. Auburn. Now applied to a rich red
Quem fugientem dictus Raimundus atin-rit. brown colour of hair, but originally it
probably designated what we now call
Hence the Fr. attainte d'une cause, the
flaxen hair. The meaning of the word
gain of a suit; attaindre le meſſait, to fix is simply whitish. It alburno, the white
the charge of a crime upon one, to prove or sapwood of timber, ‘also that whitish
a crime.--Carp. Atains du fet, convicted colour of women's hair called an aburn
of the fact, caught by it, having it brought colour.”—Fl. “[Cometa] splendoris al
home to one.—Roquef. &urni radium producens.”—Duc. In the
Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French Walser dialect of the Grisons, dilb is used
hood, also any kind of tire or attire for a in the sense of yellowish brown like the
woman's head. Damoiselle d’atour, the
colour of a brown sheep.–Bübler.
waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire Auction. — Augment. Lat. augeo,
her mistress–Cotgr., - a firewomant. auctum, Gr. atºw, Goth. aukan, AS. eacan,
Attouré, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, to increase, to eke.
adorned. Attourner, to attire, deck, Audacious. Lat. audar, acis, audeo,
dress. Attourneur, one that waits in the I dare.
chamber to dress his master or his mis Audience.—Audit. In the law lan
guage of the middle ages audire was
The original sense of attiring was that specially applied to the solemn hearing
of preparing or getting ready for a certain of a court of justice, whence audientia
purpose, from the notion of turning to was frequently used as synonymous with
wards it, by a similar train of thought to judgment, court of justice, &c., and even
that by which the sense of dress, clothing, in the sense of suit at law. The Judge
is derived from directing to a certain end, was termed auditor, and the term was in
preparing for it, clothing being the most particular applied to persons commis
universally necessary of all preparations. sioned to inquire into any special matter.
He attired him to battle with folc that he had.
R. Brunne in R. The term was then applied to the notaries
What does the king of France? atires him good or officers appointed to authenticate all
navie.—Ibid. legal acts, to hear the desires of the
The change from afour to attire is parties, and to take them down in writing;
singular, but we find them used with ap also to the parties witnessing a deed.
parent indifference. ‘Testes sunt hujus rei visores et audi
By her atire so bright and shene tores, &c. Hoc viderunt et audierunt
Men might perceve well and sene isti, &c.”—Duc.
She was not of Religioun, At the present day the term is confined
Nor n' il I make mencioun to the investigation of accounts, the ex
Nor of robe, nor of tresour, amination and allowance of which is
Of broche, neither of her rich attour.—R. R.
termed the audit, the parties examining,
Riche atyr, noble vesture, the auditors.
Bele robe ou riche pelure.—Polit. Songs.
Auf Auff, a fool or silly fellow.—B.
OFr. atirer, attirer, atirier, ajuster, See Oaf.
convenir, accorder, orner, decorer, parer, Auger. An implement for drilling
preparer, disposer, regler.—Roquefort. holes, by turning round a centre which is
I tyer an egg : je accoustre: I tyer steadied against the pit of the stomach.
with garments: je habille and je ac Formerly written nauger, Du. evegher,
coustre.—Palsgr. nevegher. In cases like these, which are
Attitude. Posture of body. It. atto, very numerous in language, it is impos
from Lat. agere, ac/um, act, action, pos sible primâ facie to say whether an n has
been added in the one case or lost in the auctum, increase; the time when the
other. In the present case the form with increase of the earth is gathered in.
an initial m is undoubtedly the original. Auxiliary. Lat. auxilium, help. See
As. mafºrar, maſ-bor. Taradros [a gimlet], Auction.
ma/u géré.-Gloss. Cassel. The force of To Avail. 1. To be of service. Fr.
the former element of the word is ex va/oir, to be worth; Lat. va/ere, to be
plained from the Finnish naſa, a navel, well in health, to be able, to be worth.
and hence, the middle of anything, centre 2. To Avail or Avale, to lower. To
of a circle, axis of a wheel. In com vaiſ his flag, to lower his flag. Fr. d
position it signifies revolution, as from va/, downwards; d mont et à va!, towards
meren, the sea, meren-mapa, a whirlpool; the hill and towards the vale, upwards
from rauta, iron, napa-rauſa, the iron and downwards. Hence ava/er, properly
stem on which the upper millstone rests to let down, to lower, now used in the
and turns; maan-mapa, the axis of the sense of swallowing.
earth. With Kaira, a borer, the equiva Avalanche. A fall of snow sliding
lent of AS. gar, it forms ma/a-kaira, down from higher ground in the Alps.
exactly corresponding to the common E. Mid. Lat. ava/antia, a slope, declivity,
name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer descent, from Fr. avaler, to let down.—
acting by the revolution of the tool round Carp.
a fixed axis or centre. Lap, nape, navel, Avarice. Lat. azarus, covetous ;
centre, axle. azeo, to desire, to rejoice.
The other element of the word cor Avast. A nautical expression for hold,
responding to the Fin. Kaira, AS. gar, is stop, stay. A vast fa/king / cease talk
identical with the E. gore, in the sense of ing ! Old Cant, a waste, away; bing a
being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his waste, go you hence.—Rogue's Dict. in
horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an an modern slang. Probably waste has here
gular point of land. the sense of empty; go into empty space,
Aught or Ought. Something; as avoid thee. In wast, in vain.-W. and
maught or noughſ, nothing. AS. ā-wih/, the Werewolf.
OHG. eo-wiłł, modern G. icht, from d, G. They left thair awin schip standand waist.
aiv, ever, and wiht, Goth. waiſits, a Squyer Meldrum, l. 773.
thing. See Whit. Avaunt. Begone ! Fr. avant, before;
Augur.—Augury. See Auspice. en avant / forwards !
Aunt. Lat. amifa. OFr. anſe. Icilz
Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an
oncles avoit la Soie ante espousée.— access, passage, or entry unto a place.—
Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. A similar con
traction takes place in emmet, ant. Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of
trees by which the approach to a house
Auspice.—Auspicious. Lat. ausper
for avis/ea (as aucºps, a bird-catcher, for of distinction was formerly marked. Lat.
venire, to come.
avice/s), a diviner by the observation of
To Aver. Lat. verus, true: Fr. averer,
(Lat. avis) birds. As the augur drew his to maintain as true.
divinations from the same source, the
Aver. A beast of the plough. The Fr.
element gur is probably the equivalent avoir
of sper in ausfer, and reminds us of OE.
(from habere, to have), as well as
gaure, to observe, to stare.
Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods,
Austere. Lat. ausferus, from Gr. possessions, money. This in Mid. Lat.
abarmpoc, harsh, severe, rough. became avera, or averia.
Authentic. Gr. at 9:vrmc, one who Taxatà pactione quod salvis corporibus suis
acts or owns in his own right (der. from et averis et equis et armis cum pace recederent.
—Chart. A. D. 1166. In istum sanctum locum,
aúróc, and teaëa, mittere), ač0svrtköc, venimus cum Averos nostros. – Chart. Hisp.
backed by sufficient authority. A. D. 819. Et in toto quantum Rex Adelfonsus
Author. Lat. auctor (augeo, auctum, tenet de rege Navarrae melioret cum suo proprio
to increase), a contriver, originator, avere, quantum voluerit et poterit.—Hoveden,
in Duc.
maker; auctorifas, the right of the
maker over the thing made, jurisdiction, Averii, or Averia, was then applied
power. to cattle in general, as the principal pos
Automaton. Gr. airóparoc, self session in early times.
moving, self-acting; abrèc, self, and uáw Hoc placitum dilationem non recipit propter
Fuáouai, I stir myself, am stirred. averia, i. e. animalia muta, ne diu detineantur
Autumn. Lat. autumnus. Some. inclusa.-Regiam Majestatem. Si come jeo
times written auctumnus, as if from bayle à un home mes berbits a campester, ou
mes boeufs à arer la terre et il occist mes avers. The general meaning of the word is
—Littleton. damage by accident or incidental ex
We then have averia carruca", beasts penses incurred by ship or cargo during
of the plough; and the word avers finally the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by
came to be confined to the signification tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom;
of cart-horses. menues avaries, expenses incurred on
* Average. I. Average is explained as entering or leaving port, harbour duties,
duty work done for the Lord of the manor tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary
with the avers or draught cattle of the sense avarie is applied to the waste or
tenants. Sciendum est quod unumquod leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and
que averagium aestivale debet fieri inter tear of a machine, &c.—Gattel. Sava
Hokday et gulam Augusti.-Spelman in rier, to suffer avarie, to become dam
Duc. But probably the reference to the aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the
avers of the tenant may be a mistaken middle of the 13th century the notary is
accommodation. From Dan. hoſ, court, authorized to take pledges from every
are formed howgaard, the manor to which shipper for the value of ‘lo nolit & les
a tenant belongs; howarbeide or hoveri, avaries.” the freight and charges. Marsh
duty work to which the tenant was bound; gives other instances in Spanish and
/ozdağ, duty days on which he was Catalonian where the word is used in the
bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money sense of government duties and charges.
paid in lieu of this duty work is called “Lo receptor de les haueries de les com
Aoveri fenge, corresponding to the aver positions que fa la Regia Cort, y lo re
Aenny of our old records. ‘Aver-penny, hoc ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la
est quietum esse de diversis denariis pro Real Audiencia,’ &c.—Drets de Cata
averagio Domini Regis.”—Rastal in Duc. lunya, A. D. 1584. In the Genoese annals
2. In the second place average is used of the year 1413, quoted by Muratori, it
in the sense of “a contribution made by is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the
all the parties in a sea-adventure accord honours and benefices of the city, ‘se
ing to the interest of each to make good cundum ipsorum numerum, et illud quod
a specific loss incurred for the benefit of in publicis solutionibus, quae Averia:
all.”—Worcester. To average a loss dicuntur, expendunt.”
among shippers of merchandise is to Marsh is inclined to agree with Santa
distribute it among them according to Rosa in deriving the word from the
their interest, and from this mercantile Turkish avania, properly signifying aid,
sense of the term it has come in ordinary help, but used in the sense of a govern
language to signify a mean value. In ment exaction, a very frequent word in
seeking the derivation of average, with the Levant. The real origin however is
its continental representatives, Fr. azaris, Arab. "àwar, a defect or flaw, which is
avarie, It., Sp. azaria, Du. ahaverie, the technical term corresponding to Fr.
azerie, G. haſerey, haverey, averey, the avarie. Kazomirski renders it ‘vice,
first question will be whether we are to defaut,’ and adds an example of its use
look for its origin to the shores of the as applied to “marchandise qui a des
Baltic or the Mediterranean. Now ac defauts.” The primary meaning of the
cording to Mr Marsh the word does not word would thus be that which is under
occur in any of the old Scandinavian or stood by grosses avaries, charges for ac
Teutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters cidental damage, from whence it might
containing provisions for apportioning easily pass to other charges.
the loss by throwing goods overboard. To Avoid. Properly to make void or
On the other hand, it is of very old stand empty, to make of none effect. To avoid
ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in a contract, to make it void, and hence to
the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv, Assises escape from the consequences of it. To
de la Baisse Court. “Et sachies que confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to
celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte admit some fact alleged by the adversary,
fors tant com il cousta o toutes ses and then to make it of none effect by
averies.” and know that any goods that showing that it does not bear upon the
are thrown overboard shall only be Case.
reckoned at what it cost with all charges. Tell me your fayth, doe you beleeve that there
The old Venetian version gives as the is a living God that is mighty to punish his
equivalent of avaries, dazii e spese. The enemies? If you beleeve it, say unto me, can
derivation from ON. haſ, the sea, or from you devise for to avoyde hys vengeance?—Barnes
/aven, must then be given up. in R.

Here the word may be interpreted 1315.-until he shall be acknowledged as our

either way: Can you devise to make void burgess. Recognoscendo seu profitendo ab illis
his vengeance, or to escape his vengeance, ea tanquam a superioribus se tenere seu aſ psis
eaden advocando, prout in quibusdam partibus
showing clearly the transition to the Gallicanis vulgariter dicitur advower.—Concil.
modern meaning. So in the following Lugdun. A. D. 1274. A personis laicistanquam
passage from Milton — a superioribus ea quae ab Ecclesia tenent advou
Not diffident of thee do I dissuade antes se tenere.—A. D. 1315, in Duc.
Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid Finally, with some grammatical con
The attempt itself intended by our foe. fusion, Lat. advocare, and E. avow or
To avoid was also used as Fr. vuider, avouch, came to be used in the sense of
vider la maison, Piedm. voidé na ca, to performing the part of the vouchee or
clear out from a house, to make it empty, person called on to defend the right im
to quit, to keep away from a place. pugned. Et predicti Vice-comites advo
Anno H. VII. it was enacted that all Scots cant (maintain) praedictum attachion
dwelling within England and Wales should avoid amentum justum, eo quod, &c.—— Lib.
the realm within 4o days of proclamation made. Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a thing
—Rastal, in R.
already done, to maintain or justify, to
It is singular that we should thus wit affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert.—
ness the development within the E. lan Bailey.
guage of a word agreeing so closely in I could
sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, With barefaced power sweep him from my sight,
Fr. ºvifer; but in cases of this kind it And bid my will avouch it.—Macbeth.
will, I believe, often be found that the Avowtery, Avowterer. The very
Latin word only exhibits a previous ex common change of d into v converted
ample of the same line of development Lat. adu//erium into It. avo/terio, avo/-
from one original root. I cannot but ſeria, avo//ero. Hence azºo/teratore,
believe that the radical meaning of Lat. Prov. avoutrador, OE. awowſerer, an
vitare is to give a wide ber/h ſo, to leave adulterer. A d was sometimes inserted ;
an empty space between oneself and the OFr. avouſ/re, advouſ/re, avotre, oe.
object. Fr. vuide, wide, empty, waste, advouſry, adultery.
vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or Award. The primitive sense of ward
troubled with.-Cotgr. To shoot wide of is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. re
the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark; garder, to look. Hence Rouchi es
OHG. wit, empty; with, vacuitas.-Graff. warder (answering in form to E. award),
Avoir-du-poise. The ordinary mea to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to
sure of weight. OFr. avoirs de pois, pronounce them good and marketable;
goods that sell by weight and not by eswardeur, an inspector.—Hecart.
lineasurement. An award is accordingly in the first
To Avow.—Avouch. Under the place the taking a matter into considera
feudal system, when the right of a tenant tion and pronouncing judgment upon it,
was impugned he had to call upon his but in later times the designation has
lord to come forwards and defend his been transferred exclusively to the con
right. This in the Latin of the time was sequent judgment.
called advocare, Fr. voucher d garantie, In like manner in OE. the verb fo look
to vouch or call to warrant. Then as is very often found in the sense of con
the calling on an individual as lord of sideration, deliberation, determination,
the fee to defend the right of the tenant award, decision. When William Rufus
involved the admission of all the duties was in difficulties with his brother Robert,
implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act about the partition of the Conqueror's
jealously looked after by the lords, and inheritance, he determined to go to the
advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avower, King of France to submit the matter to
to avow, came to signify the admission his award. He says (in Peter Langtoft,
by a tenant of a certain person as feudal p. 86):
superior. Therfore am I comen to wite at yow our heued
Nihil ab eo se tenere in feodo aut quoquo The londes that we have nomen to whom they
modo alio advocaäat.—Chron. A. D. 1296. Ita shall be leued,
tamen quod dictus Episcopus et successores sui And at your jugement I will stand and do
nos et successores nostros Comites Flandriae qui With thi that it be ent (ended) the strif bituen us
pro tempore fuerint, si indiguerint auxilio, advo tuo.
cačić, nec alium dominum secularem poterunt Philip said, blithely, and sent his messengers
advocare.—Charta A. D. 1250. Donec advocafus Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles, barons, ther pers,
fuerit ut burgensis noster.—Stat. Louis le Hutin. And askid if thei wild stand to ther lokyng.

—where looking is used exactly in the I reken, I counte by cyfers of agrym : je en

sense of the modern award. chiffre. I shall reken it syze tymes by aulgorisme,
or you can cast it ones by counters.-Palsgr.
These senses of look are well exempli
fied in a passage from R. G. p. 567. Sp. alguarismo, from Al Khowdirezm?,
To chese six wise men hii Joëede there
the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the
translation of whose work was the means
Three bishops and three barons the wisest that
there were of introducing the decimal notation into
And bot hii might accordi, that hii the legate Europe in the 12th century.
took, Awhape. To dismay; properly, to
And Sir Henry of Almaine right and law to look— take away the breath with astonishment,
Tho let tho king someni age the Tiwesday to stand in breathless astonishment.
Next before All Hallow tide as his council bisai,
Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto, Ah my dear gossip, answered then the ape,
Erles and Barons and Knightes also, Deeply do your sad words my wits awhape.
Mother Hubbard's tale in Boucher.
That hii were at Northampton to hear and at
W. chwaff, a gust ; Lith. Awapas,
To the loking of these twelve of the state of the breath; Goth. aſhvaðjan, ON. Keſia, to
—to the award or determination of these
choke, to suffocate; Goth. aſhva/man,
ON., Aaſna, to be choked ; Sw. quaſ,
choking, oppressive.
There it was dispeopled the edict I wis Awk.—Awkward. Perverted, per
That . the ban of Keningworth, that was lo! verse, indirect, left-handed, unskilful. To
this ;
That there ne should of high men desherited be
ring the bells awk is to ring them back
That had iholde age the King but the Erl of They with awkward judgment put the chief
Leicetre one ; point of godliness in outward things, as in the
Ac that all the othere had agen all hor lond, choice of meats, and neglect those things that
Other hor heirs that dede were, but that the King be of the soul.—Udal in R.
in his hand That which we in Greek call diplo repôv, that
It hulde to an term that there iſoked was, is to say, on the awk or left hand, they say in
Five year some and some four, ever up his Latin sinistrum.—Holland, Pliny in R.
The word seems formed from ON. aſ,
Chatel forfait par agard des viscountes.— Lib. Lat. ab, E. off, o/, signifying deviation,
Albus. I. I.19. Sifut agardé qe Willame, &c.— error, the final 4 being an adjectival
Ib. IIo.
Conseillez mei, si esgardez
termination. Thus, ON. aſ-gata, iter de
Qu' en serreit al regne honorable. vium, divortium ; aſ-Årokr, diverticulum,
Benoit. Chron. Norm. 6135. a side way; 6/ugr, inversus, sinister;
o/ugºſleiri, a flat-fish with eyes on the
Awe. Fear, dread, reverence ; then left side ; Śſug-neſni, a name given from
transferred to the cause of fear, assuming antiphrasis; 6/ug-ord, verbum obliquum,
the signification of anger, discipline, chas impertinens, offensum ; 8/ga, to change,
degenerate. Sw. aſ wig, inside out, averse,
But her fiers servant (Una's Lion)full of kingly aw disinclined, awkward, unskilful; aſ wig
And high disdaine, whenas his soveraine dame
So rudely handled by her foe he saw, /land, the back of the hand. Dan. avet,
With gaping jaws full gredy at him came. crooked, preposterous, perverse.
G. ab in composition indicates the con
AS. ge, aga, egºsa, Goth. agis, fear, trary or negation ; ačgrund, abyss, bot
dread, ogan, to fear, ogfan, to threaten, tomless pit ; abgoff, false god ; abhold,
terrify, ON. agi, discipline, agir, terrible; unkind ; abſermen, to unlearn ; aber
a gia, to be an object of wonder or fear; g/auðe, false belief; aber-faffst, aber
mer a gir, I am amazed, I am terrified ; Áonig, false pope, false king. In aben,
ºgn, terror ; Sw, dial. aga, fear; agasam, inside out.—Schmeller. In Flemish we
frightful, awsome ; Dan. ave, chastise
see the passage towards the u or w of
ment, correction, awe, fear, discipline. awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo
At staae under eens ave, to stand in awe
of one ; at holde i straeng ave, to keep a absonus ; alte gaen, awe hanghen, &c.;
auer gheſoove, perverted belief, supersti
strict hand over. Gr. dyn, wonder, 4%do
pa, dyāºuai, to wonder at, to be angry. tion ; alter-hands, ouer-hands (as Sw.
aſwig-hand), manu aversá, praeposterå ;
Awgrim. Decimal arithmetic.
Then satte summe aver-recht, over-recht, contrarius recto,
As siphre doth in awgrym, praeposterus, sinister; auwiłs, auer-wits,
That notith a place foolish, mad.
And no thing availith. The different G. forms are very numer
Political Poems, Cam. Soc. p. 4I4. ous ; OHG. abuh, abah, aversus, perversus,
3 #

sinister; G. dial. abich, abech, æðicht, The primitive image seems to consist
aôcchig, awech, awechi (alles ſhut er in the notion of continuance, duration,
awechi, he does everything awk/y), affg, expressed in Goth. by the root aiv. Aizºs,
affº, aſ, aſſik, and again arºsch, aftsch, time, age, the world ; us-aſ-yan, to out
e/sch, verkehrt, linkisch, link, and in last ; du aiva in aivin, for ever; ni in
Netherlandish, aves, aeſs, obliquus ; aiva, niaiv, never. Lat. arvum, ar-fas;
aafsch, ae/sch, aa/sche/yk, aversus, pre Gr. diet, det, always; ditov, an age. OHG.
posterus, contrarius.-Kil. éo, fo, G. ſe, ever, always ; AS. āva, a ,
Awl. ON. alr; G. ah/e, OHG. alansa, OSwed. ar, all, ever.
a/asma, Du. else, Fr. alesme, It. lesina. The passage from the notion of con
Awn. A scale or husk of anything, tinuance, endurance, to that of assevera
the beard of corn. ON. ogn, agnir, chaff, tion, may be exemplified by the use of
straw, mote ; Dan. avne, Gr, dxva, the G. ſe, ſa, je und ſe, for ever and
Esthon. aggan, chaff. ever; von ye her, from all time; wer hat
* Awning. A wing (sea term), a sail esſe gesehen, who has ever seen it. Das
or tarpawlin hung over any part of a ship. ist ye waſir, that is certainly true; es ist
Traced by the Rev. J. Davies to the je nicht recht, it is certainly not right;
Pl. D. havenung, from haven, a place es Kamm ja einen irren, every one may
where one is sheltered from wind and be mistaken ; thut es doch ja nicht, by
rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building no means do it. In the same way the
or bush. But it should be observed that Italian gia, non gia, certainly not. From
/avenung is not used in the sense of this use of the word to imply the un
awning, and it is more probable that it broken and universal application of a
is identical with Fr. auwent, Mid. Lat. proposition, it became adopted to stand
auvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a by itself as an affirmative answer, equiv
shop-window, &c.—Cot. alent to, certainly, even so, just so. In
Axe. AS. acase, ear, Goth. aquizi, like manner the Lat. etiam had the force
MHG. aches, G. ackes, ar, art, ON. ori, of certainly, yes indeed, yes.
Gr. ašivn, Lat. ascia for acsia. In Frisian, as in English, are two
Axiom. Gr. détoua, a proposition, forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the
maxim, from détów, to consider worthy, original root aiv, and ea, corresponding
to postulate. to G. ſe, fa, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we
Axle. Lat. aris, Gr. dºwv, the centre have the remains of an affix, se or si,
on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr. which in AS. was also added to the
dyw, Lat. ago, to urge forwards. negative, giving mese, no, as well as jese,
Aye is used in two senses : Azure. It. azzurro, azzuolo; Sp.
1. Ever, always, as in the expression
for ever and aye ; and Port. azul. From Pers. Mazur, whence
2. As an affirmative particle, synon /a/ is Zazuli, the sapphire of the ancients.
ymous with yea and yes. —Diez.

To Babble. Fr. babiller, Du. babelen, And sat softly adown

hºcleſ, confundere verba, blaterare, gar-
rire; Gr. Bağdºw.—Kil. From the syl-
Å. : ... my bedes,
They broughte me aslepe—
lables ba, ba, representing the movement On this matere I might
of the lips, with the element el or / repre- Mamelen full long.—P. P.
senting continuation or action. Fris. See Baboon.
babeſh or bobble is when children make a Babe. The simplest articulations, and
noise with their lips by sounding the those which are readiest caught by the
voice and jerking down the underlip with infant mouth, are the syllables formed by
the finger.—Outzen. The Tower of Babel the vowel a with the primary consonaº
was the tower of babblement, of confused of the labial and dental classes, especially
speech. the former ; ma, ba, fa, na, da, ta. Q."
On the same principle a verb of the of these, therefore, is very generally
same meaning with babble was formed on formed the limited vocabulary requiº
the syllable ma. at the earliest period of infant life, com

prising the names for father, mother, in plete when he rode at the head of his re
fant, breast, food. Thus in the nursery tainers assembled under his banner,
language of the Norman English papa, which was expressed by the term “lever
mamma, baba, are the father, mother, bannière.’ So long as he was unable to
and infant respectively, the two latter of take this step, either from insufficient age
which pass into mammy and babby, baby, or poverty, he would be considered only
babe, while the last, with a nasal, forms as an apprentice in chivalry, and was
the It. bambimo. called a knight bachelor, just as the outer
In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, barrister was only an apprentice at the
dad, answering to the Goth. affa, as papa law, whatever his age might be. The
to Hebrew abba. &accalarii of the south of France and north
Lat. mamma is applied to the breast, of Spain seem quite unconnected. They
the name of which, in E. pap, Lat. pa were the tenants of a larger kind of farm,
pilla, agrees with the name for father. called baccalaria, were reckoned as rus
Papa was in Latin the word with which Zici, and were bound to certain duty work
infants demanded food, whence E. pap. for their lord. There is no appearance
Baboon. The syllables ba, pa, natur in the passages cited of their having had
ally uttered in the opening of the lips, are any military character whatever. One
used to signify as well the motion of the would suspect that the word might be of
lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips Basque origin.
themselves, especially large or movable Back, 1. ON. bak; Lith. pakalā. The
lips, the lips of a beast. Thus we have part of the body opposite to the face,
G. dial. babbeln, babòern, Öapperm (San turned away from the face. The root
ders), baber/en (Schmidt), to babble, talk seems preserved in Bohem. Aaditi, to
much or imperfectly ; , E. baberlifted, twist; Pol. Aaczy& se, to warp (of wood),
having large lips; G. dial. baffe, Fris. to bend out of shape ; ws/ak, wrong,
bābāe, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, backwards, inside outwards ; pakosé,
mouth, snout, lips ; Fr. baboyer, babiner, malice, spite, perversity; opak, the wrong
to move or play with the lips, babine, the way, awry, cross ; opaczny, wrong, per
lip of a beast; babion, baboin, It. baſ verted ; Russ. opako, naoſako, wrong;
&uino, a baboon, an animal with large £aki in composition, equivalent to Lat.
ugly lips when compared with those of a re, again ; faki-buffie, regeneration. So
Inan. in E. to give a thing back is to give it
Bachelor. Apparently from a Celtic again, to give it in the opposite direction
root. W., bachgen, a boy, bachgenes, a to that in which it was formerly given,
young girl, baches, a littlé darling, bach and with us too the word is frequently
tºwn, a very little thing, from bach, little. used in the moral sense of perverted,
From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. bad. A back-friend is a perverted friend,
&ace/le, bacelote, bachele, bachelette, a young one who does injury under the cover of
girl, servant, apprentice ; bace//er, to friendship ; to back-s/ide, to slide out of
make love, to serve as apprentice, to the right path, to fall into error; ON.
commence a study ; bace/erie, youth ; &ak-radiºdur, ill-counselled ; Esthon.
&ache/age, apprenticeship, art and study Aa//a-floo/, the back side, wrong side;
of chivalry. Hence by a secondary form £ahha, bad, ill-disposed; Fin. Lap. paha,
ation bacheler, bachelard, bache/ier, young bad ; OHG. abah, abuſh, aftah, affith, aver
man, aspirant to knighthood, apprentice sus, perversus, sinister; ačahon, aversari,
to arms or sciences. A bachelor of arts abominari; Goth. ib.uks, backwards.
is a young man admitted to the degree of Back, 2. A second meaning of Back
apprentice or student of arts, but not yet is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for
a master. In ordinary E. it has come to containing beer. The word is widely
signify an unmarried man. Prov. Öaca/ar, spread in the sense of a wide open vessel.
&achallier, was used of the young student, Bret. &ac, a boat; Pr. bac, a flat wide
young soldier, young unmarried man. ferry boat ; Du. back, a trough, bowl,
Then, as in the case of many other words manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, flat
signifying boy or youth, it is applied to a bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at
Servant or one in a subordinate condition. the theatre; Dan. bakke, a tray. Of this
Vos e mi’n fesetz per totz lauzar, the It. Öacino is the diminutive, whence
Vos cam senhere mi com bacalar: E. basin, Čason, It. bacinetto, a bacinet,
—you and I made ourselves praised among all, or bason-shaped helmet.
you as Lord, and I as servant or squire. Backet. In the N. of E. a coal-hod,
The functions of a knight were com from back, in the sense of a wide open

vessel; Rouchi, bac à carbon.—Hécart. Crucem assumere dicebantur (says Ducange)

The Fr. baguet is a tub or pail. qui ad sacra bella profecturi Crucis symbolum
Backgammon. From Dan. bakke palliis suis assuehant et affigebant in signum
votivae illius expeditionis.-Franciaudientes talia
(also bakke-bord), a tray, and gamment, a eloquia protinus in dextra fecere Cruces suere
game, may doubtless be explained the scapula.
game of Back-gammon, which is con The sign of the cross, then, was in
spicuously a fray-game, a game played the first instance, “assumentum,’ a patch,
on a tray-shaped board, although the botch, or bodge ; boe/sen, interpolare,
word does not actually appear in the Dan. ornare, ang, botche, bodge.—Kil. G. batz,
dictionaries. It is exceedingly likely to &atze, botzen, a dab or lump of something
have come down to us from our Northern
soft, a coarse patch — Sanders; Bav.
ancestors, who devoted much of their fatschen, to strike with something flat, as
long winter evenings to games of tables. the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet.
To make or leave a blot at Backgam G. batzen, to dabble, to patch. -Sanders.
mon is to uncover one of your men, to The radical notion of patch, badge, will
leave it liable to be taken, an expression thus be something fastened on, as a dab
not explicable by the E. sense of the word of mud thrown against a wall and stick
blot. But the Sw. blott, Dan. blot, is ing there. Hence we find badged used
naked, exposed ; blotte sig, to expose by Shakespeare in the sense of dabbled.
oneself; Sw, göra bloff, at Backgammon, Their hands, and faces were all badged with
to make an exposed point, to make a blot. blood.—Macbeth.
Bacon. OFr. bacon, bacy uſer, a sty The Sc. form baugie, however, does not
fed hog ; ODu. baecke, bacže, a pig;
well agree with the foregoing deriva
baecken-Zºleesch, baeck-vſeesch, pork, ba tion.
con. The term seems properly to have His schinvng scheild with his Baugie (insigne
tuke .* . V. 5o. 13. gie (insigne)
been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh
cured for keeping, ‘porcus saginatus,
ustulatus et salitus, et petaso aut perna.' Badger. This word is uscd in two
—Duc. in v. Baco. The word may ac senses, apparently distinct, viz. in that of
cordingly be derived from Bret. Žaska, a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bought
to feed, w. Żasg, feeding or fattening, up corn in the market for the purpose of
pasg-dwrch, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. selling it in other places; and secondly,
The s is lost in Fr. facage, pasture or as the name of the quadruped so called.
feeding-ground, Mid. Lat. Aacata, paga Now we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer
gium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or (marchand de grain qui approvisionne
pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals, les marchés a dos de mulets–Hécart),
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. the diminutive of which (according to the
On the other hand, there is a suspici analogy of b/edier, blazer, belonging to
ous resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, corn, blairie, terre de b/airie, corn coun
Ptg. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, atry) would be blaireau, the actual desig
Sow. nation of the quadruped badger in the
Bad. G. bāse, Du. boos, malus, pravus, same language, which would thus signify
perversus, malignus. Pers. bud, bad. a little corn-dealer, in allusion doubtless
Unconnected, I believe, with Goth. to some of the habits of that animal, with
bauths, tasteless, insipid. which the spread of cultivation has made
Badge. A distinctive mark of office us little familiar.
or service worn conspicuously on the But further, there can be little doubt
dress, often the coat of arms of the prin that E. badger, whether in the sense of a
cipal under whom the person wearing the corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is di
badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, rectly descended from the Fr. bladier,
spinther, monile quod in humeris tabel the corrupt pronunciation of which, in
larii et caduceatores ferunt.—Kil. Bage analogy with soldier, so/ger, sodger,
or bagge of armys—banidium.—Pr. Pm. would be bladger; and though the
omission of the l in such a case is a
Perhaps the earliest introduction of a
badge would be the red cross sewed on somewhat unfamiliar change, yet many
their shoulders by the crusaders as a instances may be given of synonyms
token of their calling. differing only in the preservation (or in
But on his breast a bloody cross he wore, sertion as the case may be) or omission
The dear resemblance of his absent Lord, of an / after an initial b or p. Thus Du.
For whose sweet sake that glorious badge he &aſºn and bla/en, to bark; paveien and
wore.—F. Q. p/aveien, to pave; pattijn and flattijn, a

skait or patten; butse and blufse, a bruise, man is openly perjured, and then they make of
him an image painted reversed with the heels
boil; E. botch, or blofch; baber-/i/ped, upward, with his name, wondering, crying and
and blabber-Zipped, having large ungainly blowing out of ſon P] him with horns in the most
lips; ſagged, tired, from ſlagged, Fr. bette despiteful manner they can. In token that he is
and blette, beets; Berri, batte de pluie, a to be exiled the company of all good creatures.
pelting shower of rain, Sc. a blado'weet; Again, in the F. Q.
Rouchi, basser, Fr. b/asser, to foment. First he his beard did shave and ſoully shent,
To Baffle, 1. To baffle, to foil or Then from him reſt his shield, and it renverst
render ineffectual the efforts of another, And blotted out his arms with falshood blent,
must be distinguished from Fr. baſouer, And himself baffuld, and his armes unherst,
And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour
OE. baffill, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, sperst.
in the former sense, is one of a series of
similar forms, baffle, faſſle, haffle, maſſle, Now the Sc. has bauch, baugh, baach
Jamble, signifying in the first instance (ch guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad,
imperfect speaking, stammering, then sorry, ineffective. A bauch tradesman, a
imperfect action of other kinds, trifling, sorry tradesman;Without estate
doing something without settled purpose A youth, though sprung from kings, looks baugh
or decisive effect. We may cite, ſaffle, and blate.—Ramsay in Jam.
to stutter, stammer, to fumble, saunter, Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty
trifle ; haſſle, to stammer, falter ; maſſle, without goodness is good for nothing.
to stammer, to mumble; the term seems To bauchle, bach/e, bashle, is then, to
to be applied to any action suffering from distort, to misuse; to battehle shoon, to
impediments.-Hal. To baffle, to speak tread them awry; a bauchle, an old shoe,
thick and inarticulately, to handle clum whatever is treated with contempt or
sily.—Forby. Swiss baff:/n, maſſe/n, to derision.
chatter, talk idly; Rouchi baſlier, to One who is set up as the butt of a
slobber, stammer, talk idly.
company or a laughing-stock is said to
We pass from the notion of imperfect &e made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat
speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual contemptuously, to vilify.
action, when we speak of light baffling Wallace lay still quhill forty dayis was gayn
winds, changeable winds not serving the And fyve atour, bot perance saw he nayn
purpose of navigation. “For hours pre Battaill till haiff, as thair promyss was maid
viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling He girt display again his baner braid ;
with a gale from the N.W. :’ i.e. strug Rapreiffyt Edward rycht gretlye of this thing,
gling ineffectually with it.—Times, Feb. Bawchyllyt his seyll, blew out on that fals king
As a tyrand ; turnd bak and tuk his gait.
27, 1860. “To what purpose can it be to
juggle and baffle for a time :” to trifle.— If this passage be compared with the
Barrow. extract from Hall, it will be seen that the
Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies affront put by Wallace on the king's seal
to cause another to act in an ineffectual in token of his having broken his word,
manner, to foil his efforts. To boffe, to was an example of the practice which
Hall tells us was used in Scotland under
stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent
any one from doing a thing.—Hal. So the name of baffle/Wing, the guttural ch
to habò/e, to stammer, to speak con being represented in English by an ſ, as
fusedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce in many other cases. The G. has baſeſ,
to a state of perplexity. To be hab//ed, to doſeſ, poſeſ, synonymous with Sc. bauchle,
be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any spoiled goods, refuse, trash—Küttn. ;
undertaking.—Jam. Sup. verbaſe/n, to make a baſel of, to bauchle.
2. oe. bafflul, Fr. º to hood —Sanders.
wink, deceive, baffle, disgrace, handle Bag. Gael. bo/g, ba/g, bag, a leather
basely in terms, give reproachful words bag, wallet, scrip, the belly, a blister,
unto.—Cot. The Fr. verb may be actu bellows ; Goth. baſgs, a skin, a leather
ally borrowed from the E. baffil/, which case; G. baſg, the skin of an animal
seems to have been applied to a definite stripped off whole; Brescian baga, entire
mode of disgracing a man, indicated by skin of an animal for holding oil or wine;
Hall as in use among the Scots. the belly. See Belly, Bulge.
And furthermore the erle bad the herauld to
Baggage. Derived by Diez from
say to his master, that if he for his part kept not Sp., Cat. baga, a noose, tie, knot, rope by
which the load is fastened on a beast of
his appointment, then he was content that the
Scots should bafful him, which is a great re burden. From baga was formed OFr.
proach among the Scots, and is used when a Öaguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot.), to tie

on, to bind. ‘Ils firent trousser et agreer half was called a bailiff, bajulius or ba/-
leur trésor et richesses sur chevaulx et /ivus, from the regent of the empire (as
mules, chameoulx et dromadaires.” “Après we find in the case of Henry of Flanders :
ce qu'ils eurent bagué leurs bagues,'— ‘Principes, barones et milites exercitus
Gilion de Trasignie in Marsh. “Pour me imperii Ballivum elegerunt’) to the
veoir amener le Béarnois prisonnier en humble bailiff in husbandry who has the
triomphe, lié et bagué.”—Satire Menippée care of a farm, or the officer who executes
in Jaubert. the writs of a sheriff.
From baguer was formed bagage, the Bail, 2. Bail is also used in the sense
carriage of an army, as it was called, the of post or bar. The bai/s were the ad
collective goods carried with an army, or vanced posts set up outside the solid de
the beasts which carry them. The re fences of a town. Fr. bai//e, barrier,
semblance to bagues, goods, valuables, is advanced gate of a city, palisade, barri
merely accidental, and as baggage is cade.—Roquefort. It is probably the
manifestly taken from the French it can same word as paling or pale. Fr. baſises,
not be explained as signifying the collec finger-posts, posts stuck up in a river to
tion of bags belonging to an army. mark the passage. Baſle, barrière—
Bail.-Bailiff. The Lat. Óajulus, a Hécart. Baſe, poste, retrachement ;
bearer, was applied in later times to a revenir d ses bales, to return to one's
nurse, viz. as carrying the child about. post, at the game of puss in the corner,
Mid. Lat. bajula, It. bālia. Next it was or cricket. Hence the bails at cricket,
applied to the tutor or governor of the properly the wickets themselves, but now
children, probably in the first instance to the cross sticks at the top.
the foster-father. - Bailiwick. The limits within which
Alii bajuli, i.e. servuli, vel nutritores—quia an executive officer has jurisdiction.
consueverint nutrire filios et familias dominorum. Commonly explained as the district be
—Vitalis de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange. longing to a bailiff, Fr. bail/i. But the
When the child under the care of the word can hardly be distinct from G.
Bajulus was of royal rank, the tutor weichhild, Pl.D. wikhild, wiébolt, wic
became a man of great consequence, and &i/ethe, the district over which the muni
the puśyac BatovXoc was one of the chief cipal law of a corporate town extended,
officers of state at Constantinople. or the municipal law itself. The word
The name was also applied to the differs from E. bailiwick only in having
tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the its two elements compounded in opposite
husband became the Bajulus uroris, order. The element wick is generally
and the name was gradually extended to recognised, as Goth. weihs, AS. wic, Lat.
any one who took care of the rights or vicus, a town, but the meaning of bi/d
person of another. In this sense is to be remains obscure. Pl.D. wikmann, a
understood the ordinary E. expression of burgher, citizen or councillor.—Brem.
giving bail, the person who gives bail Wtb.
being supposed to have the custody of Bait. The senses may all be ex
him whom he bails. From bajulus was plained from the notion of biting. ON.
formed It. bailo, baſivo (bajulivus); Fr. beita, Sw, bet, beſe, AS. bar (Ettmüller), a
dail, bail/i, E. bail, bailiff. The bai/ are bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or
persons who constitute themselves tutors what causes him to bite. ON. befta, AS.
of the person charged, and engage to batan, to bait a hook. Du. bete, a bit, a
produce him when required. mouthful.
Tutores vel bajuli respondeant pro pupillis.-- ON. bifa, to bite, is specially applied to
Usatici Barcinonenses. Et le roi l'a reçue en the grazing of cattle, whence beif, Sw.
son hommage et le duc son baron comme bai/ &et, bete, pasture, herbage; ON. befta, Sw.
delle.—Chron. Flandr. Et mitto illum (filium)
et omnem mean terram et meum honorem et &eta, to drive to pasture. In English the
word is not confined to the food of cattle.
meos viros quae Deus mihi dedit in bajulia de
Deo et de suis sanctis, &c. Ut sint in bayo/iam Bait-poke, a bag to carry provisions in ;
Dei et de Sanctà Mariá, &c.—Testament. Regis &ait, food, pasture.—Hal.
Arragon. A. D. Io99, in Duc. Sw, beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed
Fr. bail/er, to hand over, is from baju the horses, in accordance with Fr. re
fare, in the sense of making one a bai/ faitre, to feed, to bait.
or keeper of the thing handed over, ON. beifa, Sw, beta, G. &eitzen, to hunt
giving it into his bail or control. with hawk or hare, must be understood
Finally, every one to whom power was as signifying to set on the hawk or hound
intrusted to execute not on his own be to bite the prey. ON. belta einn hundum,

to cause one to be worried by dogs, to signified made round and smooth like a
set his dogs on one. To baif a bear or a ball. The root, however, is too widely
bull is to set the dogs on to bite it. spread for such an explanation. Finn.
The ON. beifa, Sw. beta, to harness Esthon. Aa/jas, naked, bare, bald ; Lap.
oxen to a sledge, or horses to a carriage, fuo/jas, bare of trees; Dan. baeldeſ, un
must probably be explained from AS. fledged.
barfe, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as Besides signifying void of hair, bald is
the type of harness in general. Ongan used in the sense of having a white mark
tha his esolas batan : he then began to on the face, as in the case of the common
saddle his asses.—Caedm. p. 173. 25. sign of the bald-faced stag, to be com
Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. For pared with Fr. cheval bel/eface, a horse
merly bayes. Du. baey, baai, Fr. baye. marked with white on its face. Bald
“Les bayes seront composées de bonne faced, white-faced.—Hal. The bald-coof
laine, non de flocon, laneton . . . ou autres is conspicuous by an excrescence of white
mauvaises ordures.”—Reglement de la skin above its beak.
draperie in Hécart. According to this The real identity of the word bald in
author it took its name from its yellow the two senses is witnessed by a wide
colour, given by “graines d'Avignon;' range of analogy. Pol. Bohem. Zysy, bald,
from baie, berry. marked with a white streak; Pol. Mysina,
To Bake. To dress or cook by dry Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a
heat; to cook in an oven. Bohem. Żek, white mark on the face. Du. blesse, a
heat ; peku, pecy, to bake, roast, &c.; blaze on the forehead, a bare forehead,
pekar, a baker; Pol. piec, a stove; fied, 6/es, bald.-Kil. Fin. Aaljas, bald, Gr.
to bake, to roast, to parch, to burn ; Ba\tóc, paxióc, bald-faced, having a white
Zieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekars, streak on the face. Gael. ball, a spot or
a baker. mark ; Bret. bal, a white mark on an
ON. baka, to warm. Kongur bakade animal's face, or the animal itself, whence
sier videl/d, the King warmed himself at the common name Ball for a cart-horse
the fire.—Heimskr. E. dial. to beak, beke, in England. The connection seems to
to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker lie in the shining look of the bald skin.
en, Pl.D. bāckerm, to warm oneself. G. His head was ballid and shone as any glass.
bähen, to heat; semme/n bāhen, to toast Chaucer.
bread; Kranke g/ieder bâhen, to foment a
limb. Holz bahen, to beath wood, to Lith. ballas, white ; baſti, to become
heat wood for the purpose of making it white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin.
set in a certain form. Gr. 30, calefacere. pa//aa, to burn ; falo, burning. ON.
Lat. baja, warm baths. See Bath. The Čá/, a blaze, beacon-fire, funereal pile.
root is common to the Finnish class of Balderdash. Idle, senseless talk ; to
languages. Lap. pak, paka, heat; faket, balder, to use coarse language.—Halli
to melt with heat; pakestet, to be hot, to well. ... W. baldoradi, to babble, prate,
6ask, paſſetet, to heat, make hot. or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl,
Balance. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar
of a balance; bilan.r, the implement for of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c.; bold
weighing, composed of two dishes or eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari,
scales hanging from a beam supported in minari. — Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare;
the middle. It. bilancia, Sp. balanza, Dan. billdre, to make a loud noise, as
Prov. balans, balanza, Fr. balance. thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c.;
The change from i to a may be through also to scold, to make a disturbance. N.
the influence of the second a, or it may baldra is used of noises of the same kind
be from a false reference to the OFr. in a somewhat higher key. E. dial. to
baler, baloier, Venet, balare, to move up galder, to talk coarsely and noisily; to
and down, to see-saw. gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant
Balcony. It. balco, balcome, an out voice.—Hal. Da. dial. bialder, foolish
jutting corner of a house, by-window, talk, nonsense ; bialdre, to tattle. The
bulk or stall of a shop; falco, palcone, final syllable seems to express a continu
pa/cora, any stage or scaffold, roof, floor, ation of the phenomenon; Da. dial. dask,
or ceiling ; paſcare, to plank, stage, chatter, talk ; dov-dask, chatter fit to
scaffold.—Fl. The radical idea seems to deave one. Bav. dºtsch, noise of a blow
be what is supported on balks or beams. with the open hand ; dāţschen, to clap,
Bald. Formerly written balled, bal/id, smack, tattle; Gael. ballart, noisy boast
whence Richardson explains it as if it ing, clamour; ballartaich, balardaich, a

loud noise, shouting, hooting. The same to heap; balka hofar, balka bunge, to
termination in like manner expresses heap up.
continuance of noise in //a/arfaich, a Twenty thousand men
continued noise of waves gently beating Balked in their blood on Holmedon's plain.
on the shore, unintelligible talk; cla/ar In the sense of a separation G. ba/Ken,
taich, a clapping or flapping of wings. Da. dial. balk, E. baſk, are applied to a
From the same analogy, which causes so narrow slip of land left unturned in
many words expressive of the plashing ploughing. Batºće of land, separaison.—
or motion of water to be applied to rapid Palsgr. A ba/#, says Ray, ‘is a piece
or confused talking, balderdash is used of land which is either casually over
to signify washy drink, weak liquor. A slipped and not turned up in plowing,
similar connection is seen in Sp. cha or industriously left untouched by the
fuzar, to paddle in water; cha/urrar, to plough for a boundary between lands.”
speak gibberish ; cham/urrar, to mix Hence to &alk is to pass over in plough
one liquid with another, to speak an un ing, or figuratively in any other proceed
connected medley of languages. ing.
Bale. I. Grief, trouble, sorrow. As. For so well no man halt the plough
&eaſo, gen. Öea/wes, torment, destruction, That it ne baſketh other while,
wickedness; Goth. &a/va-vesei, wicked Ne so well can no man afile
ness; baſveins, torment; ON. bol, ca His tonge, that som time in jape
lamity, misery; Du. bal-daed, malefac Him may some light word overscape.
Gower in R.
tum, maleficium. Pol. bol, ache, pain;
&oſed, Bohem. boleff, to ail, to ache, to The mad steel about doth fiercely fly
grieve ; bo/awy, sick, ill. W. ball, a Not sparing wight, ne leaving any baſke,
plague, a pestilence. Perhaps ON. boſa,
But making way for death at large to †:
a bubble, blister, a boil, may exhibit the
original development of the signification, Da. dial. at giðre en baſº, to omit a
a boil or blain being taken as the type of patch of land in sowing. To bau/{e the
sickness, pain, and evil in general. Russ. beaten road, to avoid it.—Sir H. Wotton.
&olyat', to be ill, to grieve ; bolyatchka, a In modern speech to ba/k is used in a
pustule. See Gall, 3. factitive sense, to cause another to miss
2. A package of goods. Sw. ba/; It. theBall.—Balloon.—Ballot.
object of his expectation.
ON. bā//r
ôalla, Fr. baſ/e, bal, a ball or pack, i. e.
goods packed up into a round or compact (gen. baſ/ar), a globe, ball, Sw. bo//, /a//,
mass, ON. 80//r, a ball ; balla, to pack Da. bold, OHG. fa//o, G. baſ/, It. bal/a
together in the form of a ball. (with the augm. ballone, a great ball, a
To Bale out water. Sw, balja, Dan. balloon, and the dim. bal/offa, a ballot),
balle, Du. baalie, Bret, bal, Gael. ballan, falla, Sp. bala, Fr. balle, Gr. traXMa
a pail or tub ; G. ba/ge, a washing-tub, (Hesych.), a ball. Fin. pallo, with the
perhaps from baſg, a skin, a water-skin dim. pal/ukka, fallikka, a ball, globule,
being the earliest vessel for holding testicle ; maan /a//i/%a, a clod of earth ;
water. Hence Dan. balle, Du. baalien, /a//oi//a, to roll. From the same root
to empty out water with a bowl or pail, probably Lat. fila, fi/u/a, a ball, a pill,
to bale out. In like manner Fr. bacqueter, which seem equally related to the fore
in the same sense, from bacqueſ, a pail. going and to the series indicated under
* Balk. The primary sense seems to be Bowl, Boll.
Ball.—Ballad.—Ballet. It. bal/are,
as in G. baſken, ON. byā/ki, OSw. ba/#er,
do/ker, Sw. bie/ke, Sw, dial. balā, a beam. to dance, from the more general notion
Fr. bau, the beam of a ship, the breadth of moving up and down. Mid.Lat. bal
from side to side ; Rouchi bau, a beam. /are, huc et illuc inclinare, vacillare.--
We have then It. fa/care, to plank, floor, Ugutio in Duc. Venet. Aaſare, to rock,
roof, stage or scaffold ; Sw. aſba/#a, to to see-saw. OFr. baler, balofer, to wave,
separate by beams, to partition off; Sw. to move, to stir.
dial. balé, a cross beam dividing the Job ne fut cokes (a kex or reed) nerosiau
stalls in a cow-house, a wooden par Qui au vent se tourne et baloie.
tition ; ON. ba/#r, bd/År, a partition, It. ballare, to shake or jog, to dance.
whether of wood or stone, as in a barn Hence, ballo, a dance, a ball. Bal/afa,
or cow-house, a separate portion, a di a dance, also a song sung in dancing
vision of the old laws, a clump of men; (perhaps in the interval of dancing), .”
vedra bif/kr, N. uveirs bo/AE, as we say, a ballad. Fr. ballet, a scene acted in
&a/AE of foul weather. Sw, dial. baſka, dancing, the ballet of the theatres.

It is probably an old Celtic word. as well as to ballast it.—Cot. Lest, like

Bret, balea, to walk, baſeſ, the act of Teutonic last, was used for a load or
walking, or movement of one who walks. definite weight of goods (Roquef.), and
Ballast. Dan. bag-lest, Du. ballast, Mid. Lat. Aastagium signified not only
Fr. lesſ, lestage, It. Zastra, Sp. /astre. ballast, but loadage, a duty on goods
The first syllable of this word has given sold in the markets, paid for the right of
a great deal of trouble. It is explained carriage.
Čačk by Adelung, because, as he says, the Balluster. Fr. bal/ustres, baſ/isſers
ballast is put in the hinder part of the (corruptly bannisters when placed as guard
ship. But the hold is never called the to a staircase), little round and short
back of the ship. A more likely origin is pillars, ranked on the outside of cloisters,
to be found in Dan. dial. bag-ſaes, the back terraces, galleries, &c.—Cotgr. Said to
load, or comparatively worthless load be from balaustia, the flower of the
one brings back from a place with an pomegranate, the calyx of which has a
empty waggon. When a ship discharges, double curvature similar to that in which
if it fails to obtain a return cargo, it is balusters are commonly made. But such
forced to take in stones or sand, to pre rows of small pillars were doubtless in
Serve equilibrium. This is the back use before that particular form was given
load, or bal/ast of a ship, and hence the to them. The Sp. barauste, from bara or
name has been extended to the addition wara, a rod, seems the original form of
of heavy materials placed at the bottom the word, of which balaustre (and thence
of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. the Fr. ballustre) is a corruption, anal
. The whole amount carried by the canal lines ogous to what is seen in It. bertesca, baſ
in 1854 was less than 25,000 tons, and this was tresac, a battlement; Lat. urtica, Venet.
Chiefly carried as back-loading, for want of other o/friga, a nettle.
freight.-Report Pennsylv. R. 1854. Sp. baranda, railing around altars,
Mr Marsh objects to the foregoing fonts, balconies, &c.; barandado, series
derivation, in the first place, that home. of balusters, balustrade; barandilla, a
ward-bound ships do not in general sail small balustrade, small railing.
without cargo or in ballast, more fre Balm, Balsam. Fr. baume, from Lat.
Quently than outward-bound, and there ôalsamum, Gr. 36Arapov, a fragrant gum.
fore that backloading is not an appro Baltic. The Baltic sea, mare Balticun.
Priate designation for the heavy ma In OSw, called Bae//, as two of the en
terial which is employed to steady sea trances are still called the Great and
§ºing Vessels. But how appropriate Little Belt. The authorities are not
the designation would really be, may agreed as to the grounds on which the
be judged by the following illustration name is given.
from practical life. The object of the To Bam. To make fun of a person.
99"Pany is to provide the excellent ore A bam, a false tale or jeer. Bret. bamein,
of the southern counties as a ſºn to enchant, deceive, endormir par des
ºšo for the colliers of the North. By contes. Bamour, enchanter, sorcerer,
this means the colliers will ensure ań deceiver.
º Profit
which they
or willbyreceive
carrying a freight
some bal/ast To Bamboozle.—To deceive, make
fun of a person.
. LMining Journal, Sept. 1, 1860. There are a set of fellows they call banterers
And Kil. explains ôal/ast, inutilis sarcina, and bamboozlers that play such tricks.-Arbuth
nº °nus, a useless load. not in R.

Wora'. isrious objection is that the It. bambolo, bamboccio, bambocciolo, a

as it jºier Danish is always bar/ast, young babe, by met. an old dotard or
But be Ill is in Sweden and Norway. babish gull; imbambo/are, to blear or
i. Żaglast is not found in the dim one's sight, also with flatteries and
lows ...'."ºnents, it by no means fol blandishments to enveagle and make a
rent. A ... was not always locally cur child of one.—Fl. If bamboccio/are were
could nº. it is certain that barlast ever used in the same sense it might have
mere co
... have passed
tº.” into bag/ast by
given rise to bamboozle.
while it would be an Sc. bumbazed, puzzled, astonished.
Aast to *. from baglast through bal To Ban. To proclaim, command,
Mr Marsh forbid, denounce, curse.
even calls in question The primitive meaning of the word
a load.
the last syllable is the Du. last, seems to have been to summons to the
"t Fr. lester is to load a ship army. In the commencement of the
feudal times all male inhabitants were in Car j'ai de mon père congié
De faire ami et d'étre aimee.—R. R.
general required to give personal attend
ance when the king planted his banner Never maiden of high birth had such
in the field, and sent round a notice that power or freedom of loving as I have.
his subjects were summoned to join him Les saiges avait et les fols
against the enemy. Communement a son bandon.—R. R.
He askyt of the Kyng Translated by Chaucer,
Til have the vaward of his batayl,
Quhatever thai ware wald it assayle, Great loos hath Largesse and great prise,
That he and his suld have always For both the wise folk and unwise
Quhen that the king suld Banare rays. Were wholly to her bandon brought,
Wyntoun, v. 19. 15.
i.e. were brought under her power or
Now this calling out of the public force command.
was called bannire in hostem, bannire in Band, 1. That with which anything
exercitum, fo/u/um in hostem convocare, is bound. AS. band, Goth. bandº, Fr.
bannire exercitum, in Fr. bamir l'oust, hande, It. banda. From the verb to
AS. theodºscipe ut abanman. In Layamon /ind, Goth. bindan, band, bundum. Spe
we constantly find the expression, he cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth
bannede his ſerde, he assembled his host. or similar material for binding or swath
The expression seems to arise from bann ing; hence a stripe or streak of different
in the sense of standard, flag, ensign colour or material. In It. banda the
(see Banner). The raising of the King's term is applied to the strip of anything
banner marked the place of assembly, lying on the edge or shore, a coast, side,
and the primitive meaning of bannire region. G. bande, border, margin.
was to call the people to the bann or Band, 2.--To Bandy. In the next
standard. The term was then applied place Band is applied to a troop of
to summoning on any other public oc soldiers, a number of persons associated
casion, and thence to any proclamation, for some common purpose. It. Sp. banda,
whether by way of injunction or for Fr. bande. There is some doubt how
biddal. this signification has arisen. It seems
Si quis legibus in utilitatem Regissive in hoste however to have been developed in the
(to the host or army) sive in reliquam utilitatem Romance languages, and cannot be ex
banni?us ſuerit, etc.—Leg. Ripuar. Exercitum plained simply as a body of persons
in auxilium Sisenardi de toto regno Burgundiae hound together for a certain end. It has
bannire praecepit Fredegarius.-Si quis cum
armis bannitus fuerit et non venerit.—Capitul. plausibly been deduced from Mid. Lat.
Car. Mag. A. D. 813. , Se il avenist que le Roy hanmum or bandum, the standard or
chevauchat a ost ban? contre les ennemis de la banner which forms the rallying point of
Croix.-Assises de Jerusalem. Fece bandire a company of soldiers.
hoste generale per tutto 'l regno.—John Villani Bandus, says Muratori, Diss. 26, tunc (in the
in Duc.
sºup) nuncupabatur legio a bando, hoc est
In like manner we find banmire ad //acita, vexillo.
ad molendinum, &c., summoning to serve So in Swiss, fahne, a company, from
at the Lord's courts, to bring corn to be fahne, the ensign or banner. Sp. bandera
ground at his mill, &c. Thus the word is also used in both senses. Fr. enseigne,
acquired the sense of proclamation, ex the colours under which a band or com
tant in Sp. and It. bando, and in E. banns pany of footmen serve, also the band or
of marriage. In a special sense the term company itself.-Cot. But if this were
was applied to the public denunciation the true derivation it would be a singular
by ecclesiastical authority; Sw. bann, change to the feminine gender in banda.
excommunication ; bann-lysa, to excom The real course of development I believe
municate (Aysa, to publish); banna, to to be as seen in Sp. banda, side, then
reprove, to take one to task, to chide, to party, faction, those who side together
curse, E. to ban. (bande, parti, ligue–Taboada). Band
In Fr. bandon the signification was ear, to form parties, to unite with a band.
somewhat further developed, passing on It. bandare, to side or to bandy (Florio),
from proclamation to command, permis to bandy being explained in the other
sion, power, authority. A son bandon, part of the dictionary, to follow a faction;
at his own discretion. OE. bandon was To bandy, tener dá alcuno, sostener il
used in the same sense. See Abandon. partito d'alcuno.—Torriano.
OncGues Pucelle deparaige Unnumbered as the sands
Neut d'aimer tel bandon que j'ai, Of Barca or Cyrene's torrid soil,

Levied to side with warring winds, and poise To Banish. — Bandit. From Mid.
Their lighter wings.-Milton in R. Lat. bannire, bandire, to proclaim, de
Kings had need beware how they side them nounce, was formed the OFr. compound
selves, and make themselves as of a faction or for-bannir (bannire foras), to publicly
party, for leagues within the state are ever perni order one out of the realm, and the simple
cious to monarchy.—Bacon in R.
&amnir was used in the same sense,
Fr. bander, to join in league with others whence E. banish.
against—Cotgr., se reunir, s'associer, se From the same verb the It, participle
joindre.—Roquefort. It is in this sense *andito signifies one denounced or pro
that the word is used by Romeo. claimed, put under the ban of the law,
Draw, Benvoglio, beat down their weapons: and hence, in the same way that E. out
Gentlemen, for shame, forbear this outrage,
Tibalt, Mercutio, the Prince expressly hath /aw came to signify a robber, It. banditti
Forbidden bandying in Verona streets. acquired the like signification. Forban
The prince had forbidden faction fight sense is used in the Leg. Ripuar. in the
ing. Sp. bandear, to cabal, to foment E. so muchof a pirate.—Diez. The word is in
associated with the notion of
factions, follow a party. a band of robſers, that we are inclined
The name of bandy is given in English
to a game in which the players are di to understand it as signifying persons
vided into two sides, each of which tries &anded together.
to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks Banister. See Balluster.
Bank.-Bench. The latter form has
in opposite directions. come to us from AS. baence, the former
The zodiac is the line: the shooting stars,
Which in an eyebright evening seem to fall, from Fr. banc, a bench, bank, seat; banc
Are nothing but the balls they lose at bandy. de sable, a sand-bank. G. bank, a bench,
Brewer, Lingua. in R. stool, shoal, bank of river. Bantze, a desk.
Fr. bander, to drive the ball from side —Vocab. de Vaud. It. banco, Aanca, a
to side at tennis. Hence the expression bench, a table, a counter.
of bandying words, retorting in language But natheless I took unto our dame
like players sending the ball from side to Your wife at home the same gold again
side at bandy or tennis. Upon your bench—she wot it well certain
Banditti. See Banish. By certain tokens that I can here tell.
Bandog. A large dog kept for a Shipman's Tale.
guard, and therefore tied up, a band-dog. From a desk or counter the significa
Du. band-hond, canis vinculis assuetus, tion was extended to a merchant's count
et canis pecuarius, pastoralis.-Kil. ing-house or place of business, whence
To Bandy. See Band, 2. the mod. E. Bank applied to the place of
Bandy. Bandy legs are crooked legs. business of a dealer in money. The
Fr. bander un arc, to bend a bow, &c.; ON. distinguishes bekkr, N. benk, a bench,
bandº, bent as a bow. a long raised seat, and bakki, a bank,
Bane. Goth. banja, a blow, a wound; eminence, bank of a river, bank of
OHG. bama, death-blow ; Mid. HG. bane, clouds, back of a knife. Dan. bakke,
destruction ; AS. bama, murderer. ON. banke, bank, eminence. The back is a
bana, to slay, bana-sott, death-sickness, natural type of an elevation or raised ob
bana-săr, death-wound, &c. ject. Thus Lat. dorsum was applied to
Bang. A syllable used to represent a a sand-bank; dorsum fugi, the slope of
loud dull sound, as of an explosion or a a hill, a rising bank. The ridge of a hill
blow. The child cries bang / fire, when is AS. hri g, the back.
he wishes to represent letting off a gun. Bankrupt. Fr. banqueroute, bank
To bang the door is to shut it with a loud ruptcy, from banc, bench, counter, in the
noise. sense of place of business, and OFr. roupſ,
With many a stiff thwack, many a bang, Lat. ruptus, broken. When a man fails
Hard crabtree and old iron rang.—Hudibras. to meet his engagements his business is
ON. bang, hammering, beating, disturb broken up and his goods distributed
ance ; banga, to beat, knock, to work in among his creditors. It. banca rotta,
wood. Sw. dang, stir, tumult; dangas, banca ſa//ita, a bankrupt merchant.—Fl.
Banner. The word Ban or Band was
to make a stir; banka, to knock, Dan.
banke, to knock, beat, rap ; banke et såm used by the Lombards in the sense of
1, to hammer in a nail. The Susu, a banner, standard.
language of W. Africa, has bang-bang, to Vexillum quod Bandum appellant. — Paulus
drive in a nail. Diaconus in Duc.

In the same place is quoted from the wrapped. So ON. reiffingr, a bantling,
Scoliast on Gregory Nazianzen : from reiſa, to wrap. In a similar manner
Tā KaNoüueva trapá 'Pwuatovs a tyva kai are formed yearling, an animal a year
Bávêa raúra o Attukigwu ouvtºmuata kai on old, nestling, a young bird still in the
futia ka Mei. nest, &c.
Hence It. bandiera, Fr. bannière, E. ban Baptise. Gr. 36 m rw, Barričw, to dip,
7te/". to wash.
The origin is in all probability Goth. Bar. A rod of any rigid substance.
band'vo, band'va, a sign, token, an intima It. barra, Fr. barre, and with an initial s,
tion made by bending the head or hand. It. sbarra, OHG. sparro, Sw. sparre, E.
ON. benda, to bend, to beckon ; banda, spar, a beam or long pole of wood. The
to make signs ; banda hendi, manu an meaning seems in the first instance a
nuere. The original object of a standard branch; Celtic bar, summit, top, then
is to serve as a mark or sign for the branches. Bret, barrow-gwez, branches
troop to rally round, and it was accord of a tree (gwezen, a tree). Gael. barrach,
ingly very generally known by a name branches, brushwood. Hence Fr. barrer,
having that signification. ON. merki, to bar or stop the way as with a bar, to
Lat. signum, Gr. onusiov, OHG. Aerº-Aare hinder; barrière, a barrier or stoppage;
chan, a war-beacon or war-signal; Fr. barreau, the bar at which a criminal
enseigne, a sign or token as well as an appears in a court of justice, and from
ensign or banner; Prov. senth, senthal, a which the barrister addresses the court.
sign ; senhal, senheira, banner. Barb. I. The barð of an arrow is the
According to Diez the It. bandiera is beard-like jag on the head of an arrow
derived from banda, a band or strip of directed backwards for the purpose of
cloth, and he would seem to derive Goth. hindering the weapon from being drawn
&and'va, a sign, from the same source, out of a wound. Lat. barba, Fr. barbe, a
the ensign of a troop being taken as type beard. Flesche barbelée, a bearded or
of a sign in general, which is surely in barbed arrow.—Cot.
direct opposition to the natural order of 2. Fr. Barbe, E. Barb, also signified a
the signification. Besides it must be by Barbary horse. G. Barbar, OFr. Bar
no means assumed that the earliest kind bare.—Leduchat.
of ensign would be a flag or streamer. 3. The term barb was also applied to
It is quite as likely that a sculptured the trappings of a horse, probably cor
º such as the Roman Eagle, would rupted from Fr. barde, as no correspond
first be taken for that purpose. ing term appears in other languages.
Banneret. Fr. banneret. A knight Bardé, barbed or trapped as a great horse.
banneret was a higher class of knights, —Cot.
inferior to a baron, privileged to raise Barbarous. The original import of
their own banner in the field, either in the Gr. 3dp/8apoc, Lat. barbarus, is to
virtue of the number of their retinue, or designate one whose language we do not
from having distinguished themselves in understand. Thus Ovid, speaking of
battle. himself in Pontus, says,
Qui tantae erant nobilitatis ut eorum quilibet Barbarus hic ego sum quia non intelligor ulli.
vexilli gauderet insignibus.-Life of Philip Au
gust. in Duc. Gr. Bapſ3apópovoc, speaking a foreign
They were called in the Latin of the language. Then as the Greeks and
period vexillarii, milites bannarii, banne Romans attained a higher pitch of civil
rarii, bannereti. isation than the rest of the ancient world,
Banquet. It. banchetto, dim. of banco, the word came to signify rude, uncivilised,
a bench or table ; hence a repast, a ban cruel. The origin of the word is an
imitation of the confused sound of voices
To Banter. To mock or jeer one. by a repetition of the syllable bar, bar,
in the same way in which the broken
When wit hath any mixture of raillery, it is but
calling it banter, and the work is done. This sound of waves, of wind, and even of
voices is represented by a repetition of
polite word of theirs was first borrowed from the
the analogous syllable mur, mur. We
bullies in White Friars, then fell among the foot
men, and at last retired to the pedants—but if
speak of the murmur of the waves, or of
this bantering, as they call it, be so despicable a
a crowd of people talking. It may be
thing, &c.—Swift in R.
remarked, indeed, that the noise of voices
Bantling. A child in swaddling is constantly represented by the same
clothes, from the bands in which it is word as the sound made by the move

ment of water. Thus the ON. skola, as the great and warlike, and hymns to the
well as thwaet/a, are each used in the gods.
sense both of washing or splashing and Bardus Gallicé cantator appellatur quivirorum
of talking. The E. (wattle, which was fortium laudes canit.—Festus in Dict. Etym.
formerly used in the sense of tattle, as Bdipóot uév tauntai kai trounTal.—Strabo, Ib.
well as the modern twaddle, to talk much Et Bardi quidem fortia virorum illustrium
and foolishly, seem frequentative forms facta heroicis composita versibus cum dulcibus
of Sw. twaffa, to wash. G. waschen, to lyrae modulis cantitàrunt.—Lucan, Ib.
tattle. It guazzare, to plash or dabble, Hence in poetic language Bard is used
guazzolare, to prattle.—Fl. In like for poet.
manner the syllable bar or bor is used in 2. Sp. barda, horse armour covering
the formation of words intended to repre the front, back, and flanks. Applied in
sent the sound made by the movement E. also to the ornamental trappings of
of water or the indistinct noise of talk horses on occasions of state.
ing. Hindost. barbar, muttering, barðar
When immediately on the other part came in
Aarna, to gurgle. The verb borre/en the fore eight knights ready armed, their basses
signifies in Du. to bubble or spring up, and bards of their horses green satin embroidered
and in Flanders to vociferate, to make with fresh devices of bramble bushes of fine gold
an outcry; Sp. borbofar, borbollar, to boil ºy
in R.
wrought, powdered all over.---Hall
or bubble up; barðu//a, a tumultuous as
sembly; Port. boróu/har, to bubble or Fr. bardes, barbes or trappings for
boil; It. borboglio, a rumbling, uproar, horses of service or of show. Barder, to
quarrel; barðugliare, to stammer, stutter, barbe or trap horses, also to bind or tie
speak confusedly. Fr. barðeter, to grunt, across. Barde, a long saddle for an ass
mutter, murmur; barboter, to mumble or or mule, made only of coarse canvas
mutter words, also to wallow like a seeth stuffed with flocks. Bardeau, a shingle
ing pot.—Cot. The syllable bur seems or small board, such as houses are covered
in the same way to be taken as the with. Bardelle, a bardelle, the quilted
representative of sound conveying no or canvas saddle wherewith colts are
meaning, in Fr. baragouin, gibberish, backed.—Cotgr. Sp. barda, coping of
jargon, “any rude gibble-gabble or bar straw or brushwood for the protection of
barous speech.”—Cot. Mod. Gr. 3sp a mud wall; albarda, a pack-saddle,
Bepičw, to stammer; Bopſ36pvºw, to rum broad slice of bacon with which fowls
ble, boil, grumble (Lowndes, Mod. Gr. are covered when they are roasted; al
Lex.); Port. borborinha, a shouting of &ardilla, small pack-saddle, coping,
Inen. border of a garden bed. The general
Barbel. A river fish having a beard notion seems that of a covering or pro
at the corners of the mouth. Fr. barbel, tection, and if the word be from a Gothic
Barbeau.-Cot. source we should refer it to ON. bard,
Barber. Fr. barbier, one who dresses brim, skirt, border, ala, axilla. Hatf-bard,
the beard. -
the flap of a hat; skiaſ/dar-bard, the
Barberry. A shrub bearing acid edge of a shield; hºwal-bard, the layers of
berries. Fr. dial. barbe/in.—Dict. Etym. whalebone that hang from the roof of a
Barbaryn-frute, barbeum,_tree, barbaris. whale's mouth. But Sp. albarda looks
—Pr. Prm. like an Arabic derivation; Arab. al
Barbican. An outwork for the de &arda'ah, saddle-cloth.-Diez.
fence of a gate. It. barðacane, a jetty Bare. Exposed to view, open, un
or outnook in a building, loophole in a covered, unqualified. G. baar, bar, ON.
wall to shoot out at, scouthouse.—Fl. ber, G. baares ge/d, ready money. Russ.
The Pers. Aé/a-khaneh, upper chamber, ôós, Lith. bāsas, bdisus, bare ; baskojis,
is the name given to an open chamber barefooted ; Sanscr. bhasad, the naked
over the entrance to a caravanserai.- ness of a woman.
Rich. Hence it is not unlikely that the Bargain. OFr. barguigner, to chaf
name may have been transferred by re fer, bargain, or more properly (says
turned crusaders to the barðacaſ, or scout
Cotgr.) to wrangle, haggle, brabble in the
house over a castle gate from whence making of a bargain. The radical idea
arrivals might be inspected and the is the confused sound of wrangling, and
entrance defended. the word was used in OE. and Sc. in the
Bard. I. w. bardd, Bret, barg, the sense of fight, skirmish.
name of the poets of the ancient Celts, And mony tymys ische thai wald
whose office it was to sing the praises of And barºane at the barraiss hald,
And wound thair fayis oft and sla. harlig, barlich, the second syllable of
Barbour in Jam.which is analogous to that of garlick,
We have seen under Barbarous that /cm/ock, char/ocá, and is probably a true
the syllable bar was used in the con equivalent of the Zys in W. bar/ys. See
struction of words expressing the con Garlick.
fused noise of voices sounding indistinct Barm. I. Yeast, the slimy substance
either from the language not being un formed in the brewing of beer. As beorm,
derstood, or from distance or simultane G. &erm, Sw. berma. Dan. baerme, the
ous utterance. Hence it has acquired dregs of oil, wine, beer.
the character of a root signifying con 2. As Goth. barms, a lap, bosom ; ON.
fusion, contest, dispute, giving rise to It. ôarmer, border, edge, lap, bosom. See
Barlºffa, fray, altercation, dispute; Prov. Brim.
&ara/ha, trouble, dispute; Port. bara/har, Barn. As. berern, barn, commonly
Sp. barajar, to shuffle, entangle, put to explained from bere, barley, and ern, a
confusion, dispute, quarrel; Port. Óara place, a receptacle for barley or corn,
funda, Sp. barahunda, tumult, confusion, as &acces-ern, a baking place or oven,
disorder; Port. baraſustar, ſo strive, /ih/es-ern, a lantern. (Ihre, v. arn.)
struggle; It. baratta, strife, squabble, But probably berern is merely a misspell
dispute; barat/are, to rout, to cheat, also ing, and the word is simply the Bret.
to exchange, to chop; E. barretor, one Öern, aheap. Acervus, bern.—Gl. Cornub.
who stirs up strife. Nor is the root con Zeuss. So ON. hdadi, a heap, a stack,
fined to the Romance tongues; Lith. //ada, a barn. Du. baerm, berm, a
&arſi, to scold; barnis, strife, quarrel; heap; berm hoys, meta foeni.-Kil. Swab.
ON. baratta, strife, contest; bardagi, &aarn, barn, hay-loft, corn-shed, barn.
battle. -
Dan. dial. baaring, baaren, baarm, a
From Fr. baragouin, representing the load, so much as a man can bear or carry
confused sound of people speaking a at once. On the other hand, M.H.G. barn,
language not understood by the hearer, the rack or manger, praesepe; houbarn,
we pass to the verb barguigner, to faenile.
wrangle, chaffer, bargain. Barnacle. A conical shell fixed to
Barge.—Bark, 1. These words seem the rocks within the wash of the tide.
mere varieties of pronunciation of a term Named from the cap-like shape of the
common to all the Romance as well as shell. Manx bayrm, a cap; barnagh, a
Teutonic and Scandinavian tongues. limpet, a shell of the same conical shape
Prov. barca, barja, OFr. barge, Du. with barnacles. Gael. bairneach, bar
&arsie, OSw. bars, a boat belonging to a nacles, limpets; W. brenig, limpets.
larger ship. * Barnacles. Spectacles, also irons
Barca est quae cuncta navis commercia ad put on the noses of horses to make them
littus portat.—Isidore in Rayn. Naus en mar stand quiet.—Bailey. Of these meanings
quant a perdu sa barja.-Ibid. Sigurdr let taka the second is probably the original, the
tua skip-bata er barker ero kalladir.—Ihre.
name being given to spectacles, which
The origin may be ON. barki, the were made to hold on the nose by a
throat, then the bows or prow of a ship, spring, from comparison to a farrier's
pectus navis, and hence probably (by a barnacles. The name of barnacles is
metaphor, as in the case of Lat. Au//is) given by Joinville to a species of torture
darkr came to be applied to the entire by compression practised by the Sara
ship. So also ON. Kani, a beak, promi cens, and may therefore be an Eastern
nent part of a thing, also a boat; skułr, word. Camus, bernac.—Vocab. in Nat.
the fore or after end of a boat; skuła, a Antiq. Berniques, spectacles.—Vocab.
boat. de Berri.
Bark, 2. The outer rind of a tree; Baron. It. barone, Sp. zaron, Prov.
any hard crust growing over anything. &ar (acc. baró), O Fr. ber (acc. baron),
ON. bor&r, bark; at barka, to skin over; Fr. Aaron. Originally man, husband,
darkandi, astringent. then honoured man.
To Bark. As beorcan, from an imita Lo bar non es creat per la femna masla femna
tion of the sound. -
per lo baró. The man was not created for the
Barley. The Goth. adj. barizeins in woman, but the woman for the man.--Rayn.
dicates a noun baris, barley; AS. bere. Tam baronem quam feminam.—Leg. Ripuar.
W. bar/ys (bara, bread, and //ysiaw, Bret. Barum vel ſeminam.—Leg. Alam.
Aouzou, /ēzen, herbs, plants), bread-corn, In the Salic Law it signifies free born;
barley. The older form in E. was barlic, in the capitularies of Charles the Bald

barones are the nobles or vassals of the alquiceles y de otros cosas que de Berberia se
elevaban a Levante.

Baro, gravis et authenticus vir.—John de Gar On the other hand, G. barchenſ, bar
landiá. chet (Schmeller), calico. Bombicinus,
In our own law it was used for married Zarchanus, parchanttuech.-Vocab. A. D.
man, Baron and femme, man and wife. 1445 in Schmeller. ‘Ut nullus scarlatas
We have not much light on the pre aut barracanos vel pretiosos burellos, qui
cise formation of the word, which would Ratisboni fiunt, habeant.”—Op. S. Bern.
seem to be radically the same with Lat. ibid. MHG. barkān, barragán.
vir, Goth. vair, AS. wer, W. gºwr, Gael. Barratry.—Barrator. See Barter.
fear, a man. Barrel. It. barile, Sp. barril, barrila,
Baronet. The feudal tenants next Fr. barrigue, a wooden vessel made of
below the degree of a baron were called ãars or staves, but whether this be the
baronetti, baronuli, baronculi, baronce//, true derivation may be doubtful.
but as the same class of tenants were Barren, Bret. brechan; OFr. bre
also termed bannerets, the two names, /aigne, baraígne, Picard, breine, Du.
from their resemblance, were sometimes braeck, sterilis, semen non accipiens;
confounded, and in several instances, braeckland, uncultivated, fallow.—Kil.
where baronetti is written in the printed Barricade. Formed from Fr. barre,
copies, Spelman found bannereti in the a bar; as cavalcade, from cavallo, a
MS. rolls of Parliament. Still he shows horse; and not from Fr. barrigue, a
conclusively, by early examples, that barrel, as if it signified an impromptu
baronettus is not a mere corruption of barrier composed of barrels filled with
bannerefus, but was used in the sense of earth. It is hard to separate barricade
a lesser Baron. from Fr. barri, an obstruction, fortifi
Barunculus—a baronet.—Nominale of the cation, barrier.
Barrier. See Bar.
15th Cent. in Nat. Antiq.
Barrister. The advocate who pleads
It was not until the time of James I. that at the Bar of a court of Justice.
the baronets were established as a formal
order in the state.
Barrow, 1. An implement for carry
ing. AS. berewe, from beran, to carry.
Barrack. Fr. barague, It. baracca, It. bara, a litter, a bier or implement for
Sp. barraca, a hut, booth, shed. The carrying a dead body. G. bahre, a bar
Sp, word is explained by Minshew “a row, todtenbahre, or simply bahre, a bier.
souldiers tent or booth or suchlike thing This word introduced into Fr. became
made of the sail of a ship or suchlike bière, perhaps through Prov. bera, whence
stuff. Dicitur proprie casa illa piscatorum E. bier, alongside of barrow.
juxta mare.” Barrow, 2. A mound either of stones
The original signification was probably or earth over the graves of warriors and
a hut made of the branches of trees.
nobles, especially those killed in battle,
Gael. barrach, brushwood, branches; as the barrow at Dunmail-raise in West
harrachad, a hut or booth. Bargus or moreland. AS. bearg, bearh, a hill, mound,
barcus in the Salic laws is the branch of
rampart, heap, tomb, sepulchre, from
a tree to which a man is hanged. beorgan, OE. berwen, to shelter, cover.
Before the gates of Bari he lodged in a miser Worhton mid stanum anne steapne beorh him
able hut or barrack, composed of dry branches ofer. They made with stones a steep mound
and thatched with straw.—Gibbon. over him.—Joshua vii. 26.
It should be observed that, whenever Barrow-hog. , AS. bearg ; Bohem.
soldiers’ barracks are mentioned, the braw, a castrated hog; Russ. borov', a
word is always used in the plural number, boar.
pointing to a time when the soldiers' Barter. Barter or trafficking by ex
lodgings were a collection of huts. change of goods seems, like bargain, to
* Barragan. Sp. baragan, Fr. bara have been named from the haggling and
gant, bottracan, a kind of coarse camlet. wrangling with which the bargain is con
A passage cited by Marsh from the ducted. It is shown under Bargain how
Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies the syllable bar acquires the force of a
that barragans were of Moorish manu root signifying confused noise, squabble,
facture, and Arabic barkan or baramkan tumult. From this root were formed
is the name of a coarse, black woollen words in all the Romance languages,
garment still used in Morocco. signifying, in the first instance, noisy
La mercancia del baxel era de barraganes y contention, strife, dºute. then traffick

ing for profit, then cheating, over-reach Bason. It. bacino, Fr. bassin, the
ing, unrighteous gain. diminutive of the word corresponding to
Al is dai, n' is ther no night E. back, signifying a wide open vessel.
Ther n' is baret nother strif.
Hickes in Rich.
Bass. It, basso, the low part of the
scale in music.
They run like Bedlem barreters into the street. Lend me your hands, lift me above Parnassus,
—Hollinshed, ibid.
With your loud trebles help my lowly bassus.
OFr. bareter, to deceive, lie, cog, foist Sylvester's Dubartas.
in bargaining, to cheat, beguile, also to
&arter, truck, exchange.—Cotgr. M.H.G.
Bassoon. It. bassone, an augment
párát, Pl.D. baraet (from Fr.), barter, ation of basso, an instrument of a very
low note.
deceit. M.H.G. partieren, to cheat, pārā Bast.—Bass. Du. bast, bark, peel,
fierer, a deceiver. Sp. baraſar, to truck, husk; bast van Koren, bran, the thin skin
exchange; baratear, to bargain; bara which covers the grain; Dan. Swed.
teria, fraud, cheating, and especially Ger. Čast, the inner bark of the lime-tree
fraud committed by the master of a ship beaten out and made into a material for
with respect to the goods committed to mats and other coarse fabrics. Dan.
&ast-maatſe, bass-matting; bast-reb, a
Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats
the owners or insurers, by imbezzling their goods bass rope. Du. basſ, a halter, rope for
or running away with the ship.–Bailey. hanging, OE. baste.
Bot ye salle take a stalworthe baste
But according to Blackstone barratry And binde my handes behind me faste.
consists in the offence of stirring up MS. Halliwell.
quarrels and suits between parties.
Bartizan. See Brattice. Dan. basſe, Sw. basſa, to bind, commonly
Barton. A court-yard, also the de joined with the word binda, of the same
mesne lands of a manor, the manor sense. Sw. at basſa og binda, to bind
house itself, the outhouses and yards.- hand and foot. Dan. /agge een i baand
Halliwell. AS. berefun, bearfun, berewic, og basſ, to put one in fetters; and it is
a court-yard, corn-farm, from &ere, barley, remarkable that the same expression is
and fun, inclosure, or wic, dwelling.— found in Turkish ; bess!, a tying, binding,
Bosworth. &ess/-tt-öendez, to bind. Lap. baste, the
Base. It. basso, Fr. bas, low, mean ; hoops of a cask.
Sp. baro, W. and Bret. Óðs, shallow, low, Bastard. Apparently of Celtic origin,
from Gael. &aos, lust, fornication. OFr.
flat. The original meaning, according Ji's de &ast, ſiſ's de óas.
to Diez, would be, pressed down, thick.
* Bassus, crassus, pinguis."—Gl. Isidore. He was begetin o bast, God it wot.
Arthur and Merlin.
‘A’assus, curtus, humilis.”—Papias. ‘Ele
a basses hanches et basses jambes.’ Sir Richard fiz le rei of wan we spake bevore
Gentilman was inow thei he were a bast ièore.
Basilisk. Gr. Baaixiacoc, from 3a R. G. 516.
ot\tic, a king. A fabulous serpent, said This man was son to John of Gaunt, descended
to kill those that look upon it. of an honorable lineage, but born in baste,
There is not one that looketh upon his eyes, more noble in blood than notable in learning.—
but he dieth presently. The like property hath Hall in Halliwell.
the basi/isk. A white spot or star it carieth on
the head and settith it out like a coronet or So Turk. chasa, fornication, chasa ogli
diadem. If he but hiss no other serpent dare (ogli = son), a bastard.—F. Newman.
come near.—Holland's Pliny in Rich. Malay anak-&audrež (child of adultery),
Late sibi submovet omne a bastard.
Vulgus et in vacuá regnat Basiliscus arenå. To Baste. 1. To stitch, to sew with
long stitches for the purpose of keeping
Probably from reports of the cobra capel, the pieces of a garment in shape while it
which sets up its hood when angry, as is permanently sewn. It. Sp. basta, a
the diadem of the basilisk. long stitch, preparatory stitching, the
To Bask. To heat oneself in the sun stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Sp.
or before a fire. See Bath. &astear, embastir, It. imbasſire, Fr. bāţăr,
Basket. W. basg, netting, plaiting of to baste, to stitch; Fris. Sicamb. besten,
splinters; basgèd, basgod, a basket; masg, leviter consuere.—Kil. OHG. bestan, to
a mesh, lattice-work. It is mentioned as patch, as It. imbastire, to baste on a
a British word by Martial. piece of cloth.
Barbara depictis veni hascauda Britannis, Nay, mock not, mock not : the body of your
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam. discourse is sometimes guarded with fragments,
and the guards are but slightly basted on neither.
phor from the notion of basting meat.—
—Much Ado about Nothing. To baste one's hide; to give him a sound
Derived by Diez from bast, as if that &asting.
were the substance originally used in 3. The sense of pouring dripping over
stitching, but this is hardly satisfactory. meat at roast or rubbing the meat with
It seems to me that the sense of stitch fat to prevent its burning is derived from
ing, as a preparation for the final sewing the notion of beating in the same way
of a garment, may naturally have arisen that the verb to stroke springs from the
from the notion of preparing, contriving, act of striking. Sw, strºyá, beating,
setting up, which seems to be the general blows; stry&a, to rub gently, to stroke,
sense of the verb bastire, bastir, in the to spread bread and butter. Fr. froſter,
Romance languages. to rub, is explained by Cot. also to cudgel,
Thus we have Sp. bastir, disposer, pre baste or knock soundly.
parer (Taboada); It. imbasſire, to lay the Bastinado. Sp. bastonada, a blow
cloth for dinner, to devise or begin a with a stick, Sp. Fr. baston. Fr. baston
business (Altieri). Fr. bastir, to build, made, a cudgelling, bastonner, to cudgel.
make, frame, erect, raise, set up, also to In English the term is confined to the
compose, contrive, devise. Bastir a beating on the soles of the feet with a
Quelqu'un son roulet, to teach one before stick, a favourite punishment of the Turks
hand what he shall say or do.—Cot. and Arabs. For the origin of baston see
Prov. guerra bastir, to set on foot a war; Baste, 2.
agait bastir, to lay an ambush.-Rayn. Bastion. It. bastia, bastida, bastione,
Sp. bastimento, victuals, provisions, a bastion, a sconce, a blockhouse, a bar
things prepared for future use, also the ricado.—Florio. Fr. bastille, bastilde, a
basting or preparatory stitching of a gar fortress or castle furnished with towers,
ment, stitching of a quilt or mattrass. To donjon, and ditches; bastion, the fortifi
&aste a garment would be to set it up, to cation termed a bastion or cullion-head.
put it together, and from this particular Cot. All from bastir, to build, set up,
kind of stitching the signification would Contrive.
seem to have passed on to embrace * Bat. 1. Sc. back, baſſ, bakie-bird, Sw.
.Stitching in general. mattbaka, Dan. aſtonbakke, the winged
A silver nedil forth I drowe– mammal. It wipistrello, the night-bat.
And gan this nedill threde anone, -Fl. Baże, flyinge best, vespertilio.
For out of toune me list to gone— —Pr. Prm. Mid. Lat. blatta, blacta,
With a threde basting my slevis. ôatta lucifuga, vespertilio, vledermus.-
Chaucer, R. R.
—Sitze und beste mir den ermel wider in.
Dieff. Supp. to Duc. Chaufe-soriz is
Minnesinger in Schmid.
glossed a balke (for blake 2) in Bibeles
worth (Nat. Antiq. p. 164), and blak
It is probably from the sense of stitch probably signifies a bat in the following
ing that must be explained the It. basto, passage:
imbasto, a packsaddle, pad for the head But at that yehe breyde
to carrya weight on ; Fr. basſ, bdt (whence That she furthe her synne seyde,
the E. military term of a bat-horse), bastine, Come fleyng oute at her mouthe a blak,
a pad or packsaddle, which was origin That yehe blak y dar wel telle,
ally nothing but a quilted cushion on That hyt was a fende of helle.
which to rest the load. Thus Baretti Manuel des Pecchés. 11864.
explains Sp. bastear, to pack a saddle It is true the original has corneille, which
with wool, i. e. to quilt or stitch wool was probably changed in the E. trans
into it; and Cot. has bastine, a pad, lation to a bat, as a creature peculiarly
packsaddle, the quilted saddle with which connected with devilry and witchcraft.
colts are backed. The name seems to be taken from ON.
2. To beat or bang soundly.—Bailey. ð/aka, Ö/akra, Ö/akſa, to flap, move to
This word probably preserves the form and fro in the air with a light rapid
from whence is derived the Fr. baston, motion; whence ledrb/aka, the bat; Sw.
&#on, a stick, an instrument for beating, dial. bla/Aia, matt-blakka, the night-jar or
as well as besteau, the clapper of a bell. goat-sucker, a bird which, like the owl
ON. beysta, to beat, to thrash; Dan. 66sſe, and the bat, seeks its insect prey on the
to drub, to belabour; Sw. dial. basa, wing in the evening. For the loss of the
baska, basta, to beat, to whip. Perhaps / in back, bat, compared with b/ačka,
in the use of the E. term there is usually */atta, comp. E. badger, from Fr. bladier.
an erroneous feeling of its being a meta 2. A staff, cluº. or implement for

striking. In some parts of England it is basa sig i solen, to bask in the sun. Da.
the ordinary word for a stick at the dial. batte sig, to warm oneself at the
present day. A Sussex woman speaks fire or in the sun.
of putting a clung bat, or a dry stick, on Perhaps the above may be radically
the fire. In Suffolk baſ/ins are loppings identical with ON. baka, E. bake, to heat,
of trees made up into faggots. Bret. baz, Slav. Aak, heat. Baka six wed el/d, to
a stick; Gael. bat, a staff, cudgel, blud warm oneself at the fire. Pl. D. sich ha
geon, and as a verb, to beat, to cudgel. Æern, E. dial. to beak, to warm oneself.
Mgy. boſ, a stick. The origin of the To Batten. To thrive, to feed, to
word is an imitation of the sound of a become fat. Goth. gabatman, to thrive,
blow by the syllable baſ, the root of E. to be profited, ON. bazna, to get better, to
&cat, It. battere, Fr. baſ/re, w. baeddu. become convalescent. Du. Öat, bet, bet
Jºaf, a blow.—Hal. The lighter sound ter, more. See Better.
of the / in fat adapts the latter syllable Batten. In carpenter's language a
to represent a gentle blow, a blow with a scantling of wooden stuff from two to
light instrument. The imitative nature four inches broad, and about an inch
of the root bat is apparent in Sp. baſa thick.-Bailey. A baſſen fence is a fence
cazo, bayuetazo, representing the noise made by nailing rods of such a nature
made by one in falling. across uprights. From bat in the sense
Batch. A batch of bread is so much of rod ; perhaps first used adjectivally,
as is baked at one time, G. gebäck, gebäcke. &af-em, made of bats, as wood-en, made of
Bate. Strife; makebaſe, a stirrer-up wood.
of strife. Batyn, or make debate. Jurgor, Batter. Eggs, flour, and milk beaten
vel seminare discordias vel discordare.— up together.
Pr. Pn. Fr. debat, strife, altercation, To Batter. — Battery. Battery, a
dispute.—Cot. beating, an arrangement for giving blows,
To Bate. 1. Fr. abaffre, to fell, beat, is a simple adoption of Fr. batterie, from
or break down, quell, allay; Sp. bazir, to hatre, to beat. From battery was pro
beat, beat down, lessen, remit, abate. bably formed to batter under the con
2. A term in falconry; to flutter with sciousness of the root bat in the sense of
the wings. Fr. battre les ailes. blow, whence to batter would be a regular
Bath.--To Bathe.—To Bask. ON. frequentative, signifying to give repeated
hada, G. baden, to bathe. The primary blows, and would thus seem to be the
meaning of the word seems to be to verb from which battery had been formed
warm, then to warm by the application of in the internal development of the English
hot water, to foment, to refresh oneself in language.
water whether warm or cold. Sw. dial. Battle.—Battalion. It. battere, Fr.
basa, bāda, badda, to heat ; solen baddar, battre, to beat; se battre, to fight, whence
the sun burns ; solbase, the heat of the It. baſſaglia, Fr. batail/e, a battle, also a
sun ; bad/ish, fishes basking in the sun; squadron, a band of armed men arranged
basa, badda, bāda vidjor, as E. dial. to for fighting. In OE. also, battle was used
beath wood, to heat it before the fire or in the latter sense,
in steam in order to make it take a
Scaffaldis, leddris and covering,
certain bend. Pikkis, howis, and with staffslyng,
Faine in the sonde to bathe her merrily To ilk lord and his batailſ,
Lieth Pertelotte, and all her sustirs by Wes ordanyt, quhar he suld assaill.
Ayenst the sunne,—Chaucer. Barbour in Jam.
Flem. betten, to foment with hot applica Hence in the augmentative form It. baſ
tions. G. bahem, to foment, to warm, taglione, a battalion, a main battle, a great
seems related to baden as Fr. frahir to It. squadron.—Florio.
tradire. Holz bathem, to beath wood ; Battledoor. The bat with which a
brot biihen, to toast bread. Hence pro shuttlecock is struck backwards and for
bably may be explained the name of wards. Sp. Öatador, a washing beetle, a
Baiae, as signifying warm baths, to which flat board with a handle for beating the
that place owed its celebrity. wet linen in washing. Baſy/doure or
It can hardly be doubted that bask is washynge betylle.—Pr. Pm.
the reflective form of the foregoing verbs, Battlement. From OFr. bastille, a
from ON. badask, to bathe oneself, as E. fortress or castle, was formed bas/i//ē,
busk, to betake oneself, from ON. budsk made like a fortress, adapted for defence,
. . for bua sik. “I baske, I bathe in water viz. in the case of a wall, by projections
or in any licoure.”—Palsgr. Sw, dial. at which sheltered the defenders while they

shot through the indentures. Mur bas Swiss. bau, dung; baue, to manure the
tillé, an embattled wall, a wall with such fields. W. baw, dirt, filth, excrement.
notches and indentures or battlements. To baw, to void the bowels.-Hal. Sc.
Batylment of a wall, propugnaculum.— bauch, disgusting, Sorry, bad. — Jam.
Pr. Pn. From Baw / an interjection of disgust,
Si vey ung vergier grant et lé equivalent to Faugh being a represent
Enclos d'un hault mur bastille.—R. R. ation of the exspiration naturally resorted
to as a defence against a bad smell.
Bauble. 1. Originally an implement
Ye baw / quoth a brewere
consisting of lumps of lead hanging from I woll noght be ruled
the end of a short stick, for the purpose By Jhesu for all your janglyng
of inflicting a blow upon dogs or the like, With Spiritus Justiciae.—P. P.
then ornamented burlesquely and used by —for they beth as bokes tell us
a Fool as his emblem of office. ‘Ba Above Goddes workes.
bulle or bable—librilla, pegma,” “Librilla 'Ye baw for bokes' quod oon
dicitur instrumentum librandi—a bable Was broken out of Helle.—P. P.

or a dogge malyote.’ ‘Pegma, baculus The It. oibo A fie fie upon (Altieri), Fr.
cum massā plumbi in summitate pen bah / pooh nonsense and Sp. baſ/
dente."—Pr. Pnn., and authorities in note. expressive of disgust, must all be referred
The origin of the word is bab or bob, a to the same origin. ‘There is a choler
lump, and as a verb to move quickly up icke or disdainful interjection used in
and down or backwards and forwards.
the Irish language called Boagh Z which
Gael. bab, a tassel or hanging bunch ; E. is as much in English as Twish !’—Hol
bablyn or waveryn, librillo, vacillo.—Pr. linshed, Descript. Irel. c. 8. To this
exactly corresponds Fr. pouac / faugh !
2. Bauble in the sense of a plaything an interjection used when anything filthy
or trifle seems a different word, from Fr. is shown or said, whence fouacre, rotten,
*abiole, a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, or filthy.—Cot. In like manner Grisons
small toy to play withal.—Cot. It. bab buah / buſh / exclamation of astonish
bolare, to play, the babby, to trifle away ment, leads to bud (in children's lan
the time as children do; babbole, child guage), nastiness, filth.
ish baubles, trifles, fooleries or fond To Bawl. Formed from baw, the
toys.-Fl. Swiss baben, to play with dolls representation of a loud shout, as Fr.
or toys. -

miauler, E. to mewl, to make the noise

Baudrick—Baldrick. Prov, baudrat, represented by the syllable miau, mew.
OFr. baudré, OHG. balder ich, a belt.— The sound of a dog barking, is repre
Diez. Baudrick in OE. is used for a
sented by bau, bow (as in our nursery
sword-belt, scarf, collar. bow-wow, a dog). Lat. baubare, Piedm.
Bavin. A brush faggot. OFr. baſe, fé bau, to bark; bau/e', to bark, to talk
ſaisceau, fagot.—Lacombe. An analogous noisily, obstrepere.—Zalli. Swiss Rom.
form with an initial g instead of a b is bouala, bouaila, to vociferate, to cry.—
seen in Fr. javelle, a gavel, or sheaf of Bridel. ON. baula, to low or bellow as
corn, also a bavin or bundle of dry an OX.
sticks,—Cot. The word may perhaps be Bawson. A name of the badger, from
derived from the above-mentioned bab or the streaks of white on his face. It. bal
bob, a lump or cluster; Gael, baban, zano, a horse with white legs. Fr. bal
babhaid, a tassel, cluster; Fr. bobine, a 2am, a horse that hath a white leg or foot,
bobbin or cluster of thread.
the white of his leg or foot, also more
Bawdekin. Cloth of gold. It. bal. generally a white spot or mark in any
dacchino, S. S., also the canopy carried part of his body.—Cotgr. Prov. čausan,
over the head of distinguished persons in OFr. baucant, a horse marked with
a procession, because made of cloth of white. Beauséent, the famous standard
gold. The original meaning of the word of the Templars, was simply a field
is Bagdad stuff, from Baldacca, Bagdad, divided between black and white. E. dial.
because cloth of gold was imported from bawsoned, having a white streak down
Bagdad. the face. From Bret. bal, a white mark
Bawdy. Filthy, lewd; in oe, dirty. on the face of animals, or the animal so
His overest slop it is not worth a mite— marked, whence the E. name of a cart
It is all bawdy, and to-tore also. —Chaucer. horse, Ball. Gael. ball, a spot, a plot of
What doth cleer perle in a bawdy boote. ground, an object. Ball-sefrc, a beauty-.
Lydgate. spot, ballach, spotted, speckled. E. pie-,

bald, marked like a pie. Probably con &aier, to open the mouth, to stare, to be
nected with Pol. biaſo, Russ. bielo, intent on anything.
Bohem. byly, white. Serv. bije!, white, From the former verb is the It. expres
bi/yega, a mark, bi/yefiti, to mark. See sion ſentere a bada, to keep one waiting,
to keep at a bay, to amuse; stare a bada
Bay, 1. A hollow in the line of coast. a'unto, to stand watching one.
Fr. baie, It. baja, Sp. bahia. Catalan Tal parve Anteo a me, che stava a bada di
badia, from badar, to open, to gape, vederlo chinare. Such Antaeus seemed to me,
dividere, dehiscere; badarse, to open as who stood watching him stoop. Non ti terro
a blossom, to split. From Cat. badia to converso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. I will
Sp. bahia, the step is the same as from not keep you waiting with a long story, &c. I
It. tradire to Fr. trahir, to betray. See Pisani si mostrarono di volergli assalire di quella
parte e comminciarono vi l'assalto per tenere i
At Bay. nemicia bada.
Bay, 2.—Bay-window. The same
fundamental idea of an opening also i. e. in order to keep the enemy in check,
gives rise to the application of the term or at
Bay (in Architecture) to ‘a space left in Ne was there man so strong but he down bore
a wall for a door, gate, or window’—(in Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought
Fortification), to ‘holes in a parapet to Unto his bay and captived her thought.—F. Q.
receive the mouth of a cannon.”—Bailey. he brought her to stand listening to him.
A barn of two bays, is one of two di So well he wooed her and so well he wrought her
visions or unbroken spaces for stowing With faire entreaty and swete blandishment
corn, &c., one on each side of the thresh That at the length unto a bay he brought her
ing-floor. So as she to his speeches was content
Earth To lend on ear and softly to relent.—F. Q.
By Nature made to till, that by the yearly birth The stag is said to stand at bay, when,
The large-bayed barn doth fill.—Drayton in R. weary of running, he turns and faces his
In great public libraries cases may be erected
pursuers, and keeps them in check for a
abutting into the apartment from the piers of the while.
windows, as they do not obstruct the light or air, As this crisis in the chase is ex
and afford pleasant bays in which to study in pressed in Fr. by the term rendre les
quiet.—Journal Soc. Arts, Feb. 25, 1859. abois, the term at bay has been supposed
A bay-window then is a window con to be derived from the Fr. aur derniers
taining in itself a bay, or recess in an abois, at his last gasp, put to his last
apartment; in modern times, when the shifts, which however, as may be seen
architectural meaning of the word was from the foregoing examples, would give
not generally understood, corrupted into but a partial explanation of the expres
Bow-window, as if to signify a window of sion.
curved outline. Fr. beſe, a hole, overture, Bayonet. Fr. baionette, a dagger.—
or opening in the wall or other part of a Cot. Said to have been invented at Bay
house, &c.—Cot. Swiss beie, baye, win onne, or to have been first used at the
dow ; bayen-stein, window-sill.—Stalder. siege of Bayonne in 1665–Diez.
Swab. bay, large window in a handsome Bay-tree. The laurus nobilis or true
house.—Schmid. laurel of the ancients, the laurel-bay, so
Bay. Lat. badius, Sp. bayo, It. bajo, called from its bearing bays, or berries.
Fr. bai. Gael. buidhe, yellow; buidhe The royal laurel is a very tall and big tree–
ruadh, buidhe-dhomm, bay. and the baſes or berries (baccae) which it bears
To Bay. To bark as a dog. It, ab are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste.—Hol
baiare, Fr. babayer, Lat. baubari, Gr. land's Pliny in R.
Baščeiv, Piedm. f. bait, from an imitation A garland of bays is commonly repre
of the sound. See Bawl. sented with berries between the leaves.
At Bay. It has been shown under The word bay, Fr. baie, a berry, is per
Abie, Abide, that from ba, representing haps not directly from Lat., bacca, which
the sound made in opening the mouth, itself seems to be from a Celtic root. W.
arose two forms of the verb, one with and hacon, berries. Gael. bagaid, a cluster of
one without the addition of a final d to
grapes or nuts. Prov, baca, baga, OSp.
the root. 1st, It. badare, having the haca, Mod. Sp. baya, the cod of peas,
primary signification of opening the husk, berry. It. baccello, the cod or husk
mouth, then of doing whatever is marked of beans or the like, especially beans.
by involuntarily opening the mouth, as * To Be. As beom; Gael. bed, alive,
.gazing, watching intently, desiring, wait living; bedthach, a beast, living thing ;
ing ; and 2ndly, Fr. daher, baer, Öder, Ir. Öioth, life, the world; Gr. Bioc, life.

It is not until a somewhat advanced court, officer in attendance on the digni

stage in the process of abstraction that taries of a university or church. Fr.
the idea of simple being is attained, and /edeau, It. bide//o. Probably an equiv
a verb with that meaning is wholly want alent of the modern waiter, an attendant,
ing in the rudest languages. The negro from AS. bidan, to wait. It will be ob
served that the word attendant has also a
who speaks imperfect English uses, in
stead the more concrete notion of living. like origin in Fr. attendre, to wait.
He says, Your hat no lib that place you Home is he brought and laid in sumptuous bed
Where many skilful leeches him abide
put him in.-Farrar, Chapters on Lang. To salve his hurts.-F. Q
p. 54. A two-year old nephew of mine i. e. wait upon him.
would say, Where it live 2 where is it? * Beagle. A small kind of hound
Now the breath is universally taken as
the type of life, and the syllable fºu or ſº tracking by scent. ‘The Frenchmen
is widely used in the most distant lan stil like good begeles following their
guages to express the notion of blowing prey.”—Hall's Chron. Commonly re
ferred to Fr. beugler, to bellow, which is,
or breathing, and thus may explain the
origin of the root fu in Lat. ſui, ſuisse, or however, not applied to the yelping of
of Sanscr. bhū, be. dogs. Moreover the name, according to
Beach. The immediate shore of the Menage, was introduced from England
into France, and therefore was not likely
sea, the part overflowed by the tide. to have a French origin.
Thence applied to the pebbles of which Beak. A form that has probably de
the shore often consists.
scended to us from a Celtic origin. Gael.
We haled our bark over a bar of beach, or
beic. “Cui Tolosae nato cognomen in
pebble stones, into a small river.—Hackluyt in R.
pueritiá Becco fuerat: id valet gallinacei
Perhaps a modification of Dan. bakke, rostrum.”—Suetonius in Diez. It. becro,
N. bakkje, Sw, backe, a hill, bank, rising Fr. bec, Bret. bek, w. Żig. It forms a
ground. In Norfolk bank is commonly branch of a very numerous class of words
used instead of beach.-Miss Gurney in clustered round a root pić, signifying a
Philolog. Trans. vol. vii. point, or any action done with a pointed
Beacon.—Beck.-Beckon. OHG. bau thing.
han, OSax. bokan, AS. beacem, a sign, a Beam.— Boom. Goth. bagms, ON.
nod ; OHG. fora-bauhan, a presage, pro badmir, G. baum, Du. boom, a tree. AS.
digy; bauhnjan, ON. bākma, AS. beacmian, àedim, a tree, stock, post, beam. The
nutu significare, to beckon. The term boom of a vessel is the beam or pole by
beacon is confined in E. to a fire or some which the sail is stretched, coming to
conspicuous object used as a signal of us, like most nautical terms, from the
danger. Netherlands or North Germany.
The origin seems preserved in E. beck, Bean. G. bohme, ON. baum. Gr.
to bow or nod ; Catalan becam, to nod ; triavoc, kūauoc, Lat. ſaba, Slavon. bob.
Gael. beic, a curtsey, perhaps from the w. ſa, beans, ſtem, a single bean, the
of a bird pecking ; Gael. &eic, a addition of a final en being the usual
mark of individuality. Bret, ſº or ſaz,
Than peine I me to stretchen forth my neck, beans, or the plant which bears them ;
And East and West upon the peple I becke, faen or ſaven, a single bean, plur. ſaven
As doth a dove sitting upon a bern. mou or ſaennon, as well as ſº or ſaw.
Pardoner's Tale.
Thus the final en, signifying individuality,
He (Hardicanute) made a law that every Inglis adheres to the root, and Lat. faba is
man sal bek and discover his hed quhen he met connected through Oberdeutsch bobnt
ane Dane.—Bellenden in Jam. (Schwenck) with G. bohne, E. bean.
Esthon. možkima, to peck as a bird ; Bear. The wild beast. G. bār, ON.
nołżutoma žead, to nod the head. björn.
Bead. A ball of some ornamental To Bear. Lat. ſero, ſer-re; Gr. pipeiv;
material, pierced for hanging on a string, Goth. bairan, to carry, support, and also
and originally used for the purpose of to bear children, to produce young. The
helping the memory in reciting a certain latter sense may have been developed
tale of prayers or doxologies. AS. bead, through the notion of a tree bearing fruit,
gebed, a prayer. See To Bid. To bid or from the pregnant mother carrying
one's bedes or beads was to say one's her young. It is singular, however, that
prayers. the forms corresponding to the two sig
Beadle. AS. bydel, the messenger of a nifications should be so distinct in Latin,

fero, to carry, and fario, to bear children, get; ‘He got very angry,” “He became
produce, bring forth. very angry,’ are equivalent expressions,
From bear in the sense of carrying we implying that he attained the condition
have Goth. baurthei, ON. byrdi, E. bur of being very angry.
den ; from the same in the sense of bear 2. In a second sense to become is to be
ing children, Goth. gabaurths, birth. The fitting or suitable. G. beguem, convenient,
ON. burdr is used in the sense of a car fit, proper; E. come/y, pleasing, agreeable.
rying, bearing, and also in that of birth. This meaning is to be explained from
Beard. G. bart, Russ. boroda, Bo AS. becuman, to come to or upon, to
hem. brada, the beard, chin. Lat. barða, befall, to happen. He becom on sceatham,
w. barſ. Perhaps radically identical he fell among thieves. Tharm godum
with ON. bard, a lip, border, edge. See decym/h an/eald yuel, to the good hap
Halbard. pens unmixed evil.-Bosworth. Now the
Beast. Lat. bestia ; Gael. biast, an notion of being convenient, suitable, fit
animal, perhaps a living thing, bed, ting, rests on the supposition of a purpose
living ; w. byw, living, to live. to be fulfilled, or a feeling to be gratified.
Beat. AS. beatan ; It. battere, Fr. If the accidents or circumstances of the
battre; from a root bat, imitative of the case happen as we would have them, if
sound of a sharp blow, as fat imitates they fall in with what is required to satisfy
that of a more gentle one. See Bat. our taste, judgment, or special purpose,
Beauty. Fr. beauté, from beau, beſ, we call the arrangement becoming, con
It. bello, Lat. bellus, pretty, handsome, venient, proper, and we shall find that
agreeable. these and similar notions are commonly
Beaver. 1. The quadruped. G. biber, expressed by derivatives from verbs sig
Lat. ſióer, Lith. Öebrus, Slav. boðr, Fr.
nifying to happen. Thus OE. ſa// was
bièvre. Secondarily applied to a hat, constantly used in the sense of falling or
because made of the fur of the beaver. happening rightly, happening as it ought.
Perhaps from Pol. babrač, to dabble; Do no favour, I do thee pray,
bobrować, to wade through the water It fallith nothing to thy name
like a beaver. To make fair semblant where thou mayest blame.
2. The moveable part of a helmet, Chaucer, R. R.
which, when up, covered the face, and In darkness of unknowynge they gonge
when down occupied the place of a child's Without light of understandynge
Of that that ſal/eth to ryghte knowynge.
bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. bavière, Prick of Conscience.
from baver, to slobber. It. baza, Sp.
*aba, Fr. bave, slobber. The OFr. bawe i.e. of that that belongeth to right know
expressed as well the flow of the saliva ing. So in ON. ‘all-vel til Hofdingia
as the babble of the child, whence baveur, ſa//inn,” every way suited to a prince. G.
bavard, Prov. čavec, talkative.—Diez. geſa/lem, to please, to fall in with our
Beck, 1.—Beckon. A nod or sign. taste, as fall itself was sometimes used
See Beacon. in E.
Beck, 2. ON. bekkr, Dan. back, G. With shepherd sits not following flying fame,
bach, a brook. As rivus, a brook, is But ſeed his flock in fields where falls him best.
connected with ripa, a bank, while from Shep. Cal.
the latter are derived It. riviera, a bank, On the same principle, AS. limpian, to
shore, or river, and Fr. rivière, formerly a happen, to appertain, ſimplice, fitly ; ge
bank, but now a river only; and ON. /impan, to happen, ge/implic, opportune.
bekkr, signifies both bench (= bank) and AS. fiman, getiman, to happen, G. 2iemen,
brook; it is probable that here also the to become, befit, E. seemly, suitable,
name applied originally to the bank then proper; OSw, tida, to happen, tidºg, fit,
to the brook itself. See Bank. decent, decorous, E. tidy, now confined
To Become. I. To attain to a certain to the sense of orderly. In like manner
condition, to assume a certain form or Turk, dushmak, to fall, to happen, to fall
mode of being. AS. becuman, to attain to the lot of any one, to be a part of his
to, to arrive at. duty, to be incumbent upon him.
Thaet thu maege becuman to tham gesaelthan Bed. A place to lie down, to sleep on.
the ece thurhwuniath. That thou mayest attain Goth. badi, ON. bedr, G. bett.
to those goods which endure for ever.—Boeth. Bedizen. To load with ornament, to
G. Bekommen, to get, receive, obtain, dress with unbecoming richness; and to
acquire.—Küttner. It will be observed dizen out was used in the same sense.
that we often use indifferently become or Probably from OE, dize or dizen, to clothe
a distaff with flax, though the metaphor Hue dronc of the beere
does not appear a striking one to our ears. To knyght and skyere.—l. 1114.
I dysyn a dystaffe, I put the flax upon it Hue fulde the horn of wyne
And dronk to that pelryne.
to spin.-Palsgr. But possibly bedizen K. Horn, 1156.
may be from Fr. badgeonner, to rough
cast, to colour with lime-wash, erroneously 2. A fi/low-beer, a pillow-case. Dan.
modified in form, by the analogy of be zaar, a cover, case, fºude-vaar, a pil
dawb, as if it were derived from a simple low case. G. A.iissen-biere. Pl.D. biºren,
verb to dizen, which latter would thus Æiłssen-bièrem, a cushion-cover ; beds
be brought into use by false etymology. &ièren, a bed-tick. Properly a cover that
The passage from a soft g to 2 is of fre may be slipped on and off. Fin. wiąrin,
quent occurrence, as in It. Arigione, Fr. I turn (a garment), Esthon. Aóðrdma, to
frison, Venet. cogionare, E. cogen, It.
cugino, E. cousin. turn, to twist; fºrma, to turn, to change;
To plaister or bedawb with ornament fadja-flººr, a pillow-case or pillow-beer
is exactly the image represented by be (paddi, a pad or cushion).
dizen. The same metaphor is seen in * Beestings. The first milk after a
Fr. crespir, to parget or rough-cast ; cow has calved, which is thick and
femme crespie de couleurs, whose face is clotty, and in Northampton called cherry
all to bedawbed or plaistered over with curds. G. biest-milch, also biens/, briest,
painting.—Cot. &riesch-miſch, AS. beost, byst. The mean
Bedlam. A madhouse, from the hos ing of the word is curdled. Fr. calle
pital of St Mary, Bethlehem, used for ãouſé, curded or beesty, as the milk of a
that purpose in London. woman that is newly delivered.—Cot.
Bedouin. Arab. bedaw?, a wandering Prov. sang vermeilh beta/2, red curdled
Arab ; an inhabitant of the desert, from blood.—Rom. de Fierabras in Diez. The
&edou (in vulgar Arab.), desert. earth was in the Middle Ages supposed
Bed-ridden. Confined to bed. AS.
to be surrounded by a sea of so thick a
bedrida, Pl.D. bedde-redir; OHG. bef substance as to render navigation im
tiriso, from risan, to fall.—Grimm. Pett possible. This was called mer beſtée in
ris, qui de lecto surgere non potest ; Fr. and lebermer in G., the loppered sea,
pettiriso, paralyticus.-Gl. in Schmeller. from Jefferen, to curdle or lopper. “La
So Gr. k\ivors ric, from rer-, fall. mars betada, sela que environna la terra.’
Bee. The honey-producing insect. As, In a passage of an Old Fr. translation
beo, ON. by-ſluga, G. biene, Bernese, cited by Diez, ‘ausi com ele (la mer) fust
beſi. Gael. beach, a bee, a wasp, a stinging ôietée, the last word corresponds to co
fly; beach-each, a horse-fly; speach, a agulatum in the original Latin. Let.
blow or thrust, also the bite or sting of a bees, thick, close together as teeth in a
venomous creature, a wasp. comb, trees in a forest; beest, to become
Beech. A tree. G. buche, ON. beyki, thick, to coagulate.
Slav. čuk, buka, bukva, Lat. Jagus, Gr. Beet. A garden-herb. Fr. bette or
ºnyóc. ôlette ; Lat, beta, bletum ; Gr. 3\irov,
Beef. Fr. ba’uſ, an ox, the meat of spinach.
the ox. It. bove, from Lat. bos, bovis, an Beetle. 1. The general name of in
OX. sects having a horny wing-cover. Pro
Beer. 1. Originally, doubtless, drink, bably named from the destructive quali
from the root pi, drink, extant in Bohem. ties of those with which we are most
fiti, to drink, imperative pi, whence familiar. AS. bitel, the biter. “Mordi
pivo, beer. The Lat. bibere is a re culus, bitela.”—Gl. AElfr. in Nat. Ant.
duplicated form of the root, which also 2. Beetle, boyfle, a wooden hammer for
appears in Gr. ºria, trival, to drink, and in driving piles, stakes, wedges, &c.— B.
Lat. foculum, a cup or implement for As. byt!, a mallet. Pl. D. befel, botel, a
drink; potus, drink. Gael. bior, water. clog for a dog; boteln, to knock, to flatten
In OE. beer seems to have had the
sods with a beater. G. beufel, a mal
sense of drink, comprehending both wine let for beating flax. Bav. bossen, to
and ale.
knock, to beat ; bossel, a washing beetle
Rymenild ros of benche or bat for striking the wet linen. Fr.
The beer al for te shenche
After mete in sale,
bate, a paviour's beetle; batail, It. bat
Bothe wyn and ale. tag/io, a clapper, the knocker of a door.
An horn hue ber an hond, But besides signifying the instrument
For that was law of lond, of beating, beetle also signified the im
plement driven by blows, a stone-cutter's go a begging. It. bertola, a wallet, such
chisel, a wedge for cleaving wood. OHG. as poor begging friars use to beg withal ;
steinboc:/, lapidicinus.-Schm. G. beis &ertola, e, to shift up and down for scraps
seſ, &eufel, Du. beifel, a chisel, a wedge. and victuals.-Florio. Dan. Aose, a bag;
—a grete oke, which he had begonne to cleve, fose-fi//e, a beggar-boy. Mod. Gr.
and as men be woned he had smeten two bete/s
9&Aaroc, a bag, a scrip; 6v\artºw, to beg.
therein, one after that other, in suche wyse that Fr. Mettre quelq'un a la besace, to re
the oke was wide open.—Caxton's Reynard the
Fox, chap. viii. duce him to beggary.
In the original To Begin. AS. aginnan, omginnan,
So had he daer twee beifels ingheslagen. beginnan. Goth. duginnan. In Luc vi.
N. & Q. Nov. 2, 1867. 25, the latter is used as an auxiliary of
When by the help of wedges and beetles an the future. “Unte gaunon jah gretan
image is cleft out of the trunk. -Stillingfleet. duginnid,' for ye shall lament and weep.
In a similar manner gam or can was fre
The G. beissel, Du. beifel, a chisel, is com quently used in OE. ‘Aboutin undern
monly, but probably erroneously, referred gan this Erle alight.”—Clerk of Oxford's
to the notion of biting. tale. He did alight, not began to alight,
To Beg. Skinner's derivation from bag, as alighting is a momentary operation.
although it appears improbable at first,
carries conviction on further examination. The tother seand the dint cum, gan provyde
To eschew swiftlie, and sone lap on syde
The Flem. beggaert (Delfortrie) probably That all his force Entellus can apply
exhibits the original form of the word, Into the are— D. V. 142. 40.
whence the E. begger, and subsequently Down duschit the beist, deid on the land can ly
the verb to beg. Beghardus, vir mendi
cans.—Vocab. ‘ex quo.” A.D. 1430, in
Spreuland and flycterand in the dede º
Deutsch. Mundart. iv. Hence the name To Scotland went he then in hy
of Bºgard given to the devotees of the And all the land gan occupy.
13th & 14th centuries, also called Bigots, Barbour, Bruce.
Lollards, &c. It must be borne in mind The verb to gin or begin appears to be
that the bag was a universal character one of that innumerable series derived
istic of the beggar, at a time when all his from a root gan, gen, Ken, in all the lan
alms were given in kind, and a beggar is guages of the Indo-Germanic stock, sig
hardly ever introduced in our older writers nifying to conceive, to bear young, to
without mention being made of his bag. know, to be able, giving in Gr. Yiyvouai,
Hit is beggares rihte vorte beren bagge on bac yivouai, Yévoc, Yiyvörkw, Yuvºorw, in Lat.
and burgeises for to beren purses.—Ancren Riwle,
168. gigno, genus, in E. can, ken, kind, &c.
Ac beggers with bagges— The fundamental meaning seems to be
Reccheth never the ryche to attain to, to acquire. To produce
Thauh such lorelles sterven.—P. P. children is to acquire, to get children ;
Bidderes and beggeres digitan in Ulphilas is always to find ; in
Faeste about yede AS. it is both to acquire and to beget, to
With hire belies & here bagger get children.
Of brede full yerammed.—P. P. To begin may be explained either from
º and begging
ºtz'ſ he bad his folk leven.
P. P. Creed. the fundamental notion of attaining to,
And yet these bilderes wol beggen a bag full of
seizing, taking up, after the analogy of
- whete the G. amſangen, and Lat. incipere, from
Of a pure poor man.-P. P. G. ſangen and Lat. caffere, to take; or
And thus gate I begge the meaning may have passed through a
Without bagge other botel similar stage to that of Gr. Yiyvouai,
But my wombe one.-P. P. yiveral, to be born, to arise, to begin;
That maketh beggers go with bordons and yśveauc, Yeveril, origin, beginning.
bags.-Political Songs. It will be observed that get is used as
So from Gael. bag (baigean, a little an auxiliary in a manner very similar to
bag), baigeir, a beggar, which may per the OE. gan, can, above quoted; ‘to get
haps be an adoption of the E. word, but beaten; ” ON. “at geta talad, to be able
in the same language from poc, a bag or to talk; ‘abouten undern gan this earl
poke, is formed focair, a beggar; air a alight,’ about undern he got down.
Žhoc, on the tramp, begging, literally, on Begone. Gold-begone, ornamented
the bag. Lith. Æraftszas, a scrip ; su with gold, covered with gold—D. V. ;
Arapszais ap/ink eiti, to go a begging. woe-begone, oppressed with woe. Du.
From w. ysgrepan, a scrip, yºgre/anu, to &gaan, affected, touched with emotion;
- - • e - e

begaen gijn met eenighe saecke, premi tail, are formed hazamassa, behind, han
curá alicujus rei, laborare, solicitum esse. mittàº, to follow, hintyri, a follower, and
To Behave. as the roots of many of our words are
The notion of behaviour
preserved in the Finnish languages, it
is generally expressed by means of verbs is probable that we have in the Finnish
signifying to bear, to carry, to lead.
Ye shall dwell here at your will hintº the origin of our behind, at the
But your bearing be full ill. tail of.
K. Robert in Warton. To Behold. To look steadily upon.
It portarsi, to behave ; fortarsi da The compound seems here to preserve
Paladino, for a man to behave or carry what was the original sense of the simple
himself stoutly.—Fl. G. betragen, be verb to hold. As healdan, to regard,
haviour, from tragen, to carry. In ac observe, take heed of, to tend, to feed, to
cordance with these analogies we should keep, to hold. To hold a doctrine for
be inclined to give to the verb have in true is to regard it as true, to look upon
behave the sense of the Sw. haſwa, to it as true; to hold it a cruel act is to
lift, to carry, the equivalent of E. heave, regard it as such. The Lat. servare, to
rather than the vaguer sense of the aux keep, to hold, is also found in the sense
iliary to have, Sw. haſwa, habere. But, of looking, commonly expressed, as in
in fact, the two verbs seem radically the the case of E. behold, by the compound
observare. ‘Tuus servus servet Venerine
same, and their senses intermingle. Sw.
haſwa in sard, to carry corn into the faciat an Cupidini.” Let your slave look
whether she sacrifices to Venus or to
barn; half tig bort, take yourself off;
haſwa bort, to take away, to turn one Cupid.—Plautus. The verb to look itself
out; haſwa fram, to bring forwards. AS. is frequently found in the sense of looking
/habban, to have, haſjan, to heave; 1//- after, seeing to, taking notice or care of
/aban, us-haffan, to raise. G. gehaden, (Gloss. to R. G.). The It. guardare, to
to behave, and (as Fr. se porter) to fare look, exhibits the original meaning of
well or ill. the Fr. garder, to keep or hold, and the
E. ward, keeping.
Mid hym he had a stronge axe—So strong and
so gret that an other hit scholde hebbe unethe.— The supposition then that the notion
R. G. 17. of preserving, keeping, holding is origin
ally derived from that of looking, is sup
Behest.—Hest. Command, injunc ported by many analogies, while it seems
tion. AS. hars, command; beha’s, vow; an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense
behat, gehat, vow, promise; behatan, ge of behold as ‘to keep or hold (sc. the eyes
Aatan, OE. behete, to vow, to promise; fixed upon any object).”—Richardson.
As. hatam, to vow, promise, command; Beholden in the sense of indebted is
Du. heeten, to command, to name, to the equivalent of Du. gehouden, G. ge
call, to be named; heetent willekem, to
bid one welcome. ON. heita, to call, to
hallen, bound, ość Aan iemand
gehouden zijn, to be obliged to one, to be
be named, to vow, exhort, invoke. Goth. beholden to him. G. zu etwas gehalten
/haitan, to call, to command. The
seyn, to be obliged to do a thing. Wohl
general meaning seems to be to speak aufeinen geha/ten seyn, to be well pleased
out, an act which may amount either to a with one's conduct.—Küttn.
promise or a command, according as the * To Behove. To be expedient, to be
subject of the announcement is what the required for the accomplishment of any
speaker undertakes to do himself, or purpose; behoof, what is so required,
what he wishes another to do ; or the hence advantage, furtherance, use. AS.
object of the speaker may be simply to &ehoſian, to be fit, right, or necessary, to
indicate a particular individual as the stand in need of; beheſe, advantage, be
person addressed, when the verb will hoof.
have the sense of calling or naming. The expression seems to be taken from
Behind. At the back of. The re
the figure of throwing at a mark. To
lations of place are most naturally ex heave a stone is used in vulgar language
pressed by means of the different mem for throwing it. N. hetya, to lift, to
bers of the body. Thus in Finnish the heave; hexºſa, hêve, to cast or throw;
name of the head is used to express what /tova, to hit the mark, to meet, adjust,
is on the top of or opposite to, the name adapt, to be suitable or becoming; hovast,
of the ear to express what is on the side to meet, to fit. Sw. hôſwa, the distance
of anything. And so from hántá, the within which one can strike an objector at

tain a certain end, and, met. measure, Zoven, Zaven, to believe; Du. Woven, to
bounds, moderation. Deter oftwer er Jºſ. praise, to promise, or/oven, to give leave;
wa, cela est audessus de votre portée, Dan. /ov, praise, reputation, leave; ON.
that is above your capacity; where it will /o/a, Zeyſa, to praise, to give leave; AS.
be observed that the Fr. employs the same Zeaſa, ge/caſa, belief; ge/w/an, to believe,
metaphor in the term fortée, range, dis //an, aſy/an, to give leave; G. g/auben,
tance to which a piece will carry. to believe, Zoëen, to praise, er/auben, to
In the middle voice hºſwas, to be re permit, ver/offen, to promise or engage.
The fundamental notion seems to be
quired for a certain purpose, to befit, to approve, to sanction an arrangement,
behove. Det høfdes en annan til at to deem an object in accordance with a
writta slikſ, it behoved another kind of certain standard of fitness. In this sense
man to do such things. ON. haeſa, to hit we have Goth. ga/auðs, ſiſte-ga/au/s,
the mark; haft, aim, reach, fitness, pro precious, honoured, esteemed; unga/au/,
portion. See Gain. 3. Æas, tic driutav axe ôoc, a vessel made for
To Belay. Du. be/eggen, to lay dishonour, for purposes of low estimation;
around, overspread, beset, garnish ; be Pl. D. Zaven, Du. Zoven, to fix a price
/cgsel, fringe, border, ornament. upon one's wares, to estimate them at a
All in a woodman's jacket he was clad certain rate. To believe, then, Goth.
Of Lincoln green belayed with golden lace.—F. Q. Zauðjan, ga/auðjan, is to esteem an as
sertion as good for as much as it lays
Du. De Kabel aan de feeting belºggen, claim to ; if a narration, to esteem it true
to lay the cable round the bits, to make or in accordance with the fact it professes
it fast, in nautical language, to be/ay. to describe; if a promise, to esteem it as
To Belch. AS. bea/can, bea/cc//am, in accordance with the intention of the
OF. to bolk, to boke, to throw up wind promiser.
from the stomach with a sudden noise. The sense of praising may be easily
Doubtless an imitation of the sound. deduced from the same radical notion.
Another application of the same word is To praise is essentially to prize, to put a
in Pl. D. and Du. boſken, buſken, to bel high price or value on, to extol the worth
low, to roar. of anything, to express approval, or high
Beldam. Fair sir and Fair lady, Fr. estimation. Hence to simple approbation,
beau sire and be/ dame, were civil terms satisfaction, consent, permission, is an
of address. Then, probably because a easy progress. Pl. D. to der swaren laze,
respectful form of address would be more to the approbation or satisfaction of the
frequent towards an elderly than a young sworn inspectors; mit erven laze, with
person, be/dam became appropriated to the consent of the heirs. In Mid. Lat.
signify an old woman, and finally an ugly the consent given by a lord to the alien
and decrepit old woman. ation of a tenant's fief was expressed by
Belfry. Fr. beffroi, OFr. ber/roi, beſ. the term laus, and E. aſlow, which has
froit, a watch tower, from MHG. bercurit, been shown to be derived from /audare,
berwrit, a tower for defence; ohG. frid, is used in the sense of approving, esteem
a tower, turris, locus securitatis–Schilter, ing good and valid, giving leave or per
and began, to protect. The word be mission, and sometimes in a sense closely
came singularly corrupted in foreign lan analogous to that of believe.
guages, appearing in Mid. Lat. under the The principles which all mankind allow for
forms beſ/redum, berte/redum, batteſ, e true, are innate; those that men of right reason
dum. It. betti/redo, a little shed, stand, admit are the principles allowed by all mankind.
or house, built upon a tower for soldiers
to stand centinel in ; also a blockhouse Bell. From As, bellan, ON. belja,
or a sconce.—Fl. In England a false boare, to resound, to sound loudly; Sw.
etymology has confined the name of 80/a, to bellow; Northamptonshire, to
&e//ry, properly belonging to the church he//, to make a loud noise, to cry out
tower, to the chamber in the upper part (Sternberg). A bell, then, QN. biaſla, is
of the tower in which the bells are hung.
To Believe. It is not obvious how to an implement for making a loud noise.
harmonise the senses of believing, prais Templorum campana boant.—Ducange.
ing, permitting or giving leave, promis oN. hylja, resonare, and E. feaſ, are other
ing, which are expressed in the different modifications of the same imitative root,
Teutonic dialects by essentially the same of which the latter is specially applied to
word or slight modifications of it; Pl.D. the sound of bells. The same imita

tion is found in Galla, bi/bila, bell; bi/- to exert force, se bander, to rise against
fi/-goda, to make bilbil, to ring.—Tut external force ; bandoir, a spring.
schek. To bend sails is to stretch them on the
Bellows.-Belly. The word ža/g, yards of the vessel; to bend cloth, to
bog, is used in several Celtic and Teu: stretch it on a frame, G. Tuch an einen
tonic languages to signify any inflated Rahmen spannen. See Bind.
skin or case. Gael. baſg, bo/g, a leather Beneath. See Nether.
bag, wallet, belly, blister; ba/gan-snamha, Benediction. Lat. benedictio (bene,
the swimming bladder; baſ, a well, and dico, I say), a speaking well of
water-bubble; bui/ge, bags or bellows, one. Benedico, taken absolutely, means
seeds of plants. Bret, belch, bolch, polch, to use words of good omen, and with an
the bolls or husks of flax ; AS. bar/g, a accusative, to hallow, bless.
bag, pouch, cod or husk of pulse, wallet; Benefice. — Benefactor. — Benefit.
b/ast-ba/g, a bellows; G. balg, skin, Lat. benefacere, to do good to one ; bene
husk, pod, the skin of those animals that factor, one who does good; benefactum,
are stripped off whole; blase-ba/g, a blow Fr. bienfait, a good deed, a benefit. The
ing-skin, bellows. ON. belgr, an inflated Lat. beneficium, a kindness, was in Mid.
skin, leather sack, bellows, belly. Sw. Lat. applied to an estate granted by the
&ac/g, a bellows, vulgarly the belly. king or other lord to one for life, because
The original signification is probably it was held by the kindness of the lord.
a water-bubble (still preserved by the ‘Villa quam Lupus quondam per bene
Gaelic diminutive ba/gam), which affords ficium nostrum tenere visus fuit.’ ‘Simil
the most obvious type of inflation. The iter villa quam ex munificentiã nostrá
application of the term to the belly, the ipsi Caddono concessimus.’ ‘Quam fide
sack-like case of the intestines, as well as lis noster per nostrum beneficium habere
to a bellows or blowing-bag, needs no ex videtur.” The term had been previously
planation. It seems that bulga was used applied in the Roman law to estates con
for womb or belly by the Romans, as a ferred by the prince upon soldiers and
fragment of Lucilius has : others.-Ducange. The same name was
given to estates conferred upon clerical
Ita ut quisque nostrum e bulgá est matris in persons for life, for the performance of
lucem editus.
ecclesiastical services, and in modern
It is probable that Gr. 30A3h, Lat. times the name of benefice is appropriated
zo/va, vu/va, the womb, is a kindred to signify a piece of church preferment.
form, from another modification of the Benign.—Benignant. Lat. benig
word for bubble, from which is also bul nus (opposed to malignus), kind, gener
bus, a round or bubble-shaped root, or a ous, disposed to oblige.
root consisting of concentric skins. Benison. OFr. beneison, benaicon,
In E. bellows, the word, like frowsers a blessing, from benedictio. Lat. bene
and other names of things consisting of a dicere, Fr. benir, to bless.
pair of principal members, has assumed Bent. The flower-stalks of grass re
a plural form. maining uneaten in a pasture. Bav.
To Belong. Du. langen, to reach, to bimaissen, bimpsen, binssen, G. binsen,
attain; belangen, to attain to, to concern, rushes. OHG. Ainog, finug.
to belong, attingere, attinere, pertinere, To Benum. See Numb.
pervenire.—Kil. G. ge/angen, to arrive Benzoin. Gum benjamin, Ptg. ben
at, to become one's property; zum Kö joim, Fr. benjoin, from Arab. Zoubert
migreiche gelangen, to come to the crown; djawi, incense of Java. By the Arabs it
be/angen, to concern, to touch. Was das is called bakhour djówá, Javanese per
&e/angeſ, as concerning that. fume, or sometimes louëan, by itself, or
To belong is thus to reach up to, to simply djaw?–Dozy.
touch one, expressing the notion of pro To Bequeath. To direct the dispo
perty by a similar metaphor to the Lat. sition of property after one's death. As.
attimere, perfinere, to hold to one. &ecwarſhan, from cºvaethan, to say. See
Belt. ON. belti; Lat. balteus, Gael. Quoth.
balt, border, belt, welt of a shoe; w. ..To Beray. To dirty. “I beraye, I
Arwald, gwaldas, a border, hem, welt of a fyle with ashes. I araye, or fyle with
shoe. myre, J'emboue. I marre a thyng, I
Bench. See Bank. soyle it or araye it.”—Palsgr. From OFr.
To Bend. ON. benda ; AS. bendant. ray, dirt. “Hic fimus, fens; ethic limus,
Fr. bander un arc, to bend a bow; hence ray.’—Commentary on Neccham in Nat.

Antiq. p. 113. Wall. ariier, to dirty. The dry fish was so new and good as it did
Esthon. roe, Fin. royu, dirt, dung ; royu, very greatly bestead us in the whole course of our
roisſo, rubbish, sweepings, dust; royahſaa, voyage.—Drake,
to rattle down, fall with sound. So ro On the other hand, to be hard bestead
Zakła, mud, dirt; ropahtaa, to fall with is to be placed in a position which it is
noise. hard to endure.
To Bereave. As reaſian, bereaſian, To Bestow. AS. stow, a place; to
to deprive of, to strip. See Reave, Rob. &estow, to be-place, to give a place to, to
Berry. A small eatable fruit. AS. lay out, to exercise on a definite object.
&eria; Goth. basſa; Du. besje. Sanscr. To Bet. From abet, in the sense of
Ahakshya, food, from bhaksh, to eat. Hence backing, encouraging, supporting the side
on the one side Lat. bacca, a berry, and on which the wager is laid.
on the other Goth. &asya, G. Beere, E. * To Bete, Beit, Beet. To help, to
berry.—Kühn, Zeitschr, vol. vi. p. 3. supply, to mend. — Jam. To beſe his
* Berth. The proper meaning of the bale, to remedy his misfortune; to beit a
word is shelter, but it is specially applied mister, to supply a want. To beet, to
to the place boarded off in a ship for a make or feed a fire.—Gl. Grose. AS.
person to lie in, or the space kept clear &etan, to make better, improve, amend,
for a ship to ride or moor in. It is the restore; ſyr betan, properly to mend the
same word with the provincial barth, a fire, but in practice, to make it. Tha het
shelter for cattle.—-Hal. he micel fyr betan, then ordered he a
Devon. barthless, houseless. Warm great fire to be lighted. OSw. eld up
&arth under hedge is a succour to beast. bota, to light the fire; bil of pºta, to fire
—Tusser. The origin is AS. beorgan,
E. dial. berwe, burwe, to defend, pro a funeral pile ; bótesward, the guardian
tect; burrow, sheltered from the wind. of a beacon-fire; ſyrðtare, one who
The final th in barth may be either the sets fire to, an incendiary. Du. boeten,
termination significative of an abstract to amend, repair, make better; het vuur
noun, as in growth, from grow, lewth, &oetem, to kindle the fire. The sense of
shelter, from lew, stealth from steal, or, as mending the fire or supplying it with fuel
I think more probable, barth may be for might so easily pass into that of making
barſ, a form which the verb takes in or lighting it, that we can hardly doubt
Yorkshire, barſham, compared with that the use of As, betan, Sw, bºta, Du.
bargham, berwham, a horse collar, what &oeſen, in the latter sense is only a special
protects the neck of the horse from the application of the same verbs in the
hames. So too Yorkshire arſ, fearful, general sense of repairing or making
from AS. earg, earh, OE. arve. better, the origin of which is to be found
To Beseech. Formerly beseek. in ON. boſſ, reparation, making better,
His heart is hard that will not meke
When men of mekeness him beseke.
Du. baete, advantage, profit, amendment,
Chaucer, R. R. baet, bat, bet, more, better, preferably.—
To seek something from a person, to On the other hand, it seems hard to
entreat, solicit. So Lat. Aeto, to seek, separate AS. betan, Du. boetem, to set
and also to entreat, beseech.
Besom. AS. besem, besm; Pl.D. bes fire; Sw, ſyröðfare, from It. buttafuoco,
Fr. boufeſcu, an incendiary, in the two
sen, G. besent. AS. besmas, rods. In last
Devonshire the name bºssam, or bassam of which the verbal element must
is given to the heath plant, because used certainly be It. buttare, to cast, to thrust,
for making besoms, as conversely a besom Fr. Öouſer, to thrust, put, put forth. Bou
is called broom, from being made of broom fer felt would thus be to set fire to, as
twigs. The proper meaning of the word ôouter selle, to put on the saddle. Sw.
seems twigs or rods. Du. &rem-bessen, Żófa was also used in the sense of parry
broom twigs, scopae spartiae.—Biglotton. ing or pushing aside a thrust aimed at
Best. See Better. one.-Ihre. The question then arises
Bestead. AS. stede, place, position. whether both derivations may not be
Hence stead is applied to signify the reconciled by supposing that ON. boſſ,
influences arising from relative position. reparation, and Du. baete, advantage,
To stand in stead of another is to perform amendment, may be derived from the
the offices due from him ; to stand one notion of pushing forwards. Goth. Ava
in good stead, or to bestead one, is to &oteith marinam, what does it boot, what
perform a serviceable office to him. does it better a man, might have been
translated, what does it advance a man, In the original—
what does it forward him. Et il maintenant s'ebahit
Car son umbre sile tra/º it.
It is naught honest, it may not advance
For to have dealing with such base poraille. Her acquaintance is perillous
Chaucer, Friar's Prol. First soft and after noious,
She hath The trashid [trahie] without wene.
The word advantage literally signifies R. R.
furtherance, the being pushed to the Probably the unusual addition of the
front, and the same idea is involved in particle be to a verb imported from the
the word profit, from Lat. froſicere, to Fr. was caused by the accidental resem
make forwards, advance, progress. To blance of the word to Du. bedriegen, G.
boot in coursing (i.e. to give something befrigen, to deceive, to cheat, which are
over and above in an exchange) is trans from a totally different root. From It.
lated by Palsgrave, bouter davantage. tradire is traditor, Fr. traitre, a traitor;
Thus the radical meaning of better would and from Fr. trahir, trahison, treachery,
be more in advance, and to bete or repair freason.
would be to push up to its former place Better.—Best. Goth. batizo, batista;
something that had fallen back. AS. betera, betest, befst, better, best. Du.
To Beteem, to Teem. To vouchsafe, bat, bet, baet, better, more, OE. bet, better.
deign, afford, deem suitable, find in one's See To Bete.
heart. Between.—Betwixt. The AS. has
Yet could he not beteem (dignetur) tweoh, a different form of twa, two, and
The shape of other bird than eagle for to seem.
Golding's Ovid in R. thence twegen, twain. From the former
“Ah, said he, thou hast confessed and be of these are AS. betwuh, betweah, betweehs,
wrayed all, I could ſeem it to rend thee in pieces.' &etwear, betwurt, by two, in the middle
—Dialogue on Witches, Percy Soc. x. 88. of two, which may be compared as to
In a like sense ON. tima, Pl.D. taemen, form with amid, AS. amiddles, amidst, or
tamen, Ober D. zemen. ON. Tima eigi with again, against. In like manner
at lata eit, not to have the heart to give from twain is formed between, in the
middle of twain.
up a thing. Pl.D. IAE ſame mi dat nig,
I do not allow myself that. He timeſ The Ile of Man that me clepeth
By twene us and Irlonde.—R. G.
sié een good glas wien: he allows him
self a good glass of wine. Bav. Mich Bevel. Slant, sloped off, awry. Fr.
2imet, gegimet eines dinges, I approve of Öeveau, an instrument opening like a
a thing, find it good. Goth. gatiman, G. pair of compasses, for measuring angles.
ziemen, geziemen, Du. taemen, betaemen, Buzeau, a square-like instrument having
to beseem, become, be fitting or suitable. moveable and compass branches, or one
The sense of being fitting or suitable branch compass and the other straight.
springs from ON. tima, to happen, to fall Some call it a bevel.—Cot.
to one's lot, in the same way that schick Beverage. A drink. Lat. bibere, It.
Jich, suitable, springs from schicken, to bevere, to drink; whence beveraggio;
appoint, order, dispose (whence schicksal, Fr. Öeuvrage; E. beverage.
fate, lot). On the same principle ON. Bevy. It. beva, a drinking; a bevy, as
fallinn, fitting, suitable, as one would of pheasants.-Fl. Fr. bevee, a brood,
have it fall, from falla, to fall, to happen. flock, of quails, larks, roebucks, thence
To Betray. Lat. tradere, to deliver applied to a company of ladies especially.
up, then to deliver up what ought to be To Bewray, Goth. wrohjan, Fris.
kept, to deliver up in breach of trust, to wrogia, ruogia, wreia, G. rigen, to ac
betray. Hence It. tradire, Fr. trahir, cuse, i.e. to bring an offence to the notice
as envahir, from invadere. The inflec of the authorities. Sw, raja, to discover,
tions of Fr. verbs in ir with a double ss,
as trahissons, trahissais, are commonly make manifest. Dit tungomål röjer dig,
rendered in E. by a final sh. Thus from
thy speech bewrayeth thee, i. e. makes it
manifest that thou art a Galilean. Det
&ahir, &ahissais, E. abash ; from polir, e . - - -

polissais, E. polish, &c. In like manner röjer sig sjelſt, it bewrays itself, gives
from trahir we formerly had trash and Some sign of existence which attracts
notice. Now the stirring of an object is
&etrash, as from obeſir, obéissais, obeish.
In the water anon was seen the way in which it generally catches our
His nose, his mouth, his eyen sheen, attention. , Hence G. regen, to stir, is
And he thereof was all ačashed used for the last evidence of life. Regt.
His owne shadow had him betrashed.—R. R. Æein leben mehrin dir, are there no signs

of life in you? Die Ziehe reget sich bei the same sense, though such a change of
ihm, love begins to stir in him, shows the form would be very unusual.
first signs of life in him. Pl.D. wrogen, The true origin is probably from the
rogen (in Altmark royen), to stir. ‘Aſi notion of sliding or slipping. It shiago,
ramme tho handelende na/º wroginge Öhrer sófesso, bending, aslope; sóisciare, &is
conscientien : " herein to deal according cfare, shrisciare, shrissare, to creep or
to the stirring of their conscience.—Brem. crawl sideling, aslope, or in and out, as
Wtb. He roºt un bogſ się nig, he is an eel or a snake, to glide or slip as upon.
stock still. (Zºrºgen, to stir up ; beregen, ice; sóriscio, sórisso, s/iscio, oblique,
sić herºgen, to move, to stir.—Schütze. crooked, winding or crawling in and out,
The train of thought is then, to stir, to slippery, sliding; biascio, bias-wise.
give signs of life, make manifest his Bib. Fr. davon, Čaviere, haverole, a
presence, to make evident, bring under cloth to prevent a child drivelling over
notice, reveal, discover, accuse. ‘Thy its clothes. Baver, to slaver or drivel.
tongue bewrayeth thee :’ thy tongue Du. Awiſſen, to slaver; Æwij/-baſ, Azvāj/-
makes thy Galilean birth to stir as it were Zap, or A wiſ/-s/aff, a slabbering-bib. Fris.
before the eyes, le fait sauter aux yeux (a/6i, the mouth; Mantuan, Čabói, baſ
(according to the Fr. metaphor), makes bio, snout, lips.
it evident to sense, convicts thee of being To Bib.—To Bibble. Lat. bibo, to
a Galilean. drink, whence Du. bifferen, to drink much;
E. dial. rogge, rogg/e, Pl.D. wragge/n, biberer, Fr. biberon, bibaculus, a bibber,
to shake. See Wriggle. one who drinks in excess. OE. bibó/e,
Bezel.-Basil. Sp. biseſ, the basil Sc. bebø/e, to sip, to tipple. ‘An excellent
edge of a plate of looking-glass, which good biöðeler, specially in a bottle.”—
were formerly ornamented with a border Gascoigne. ‘He's aye beóðſing and
ground slanting from the general surface drinking.” – Jam. Dan. dial. 6://e, to
of the glass. When the edge of a joiner's trickle. ‘Han er saa beskjenket at
tool is ground away to an angle it is called brandevinet bibler oven ud av ham :” he
a basil (Halliwell), in Fr. taiſ/6 en biseau. is so drunk that the brandy runs out of
Aiseau, a bez/e, bez/ing or skueing.—Cot. him. Dan, fible, to purl, to well up with
The proper meaning of the word seems small bubbles and a soft sound.
to be a paring, then an edge pared or Bible. Gr. 33Aoc, a book; originally,
sliced off, a sloping edge. an Egyptian plant, the papyrus, of the
Tayllet le payn ke est parée, bark of which paper was first made.
Les &iseaux (the paringes) a l'amoyne soyt done. Bice. An inferior blue, OE. asure-bice
Bibelsworth in Nat. Ant. 172. (Early E. Misc. Hal. 78); Fr. bes-azur,
the particle Öes being often used in com
Bezoar. A stony concretion in the position to signify perversion, inferiority.
stomach of ruminants to which great Prov. čes/ei, perverted belief; bar/ume
medical virtues were formerly attached. (for bis-/ume) weak light; Piedm. bes
Pers. Žádzahr, from pād-, expelling or anca, crooked; ber-ſaifa (for bes-/ai/a),
preserving against, and zahr, poison. In Fr. petit-lait, whey ; Cat. Aescom/te, mis
Arab, the word became bādīzahr, baizahr. count; Fr. bes/emps, foul weather. Dict.
—Dozy. Wallon.
To Bezzle. To drink hard, to tipple. To Bicker.—Bickering. Toskirmish,
Probably, like guzzle, formed from an dispute, wrangle. It is especially applied
imitation of the sound made in greedy in Sc. to a fight with stones, and also sig
eating and drinking. nifies the constant motion of weapons
Yes, s' foot I wonder how the inside of a taverne and the rapid succession of strokes in a
looks now. Oh! when shall I &izzle, bizzle 2– battle or broil, or the noise occasioned by
Dekkar in R.
successive strokes, by throwing of stones,
Bi-. Lat. &is, twice, in two ways; for or by any rapid motion.—Jamieson. The
diºs, from duo, two, as beſ/um for dire//um. origin is probably the representation of
In comp. it becomes bi-, as in Bipºd, two the sound of a blow with a pointed in
footed, Bisect, to cut in two. strument by the syllable pick, whence the
Bias. . . Fr. biais, Čihais, Cat. biar, frequentative fic/er or bicker would re
Sardin. Afascia, It. sbiescio, Piedm. sbias, present a succession of such blows. To
sloped, slanting; Fr. biaiser, Sard. sbia *icker in NE. is explained to clatter, Hal
sciai, to do something aslant. The It. liwell. Du. bicke/er, a stone-hewer or
&ieco, sºcco, from obliquus, has a singular stone-picker; bicke/en, bicken, to hew
resemblance to sòiescio, used in precisely stone; bickel, bickel-steenken, a fragment

of stone, a chip, explaining the Sc. bicker beidan, As, hidan, abidan, to look for. To
in the sense of throwing stones. Bicke/ent, pray is merely to make known the fact
to start out, as tears from the eyes, from that we look for or desire the object of our
the way in which a chip flies from the prayers. The Lat. peto, guaro, signifying
pick. Hence Sc. to bicker, to move in the first instance to seek or look for, are
quickly.—Jam. also used in the sense of asking for. The
Ynglis archaris that hardy war and wycht ON. Zeita is used in each sense (Threv. Leta),
Amang the Scottis bykarit with all their mycht. and the Sw. has le/a, to look for, an/eta,
Wallace in Jam.
to solicit, just as the two ideas are ex
The arrows struck upon them like blows pressed in E. by seek and beseech, for be
from a stone-cutter's pick. seek. The ON. bidi//, a suitor, from
It must be observed that the word hidja, to ask, seems essentially the same
pick (equivalent to the modern pitch) word with AS. bide/, an attendant or
was used for the cast of an arrow. beadle, from bidan, to abide or wait on.
Big. Swollen, bulky. The original
I hold you a grote I pycke as farre with an
arowe as you.-Palsgrave in Halliwell. spelling seems to be bug, which is still
To Bid. Two verbs are here con used in the N. of England for swollen,
founded, of distinct form in the other proud, swaggering.
Teutonic languages. But when her circling nearer down doth pull

1. To Bid in the obsolete sense of to Then gins she swell and waxen bug with horn.
More in Richardson.
For far lever he hadde wende ‘Bug as a Lord.”—Halliwell. ‘Big-swol
And biddeys mete yf he shulde in a sºng º len heart.” — Addison. ‘Big - uddered
ewes.”—Pope in R.
Bidders and beggars are used as sy The original form of the root is pro
nonymous in P. P. bably seen in the ON. bo/ga, a swelling,
For he that beggeth other biddeth but if he have do/ginn, swoln, from be/gia, to inflate; E.
bulge, to belly, to swell, bi/ge or bulge, the
He is false and faitour and defraudeth the neede.
belly of a ship, related to big or bug, as
In this sense the word is the correla G. and Gael. baſg, an entire skin, to E.
tive of Goth. bidjan, bidan, bath, or bad, Aag. The loss of the l gives Dan. bug,
bedum : As. biddan, bard, gebeden ; G. bit belly, bulge, bow; bugne (answering to
ten, bat, ON. bidja, or, in a reflective ON. bo/gma), to bulge, belly, bend. Com
form, beidast. pare also Sp. buyue with E. bulk. W. &og,
2. To Bid in the sense of offering, swelling, rising up.
bringing forwards, pressing on one's To Big. AS. byggan, ON. byggia, to
notice, and consequently ordering or re build, to inhabit; OSw. bygga, to pre
quiring something to be done. Goth. pare, repair, build, inhabit. A simpler
&judan in anaëyudan, ſaurójudan, to and probably a contracted form is seen
command, forbid; AS. beodan, bead, ge in ON. bud, OSw. boa, bo, to arrange,
boden ; G. bieten, to offer, verbieſen, to prepare, cultivate, inhabit; Du. bouwen,
forbid ; Du. bieden, porrigere, offerre, to cultivate, to build; G. batten to culti
praebere, praestare.—Kil. vate, to dwell, to build.
To bid the banns, G. ein Żaar ver/obſe Bigamy. From Gr. 8tc, twice, becoming
auſbieten, is to bring forwards the an in Lat. bis and in comp. bi-, and Yaušw, to
nouncement of a marriage, to offer it to marry.
public notice. Einem einen gufen tag Bight or Bought. A bend of a shore
&ieten, to bid one good day, to offer one or of a rope. ON. bugt, a flexure, biºga,
the wish of a good day. To bid one to a to bend, to curve. AS. bugan, bigan, G.
dinner is properly the same verb, to pro &iegent, to bend.
pose to one to come to dinner, although Bigot. The beginning of the 13th
it might well be understood in the sense century saw the sudden rise and maturity
of the other form of the verb, to ask, to of the mendicant orders of St Francis and
pray one to dinner. Analogous expres St Dominic. These admitted into the
sions are G. einen vor Gericht bieten, to ranks of their followers, besides the pro
summon one before a court of justice; fessed monksand nuns, a third class, called
einen zºor sich bietent lassen, to have one the tertiary order, or third order of peni
called before him. tence, consisting both of men and women,
With respect to logical pedigree, the who, without necessarily quitting their
meaning of bid, in the sense of ask for, secular avocations, bound themselves to
pray, may plausibly be derived from Goth. a strict life and works of charity. The

same outburst of religious feeling seems bigardo, G. bºghart, signifying bagmen or

to have led other persons, both men and heggars, a term of reproach applied to
women, to adopt a similar course of life. the same class of people. We find Boni
They wore a similar dress, and went face VIII., in the quotations of Ducange
about reading the Scriptures and practis and his continuators, speaking of them
ing Christian life, but as they subjected as “Nonnulli viri pestiferi qui vulgariter
themselves to no regular orders or vows of Fraticelli seu fratres de paupere vità, aut
obedience, they became highly obnoxious Bizochi sive Bichini vel aliis fucatis no
to the hierarchy, and underwent much minibus nuncupantur.” Matthew Paris,
obloquy and persecution. They adopted with reference to A.D. 1243, says, “Eisdem
the grey habit of the Franciscans, and temporibus quidam in Alemannia prae
were popularly confounded with the third cipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque
order of those friars under the names of sexu, sed maximé in muliebri, habitum
Peguini, Beguftar, Bizocchi, Bizzocari religionis sed levem susceperunt, conti
(in Italian Beghini, Bighini, Bighiotti), nentiam vitae privato voto profitentes,
all apparently derived from Ital. bāgio, sub nullius tamen regulá coarctati, nec
Venet. biso, grey. “Bizocco,' says an adhucullo claustro contenti.” They were
author quoted in N. and Q. vol. ix. 560, however by no means confined to Italy.
“sia quasi bigioco e bigiotſo, perché i “Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibus
Terziari di S. Francesco si veston di plurimi maximè in Italiá et Alemanniä et
bigio.” So in France they were called Provinciae provincià, ubi tales Bºgardi
/es pe/if's frères bis or bise/s.-Ducange. et Béguini vocantur, nolentes jugum
From higio, grey, was formed bigello, the subire verae obedientiae—nec servare re
dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep, and gulam aliquam ab Ecclesiá approbatam
the coarse cloth made from its undyed sub manu praeceptoris et ducis legitimi,
wool, and this was probably also the vocati Fraticelli, alii de paupere vità, alii
meaning of bighino or beguino, as well as Apostolici, aliqui Begardi, qui ortum in
bizocco. “E che l’abito bigio ovver beghino Alemannia habuerunt.”—Alvarus Pela
era comune degli nomini di penitenza,' gius in Duc. “Secta quaedam pestifera
where beghino evidently implies a de illorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellan
scription of dress of a similar nature to turquise fratres pauperes de tertio ordine
that designated by the term bigio. Bi S. Francisci communiter appellabant.”—-
zocco also is mentioned in the fragment Bernardus Guidonis in vita Joh. xx.
of the history of Rome of the 14th century ‘Capellamgue seu clusam hujusmodi
in a way which shows that it must have censibus et redditibus pro septem per
signified coarse, dark-coloured cloth, such sonis religiosis, Begutti's videlicet ordinis
as is used for the dress of the inferior S. Augustini dotarint.”—Chart. A. D. 1518.
orders, probably from hiso, the other form ‘Beghardus et Beguina et Bºgutta sunt
of bigio. “Per te Tribuno,' says one of viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.”—Brevilo
the nobles to Rienzi, ‘fora piu convene quium in Duc.
vole che portassi vestimenta honeste da They are described more at large in
Aizuoco che queste pompose, translated the Acts of the Council of Treves, A.D.
by Muratori, ‘honesti plebeii amictus.’ 1310. “Item cum quidam sint laici in
It must be remarked that bizocco also civitate et provincià Trevirensi qui sub
signifies rude, clownish, rustical, ap pretextu cujusdam religionis fictae Beg
parently from the dress of rustics being hardos se appellant, cum tabardis et
composed of bicocco. In the same way Fr. tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio
bureau is the colour of a brown sheep, incedentes, ac labores manuum detest
and the coarse cloth made from the un antes, conventicula inter se aliquibus
dyed wool. Hence the OE. bore/, coarse temporibus faciunt, seque fingunt coram
woollen cloth, and also unlearned com simplicibus personis expositores sa
mon men. In a similar manner from crarum scripturarum, nos vitam eorum
bigello, natural grey or sheep's russet, qui extra religionem approbatam validarn
homespun cloth, bigheſ/one, a dunce, a mendicantes discurrunt, &c.’ ‘Nonnul
blockhead.—Flor. From bºgio would lae mulieres sive sorores, Bigutta apud
naturally be formed bigotto, ºghiotto, and vulgares nuncupatae, abscue votorum re
as soon as the radical meaning of the ligionis emissione.”—Chart. A.D. 1499.
word was obscured, corruption would From the foregoing extracts it will
easily creep in, and hence the variations readily be understood how easily the
digutta, beguíſa, Čigoſła, beghino, which name, by which these secular aspirants
must not be confounded with begardo, to superior holiness of life were desig
nated, might be taken to express a hypo plough-share ; Du. bille, a stonemason's
crite, false pretender to religious feeling, pick ; bi//en den mo/en-steen, to pick a
Tartuffe. Thus we find in It. bigotto, millstone.—Kil. W. &wye//, an axe, a
bizocco, a devotee, a hypocrite; Pied hatchet. Gael. bizaiſ, to strike.
montese bigot, bisoch, Fr. bigot, in the 2. The biſ/ of a bird may very likely
same sense. Sp. bāgardo, a name given be radically identical with the foregoing.
to a person of religion leading a loose The Du. bicken is used both of a bird
life, bigardia, deceit, dissimulation; G. pecking and of hewing stone with a pick;
*eghart, gleischner (Frisch), a bigot or &icken or bi/Zen den molensteen. AS. biſe,
hypocrite, a false pretender to honesty or the bill of a bird, horn of an animal. In
holiness.-Ludwig. ‘Bigin, bigot, su the same way are related Pol. dºio/, the
perstitious hypocrite.”—Speight in Rich beak of a bird, džiobad, to peck, to job,
ardson. and dºciobas, an adze; Bohem. top, a
In English the meaning has received beak, ſepati, to strike, fo/or, an axe.
a further development, and as persons Bill. 3.--Billet. A bill, in the sense
professing extraordinary zeal for religious of a writing, used in legal proceedings, as
views are apt to attribute an overweening a biſ/ of indictment, biſ/ of exchange, bi//
importance to their particular tenets, a in parliament, is properly a sealed instru
bigot has come to signify a person un ment, from Mid. Lat. bulla, a seal. See
reasonably attached to particular opin Bull. A billet is the diminutive of this, a
ions, and not having his mind open to short note, the note which appoints a
any argument in opposition. soldier his quarters. Du. buſ/eſ, biſ/et,
Bilberry. The fruit of the vaccinium inscriptum, symbolum, syngraphum.—
myrtillus, while that of vaccinium uligi Kil.
nosum is called in the N. of E. &/a-berry, Billet. 2.- Billiard. Fr. billoſ, a stick
from the dark colour. Dan. Ölaa, blue; or log of wood cut for fuel, an ingot of
Sw. 6/imand, a negro. In Danish the gold or silver. Bille, an ingot, a young
names are reversed, as the fruit of the stock of a tree to graft on–Cotgrave; a
myrtillus is called blaa-bar, that of the stick to rest on—Roquefort. Langued.
uliginosum bě//e-bar. Perhaps the name 6i/io, a stick to tighten the cord of a
may be a corruption of buſ/-berry, in ac package. Fr. bi//ard or bi//art, a short
cordance with the general custom of and thick truncheon or cudgel, hence the
naming eatable berries after some animal, cudgel in the play at trap ; and a bi//ard,
or the stick wherewith we touch the ball
as craneberry, crowberry, and the bil
berry itself was called by the Saxons at billyards. OFr. billard also signified
/art-berry. Aurelles, whortle-berries, a man who rests on a stick in walking.—
bill-berries, buſ/-berries.—Cot. Roquef. Billette, a billet of wood ; bi/.
Bilbo. A slang term for a sword, now lettes d'un espieu, the cross bars near the
obsolete. A Bilboa blade. head of a boarspear to hinder it from
Bilboes. Among mariners, a punish running too far into the animal.
ment at sea when the offender is laid in The origin of the term is probably from
irons or set in a kind of stocks. Du. doſe, the trunk of a tree, the o changing
&oeye, a shackle. Lat. boja, Prov. čoia, to an i to express diminution. A like
OFr. buie, fetters. Bojae, genus vincu change takes place in the other sense of
lorum tam ferreae quam ligneae.—Festus biſ/et from bulla, a seal.
in Diez. This leaves the first syllable Billow. Sw. bolja, Dan. 50/ge, ON.
unaccounted for. The proper meaning &y/gia, Du. bo/ghe, bulghe, fluctus maris,
of boja, however, seems to be rather the unda, procella–Kil., from OSw. bulgja,
clog to which the fetters are fastened than to swell. Du. beſghen, AS. began, affeſ
the fetter itself. NFris. bui, buoy [i. e. gan, to be angry (i.e. to swell with rage).
a floating log to mark the place of some The mariner amid the swelling seas
thing sunk], clog to a fetter.—Deutsch. Who seeth his back with many a billow beaten.
Mundart. Johansen, p. IoI. Gascoigne in R.
Bilge. The belly or swelling side of a
ship. See Bulk. “Had much ado to prevent one from
To Bilk. To defraud one of cxpected sinking, the bi/ſowe was so great’ (Hack
remuneration ; a slang term most likely luyt), where we see billow not used in
from an affected pronunciation of ba/#. the sense of an individual wave, but in
Bill. 1. An instrument for hewing. that of szue/Z.
G. &eil, an axe ; AS. bi/, a sword, axe, So in Gr. otéma 6áAaaanc, the swelling
weapon; Sw. bila, an axe, plog-bill, a of the sea, and in Lat. ‘tumidi fluctus,’
5 #

‘tumens acquor,’ and the like, are com Bio-. Gr. Bioc, life.
monplaces. See Belly. Birch. As. Airce, Sw. 873rk; Lith.
Bin-Bing. The proper meaning is her?as (z = Fr. j), Sanscr. bhūrja.
a heap. Bird. As. brid, the young of birds;
Like ants when they do spoile the *ing of corn. earnes brid, an eagle's young ; G. brut, a
Surrey in R. brood or hatch of young. See Breed.
Then as side boards or walls were We find the use of the word in this
added to confine the heap to a smaller original sense as late as Shakespeare.
space, the word was transferred to a Being fed by us you used us so
As that ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird
receptacle so constructed for storing Useth the sparrow.—H. IV., v. sc. 1.
corn, wine, &c. Sw, binge, a heap, a
The proper designation of the feathered
division in a granary, or bin. ON. bunga, creation
to swell, to bulge, bunſki, a heap. Fr. time wasis specially
in E. fowl, which in course of
applied to the galli
àigne, a bump or knob. naceous tribe as the most important kind
The grete bing was upbeilded wele of bird for domestic use, and it was
Of aik trees and fyrren schydis dry.—D. V.
perhaps this appropriation of the word
To Bind. —Bine. —Bindweed. AS. which led to the adoption of the name of
bindan, Goth. bindan, band, bundum. the young animal as the general designa
This word is I believe derived from the tion of the race. A similar transfer of
notion of a bunch or lump, expressed by meaning has taken place in the case of
Sw. bunt, Dan. bund/, G. bund, a bunch, pigeon, from Ital, fift/tone, piccione, pro
truss, bundle, the primary notion of perly a young pigeon, and of Fr. poule,
binding being thus to make a bunch of a gallinaceous bird, E. poultry, from Lat.
a thing, to fasten it together. In like Auſ/us, the young of an animal.
manner from Anot, Lat. nodus, a knob, I Birth. As. &corth, Sw, bºrd, G. ge
would derive the verb to knit, to bind *tºrſ, from AS. beran, to bear, to bring
together, as when we speak of one's limbs forth. See To Bear.
being firmly knit together. The idea Biscuit. Fr. biscuit, It. biscotto, Lat.
which is expressed in E. by the verb Amit *is-coctus (ºis and coquo, to cook), twice
or net, i.e. to form a knotted structure, is cooked, or baked.
rendered in ON. by binda, to bind ; at Bishop. Lat. episcoſus, from Gr.
Ainda mát, to knot nets for fish, to net. #Triakotroc, an overseer, overlooker. When
Lith. pinnu, pinti, to wreathe, to plait. compared with Fr. eveyite, it affords a
It seems more in accordance with the remarkable proof how utterly unlike the
development of the understanding that immediate descendants of the same word
the form with the thinner vowel and ab in different languages may become. Epis
stract signification should be derived copus, It. wescowo, Fr. evesque, evégue.
from that with the broader vowel and Bisson.— Bisom.—Bisen.—Bizened.
concrete signification, than vice versä. Blind, properly near-sighted. Du. bif
Thus I suppose the Gr. 8&nto, to build, to sien, propius videre; bij siende, bij sien
be derived from éémoc, a house, Lat. pen igh, lusciosus et myops, qui nisi propius
dere, to hang, from poſtdus, a weight, admota non videt.—Kil.
the last of these forms being identical Bit. The part of the bridle which the
with the word which we are treating as horse biſes or holds in his mouth. AS.
the root of bind, viz. bund, bundſ, bunch. bitol. ON. bitill, beitsl. Sw. befsel.
Lith. Żundas, a truss, bundle, also a stone Bitch. AS. bicce, ON. bikkia, a little
weight, a weight of 48 pounds. The dog, a bitch ; applied also to other
original meaning of poſtdus would thus animals, and especially to a small poor
be simply, a lump of some heavy ma horse. G. betze, or petze, a bitch, in
terial, doubtless a stone. Swabia, a pig; petz, a bear. Fr. biche, a
The term bine or bind is applied to hind or female stag. Something of the
the twining stem of climbing plants. same confusion is seen in G. hiridinn, a
Thus we speak of the /o/-äine for the female dog; hindinn, a female stag.
shoots of hops. The wood-öine desig Lap. Ağſſo, a bitch.
nates the honeysuckle in England, while To Bite. Goth. beifan, ON. bila, G.
#ind-wood, bin-wood, or ben-wood, is in beissent.
Scotland applied to ivy. Here we see Bittacle or Binnacle. A frame of
the root in the precise form of the Lith. timber in the steerage of a ship, where
finnu, fin-ti, to twine. the compass stands.-Bailey. Fr. Aaſhiº
Binnacle. See Bittacle. acle, Sp. biſacora. Habitacle, a habit
acle, dwelling or abiding place.—Cotgr. signify ‘a soft noise, as of a body falling
In Legrand's Fr. and Flemish dictionary into water, or water beating gently on
/abitacle is explained a little lodge the beach ; //abraich, a fluttering noise,
(logement) near the mizenmast for the a flapping, as of wings; //abarfaich, a
ilot and steersman. “Nagt huis, 't continued soft sound, as of water gently
Hºje, 't kompas huis.’ It would thus beating the shore, unintelligible talk;
seem to have signified, first, a shelter Alabair, a babbler.—Armstrong.
for the steersman, then the mere case in The introduction or omission of an /
which the compass is placed. after the labial in these imitative forms
Bitter. Goth. bai/rs, ON. beifr, bitr, makes little difference, as is seen in
apparently from its biting the tongue. sputter and splutter. So Fr. bahoyer, to
Peper aer bitter och bitar fast. &/abòer with the lips.-Cot. To b/a/ber
Pepper is bitter and bites hard.—Hist. out the tongue, to loll it out.—Hal. B/ab
Alex. Mag., quoted by Ihre. Applied in ber-lift, synonymous with baber-/ip, a
ON. to the sharpness of a weapon. “Hin large coarse lip; b/oô, parallel with Fris.
Bitrasta sverd’—the sharpest sword. &abòe, Mantuan babói, a large lip, mouth,
When an edge is blunt we say it will not chops.
Wit hung her blob, even humour seemed to
In a similar manner Gael. beum, bite, mourn.—Collins in Hal.
cut, and beum, bitter.
Bittern. A bird of the heron tribe. Gael, blob, bloëach, blubber-lipped. Bav.
It. bittore, Fr. butor, OE. bittour. Sp. b/ºff, chops, mouth, in contempt. —
Deutsch. Mund. v. 332.
bitor, a rail.
Bitts. The bit/s of the anchor, Fr. Black, Bleak. The original meaning
bites, Sp. bifas, are two strong posts of black seems to have been exactly the
reverse of the present sense, viz. shining,
standing up on the deck, round which white. It is in fact radically identical
the cable is made fast. ON. bitt, a beam
in a house or ship, a mast; Sp. Öitones,
with Fr. blanc, white, blank, from which
pins of the capstern. it differs only in the absence of the nasal.
Bivouac. The lying out of an army ON. blažki, shine, whiteness (candor sine
maculá.—Hald.). It. biacca, white lead.
in the open field without shelter. G. bei Then as white is contrasted with any
wache, an additional watch, from wachen,
to watch, corrupted in Fr. to bivouac, special colour the word came to signify
from whence we have adopted the term. pale, faded. AS. b/ac-hſeor ides, the pale
cheeked maid. Se mona mid his blacant
But we formerly had the word direct
from German in a sense nearer the leohte ; the moon with her pale light.
original. Biovac, bihovac, a night guard G. bleich, Du. bleek, Dan. Ö/eg, pale. N.
performed by the whole army when there &/a44, pale, faded, discoloured ; gulb/a44,
is apprehension of danger.—Bailey. Sp. drumſ/a4%, pale yellow, buff, pale brown;
vivac, town guard to keep order at night; Sw. black, whitish, yellowish, fallow; ON.
divouac, night guard, small guard-house. &/ei/ºr, light-coloured, whitish, pale, pale
—Neumann. yellow; NE. blake, yellow; ‘as b/ake as a
To Blab–Blabber.—Blabber-lip. To paigle (cowslip).’
blað, to talk much, indistinctly, to chatter; A fildefare ful eerly tokhir flihte,
then to talk indiscreetly, to let out what To fore my study sang with his fetheris blake.
Lydgate, Percy Soc. x. 156.
should have been concealed. I blaðer, as
a childe dothe or he can speake, Je Fieldfare, AS. ſeaſo-ſor, from ſeaſo, fallow
Why ºnes thou so proudly to profecie these Again, as colours fade away the aspect
things of the object becomes indistinct and ob
And . no more what thou 8/aberes? than Ba scure, and thus the idea of discolouration
laam's asse.—Halliwell.
merges in that of dim, dusky, dark, on
Dan. b/abbre, to babble, gabble. Pl.D. the one side, as in that of pale and white
&laðern, G. Z/affern, to speak quick, on the other. ON. blackr is translated
confusedly, thoughtlessly; Bohem. b/ep “glacus seu subalbus, by Gudmund;
fati, to babble, chatter; Lith. b/ebberis, a ‘fuscus, obscurus,” by Haldorsen. In like
babbler; Gael. blaðaram, a stammerer, manner E. bleak is used to signify pale
stutterer, b/ab/dach, babbling, garrulous. or light-coloured as well as livid or dark
All founded on a representation of the coloured. Fr. blesmer, to wax pale or
sound made by collision of the lips in //eaked.—Hollyband. Fr. has/er, to make
rapid talking. The Gael. A/ad is used to i ö/eak or swart a thing by displaying it in

the hot sun.-Cot. Bleak of colour, pallido, blade of a sword, or of an oar; G. b/att,
livido; to bleak in the sun, imbrunire.— leaf of a tree, sheet of paper, flap of a
Torriano. Sw, black, whitish, also tanned coat, &c.; Du. blad, a leaf, plate, board.
by the sun; mus-à/ackſ, mouse-dun. When The term is generally applied to anything
the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed thin and flat. It is commonly connected
to its limit it becomes absolute darknesswith flat, It, piatto, Fr. plat, Du. G. pſat,
or blackness. There is nothing more Gr. ºr Maric, broad. But perhaps a more
variable than the signification of words definite origin may be found in the notion
designating colour. of foam, or a mass of bubbles, which we
Blackguard. A name originally given have above endeavoured to indicate as
in derision to the lowest class of menials the original signification of Bladder. The
or hangers-on about a court or great old Dutch form of the word is b/ader, a
household, as scullions, linkboys, and leaf, b/aderen, leaves, branches; G. blat
others engaged in dirty work. ſerig, leafy. And we have in foam a
A slave that within this twenty years rode most complete example of leafy structure.
with the Black Guard in the Duke's carriage Blain. As, b/egen, Dan. //ºgne, Du.
(i. e. with the Duke's baggage) mongst spits and */cin, Sw. dial. &/ena, a boil, pimple,
dripping-pans.—Webster. blister. Perhaps from b/ºgen, which
I am degraded from a cook, and I fear that Schwenk and Adelung give as an old
the Devil himself will entertain me but for one
of his blackguard, and he shall be sure to have
Swabian form of the G. bſahem, to blow.
his meat burnt.—O. Play in Nares. Blame.—Blaspheme. Gr. 3Aarºhueiv,
to speak impiously. Lat. &/asſ/emare, to
The word is well explained in a pro revile,
clamation of the Board of Green Cloth reproach, defame. Hence Ital.
&iasimare, Fr. biasmer, and E. &lame.
in 1683, cited in N. and Q., Jan. 7, 1854.
Et per consilium eorum ita convenienter tibi
Whereas of late a sort of vicious idle and respondebo quod cum tecum loguar non credo te
masterless boys and rogues, commonly called me inde blasphematurum.—Eadmer, Hist. Novo
the Black-guard, with divers other lewd and rum, p. 86.
loose fellows, vagabonds, vagrants, and wan Que quandje parle avec vous je ne crois pas
dering men and women, do follow the Court to que vous m'en blamiez.
the great dishonour of the same—We do strictly
charge all those so called the Blackguard as Blank.-Blanch. Fr. blanc, white;
aforesaid, with all other loose idle masterless men, &/anchir, to blanch, to make or become
boys, rogues and wanderers, who have intruded white ; blanc, &langue, a blank ticket, a
themselves into his Majesty's court and stables, white or unwritten ticket, a ticket that
that within the space of 24 hours they depart.
does not obtain the prize. Hence applied
Bladder. As. bſardre, ON. b/adra, a to an occasion on which the result hoped
bubble, blister, bladder; Sw. Aſadºra, a for has not happened. Blank verse, verse
bubble, G. bſatter, a pustule; Bav. b/aſter, void of the rhyme to which the ear is ac
bubble, blister, bladder. The radical customed. To blank, or blanch, to dis
image is the formation of foam or bubbles appoint, to omit, pass over.
by the dashing of water, and the sense is Now, Sir, concerning your travels—I suppose
carried on from a bubble to any bubble you will not blanch Paris in your way.—Reliqu.
Wott. in R. The judges of that time thought
shaped thing, a bladder or pustule. Pl. it a dangerous thing to admit if's and an's to
D. pladdern, to dabble in water, and qualify the words of treason, whereby every man
thence to babble, tattle. Dan. A/udare, might express his malice and blanch his danger.
to puddle or mix up turf and water; to —Bacon in R.
jabber; //udder, mud, slush, mire, also The original root of the word is seen in
jabber, gabble. The primitive sense of the G. blinken, to shine, to glitter, as Lat.
splashing in water is lost in ON. b/adra, candidus, white, from candere, to shine,
to jabber, Sc. &/adder, blather, b/ether, to glow. Dan. Ölank, shining, polished.
chatter, foolish talk, but it may be supplied Blanket. From being made of white
from the constant connection between woollen cloth. Fr. blancheſ, a blanket
words expressing excessive talk, and the for a bed, also white woollen cloth; blan
agitation of liquids. Besides the examples chef, whitish.-Cot.
of this connection given above, the ON. To Blare.—Blatter.—Blatant. To
sko/a and thwart/a, and G. waschen, all roar, to bellow. Du. Ö/aeren, probably
signify to wash as well as to tattle, chat contracted from bladerem, as blader,
ter. Du. borrelen, to bubble, to purl, is &/aere, a bubble, blister, or as E. smother,
identical with Flanders borden, to vocifer smore, Du. modder, moere, mud. The
ate.-Kil.See Blubber. present forms then should be classed with
Blade. ON. blad, the leaf of a tree, //ether, blaſher, bladder, the origin of

which has been explained under Blad his vaunt hearken his vertue and worthiness.-
der. Golden Book in R.

Gael blaodhrach, b/orach, bawling, Sw, dron-blisare, a whisperer, back

clamorous, noisy; b/or, a loud noise, a biter. Perhaps the expression of blazing,
voice; Ir, bladdh, a shout. or blazening, abroad, was partly derived
A parallel form sounds the radical syl from the image of blowing a trumpet, as
lable with a f instead of d. Du. b/aeferen, when we speak of trumpeting one's vir
&laeten, blaterare, stulté logui, proflare tues. Du. ‘op een trompet blaazen,” to
fastum; blaet, blatero, ventosus, magnilo sound a trumpet.
quus. – Kil. Hence Spenser's blatan? 2. To portray armorial bearings in
beast, the noisy, boasting, ill-speaking their proper colours; whence Blazonry,
beast. “She roade at peace through his heraldry. Fr. Ö/ason, a coat of arms, also
only pains and excellent endurance, how the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are
ever envy list to b/after against him.’— painted or figured; also blazon or the b/a2
Spenser. With inversion of the liquid, ing of arms.-Cot. The origin of this ex
Sp. baladrar, to bellow, to talk much and pression has given rise to much discussion,
loud; baladron, OE. &lateroon, an empty and two theories are proposed, each of
boaster. much plausibility. First from the E. blaze,
Blast. A gust of wind. AS. blasam, b/azen, to proclaim, to trumpet forth,
to blow ; blast, a blast. To blast, to de whence the Fr. b/ason, used, among other
stroy, to cut off prematurely, as fruit or senses, in that of praise, commendation;
vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential &/ason funebre, a funeral oration; blason
blast of air. ner, to extol, to publish the praises, pro
Blatant. See Blare. claim the virtues of.-Cot. Du. b/asoen,
Blaze. I. A strong flame. AS. b/ase, thraso, gloriosus, magniloquus, also prae.
b/aese, b/ysa, a torch, a lamp ; blasere, an conium, laudes (Kil.), i. e. the matter
incendiary; ON. &/ossi, a flame; bºys, trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald,
Dan. b/us, a torch; Du. blose, redness ; which would ordinarily consist in the first
Sw. brasa, fire, and, as a verb, to blaze; place of the titles and honours of the party
Sp. brasa, Fr. braise, live coal; embraser, on whose behalf the herald appeared.
to set on fire. A blaze is so intimately Then, as the purport of armorial bearings
connected with a blast of wind, as to was to typify and represent the honours
render it extremely probable that the and titles of the bearer, and to make him
word blaze, a flame, is radically identical known when otherwise concealed by his
with AS. blasan, G. blasen, to blow. If armour, the term was transferred to the
the fire were named from the roaring armorial bearings themselves, or to the
sound which it produces, it is obvious shield on which they were painted.
that the designation would be equally ap The other derivation, which Diez treats
propriate for the blast of wind by which as hardly doubtful, is from AS. blase, a
the conflagration is accompanied and torch, a flame, splendour. The term
kept up, and which, indeed, is the imme would then be applied to the armorial
diate cause of the roaring sound. bearings painted in bright colours on the
2. Sw, blasa, Dan. b/is, G. blåsse, Du. shield or surcoat, in the same way as we
blesse, a blaze or white mark on the face speak of an illuminated MS.—a MS.
of an animal, a white mark on a tree made ornamented with coloured paintings; Fr.
by stripping off a portion of the bark. A/anches illuminées, coloured prints.
As Kilian, besides blesse, has also blencke, Prov. ble26, a shield, properly a shield
macula emicans, a shining spot, probably with armorial device : ‘blezós cubertz de
the signification of a white spot on a dark teins e blancs e blaus,’ shields covered
ground may arise from the notion of with tints of white and blue. Or the word
shining like a blaze or flame, Sc. bleis, might spring from the same origin by a
*/ess, bles.—Jam. G. blass, pale, light-col somewhat different train of thought. The
oured. AS. blase, b/ase, is used in the sense of
To Blaze. — Blazen. I. To blow manifestatio, declaratio.—Lye. ON. &/aser
abroad, to spread news, to publish. As. vid, visui patet, it is manifest.—Gudmund.
&/aesan, Du. blaesen, to blow. Hence the derivative b/ason, like the
synonymous cognisance in English, might
And sain, that through thy medling is ièlowe be used to signify the armorial bearings
Your bothe love, ther it was erst not knowe.
Troilus and Cressida. of an individual, as the device by which
he was known or made manifest when
But now, friend Cornelius, sith I have &lasened completely cased in armour.
To Bleach. ON. &/eißr, light-coloured, */emysshen or öſenschyn – obſusco. I
whitish, pale; b/ei/ja, Du. blaßen, N. &/emysshe, I chaunge colour.
&/a&na, to whiten by exposure to sun and Saw you nat how he ºlemysshed at it whan
air ; AS. &/aec, pale ; blaccan, to bleach. you asked him whose dagger that was.-Palsgr.
See Black.
According to Diez the proper meaning
Bleak. In a secondary sense b/eaš is of Öſemir is to bruise or make livid with
used for cold, exposed, from the effect of blows, from ON. &/ºzni, the livid colour of
cold in making the complexion pale and a bruise, livor, sugillatio, color plumbeus;
livid. See Black.
&/ºma, to become livid. Sw, b/ema, a
Blear. 1. B/ear-eyed, having sore boil, wheal, pimple; Pol. A/ama, a stain,
inflamed eyes, like one that has long spot, blot, a blot on one's name or re
been weeping. Pl. D. &larren, to blare putation ; //amić, sp/amić, to spot; sp/a-
or roar, to cry or weep. ‘He b/arrede mié sie, to stain one's honour or reputa
sinen langen tranen,” he cried till the tears tion, to disgrace one's name. So in Sw.
ran down. Hence &/arr-age or ö/eer-oge, ſlack, a spot, blot, stain; fºck Žá e/15
a crying eye, a red watery eye.
2. The term b/ear, in the expression goda namn, a spot, a blemish in one's
‘to blear one's eye,’ to deceive one, is Blench.-Blencher.—Blancher. To
totally different from the foregoing, and blench is sometimes used in the sense of
seems identical with b/ur, a blot or smear
concealing something that had originally blanking one, to make him feel blank, to
been distinct. discomfit, confound him. “Bejaune, a
novice, one that's easily blankt and hath
He that doeth wickedly, although he professe nought to say when he should speak.”—
God in his wordes, yet he doeth not for all that Cot.
see God truely : for he is seen with most purely
scowred eyes of faith, which are blurred with the For now if ye so shuld have answered him as I
darkness of vices.—Udal in Richardson. have shewed you, though ye shuld have some
what ºenched him therwith.-Sir J. More in
In this sense it agrees with Bav.//erren, Richardson.
a blotch ; //err, gºp/err, a mist before the
eyes. ‘Praestigiae, //er vor den augen; ’ At other times it is synonymous with
‘Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles //er, */in/, to wink the eye, shrink from a
vor den augen,” the devil makes a vain dazzling light, boggle at something, start
b/ur before their eyes.—Schmel. So in
P. P. Loketh that ye ne bedn nout iliche the horse
that is scheoh (shy) and blencheth uor one
He blessede them with his bulles and &lered hure scheaduwe.—Ancren Rivle, 242.
eye. And thus thinkande I stonde still
By a similar metaphor Pol. fuman is a Without b/enchinge of mine eie,
cloud, as of dust or mist; fumanić, to Right as me thought that I seie
Of Paradeis the moste joie.—Gower in R.
cast a mist before the eyes, to humbug.
To Bleat. An imitative word intended And now are these but mansbond (i.e. slaves)
raskaile of refous—
to represent the sound made by sheep or For these ne shalleye blenk. —R. B. 115.
goats. Gr. 3\mxciopat, G. &/ºken, to bleat
as sheep, or to low as oxen. To blink the question is to shrink
Bleb. A drop of water, blister. See from it, to wink at it, avoid looking it in
Blab. the face. Fr. givenchir, the formal equi
Bleed. See Blood. valent of English win/, is used in a sense
Blemish. A stain in a man's reputa exactly synonymous with //ench, to start
tion, a spot, a fault, a disgrace.—Bailey. away from.
From the OFr. blesmir, tacher, souiller, And gif thou blenche from ony of tho, (faith or
salir, to spot, to soil. — Roquef. The Be war, from the than schal I go.
modern sense of the word bleme or blesme
In the French version—
is pale, wan, bleak, dead-coloured—
Cotgr.; b/esmissure, b/emissement, pale Et bien saches tuguenchir à creanche
ness, wanness, bleakness. As AS. b/ac Jeguenchirai a toi entel maniere.
Manuel de Pecchés, p. 419.
includes the notion of pale and dark, and
wan itself signifies not only pale but From the sense of rapid vibration
livid or dark of hue, it is probable connected with the notion of blinking,
that b/eme was applied to the dark colour &/ench came to be used for a trick, a
of lifeless flesh, and thence to a bruise, a movement executed for the purpose of
spot, or blemish. The Promptorium has engaging attention, while the agent ac

complishes a purpose he is desirous of Their burning blades about their heads do bless.
F. Q.
Gif hundes urneth to him-ward (the fox) Tarry, thou knave, I hold thee a grote I shall
make these hands bless thee.—Camm. Gurt.
He gength wel swithe awaiward
And hoketh pathes swithe narewe Needle. III. 3.
And haveth mid him his blenches yarewe.
Owl and Nightingale, 375. For the same reason a man is said to
bless the world with his heels when he is
To Blend. A numerous class of words hanged.—Nares.
may be cited, with or without the nasal, Blight. A hurt done to corn or trees
representing the sound made by the that makes them look as if they were
agitation of liquids. Swab. &/o/gent, to blasted.—Bailey. Pl.D. verb/ekken, to
churn, to dash cream up and down with burn up. “De Sonne het dat Koorn
a plunger; Du. Alozzen, A/onsert, to fall verble&#et,' or ‘Dat Koorn is verble&#et,”
into water with a sudden noise, to plunge. from Ö/e}ken, to shine, to lighten. Per
To b/unge clay, in potters’ language, is to haps the notion originally was that it
mix it up with water to a fluid consist was blasted with lightning. OHG. blºg,
ency. Du. blanssen, to dabble in water. //ich:/iur, lightning.—Brem. Wtb. Or it
—Biglotton. Sc. to b/uiter, to make a may be from the discoloured faded ap
rumbling noise, to b/uifer up with water, pearance of the blighted corn. AS. 6/aec,
to dilute too much ; bluiſer, liquid filth; pale, livid.
to b/uther, b/udder, to make a noise with Blind. Deprived of sight. Goth.
the mouth in taking any liquid.—Jam. b/inds, ON. b/indr, G. blind. Thence ap
To b/under water, to stir or puddle, to plied to anything which does not fulfil its
make it thick and muddy.—Halliwell. apparent purpose, as a 6/ºnd entry, an
Of this latter the E. blend, AS. blendian, entry which leads to nothing; AS. b/ind
ON. blanda, to mix, seems the simple mete/, a dead nettle, or nettle which does
form, but by no means therefore a pre not sting ; G. blinde ſenster, — thiren,
vious one in the order of formation, as — faschen, false windows, doors, pockets.
will be remarked in the observations on A blind is something employed to blind
the origin of the word Blink. Sw, blanda one or prevent one from seeing, as a
vaín i win, to dash wine with water. window-blind, to prevent one looking
Afterwards applied to the notion of through the window.
mixing in general, whether the subject The origin of the word must be treated
matter is wet or dry, although in the in the next article.
latter case the consciousness of the imi Blink. A wink, a look, a gleam,
tative source of the word is wholly lost. glance, moment. AS. &/ican, to glitter,
To Bless-Bliss. As. 5/ithe, joyful, dazzle ; G. blicken, to shine, to glance, to
merry, blithe ; b/is, joy, gladness, bliss ; look; Du. b/icken, to glitter; b/ick, a
6/#!/isian, Ö/issian, to rejoice, be glad ; flash, a glance, a wink ; &/ick-ooghen, to
bleſsian, to bless, to consecrate ; b/e/- wink; b/ic/sem, lightning. With the
sung, a blessing. OHG. &/ide, glad, joy nasal, Du. blincken, to shine, to glitter ;
ful ; b/iau, joy; Paradises b/id/missil, the G. blinken, to twinkle, shine, glitter, and
joys of Paradise; 6/iden, to rejoice. A also to wink, as the result of a sudden
similar development has taken place in glitter.
the Slavonic languages. Russ. &/ago, The sound of Å before an s, as in Du.
well; b/agaya, goods, riches; //ajennii b/ic/sem, readily passes into a f, giving
(Fr. j), blessed, happy; Serv. Ö/ag, good, G. bſiſz, a flash, glitter, glimpse, lightning;
sweet; b/ago, money, riches; Pol. 6/ogi, &litzen, to flash, glitter, lighten. The in
blissful, sweet, graceful, lovely; Bohem. sertion of the nasal, as in the case of
b/age, happily, fortunately, well; //ahy //ick and blink, gives b/ingen, b/inze/n,
(obsolete), happy; b/aziţi, blahos/aviti to twinkle, wink, blink.-Küttner. Swiss
(= bene dicere), to make happy, to pro b/inge, to shut the eyes; G. &/in2/er, a
nounce happy, to bless; b/ageny, blahos blinkard ; b/inzăugig, blink-eyed, weak
blessed, happy; B/agena Bea eyed. Sc. b/en/, a glance; Swiss Ö/enden,
a flash of light; Dan. blende, to dazzle ;
From the action of the hand making Sw, blund, a wink, a wink of sleep ;
the sign of the cross while blessing one b/unda, to shut the eyes. The term then
self or others, the verb to b/ess is some passes on to designate the complete
times found in the singular sense of to privation of sight. Du. blindselen, caecu
brandish. tire, caccultare, to be blind, to act like a

blind person.-Kil. G. blinzel-maus, or midus, inde humiditate tumidus. Sw.

b/inde-kuh, blindman's-buff. 6/0//isk, fish which is set to soak in water
The origin of b/ind would thus be the preparatory to cooking, cured fish.-
figure of blinking under a strong light, Ihre. When fish under this name was
and blink itself is sometimes used to
imported into England, it was naturally
express absence of vision. To blink the supposed that the signification of the
question is to shut one's eyes to it, to first element of the word had reference
make oneself wilfully blind to it. A to the process by which it was cured,
horse's b/inkers are the leather plates and hence to b/ote has been supposed to
put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. mean to smoke, to cure by smoke.
Nor ought it to startle us to find the I have more smoke in my mouth than would
simple form of the word derived from a blote a hundred herrings.-B. and F. in Nares.
frequentative, as blinzeln, b/indse/en. For You stink like so many bloat-herrings newly
this, I believe, is a much more frequent taken out of the chimney.—B. Jonson, Ibid.
phenomenon than is commonly thought, Blob.-Bleb. B/ob, a bubble, a blister;
and an instance has lately been given in a small lump of anything thick, viscid, or
the case of blend. Words aiming at the dirty ; bleſ, a drop of water, a bubble, a
direct representation of natural sounds blister, a blain.-Hal. B/o/, //ab, a small
are apt to appear in the first instance in globe or bubble of any liquid, a blister, a
the frequentative form. blot or spot, as a blað of ink-Jam.
To Blissom. Of sheep, to desire the Though both his eyes should—drop out like
male. N. blesme, ON. &/orsma, to blissom, blobbes or droppes of water.—Z. Boyd in Jam.
from blar, a ram.—Egillson.
Blister. Du. b/wyster; Lat. Austula, From b/abber, b/obber, blubber, repre
fusula, a bubble, blister, pimple. Both senting the dashing of water, the radical
the English and the Latin word are from syllable is taken to signify a separate
the notion of blowing, expressed by cog element of the complex image, a bubble
nate roots, which differ only in the in formed or a drop dashed off in the col
sertion or omission of an l after the lective agitation. So from sputter is
initial b. formed spot, a detached portion of the
The E. blister must be referred to AS. agitated liquid, or the mark which it
&larsan, to blow, whence blast, bluster, to makes. And so from squatter, to dash
blow in gusts, to puff and be noisy, Bav. liquid, is formed squad, sloppy dirt, a
&laustern, to breathe hard, while Lat. separate portion. See Blot. Gael. plub,
fustula, fusula, must be classed with noise of liquor in a half-filled cask, sound
forms like Gr. Øvräw, to blow, G. bausen, as of a stone falling suddenly in water,
&rºsten, fausten, Sw. Austa, to blow, puff, any soft unwieldy lump; plub-cheann, a
swell. lumpish head; plubach, giving a sound of
The 1, it must be observed, in imitative the foregoing nature, speaking rapidly
roots is an exceedingly movable element, and inarticulately.
Block. The stem or trunk of a tree.
and easily changes its place, or is in
serted or omitted. Thus we have blað —Bailey. A solid mass of wood, stone,
and babble, bubble and blubber, Langued. or the like. Hence, to block up the way,
to close it with a solid mass. Gael. bloc,
b/ouca and Fr. boucler, to bubble, buckle,
&/ouquette and bouclette, a little buckle, w. round, orbicular. Fr. bloc, blot, a block
or log ; en bloc, in bulk, in the lump or
&/ºg, A/isg, shells, husks, and pisg, pods, mass,
blisters. -
taken altogether. It may be formed
Blithe. Goth. b/eiths, mild, merciful; like clot, clod, blot, Sc. blad, from the
ON. b/idr, mild, gentle; OHG. b/ide, Du. sound of a small mass of something soft
&/jae, as in E. blithe, joyful. See Bless. thrown against the ground. See Blot.
To Bloat.—Bloated.—Bloater. To The primary meaning would thus be a
&/ote, to swell, also to set a smoking or small mass of anything, an unformed
drying by the fire.—Bailey. ON. b/autr, mass, as distinguished from things fa
bricated out of it, the unhewn bole of a
soft, soaked. Sw, blót, Dan. &/ºd, soft. tree, any lump or mass of things.
Sw, blóta, ligga i ö/øt, to soak, to steep. Blond. Fr. blond, light yellow, straw
Hence E. bloated, having an unsound coloured, flaxen; also (in hawks or stags)
swollen look, as if soaked in water. In bright tawny or deer-coloured.-Cotgr.
like manner the Fin. Kostua, signifying Diez suggests that the word may be a
in the first instance to soak, is also used nasalised form of on. Ölaud, Dan. 6/6d,
in the sense of swelling ; Kostia, subhu soft, weak, in the sense of a soft tint, a

supposition which is apparently supported gush, to fall (of liquids) in abundance, to

by the use of the word blode in Austria dabble in water; platschern, to patter, to
for a weak, pale tint.—Schmid. It is fall with a plashing noise; Swiss plºdern,
probably connected with Pol. b/ady, pale, plºttern, to dabble in water, to splash, to
wan. It. biado (of which the evidence
exists in biadetto, bluish, sbiadare, to dirty, (of cattle) to dung, whence Alider,
grow pale), blue, pale; biavo, blue, straw: plºtter, kuh-fláder, cow-dung. Dan, dial.
coloured (Diez, Florio). OFr. blois, bloi, //atte, to dash down, fall down ; blat,
blue; bloi, blond, yellow, blue, white &laſte, a small portion of anything wet ;
(Roquefort). Prov. Aloí, ólou, fair, in en b/a/ vand, sæarm, a drop of water or
colour, as the skin or hair. It should be of filth ; //a4-b/aſte, a drop of ink; Áo
remarked that the Du. blond is used in &/att, Sw. Kobladde, a cow-dung. Sc. blad,
the sense of the livid colour of a bruise a heavy fall of rain (to be compared with
as well as in that of flaxen, yellowish ; G. platz-regen, a pelting shower). ‘It’s
blond en blaauw s/aan, to beat one black b/adding on o’ weet, the rain is driving
and blue; blondheid, couleur livide.— on. Blad, a dirty spot on the cheek, a
Halma. lump of anything soft ; to blad, to slap,
Blood.—Bleed. Du. bloed, G. blut. to strike with something soft or flat.
Doubtless named for the same reason as Carinthian //outschen, to dash down
Du. bloedsel, E. dial. blooth, G. blithe, a water; A/outsche, great leaf of cabbage.
flower, from the bright colour which Fin. plattità, to slap, to strike with such
these objects exhibit, from G. &/ithen, to a sound as the Germans represent by the
glow. Both blut and b/ithe are written
b/uat by Otfried, and bliſhen is used in syllable Klatsch / Plitti, a sound of such
the Swabian dialect in the sense of Öſeed. a nature, a blot or spot. Dan. A/et, a
—Schmid. Erp/oten, to be red with blot, spot; pletter i solen, spots in the
rage.—Schilter. See Blow, 2. sun. E. plot of land is a spot or small
Bloom. The bright-coloured part to portion of land. Sw. A/ot/ra, to squander,
plants which prepares the seed, a deli properly to scatter liquid ; to scribble,
cately-coloured down on fruits, the bright to blot paper; plotterwis, in scattered
colour of the cheeks. morsels, bit by bit. Wendish blodo,
The sun was brycht and schynand clere, Moto, mud.—Stalder in v. pladern. Fr.
And armouris that burnyst were &/otter, to blot; blotte, b/outre, a lump, a
Swa #/omyt with the sunnys beme clod.—Cot. Then as a drop of liquid or
That all the land was in a leme.—Barbour. lump of something soft spreads itself out
on falling to the ground, se blottir, to squat
Du. bloemen, to bloom or flower, pro or lie close.
perly to shine with bright colours; The form blotch answers to Swiss
bloeme, bloemsel, ON. 6/6mi, blomstr, a platschen, which represents the sound of
flower. A parallel form with ON. lićmr, something broad falling into the water or
E. leme, gleam. on the ground, of water dashing in a
Blossom. AS. blosa, blosma, blostma, vessel or splashing over. Ein platsch
Du. blosem, Lat. flos, a flower. Du. miſch, a gush of milk; platsch-vol/,
blosen, to be red, to blush ; blose, redness, platt-voll, platz-vol/, splashing full, full
the bright colour of the cheeks; As. to overflowing.—Stalder. Plotz, a blow,
*/ase, b/ysa, ON. &/ys, Dan. b/us, a torch ; or the sound of it; b/atz, a spot or blot.
//usse, to glow, to blaze, to flame; Pl.D. —Schwenck. E. blatch, to spot or blot.
b/iise, bleuster, a blaze, bleustern, bleistern,
If no man can like to be smutted and blatched
to glisten ; Russ, blistat', to shine; Sw. in his face, let us learn more to detest the spots
b/ust, a flower. and blots of the soul.-Harmar in R.
Parallel forms with an initial gl and /
are ON. glossi, a flame, glyssa, to sparkle; Blotch-paper, blotting-paper.—Hal.
g/ys, shine; g/arsi, splendour; E. gloss, Blot at Backgammon. See Back
glister; Sc. glose, to blaze; Ir. glus, ON. gammon.
/ios, light, E. lustre, brilliancy. See Blow. Apparently from the livid mark
Blow. produced by a blow on the body. Du.
Blot, Blotch. The G. flatsch/?atsch/ &laeuw, blue, livid; b/aeuwe ooghe, Fris.
platz / Klatsch / represent the sound of en b/au ach, a black eye; Du. b/aeuwen,
dashing liquid, of a blow with something blowen, to strike ; blauwel, a beater.—
soft or flat. From similar representa Kil. Pl. D. blåtten, blau schlagen; blaweſs,
tions of sound are formed G. Aladdern, to livid marks. Fris. blode/sa and blawelsa,

wound and bruise. ‘Si quis alium ad or guggling, f/ubair, one who speaks
sanguinis effusionem vel livorem vulgo indistinctly and rapidly; Pl. D. &/uðbern,
b/awe dictum laeserit.” “Ad livorem et to make bubbles in drinking, to sputter
sanguinem, quod &/oof et blawe dicinus.’ or speak in an explosive manner; bluff
— Hamburgh Archives, A.D. 1292, in Øern, ſlubbern, to blurt out.—Deutsch.
Brem. Wtb. “Nis hir nauder blazo ni Mundart. v. 51.
blodelsa, there is here neither bruise nor To b/ubber, in E., is confined to the
wound.—Wiarda. OFr. blatt, coup, tache, broken sound made by the internal flow
meurtrissure—Roquefort, a blow, a bruise. of tears in crying. /3/u//ered cheeks are
On the other hand, OHG. bliu wan, M.H.G. cheeks bedabbled with tears. It is how
&/iuwen, G. blauen, to beat with a mallet, ever provincially used in the original
can hardly be separated from Goth. sense. ‘The water b/ubbers up' (Mrs Ba
&ſiggwan, to beat. ker), where the word may be compared
To Blow, 1. As. b/awan, to blow, to with Bohem. &/uboſtriți, to bubble up, to
breathe; G. blåhen, to puff up, to inflate, boil. And, as bubbles are formed by the
a parallel form with b/asen, to blow. In agitation of water, blubber comes to sig
like manner Lat. fla-re, to blow, corre nify bubble, foam. “Aſober upon water,
sponds with Sw, ſlasa, to puff, to breathe bouteillis.”—Palsgr.
hard. And at his mouth a blubber stode of fome.
To Blow, 2. To come into flower, to
show flower. The primary sense is to In modern speech the noun is chiefly
shine, to exhibit bright colours, to glow. used for the coating of fat by which the
Du. &/oeden, b/oeyen, bloemen, florere.— whale is enveloped, consisting of a net
Kil. G. &/ithen, to shine with bright work or frothy structure of vessels filled
colours, to blossom, to flourish. From with oil.
the same root which gives the designa It does not impair the representative
tion of the blood, the red fluid of the power of the word when the final / in the
body; and closely allied with Du. }/osen, radical syllable of blubber is exchanged
to be red, and the forms mentioned under for a d in Sc. b/udder, b/uther, to make a
Blossom. Swab. b/uh, b/ut, b/ust, a noise with the mouth in taking liquid; to
flower; OHG. bluod, blót, G. &/iithe, disfigure the face with weeping.—Jam.
bloom, flower; w b/odyn, a flower. Her sweet bloderit face.—Chaucer.
Parallel forms with an initial g! are Bav. &/odern, f/odern, Pi.D. f/udern, to
ON. g/6d, E. g/ede, glowing coal ; Du. gabble, jabber, chatter. Plodern, to
gloeden, gloeyen, G. glithen, to glow. sound like water, to gush. — Deutsch.
Blowzy. Tumbled, disordered in Mund. ii. 92. P/udern, to guggle, sound
head-dress. Blowze, a fat, red-faced like water gushing out of a narrow open
bloted wench, or one whose head is ing; to flap like loose clothes.—Schmel
dressed like a slattern.-B. Pl. D. plusen, ler.
to disorder, especially with respect to the Blue. OHG. blao, blaw; It. biavo,
hair. Sik plusen is said of fowls when Prov. b/au, fem. b/ava.
they plume themselves with their beak. Notwithstanding the little apparent
Sić upp/ustern, when the feathers of a resemblance, I have little doubt in identi
bird are staring from anger or bad health; fying the foregoing with W. g/as, blue,
6/us/ig, f/usig, toused, disordered; //us green, grey, pale; Gael. glas, pale, wan.
trig, (of birds) having the feathers star The interchange of an initial g/, b/, or gr,
ing or disordered; (of men) having a &r, is very frequent. We may cite for
swollen bloated face or disordered hair. example G. g/ie/len, Ö/ithen, E. glow, blow;
—Danneil. Gr. YAñxov, 3Aixov, a herb; Gr. BáXavoc,
To Blubber. — Bludder. — Bluther. Lat. g/arts, Ir. glaodh and bladdh, a
These are closely allied forms, marking shout; g/againeachd and blagain eachd, a
some difference in application from that blast, boasting; Bret, bruk, W. grug,
of blaðber, b/e//er, b/adder, by the modi heath. We thus identify the Celtic glas
fied vowel. The radical image is the with G. &/ass, pale; OFr. b/oes, b/ois, bloi,
sound made by the dashing of water, blue; blazir, to make blue, and thence,
whence the expression is extended to to fade, to spot, to bruise – Roquef. ;
noises made by the mouth in crying, in Langued. blazi, faded, withered, bruised;
rapid or indistinct utterance. The radi Prov. &/ezir, to fade, grow pale, dirty.—
cal sense is shown in Gael. A/uðraich, Raynouard. The usual interchange of a
//ubartaich, a paddling in water, a con final g and d connects these with Pol.
tinued noise of agitated water, a gurgling &/ady, pale, wan, Ö/edºniać, to fade; It.
biado, blue, pale, the evidence of which monious preparations; a shore abruptly
is seen in biadetto, bluish, and sôiadare, rising, or an abrupt manner.
to become pale or wan.—Flor. Hence In like manner from an imitation of
we pass to Prov. bſahir, to become pale the same sound by the syllable plom/,
or livid, in the same way as from It. Du. fºomſ, abrupt, rustic, blunt. See
tradire to Fr. trahir. The change from Blunt.
a medial d to v is still more familiar.
Blunder. The original meaning of
We find accordingly It. sbiaware, as well 6/under seems to be to dabble in water,
as sbiadare, to become pale, and biavo from an imitation of the sound. It is a
(Diez), as well as biado, blue. The nasal form of such words as b/other,
Romance blaze is moreover, like the ôlutter, bluiſer, all representing the
Celtic glas, applied to green as well as agitation of liquids, and then generally
blue. Blavoyer, verdoyer, devenir vert; idle talk. Dan. //udder, earth and water
&lavoie, verdure, herbe.—Roquefort. mixed together, puddle, idle talk; //ud
Hence we may explain the origin of the dre, to dabble in the mud, to puddle, mix
It. biada, biava, corn, originally growing up turf and water. Then with the nasal,
corn, from the brilliant green of the young E. dial to 4/under water, to stir or pud
corn in the spring, contrasted with the dle, to make water thick and muddy;
brown tint of the uncultivated country. and metaphorically, b/under, confusion,
‘Biada, tutte le semente ancora in erba.” trouble.—Hal. I blonder, je perturbe.—
—Altieri. Bladum, blandum, in plur. Palsgr.
segetes virentes. – Dief. Supp. The To shuffle and digress so as by any means
gradual change of colour in the growing whatever to blunder an adversary.—Ditton in R.
plant from a bright green to the yellow ON. glundr, sloppy drink; glundra, to
tint of the reaped corn (still designated disturb, to confound.
by the term biada) may perhaps explain Analogous forms are Du. }/anssen, in
the singular vacillation in the meaning of ’t water dobbelen, to dabble—Biglotton;
the It. biazo, which is rendered by Florio, E. to 6/unge clay, to mix it up with water.
pale straw-coloured. It is remarkable —Hal.
however that the E. Blaže (identical with To b/under is then, for the same rea
AS. blac, G. bleich, pale) is provincially son as the synonymous dabble, used for
used in the sense of yellow. the work of an unskilful performer.
The Du. blond is also applied to the B/underer or blunt worker, hebeſactor.
livid colour of a bruise, as well as the —Pr. Pn.
yellowish colour of the hair. OFr. bloi, What 8/underer is yonder that playeth diddil,
blond, jaune, bleu et blanc.—Roquefort. He findeth false measures out of his fond fiddil.
Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid. Skelton in R.
Lat. blazus, blue, from the Lat. flavus, Hence a blunder, an ill-done job, a
yellow, Bohem. flawy, yellowish red, Pol. mistake.
f/owy, pale yellow, discoloured (//owiea, Like drunken sots about the street we roam :
to grow yellow, to lose colour, to fade), Well knows the sot he has a certain home,
G. ſaſh, and E. ſallow, fawn-coloured, Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place,
reddish yellow. - And blunders on and staggers every pace.
Dryden in R.
Bluff. Du. blaſ, planus, aequus et
amplus, superficie planã, non rotunda; The word is here synonymous with
b/af aensight facies plana et ampla, a flounder, the original meaning of which
bluff countenance; b/af van voorhooſt, is, like Du. ſlodderen (Weiland), to work
fronto, having a bluff forehead, a fore in mud or water. To b/under out a
head not sloping but rising straight up.– speech, to bring it out hastily with a
Kil. So a bluff shore is opposed to a spluttering noise. G. heral/s/o/tern or
sloping shore. B/affºrt, a plain coin Jeral/s/ſatzen, to blurt or blunder out
without image or superscription. —Kil. something.—Küttner.
A bluff manner, a plain unornamented See Blurt, Blunt, Bodge.
Imanner. Blunderbuss. Pl.D. buller-bak, buſ
The word is probably derived in the /er-jaan, Sw, buller-bas, a blustering fel
first instance from the sound of some low; G. poſter-hans, one who performs
thing falling flat upon the ground. Du. his business with much noise, bawling,
f/offºn, to fall suddenly on the ground, and bustle ; fo/fferer, a blunderbuss,
to plump into the water.—Halma. It blunderhead, a boisterous violent man.--
then signifies something done at once, Küttner. From G. bullern, poſtern, to
and not introduced by degrees or cere make a noise. The Du. has donder-bus,
a blunderbuss, from the loud report; bus, A blunt manner is an unpolished, un
a fire-arm.—Halma.
ceremonious manner, exactly correspond
Blunket. A light blue colour. Pol. ing to the G. Aſumſ. Plump mit ºfwas
blekit, azure, blue. Probably radically lºnge/en, to handle a thing blunt/y,
identical with E. &/eaž, pale, wan, as the awkwardly, rudely.—Küttner.
senses of paleness and blue colour very It is from this notion of suddenness,
generally run into each other. absence of preparation, that the sense of
Blunt. Before attempting to explain bare, naked, seems to be derived. To
the formation of the word, it will be well speak &/ºn//y is to tell the naked truth,
to point out a sense, so different from Sw, "ſofta sanningen. The syllables //o/,
that in which it is ordinarily used, that it &/unt, //umſ, and the like, represent the
is not easy to discover the connection. sound not only of a thing falling into the
Bare and blunt, naked, void. water, but of something soft thrown on
It chaunst a sort of merchants which were wont the ground, as Sw, f/ump, a blot, Dan.
To skim those coasts for bondmen there to buy— A/udie, to plump down, Dan. dial. blatte,
Arrived in this isle though bare and 6/unt
To inquire for slaves.—F. Q to fall down, fling down; //aſ, a portion
The large plains— of something wet, as cow-dung.—Mol
Stude A/unt of beistis and of treis bare. —D. V. bech. Then as a wet lump lies where it
A modification of the same root, without is thrown, it is taken as the type of every
the nasal, appears with the same mean thing inactive, dull, heavy, insensible, and
these qualities are expressed by both
ing in Swiss bluff, naked, bare, unfledged; modifications of the root, with or with
Sw. b/off, G. bloss, It. biotto, biosso, naked, out the nasal, as in E. &/unt, Sc. b/ait,
poor; Sc. &/out, Ö/ai/. dull, sheepish.
Woddis, forestis, with naked bewis A/out
Then cometh indevotion, through which a man
Stude strippit of thare wede in every hout.—D.V.
is so blonſ, and hath swiche languor in his soul,
The blait body, the naked body.— that he may neither rede ne sing in holy chirche.
Jamieson. The two senses are also Chaucer, in Richardson.
united in Gael. maol, bald, without horns, We Phenicianis nane sablait breistis has. D. V.
blunt, edgeless, pointless, bare, without Non obtusa adeo gestamus pectora Paeni.
Sc. B/aitie-bum, a simpleton, stupid
foliage, foolish, silly. A/aolaich, to make
bare or blunt. fellow, and in the same sense, a //unzie.
Du. &/uſ/en, homo stolidus, obtusus, ina
Now the Swiss b/untsch, b/umsch, is nis.-Kil.
used to represent the sound which is
imitated in English and other languages ‘A blade reason’ is used by Piers
by the syllable //umſ, viz. the sound of a Plowman for a pointless, ineffectual rea
round heavy body falling into the water; son. Thus we are brought to what is now
#/untschen, to make a noise of such a the most ordinary meaning of the word
the absence of sharpness, the
nature, to plump into the water.—Stalder. */unt, viz.connection of which with the
A similar sound is represented by the natural
syllables plotz, ž/u/2–Küttner; whence qualities above mentioned is shown by
Latin obtusus in the fore
Du. plotsen, flonsen, plompen, to fall into the use of the
the water; G. f/a/2-regen, a pelting going passages. An active intelligent
shower of rain. We have then the ex lad is said to be sharp, and it is the con
pressions, mit et was heraus-flatzen, or verse of this metaphor when we speak of
a blunt
heraus plumpen, to blunt a thing out, to a knife which will not cut as
blurt, blunder, or blab out a thing— knife. The word dull, it will be observed,
Küttner; to bring it suddenly out, like a is used in both senses, of a knife which
thing thrown down with a noise, such as will not cut, and an unintelligent, inactive
that represented by the syllables bluntsch, person. Swiss b/untschi, a thick and
flota, plumſ, to plump out with it. plump person.—Stalder.
Swab. platzen, to throw a thing violently It will be seen that the G. plump, re
down. specting the origin of which we cannot
Peradventure it were good rather to keep in doubt, is used in most of the senses for
good silence thyself than blunt forth rudely.— which we have above been attempting
Sir T. More in Richardson. to account. Plump, rough, unwrought,
The term blunt is then applied to things heavy, clumsy, massive, thick, and,
done suddenly, without preparation. figuratively, clownish, raw, unpolished,
Fathers are rude, heavy, dull, blockish, awkward.
Won by degrees, not bluntly as our masters –Küttner. Plomp, hebes, obtusus, stu
Or wronged friends are.—Ford in R. pidus, plumbeus, ang, blunt.—Kil.

In like manner from the sound of a Boar. AS. bar, Du. beer. As the As.
lump thrown on the ground, imitated by has also eafor, and Du. ever-swin, it is
...the syllable bot, is formed Du, bot, botte, probable that boar has no radical identity
a blow; bot-voet, a club foot; bot, plump, with G. eber, Lat. after.
sudden, blunt, dull, stupid, rude, flat. Board. Du. berd, G. brett, a board or
Bot zeggen, to say bluntly.—Halma. plank. AS. bord, an edge, table, margin.
To Blur. To blur, to render indis Du. boord, a margin, edge, border. Fr.
tinct, to smear; blur, a smear, a blot. &ord, edge, margin. ON. bord, a border,
Bav.//err, gºp/err, a mist before the eyes; outward edge, board, table, whence bord
plerren, a blotch, discoloured spot on the vidr, literally edge-wood, i. e. planks or
The word is probably a parallel form Med endilöngum baenum varumbuiz Ahúsum
with Sp. borrar, to blur, blot, and E. bºr, uppi, reistrupp bord-vidrautanverdom thaukom
a mistiness, representing in the first in sva sem viggyrdlat vaeri.-Sverris Saga, c. 156.
stance an indistinct sound, then applied —along the town preparations were made up on
the houses, planks raised up outside the roofs,
to indistinct vision; but it may arise like the parapets (wiggyrdil, war-girdle) raised
from the notion of dabbling in the wet. on board a ship in a naval engagement.
Sc. b/udder, bluther, b/ubber, to make a
noise with the mouth, to disfigure with * Boast. Explained by Jam. to
crying. E. dial. b/uſer, to blubber, to threaten, to endeavour to terrify.
blot, to dirty; to blore, to roar.—Hal. Scho wald nocht tell for bost nor yeit reward.
Swiss b/odern, to sound like water boil Turnus thare duke reulis the middiloist,
ing, to rumble; Bav. Øſtudern, to make a With glaive in hand maid awful ſere and boist.
noise in boiling; pludern, to guggle; D. V. 274. 29.
b/odern, plodern, to chatter, gabble. Dan. The radical meaning of the word seems
p/uddre, to dabble, to jabber, gabble; to be a crack or loud sound, and when
Sw. dial. blurra, burra, to talk quick and applied to vaunting language, it implies
indistinctly; bladara, b/arra, to blurt out, that it is empty sound. To brag and
to chatter. The elision of the d is very to crack, both used in the sense of boast
common, as in Du. blader, blaere, a blad ing, primarily signify loud noise. ‘Heard
der; ader, aere, an ear of corn, &c. For you the crack that that gave P’ Sc. pro
the parallelism of blur and burr comp. E. verb spoken when we hear an empty
&/otch and botch, splurt and spirº, Du. boast.—Kelly. Boost is used for the
b/affºn and baffºn, to bark, G. blasen and crack made by bursting open.
bausen, to blow. See Burr, Slur. And whether be lighter to breke,
To Blurt. To bring out suddenly with And lasse boost makith,
an explosive sound of the mouth. Sc. a A beggeris bagge
b/irt of greeting, a burst of tears.-Jam. Than an yren bounde cofre?
Related to blutter, b/udder, as splurt to P. P. l. 9396, Wright's ed.
splutter. To splirt, to spurt out.-Hal. From this root are formed Sc. bustuous,
It. boccheggiare, to make mouths, or OE. boistous, violent, strong, large, coarse,
b/urt with one's mouth; chicchere, a rude, and boisterous, properly noisy, vio
flurt with one's fingers, or blurt with one's lent; G. pausten, pusten, pustern, to puff.
mouth.-Fl. Comp. G. ſtaffen, to give a crack, to puff.
Blush. Du. blose, blosken, the red Du. poſ, the sound of a blow; poffºn, to
colour of the cheeks; Dan. blus, a torch; puff, to bounce, to brag ; grande loqui,
b/usse, to blaze, to glow; b/usse i ansigſet, voce intonare.—Kil. See Boisterous.
to blush. Pl.D. b/iise, bleuster, a blaze, Boat. AS. bāţ, Du. boot, It. baſello,
beacon fire. De bakke bleustern, the Fr. bateau, ON. bāţr, W. bād, Gael. bāſa.
cheeks glow.—Brem. Wtb. See Blossom. To Bob.-Bobbin. To move quickly
Bluster. To blow in puffs, blow vio up and down, or backwards and forwards,
lently, swagger. An augmentative from to dangle; whence bob, a dangling object,
blast. Bav. blasten, b/austern, to snuff, a small lump, a short thick body, an end
to be out of temper.—Schmeller. or stump. Gael. babag, a tassel, fringe,
Boa. A large snake. It. boa, bora, cluster; baban, a tassel, short pieces of
any filthy mud, mire, puddle, or bog; also thread. From the last must be explained
a certain venomous serpent that lives in Fr. bobine, E. bobbin, a ball of thread
the mud, and swimmeth very well, and wrapped round a little piece of wood, a
grows to a great bigness.-Fl. Boa, little knob hanging by a piece of thread.
stellio, lacerta, cocodrillus; lindwurm.— “Pull the bobbin, my dear, and the latch
Dief. Supp. will fly up.’—Red Riding-hood.

To Bob, 2. To mock. trunk and G. rumff signify a hollow case

So bourdfully takyng Goddis byddynge or as well as the body of an animal. We
wordis or werkis is scorning of hym as dyden the
speak of the barre/ of a horse, meaning
Jewis that boºden Crist. — Sermon against the round part of his body. The Sp.
Miracle-plays, Reliq. Antiq. 2, 45.
&arriga, the belly, is identical with Fr.
In this sense from the syllables ba ba re &arriyue, a cask.
presenting the movement of the lips, The signification of the root bot, of
whence Fr. baboyer, to blabber with the which the E. body and G. &offich are de
lips; faire la badou, to bob, to make a rivatives, is a lump, the thick part of any
mow at.—Cot. See Baber-lipped. thing, anything protuberant, swelling, hol
To Bode. To portend good or bad. low. W. hot, a round body; both, the boss
AS. bod, gºod, a command, precept, mes of a buckler, nave of a wheel, bothog,
sage; boda, a messenger; bodian, to de round, rounded; Wall. bodé, rabode', thick
liver a message, to make an announce set, stumpy; bodene, belly, calf of the leg.
ment. See Bid. —Grandg.
To Bodge. To make bad work, to fail. The primary sense of body is then the
With this we charged again ; but out alas ! thick round part of the living frame, as
We hodged again, as I have seen a swan distinguished from the limbs or lesser di
With bootless labour swim against the tide, visions; then the whole material frame,
And spend her strength with over-matching
waves.—H. VI. as distinguished from the sentient prin
ciple by which it is animated. In like
The sound of a blow with a wet or flat
manner from bo/, signifying anything
body is represented in G. by the syllable spherical or round, arise E. boſe, the stem
fatsch, whence fatschen, to smack, to of a tree; ON. bo/r, the trunk of the animal
dabble or paddle; paſsche, a puddle, body, or stem of a tree, body of a shirt;
mire, mud. Now unskilful action is con
stantly represented by the idea of dab Lap. bol/, /ă//, /ă//g, the body.
Bog. The word has probably been
A/ing, einen fatsch thun, to commit a introduced
blunder, to fail, to bodge. Hast scho' from Ireland, where bogs form
wide’ paíscht 2 Have you failed again 2 so large a feature in the country. Gael.
Z/was aus/afschen, to blurt a thing out. &og (equivalent to E. gog in gog-mire,
—Schmel. See To Botch. Shakespear quagmire), bob, move, agitate; bogadaich,
has badged with blood, daubed or dab waving, shaking; then from the yielding,
bled with blood. unsteady nature of a soft substance, bog,
Bodice. A woman's stays; formerly soft, moist; bogan, anything soft, a quag
bodies, from fitting close to the body, as mire. Ir. bogadh, to stir, shake, toss;
Fr. corset from corps. “A woman's bo dogach, a bog or morass.
dies, or a pair of bodies, corset, corpset.” * To Boggle. Commonly explained
—Sherwood's Dict. as if from Sc. bogle, a ghost; to start
back as from a bugbear. “We start and
Thy bodies bolstred out with bumbast and with doggle at every unusual appearance, and
bagges.—Gascoigne in R.
cannot endure the sight of the bugbear.’
i. e. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. —Glanville in Todd. But the radical
Bodkin. Gael. biodag, a dagger; idea in boggling is hesitation or waver
&iodcachan, an awl. Lith. &adyfi, to ing, and the word is well explained by
stick, thrust with something pointed, as Bailey, to be uncertain what to do, to
a horn, needle, bayonet; Bohem. Öod, a waver, to scruple. It is applied to bodily
prick, stitch; boda/, a prickle, point, vacillation in the Sc. expression hogg/in
bayonet; boditu, busti, to prick. Russ. an bogg/in, unsteady, moving backwards
&ode/2, a spur, bodi/o, a sting; bodaſ, to and forwards.-Jam. Supp. ‘The grun
butt, strike with the horns. French a’ bogg/t fin we geed on it.” Bogglie,
boufer, to thrust, and E. buff, to push quaking, unsteady-Banff. Gl.
with the horns, exhibit another modifi The radical image is probably a series
cation of the root. of broken efforts or broken movements,
Body. As bodig, Gael. bodhag. It as in stammering or staggering, repre
seems the same word with the G. botfich, sented by the abruptly sounding syl
a cask, the two being spelt without ma lables gag, gog, or bag, bog. Thus from
terial difference in the authorities quoted gog or gag we have Bret. gag, Ptg. gago,
by Schmeller; botfig, poſig, fºotacha, a stuttering ; Bret. gagei, gagoula, Ptg.
cask; bot/ich, bodi, the body of a shift; gagueſar, to stammer, stutter; E.gogmire,
fºotahha, fºotacha, bodies, corpses; fºot a quagmire, goggle, toroll, to be unsteady;
tich, &otic/, a body. In like manner E. Gael, gogach, nodding, wavering, fickle;

and in like manner from the parallel forms Sw. 84/d, proud, haughty, warlike. As.
bag or bog are derived Piedm. bagajé, &alder, bealder, hero, prince. Fr. baud,
Fr. bºgayer, Wall. (of Mons) bºguer, OG. bold, insolent; baude, merry, cheerful.—
bochken (titubare, stameln vel bochken. Cot.
—Vocab. A.D. 1430 in Deutsch. Mund. Bole. The round stem of a tree. This
iv. 3O4). Magy. Čakogſti, to stammer, is probably a modification of boll, a
&akaziâni, to stumble; Gael. bog, wag, globular body, treated under Bowl. The
bob, shake, E. bog, a quaking mire, and throat-bo// is the convexity of the throat.
foggle, to waver or hesitate. ‘He could From the notion of a thick round mass
not get on with his speech, he made poor the term is applied to the body of an
Boggling work.’—Mrs Baker. animal as distinguished from the limbs,
In the same way Sc. tartle, to boggle to the trunk of a tree as distinguished
as a horse, to hesitate from doubt, scruple, from the branches, to the belly as the
or dislike, may be identified with It. tar rounded part of the body. ON. bulr, bo/r,
tag/fare, Sp. tartajear, to stammer, stut Sw. bal, Da. bul, the body of a man or of
ter, tarfalear, to stagger, to be at a loss
in speaking. a shirt, trunk of a tree; Lap. boll, fall,
To Boil.-Boil. Lat. buſ/ire, Fr. bolti/- Žá//g, the body; w. bol, bola, boly, the
ſir, ON. bulla, to boil, properly represent belly. See Bulk.
the sound of water boiling, whence buſ/a, Boll. The round heads or seed-ves
Du. bo//en (Kil.), to tattle, chatter. Sc. sels of flax, poppy (Bailey), or the like.
du//er, the gurgling sound of water rush Du. bol, bol/e, a head; bolleken, capi
ing into a cavity. Westerwald Öo//ern, tulum, capitellum.— Kil. Bret. bolc’h,
to give a hollow sound. polc'h, belc’h, w, bul, flax-boll. See
Then as boiling consists in the sending Bowl.
up of bubbles, Lat. bulla, a bubble, boss, * Bolster. OHG. bolstar, As. bolster,
stud, lump of lead on which a seal was a cushion, pillow. The term applies in
impressed ; It. bo//a, a bubble, round the first instance to the materials with
glass phial, also a blister, pustule, pimple; which the cushion is stuffed. Du. bo/ster,
ON. bola, a bubble, blister, boil; Sw. the husk of nuts, chaff of corn; siliqua,
bula, a bump, swelling, dint in a metal gluma, folliculus grani, tomentum, fur
vessel; Du. buile, puiſe, G. beule, a boil or fures, stramenta.-Kil. If the primary
swelling; Du. builen, puiſen, to be pro meaning of the word is stuffing, from Du.
minent, to swell. &o/, swelling, hollow, we must suppose
* Boisterous.-Boistous.-Bustuous. that it was first used with respect to the
Properly noisy, then violent, strong, huge, chaff of corn, the most obvious materials
coarse, rough. for stuffing a cushion, and then applied
In winter whan the weather was out of to other husks, as those of nuts, which
measure &oistous and the wyld wind Boreas are not used for a similar purpose. ON.
maketh the wawes of the ocean so to arise.—
66/str, a cushion, a swelling in ice. Swab.
Chaucer, Test. Love.
Öo/ster (aufgeblasen–Schmidt), puffed
Drances tells Latinus that Turnus' boist uld.

cows the people from speaking, but that "Holt—to Bolter. I. G. bols, bo/gen,
he will speak out. E. bolt, is a blunt-headed arrow for a cross
All thocht with braik and boist or wappinnis he bow, a broad-headed peg to fasten one
Me doth awate, and manace for to de. object to another, a fastening for a door.
He then exhorts the king— Du. bout is explained by Kil., obex, pessu
lus, repagulum; bout, bout/i//, sagitta
lat neuir demyt be capitata, pilum catapultarium ; bout van
The bustuousness (violentia) of ony man dant
the.—D. V. 374. 45. Vief schouderó/ad, caput scapulae. The
essential meaning of the word would thus
Boysłous, styffe or rude; boysłousnesse, appear to be a knob or projection, the
roydeur, impetuosité-Pr. Pm. notes. &oſt of a door being provided with a knob
For host or boist in the sense of crack, by which it is moved to and fro. A
noise, see Boast. G. pausten, Austen, thunderbo/t is considered as a fiery mis
Austereſt, to puff, blow. sile hurled in a clap of thunder. G. bo/2-
Bold. Daring, courageous. Goth. gerade signifies straight to the mark, as
Öa///a, OHG. baſa, free, confident, bold. the bolt shot by a crossbow; but it is also
G. bald, quick. ON. baſ/dr, strong, brave, used, as E. bolt upright, in the sense of
handsome ; /a//r, strong, courageous. perpendicular.—Stalder. Chaucer seems
Dan. bold, intrepid, excellent, beautiful ; to use bolt upright in the Reve's tale in

the sense of right on end, one after the or clump; Pl.D. buſt, huſten, protuberance,
other. Small heap, mole-hill, tuft, clump; gras
The radical sense of a knob or thick buſten, a clump of turf, a sod (Schütze).
ending is exemplified in E. /o//-foot or ‘Daar ligt idt up enen buſten : " it lies all
bo/t-foot, as Fr. fied bot, a club-foot. Sir of a heap.–Brem. Wtb. Du. buſt, a
Walter Scott in his autobiography speaks bunch, hump, boss, knob, bulk or quantity;
of his ancestor Willy with the bolt-foot. biºlºg, hump-backed (to be compared
A bolt head is a retort, a round glass with E. bo//-foot, G. bo/zauget); Sp. bu/to,
vessel with narrow opening. The ulti protuberance, swelling, hulch, bulk.
mate origin of the word may be best 2. In the next place, to bolſ or boſſer is
illustrated by forms like G. holfer fo/fer, to sift meal by shaking it to and fro
Pl.D. hu/fer de buſter, representing a rat through a cloth of loose texture. - Fr.
tling or crashing noise. ‘Hoſter poſter / ôteſ/er, b/uſer, he/uſer, Mid. Lat. buſeſare,
ein fürchterlicher getöse !” “Ging es to bolt; buſe/e//um, Fr. bulete/, beluteau,
/o/ter und fo/ſer dass die wagenräder //uſeau, a bolter or implement for bolting.
âchzten :’ it went helter-skelter so that I bott/ſe meale in a bow/ter, je bulte.—
the wheels groaned.—Sanders. Hence Palsgr. 1)u. buideln, to bo/ter.—Bomhoff.
G. poſtern, Pl.D. bullern, to do anything Here the radical image is the violent
accompanied by a rattling noise; buſ/er agitation of the meal in the bolter, ex
wagen, a rattling carriage; die treppe pressed, as above explained, by the repre
hinunter fo//ern, to come rattling down sentation of a racketing sound, by which
stairs; poſtern, to make a knocking, indeed the operation of bolting was com
hammering, or the like, to throw things monly accompanied in a very marked
about. Then from the analogy between manner. On this account Mid. Lat. tara
a rattling noise and a jolting motion, Pl. D.
fanfara, representing a loud broken noise
&u//rig, buſs/rig, bitſ/g, jolting, uneven, as of a trumpet, was applied to a bolter
rugged, lumpy. “De weg is hu/frig un or mill-clack. Bulte-pook or bulstar,
du//rig,' the way is rugged and jolting. tara/art/arum.—Pr. Pn. Zarafanfari
Dan. bullred, uneven, rugged.—Schütze. 2are, budeln daz mele ; faratarrum,
From the same source must be explained stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das
Northampton bolter, properly to jog into der lautet tarr tare 1: the mill-clack or
projections, to coagulate, to form lumps, staff which sounds far, far.—Dief. Supp.
as snow balling on a horse's foot, or ill On the same principle, the name of boſſer
mixed flour and water. Blood-boltered seems to have been given to the imple
Banquo signifies clotted with blood. The ment and the operation, from G. poſtern,
Z is transposed in Fr. b/outre, a clod, and to crash, hammer, racket; gefölter, ge
in Sw. Ż/offer, a small portion. *d/der, a crashing or racketing noise.
For the connection between jolting and The name would probably first be given
collecting in lumps compare Du. A ſoferen, to the implement which kept up such an
properly to rattle or clatter (A/otersfaen importunate racket, and when the radical
crepitaculum—Kil.), then to knock, to significance of the term was overlooked,
hammer, also to curdle, to become lumpy. the syllable boſſ or fo/f would be regarded
—Kil. So also we pass from Lat. cro as the essential element signifying the
talum, a rattle, Prov. croſlar, OFr. crod nature of the operation.
Zer, cro/er, to shake, to E. cruddle, curdle, From a different representation of a
to collect in lumps. rattling noise may be derived a series of
When we analyse the notion of a rattling forms in which an r seems to take the
or jolting movement or a rugged uneven place of the l in bolt and the related
surface, we see that the one consists of a words.
series of jolts or abrupt impulses, and the Thus from Sc. braſſle, crash, clattering
other of a series of projections or emi noise (braſſ/e of thunner, a clap of thun
nences. Hence, on the one hand, we der—Brocket), we pass to Du. borte/en,
have Lat. Zulfare, Sw. Özz/fa, to knock, bullire, aestuare, tumultuari, agitari (Kil.);
E. /o/, a thump or blow, MHG. bo/zen, Lang. ôarufeſa, barufa, to clack, to talk
/tºſzen, to start out; Bav. Öo/2a1gen, loud and fast, to bolt meal; barute!, a mill
fo//zet augen, projecting eyes; fi(/- clack, a bolter; Prov. čarutela, to agitate,
zen, to spring forth; E. boſſ, to start with palpitate, to bolt meal; barute!, Dauphiny
a sudden movement, as a rabbit from its &arite/, OFr. burete/, Champagne burteau,
hole, or a racer from the course. a bolter. OFr. buretter (Cot.), It. barufare,
Passing from the sense of movement durattare, to bolt flour; burato, bolting
to that of form, we have Du. ft/ſ/, a clod cloth. And as the agitation of cream in
a churn is closely analogous to that of Bombast.—Bombasine. Gr. 36pſ3vé,
the meal in a bolter, It. bartºto/a (Fl.), the silk-worm, raw silk. It. bombice, a
Castrais barato, Fr. barate, are applied to silk-worm, bombicina, stuff, tiffany, bom
a churn for butter. - basine.—Altieri. The material called by
It must be observed that Diez' deriva this name, however, has repeatedly varied,
tion of Fr. buſter from It. burato, bolt and it is now applied to a worsted stuff.
ing-cloth, and that from Fr. bure, bureau, When cotton was introduced it was
coarse, undyed cloth of the wool of brown confounded with silk, and called in Mid.
sheep, accounts only for the sense of bolt and Mod. Greek 3apſ3ártov, Mid. Lat.
ing meal; and we must suppose that the bambacium, It. bambagio, whence It.
name was extended by analogy to the act bambagino, Fr. bombasin, basin, cotton
of churning and the idea of agitation in stuff. E. bombase, bombast, cotton.
general. But it is extremely unlikely that a Need you any ink and bombase.—Hollyband in R.
designation having no reference to the re As cotton was used for padding clothes,
semblance between the operations of bolt bombast came to signify inflated lan
ing and churning should have been trans guage.
ferred ſrom the former operation to the Lette none outlandish tailor take disport
latter, while nothing would be more na To stuffe thy doublet full of such bumbast.
tural than the application of a term sig Gascoigne in R.
nifying violent agitation to each of those When the name passed into the lan
operations, of which it expresses so guages of Northern Europe, the tendency
marked a characteristic. Moreover, the to give meaning to the elements of a
Fr. bureau, OE. borel, signifies the coarse word introduced from abroad, which has
cloth in which peasants were dressed, a given rise to so many false etymologies,
material quite unfit for bolting meal, produced the Pl.D. baum-bast, G. baum
which requires stuff of a thin open tex wolle, as if made from the bast or inner
ture. bark of a tree; and Kilian explains it
Our derivation, again, is supported by boom-basym, gossipium, lana lignea, sive
the analogy of G. beufeln, Du. buidelen, de arbore; vulgo bombasium, q. d. boom
builen, to bolt meal, the radical sense of sye, i.e. sericum arboreum, from boom,
which is shown in Bav. beuteln, beil'n, to tree, and siſde, sife, silk.
shake (as to shake the head, to shake Bond. AS. bindam, band, bunden, to
down fruit from a tree, &c.); butteln, bind ; G. band, an implement of binding,
buttern, to shake, to cast to and fro. a string, tie, band a pl. bande, bonds, ties.
Butterglas, a bottle for shaking up salad ODu. bond, a ligature, tie, agreement.—
sauce; butte/ trueb (of liquids), thick from Kil. In legal language, a bond is an in
shaking. Pollitriduare, bitteln.—Schm. strument by which a person binds himself
From builen, the contracted form of under a penalty to perform some act.
Du. buide/en, to boult meal, must be ex Bone. G. bein, the leg, bone of the
plained Fr. boulenger, a baker, properly leg, the shank; achsel bein, brust-bein,
a boulter of meal. the shoulder-bone, breast-bone. Du. been,
E de fine farine (mele) vent la flour, a bone in general, and also the leg. Now
Parla bolenge (bulting-clot) le pestour. the office of a bone is to act as a support
Per bolenger (bultingge) est cevére to the human frame, and this is especially
La flur, e le ſurfre (of bren) demoré.
the function of the leg bone, to which the
Bibelesworth in Nat. Antiq. 155.
term is appropriated in G. and Du.
Bomb.-Bombard. Fr. bombe, It. We may therefore fairly identify bone
bomba, an iron shell to be exploded with with the W. bān, a stem or base, a stock,
gunpowder. From an imitation of the stump, or trunk; and in fact we find the
noise of the explosion. It. rimbombare, word in W. as in G. and Du. assuming the
to resound. In E. we speak of a gun special signification of leg : W. bonog,
booming over the water. Du. bommen, having a stem or stalk, also ii.º.
to resound, to beat a drum, whence ed; bongam, crook-shanked ; bondew,
bomme, a drum ; bombammen, to ring bonfras, thick-legged, from teu, bras, thick.
bells. Dan. bommer, a thundering noise; Bonfire. A large fire lit in the open
bomre, to thunder, to thump ; w. bºwm air on occasion of public rejoicing.
bwr, a hollow sound, bambwr y mor, the Named from the beacon-fires formerly in
murmuring of the sea. It. bombdira, any use to raise an alarm over a wide extent
riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous of country. Dan. baun, a beacon, a word
noise; bombarda, any kind of gun or of which we have traces in several Eng
piece of ordnance.—Fl. lish names, as Banbury, Banstead. Near
6 #

the last of these a field is still called the To Boom. To sound loud and dull
Beacon field, and near Banbury is a lofty like a gun. Du. bommen. See Bomb.
hill called Crouch Hill, where a cross (or Boon. A favour, a good turn or re
crouch) probably served to mark the quest.—Bailey. The latter is the original
place of the former beacon. The origin meaning. AS. ben, bene, petition, prayer.
of the word is probably the w. bān, high, Thin ben is ge/yred, Luke i. 13. ON.
lofty, tall, whence ban-ſ/ag/, a lofty blaze, &eidºte, barn, bºn, desire, prayer, petition,
a bonfire. Many lofty hills are called from beida (E. bid), to ask.
Beacons in E. and Ban in W.; as the Boor. A peasant, countryman, clown.
Brecknockshire Banns, or Wanns, in W. Du. boer, G. bauer, from Du. bouwen, to
Bānau Brychyniog, also called Breck till, cultivate, build, G. bauen, to cultivate,
nock Beacons. Perhaps, however, the inhabit, build, ON. &ua, to prepare, set
word may signify merely a fire of buns, in order, dress, till, inhabit.
or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. From the sense of inhabiting we have
Bonneſyre, feu de behourdis. – Palsgr. neighbour, G. machbar, one who dwells
Mrs Baker explains bun, the stubble of nigh.
beans, often cut for burning and lighting From the participle present, ON. huana'i,
fires. Burt, a dry stalk.-Hal. boamdi, comes bondi, the cultivator, the
Bonnet. Fr. bonnet, Gael. bomaid, a possessor of the farm, master of the
head-dress. The word seems of Scan house, hus-band.
dinavian origin. From bo, boa, bud, to See Bown, Busk, Build.
dress, to set in order, bonad, reparation, * Boose. A stall for cattle. — Hal.
dress. Hufvud-àonad, head-dress; wagg Boos, bose, netis stall.—Pr. Pm. As. bosig,
&omad, wall hangings, tapestry. But hosg, bosih, ON. bās, a stall. Perhaps
bonad does not appear to have been used from Ow. bouzig, literally cow-house. Ow.
by itself for head-dress. &outig, stabulum.—Ox. Gl. in Phil. Trans.
Booby. The character of folly is 1860, p. 232, w, ty. Gael. tigh, house.
generally represented by the image of But more likely from Sw. dial. bis, which
one gaping and staring about, wondering signifies not only straw, litter, but stall,
at everything. Thus from the syllable ba,
representing the opening of the mouth, as a lying-place for cattle. Båsa, to strew
are formed Fr. baier, beer, to gape, and with straw, to litter; bosu, busu, hund'.
thence Rouchi baia, the mouth, and fig. busa, swinbusa, a lying-place for dogs or
one who stands staring with open mouth; swine, dog-kennel, pig-sty. N. bos, rem
babaie, babin, Wall. baber, babau, boubair, nants of hay or straw, chaff.
Boubić, It. babóéo, a simpleton, booby, Boot. Fr. botte. Du. bote, boten-shoezi,
blockhead. Ir. bobo º interj. of wonder; pero, calceus rusticus e crudo corio.—
Sp. bobo, foolish. On the same principle Kil. Swab. bossen, short boots.-Schm.
from badare, to gape, Fr. Öadaua, a fool, It would appear that in Kilian's time the
dolt, ass, gaping hoyden–Cot. ; from Du. bote was similar to the Irish brogue
gafe, E. dial. gaſy, a silly fellow, gaping and Indian mocassin, a bag of skin or
about with vacant stare—Mrs Baker, and leather, enveloping the foot and laced on
from AS. ganian, to yawn, E. gawney, a the instep. It is commonly explained as
simpleton.—Mrs Baker. identical with It. botta, Sp. Prov, bota,
Book. AS. boc. Goth. boka, letter, Fr. botte, a hollow skin, a vessel for hold
writing ; bokos, the scriptures; bokareis, ing liquids. See Butt.
a scribe; G. bitch-stab, a letter; OSlav. To Boot.—Bootless. To boof, to aid,
6iºuj, a letter; Russ. &#7'a, bukváry, help, succour.—Bailey. Boot of bale,
the alphabet. Diefenbach suggests that remedy of evil, relief from sorrow. To
the origin is biºi, signifying beech, the give a thing to boot is to give it into the
name of the letter b, the first consonant bargain, to give it to improve the condi
tions already proposed or agreed on.
of the alphabet, although in the OG. and Clement the cobeler cast off hus cloke
Gael. alphabet that letter is named from And to the
the birch instead of the beech. nywe fayre nempned it to selle;
Hick the hakeneyeman hitte hus hod after—
Boom. In nautical language, which There were chapmenychose the chaffare to preise
is mostly derived from the Low German That '. that hadde the hod sholde nat habbe the
and Scandinavian dialects, a boom is a cloke,

beam or pole used in keeping the sails in The betere thing by arbitours sholde &ote the
werse.—P. P.
position, or a large beam stretched across
the mouth of a harbour for defence. i.e. should contribute something to make
Du. boomt, a tree, pole, beam, bolt.—Kil. the bargain equal. Bootless, without ad
vantage, not contributing to further the ON. bāra, a wave, N. baara, wave, swell ;
end we have in view. Du. boeſe, baete, &acra, Ávit-bara, to surge, to foam.
aid, remedy, amendment ; boe/en, to To Bore, 1. – Burin. G. bohren, ON.
mend, and hence to fine, to expiate ; bora, Lat. forare, Magy. furni, to bore,
Boeten den dorst, to quench one's thirst ; ſuró, a borer; Fin. Auras, a chisel, tere
boeten het vier, AS. betan ſyr, to bete the bra sculptoria; purastoa, scalpo, terebro,
fire, properly to mend the fire, but used sculpo ; Ostiak. Zor, far, a borer, piercer.
in the sense of laying or lighting it, The Fin. Aurra, to bite, leaves little
struere ignem, admovere titiones.—Kil. doubt as to the primitive image from
ON. 66t, pl. bae?r, amendment, reparation, whence the expression is taken, the
recovery ; wſtrööt, making good again ; action of gnawing affording the most
bata, to make better, to repair, to patch, obvious analogy from whence to name
to cure ; Sw. bāta, to boot, to profit; the operation of a cutting instrument, or
Goth. botjan, to profit, to be of advan the gradual working a hole in anything.
tage ; aſtragaboffan, to restore, repair. The ON. bit is used to signify the point
See To Bete. or edge of a knife ; bitr, sharp, pointed.
Booth. This word is widely spread We speak in E. of an edge that will not
in the sense of a slight erection, a shelter bite, and it is doubtless in the sense of
of branches, boards, &c. Gael. both, ON. bit that the term centre-bit is applied
bothag, botham, a bothy, cottage, hut, to an instrument for boring. The cor
tent, bower. Bohem. bauda, budka, a responding forms in Lap. are Žárret, to
hut, a shop ; budowati, to build; Pol. bite, and thence to eat ; and parrets, an
buda, a booth or shed, budować, to build. awl, a borer.
ON. bud, a hut or tent, a shed, a shop. The analogy between the operation of
OSw. saedes-bod, a granary; mat-bod, a a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw
cupboard. Du. boede, boeye, a hut, cup ing or biting leads to the application of
board, barn, cellar. Fin. Auru, Esthon. Aurro, to anything
Neither G. bauen, to build, nor E. abode, comminuted by either kind of action, as
afford a satisfactory explanation. In the Fin. puru, chewed food for infants, sahan
Slavonic languages the word signifying puru, Esthon. pit furro (saha = saw ;
to build seems a derivative rather than a
root. See Bower. pu = wood), OHG. u2boro, urboro, saw
dust, the gnawings as it were of the saw
Booty. It is admitted that Fr. butin, or borer.
It. bottino, are derived from G. bewte. Another derivation from Fin, furra, to
The Sw. byte points to the verb byta, to bite, is purin, dens mordens vel caninus,
exchange or divide, as the origin of the the equivalent of the It. borino, boſino, a
word, the primary signification of which graver's small pounce, a sharp chisel for
would thus be the division of the spoil. cutting stone with—Flor. ; Fr. and E.
Halfva bytning af alt that rof. durin, an engraver's chisel, the tool with
A half share of all that spoil. which he bites into his copper plate.
Hist. Alexand. Mag. in Ihre. Compare Manx birrag, a sharp-pointed
Fr. butin is explained by Palsgr. p. 266, tooth, or anything pointed, Gael. biorag,
schare of a man of a prise in warre time. a tusk, which are probably from the same
And so in ON. the booty taken in war is root. Fin. puras, a chisel, differs only
called grif-deild; and hlut-skipti, from in termination.
deiſa and ski/ta, to divide. * To Bore, 2. To bore in the meta
Borachio. A wine-skin, and meta phorical sense may have acquired its
phorically a drunkard. Sp. borracha, a meaning in the same way as G. drillen,
leather bag or bottle for wine. Gael. to pierce, also to harass with work or
borracha, a bladder, from borra, to swell. perpetual requests, to importune. But
See Burgeon. probably the E. use of the word would be
Border. Fr. bordure, a border, welt, better explained on the supposition that
hem or gard of a garment, from bord, it was originally bur. It. Zaffolone, a
edge, margin. ON. bord, limbus, Ora, great bur, an importunate fellow that
extremitas; bordi, fimbria, limbus. will stick as close as a bur to one ; lappo
Bore. The flow of the tide in a single /are, to stick unto as a bur.—Fl.
large wave up certain estuaries. I could not tell how to rid myself better of the
Tumbling from the Gallic coast the victorious troublesome bur, than by getting him into the
wave shall ride like the bore over all the discourse of Hunting.—Return from Parnassus
rest.-Burke in R. in R.
Waldemar knew the old diplomatist's impor each man was answerable for his neigh
tunity and weariness by report, but he had not bour.
yet learned the art of being blandly insolent, and
thus could not shake off the old burr.—Walde 'Ic wille that aelc man ºy under Borge ge bin
mar Krone (1867), i. 106. nan burgum ge butan burgum.' I will that
every man be under bail, both within towns and
Lang. Aegou, one who sticks to you like without.—Laws of Edgar in Bosworth.
pitch, a bore, from pego, pitch. Hence ‘borhes ealdor,’ the chief of the
Boreal. Lat. Boreas, the North Wind, ‘borh, or system of bail, corrupted, when
borealis, northern. Russ. borei, the N. that system was forgotten, into bors
wind ; burya, tempest, storm. /older, borough-holder, or head-borough,
Boroug A word spread over all the as if from the verb to hold, and borough
Teutonic and Romance languages. AS. in the sense of a town.
burg, burh, hyrig, a city; whence the Bosh. A word lately introduced from
frequent occurrence of the termination our intercourse with the East, signifying
bury in the names of English towns, nonsense. Turk. bosh, empty, vain, use
Canterbury, Newbury, &c. Goth. baurgs, less, agreeing in a singular manner with
ON. borg, It. borgo, Fr. bourg. Gr. Sc. boss, hollow, empty, poor.
Trêoyoc, a tower, is probably radically Boss. 1. Fr. bosse, a bunch or hump,
connected. “Cas' cllum parvum quem bur any round swelling, a wen, botch, knob,
gum vocant.”—Vegetius in Diez. Hence knot, knur.—Cot. Du. bosse, busse, the
must have arisen burgensis, a citizen, boss or knob of a buckler; bos, bussel, a
giving rise to It. borgese, Fr. bourgeois, bunch, tuft, bundle.
E. burgess, a citizen. Words signifying a lump or protuber
The origin seems to be the Goth. ance have commonly also the sense of
bairgan, AS. beargan, to protect, to keep, striking, knocking, whether from the fact
preserve; G. bergen, to save, to conceal, that a blow is apt to produce a swelling
withhold ; Dan. bierge, to save; Sw. in the body struck, or because a blow
&erga, to save, to take in, to contain. can only be given by a body of a certain
Soſen bergas, the sun sets. The primi mass, as we speak of a thumping potato,
tive idea seems to bring under cover. a bouncing baby; or perhaps it may be
See Bury, Borrow. that the protuberance is considered as a
Borrel. A plain rude fellow, a boor. projection, a pushing or striking out. The
—Bailey. Frequently applied to laymen Gael. cnoc, an eminence, agrees with E.
in contradistinction to the more polished Anock, while Gael. cnag signifies both a
clergy. knock and a knob; cmap, a knob, a boss,
But wele I wot as nice fresche and gay a little blow. E. cob, a blow, and also a
Som of hem ben as bore/folkis ben, lump or piece.—Hal. A bump is used in
And that unsittynge is to here degre. both senses of a blow and a protuberance.
Occleve in Halliwell.
Bunch, which now signifies a knob, was
The origin of the term is the OFr. formerly used in the sense of knocking.
bore/, bure/, coarse cloth made of the Du. butsen, botsen, to strike; butse, botse,
undyed wool of brown sheep, the ordinary a swelling, bump, botch.
dress of the lower orders, as it still is in The origin of boss may accordingly be
parts of Savoy and Switzerland. See found in Bav. buschen, to strike so as to
Bureau. In like manner It. bizocco (from make a hollow sound, to give a hollow
bizo, grey), primarily signifying coarse sound ; boschen, bossen, Du. bossen, It.
brown cloth, is used in the sense of bussare, Swiss Rom. boussi, bussi, bussa
coarse, clownish, unpolished, rustic, rude. (Bridel), to knock or strike.
-Altieri. So Du. tº graauw, the popu Then from the peculiar resonance of a
lace, from their grey clothing. blow on a hollow object, or perhaps also
To Borrow. Properly to obtain money from looking at the projection from with
on security, from AS. borg, borh, a surety, in instead of without, the Sc. boss, bos,
pledge, loan. “Gif thu feoh to borh Bois is used in the sense of hollow, empty,
gesylle, if thou give money on loan. G. poor, destitute. A boss sound, that which
&iºge, a surety, bail; biºgen, to becomeis emitted by a hollow body.—Jam. Bos
a surety, to give bail or answer for an Aucklers, hollow bucklers.-D. V. The
other. AS. bedrgan, to protect, secure. &oss of the side, the hollow between the
Borsholder.—Borowholder. A head ribs and the side.—Jam.
borough or chief constable. By the Botany. Gr. Bordvn, a herb, plant,
Saxon laws there was a general system Boravičw, to pick or cull plants, Boravuköc,
of bail throughout the country, by which of or belonging to plants, # 3oravisº
(réxvn understood), the science or know brigðoſam, i.e. burgi vel pontis refectio
ledge of plants. nem, &c.—Leg. Canut. AS. boſſ, repara
Botch. It seems that botch is a mere tion. See To Bete.
dialectic variation of boss, as Fr. bosse be Both. Boa two.—Ancren Riwle, 212.
comes in the Northern dialects boche.— As. Butu, butwo, batwa, OSax. befhia,
Decorde, Hécart. Bochu, bossu, a hump &éde, ON. bādar, gen. beggia, Goth. ba,
back.-Dec. Du. botsen, butsen, to knock, baioths; Sanscr.u%hau; Lith, abºu, abºu
to strike; botse, butse, a knock, contusion; du ; Lett. abbi, abói-dºwſ, Slavon. oba,
butse, a bump or swelling, a plague-boil— oba-dwa; Lat. ambo.—Dief. Lith. Mudu,
Kil. ; boſs, buts, a boil or swelling—Hal Wedu, we two, judu, judwi, you two,
ma. A boil, pimple, blister, was called a jºidwi, they two.
push; what pushes outwards.-Hal. And * To Bother. To confuse with noise,
so we speak of an eruption, of boils break from pudder, pother, noise, disturbance.
ing out. With the din of which tube my head you so
On the other hand, It. boccia, a bubble, bother
by met. any round ball or bowl to play That I scarce can distinguish my right ear from
withal, the bud of a flower; any kind of t’ other.—Swift in R.
plain round vial or cupping glass—Fl.;
tozza, a pock, blain, botch, bile, or plague Du. builderem, to rage, bluster, make a
sore; any plain round viol glass ; bozzo, disturbance; G. Aoſtern, to make a noise,
empty or hollow, as a push or windgall. to do anything with noise and bustle;
—Fl. Dan. bulder, noise, turmoil, hurly-burly.
Here the radical image seems a bubble, N. potra, putra, to simmer, whisper, mut
from the dashing of water. Parmesan
foccia, a slop, mess, puddle, It, pozzo, Bott. A belly-worm, especially in
Aozzamghera, a plash or slough or pitful horses. Gael. botus, a bott; boileag, a
of standing waters.-Fl. E. dial. to podge, maggot. Bouds, maggots in barley.—
to stir and mix together; podge, a pit, a Bailey.
cesspool; poss, to dash about ; a water Bottle. 1. It. bottiglia, Fr. bouteille,
fall.—Hal. dim. of botta, botte, boute, a vessel for
To Botch. The origin of the word is holding liquids.--Diez. Gael. buideal, a
somewhat puzzling. On the one hand cask, a bottle. See Butt. Boufeille,
however, is also a bubble, and E. boſſ/e is
we have Swiss batschen, bitschen, to provincially used in the same sense. Pl.D.
smack, to give a sounding blow, to fall &udde/n, to froth as beer; budd/, a bottle.
with a sound : bitsch, a lump of some —Danneil. Prov, botola, a tumour. A
thing soft ; batsch, a patch ; batschen, bubble is often taken as the type of any
fatschen, to botch or patch, to put on a thing round and hollow. -

patch.-Stalder. 2. From Fr. botte, a bunch, bundle, is

On the other hand, corresponding to the dim. boſſel, boteau, a wisp, bunch.
ON. baeta, to make better, to mend, to Bret, botel foenn, a bottle of hay. Gael.
patch, we have OHG. &uazen, giffuozan, boiteal, boitean, a bundle of straw or hay.
to mend, scuohôuzere, a botcher of shoes, Du. boſ, botte, knock, stroke, blow.—Kil.
a cobbler; G. biissen, to mend (kettles, See Boss.
shoes, nets, &c.); Aessel-biisser, a tinker; Bottom, AS. botm, the lowest part,
schuhbiisser, schuhbosser, bosser, būsser, a depth. ‘Fyre to botme;’ to the fiery
cobbler. abyss.-Caedm. Du. bodem, G. boden ;
Again, the notion of unskilful work is ON. boſn, Dan. bund, Lat. fundus. The
commonly expressed by the figure of Gr. 3v0óg, Bévéoç, a depth, and dBwagoc,
dabbling in the wet, and thus to botch in an abyss or bottomless pit, seem develop
the sense of clumsy working seems con ments of the same root, another modifi
nected with Mantuan foccia, a slop, mess, cation of which may be preserved in
puddle ; pocciar, to dip in liquid (to Gael. bun, a root, stock, stump, bottom,
dabble), to work without order or know foundation; W. &ón, stem or base, stock,
ledge ; It. bozza, an imperfect and bun butt end. See Bound.
gling piece of work, the first rough draught 2. A bottom is also used in the sense
of any work.-Fl. Podge, a pit, a cess of a ball of thread, whence the name of
pool; to podge, to stir and mix together. the weaver in Midsummer Night's Dream.
—Hal. See To Bodge. The word bottom or bothum was also used
Bote. House-bote, fire-bote, signify a in OE. for a bud. Both applications are
supply of wood to repair the house, to from the root bot, both, in the sense of
mend the fire. Si quis burgãoſam sive projection, round lump, boss. A bottom

of thread, like bobbin, signifies a short gest the notion of the continual knock
thick mass. The W. has bot, a round ing to which they must have been sub
body; both, boss of a buckler, nave of a jected.
wheel; bothel, fºothel, a blister, pimple— To Boult. See To Bolt, 2.
Richards; bothog, round, boſwim, a boss, To Bounce. Primarily to strike, then
a button; Fr. boufon, a bud. For the to do anything in a violent startling way,
connection between the sense of a lump to jump, to spring. Bunche, tundo, trudo:
or projection and that of striking or —he buncheſh me and beateth me—he
thrusting, see Boss. came home with his face all to-bounced,
Bough. The branch of a tree. AS. contusá.—Pr. Pnn.
bog, boh, from bugan, to bow, bend. The sound of a blow is imitated in
Bough-flof, or /šow-pot, a jar to set Pl.D. by Bums or Buns, whence bumsen,
boughs in for ornament, as a nosegay. &amsen, bunsen, to strike against a thing
‘Take care my house be handsome, so as to give a dull sound; an de dor
And the new stools set out, and boughs and &unsen, to knock at the door.
Yet still he bet and bounst upon the dore
And flowers for the windows, and the Turkey And thundered strokes thereon so hideously
carpet."— That all the pece he shaked from the flore
‘Why would you venture so fondly on the And filled all the house with fear and great up
strowings, roar.—F. Q
There's mighty matter in them, I assure you,
And in the spreading of a bough-pot.’ An de dor an//offen daf idt bunseſ,
B. and F. Coxcomb, iv. 3. to knock till it sounds again. He ſuſt
Bought. — Bout. — Bight. The dat et bunsede, he fell so that it sounded.
boughts of a rope are the separate folds Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bounc
when coiled in a circle, from AS. bugan, ing, thumping, strapping, as the vulgar
to bow or bend; and as the coils come whapper, bumper, for anything large of
round and round in similar circles, a bout, its kind. ‘Een bunsken appel, jungen,”
with a slight difference of spelling, is ap a bouncing apple, baby.-Brem. Wtb.
plied to the turns of things that succeed Du. bons, a blow, bonzen, to knock
one another at certain intervals, as a bout Halma. See Bunch.
of fair or foul weather. So It. volta, a To Bound. Fr. bondir, to spring, to
turn or time, an occasion, from volgere, leap. The original meaning is probably
to turn. simply to strike, as that of E. bounce,
A bight is merely another pronunciation which is frequently used in the same
of the same word, signifying in nautical sense with bound. The origin seems an
language a coil of rope, the hollow of a imitation of the sounding blow of an
bay. The Bight of Benin, the bay of elastic body, the verb bondir in O Fr. and
Benin. Dan. bugſ, bend, turn, winding, Prov., and the equivalent bomir in Cata
gulf, bay. lan, being used in the sense of resound

* Boulder.—Boulderstone. Bowlder, ing.

a large stone rounded by the action of No i ausiratz parlar, nimotz brugir,
water, a large pebble.—Webster. Sw. Nigacha frestelar, nicor bondir.
dial. bullers/en, the larger kind of pebbles, You will not hear talking nor a word murmur,
Nor a centinel whistle, nor horn sound.
in contrast to Alappersten, the smaller Raynouard.
ones. From Sw. buſ/ra, E. dial. bolder,
to make a loud noise, to thunder. A Langued. boundouneſha, to hum; boun
thundering big one is a common exag dina, to hum, to resound.
Bound.—Boundary. Fr. borne, bone,
geration. But as AE/a//ersten for the
smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the a bound, limit, mere, march.-Cot. Mid.
rattle they make when thrown together, Lat. bodina, buſina, bunda, bonna.
probably buſ/er or bolder may represent “Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant,
the deeper sound made by the larger suorum recognoverunt agrorum.” “Alo
dus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per
stones when rolling in a stream.
&odinas fixas et loca designata.”—Charter
It was an awful sight to see the Visp roaring of K. Robert to a monastery in Poitou.-
under one of the bridges that remained, and to
hear the groans and heavy thuds of the boulders Ducange. Bodinare, debodinare, to set
that were being hurried on and dashed against out by metes and bounds. Probably from
each other by the torrent.—Bonny, Alpine Re the Celtic root hon, bun, a stock, bottom,
gions, p. 136. root (see Bottom). Bret. men-bonn, a
Even in the absence of actual experience boundary stone (men = stone); bonneirº,
of such sounds as the foregoing, the to set bounds, to fix limits. The entire
rounded shape of the stones would sug value of such bounds depends upon their
fixedness. Gael. &unai/each, steady, firm, buzzing of bees.—Cot. Sp. bordon, the
fixed. It is remarkable that we find very bass of a stringed instrument, or of an
nearly the same variation in the mode of organ. Gael. burdan, a humming noise,
spelling the word for bound, as was for the imitative character of which is sup
merly shown in the case of bottom, which ported by the use of durdan in the same
was also referred to the same Celtic root. sense; durd, to hum as a bee, to mutter.
Bound. — Bown. The meaning of Bourdon.—Borden. Fr. bourdon, a
bound, when we speak of a ship bound pilgrim's staff, the big end of a club, a
for New York, is, prepared for, ready to pike or spear; bourdon d'un moulin a
go to, addressed to. vent, a mill-post.—Cot. Prov. bordo, a
He of adventure happed hire to mete staff, crutch, cudgel, lance; It. bordone,
Amid the toun right in the quikkest strete a staff, a prop.
As she was boun to go the way forth right Bourn. I. A limit. Fr. borne, a cor
Toward the garden.—Chaucer in R. ruption of bonne, identical with E. bound,
It is the participle past buinn, pre which see.
pared, ready, of the ON. verb bud, to pre 2. Sc. burn, a brook; Goth. brunna, a
pare, set out, address. spring, Du. borne, a well, spring, spring
Bounty. Fr. bonté, Lat. bonifas, from water; Gael. burn, fresh water. See
bonus, good. Burgeon.
Bourd. A jest, sport, game. Imme * To Bouse. Du. buizen, Swiss
diately from Fr. bourde in the same sense, &ausen, to take deep draughts, drink deep,
and that probably from a Celtic root. to tope. G. &ausen, fausen, pausten, to
Bret. bourd, deceit, trick, joke; Gael. swell, puff out. Sw, pusta, to take breath.
burd, burt, mockery, ridicule; buirte, a Perhaps the radical meaning of the word
jibe, taunt, repartee. As the Gael. has may be, like quaff, to draw a deep breath.
also buirleadh, language of folly or ridi So Sc. souch, souſ, to draw a deep breath,
cule, it is probable that the It. burlare, G. saltſen, to drink deep.
to banter or laugh at, must be referred to The foregoing derivation seems, on the
the same root, according to the well whole, more probable than the one for
known interchange of d and /. merly given from Du. buyse, a flagon,
The notion of deceiving or making a whence buysen, to drink deep, to indulge
fool of one is often expressed by reference in his cups; buys, drunken.
to some artifice employed for diverting We shule preye the hayward hom to our hous–
his attention, whether by sound or gesti Drink to him dearly of full good bows.
culation. Thus we speak of humming Man in the Moon.
one for deceiving him, and in the same Comp. Du. Kroes, a cup; Aroesen, to tope;
way to bam is to make fun of one; a W. pot, a pot, poſio, to tipple.
bam, a false tale or jeer—Hal.; from Du.
Bow. G. bug, curvature, bending,
bommen, to hum. Now we shall see in bending of a joint; Anie-bug, schenke/-
the next article that the meaning of the
bug, schulter-bug. When used alone it
root bourd is to hum. Gael. burdan, acommonly signifies the shoulder-joint,
humming noise—Macleod; a sing-song, explaining Sw. bog, Dan. bov, shoulder
a jibe-Shaw; bururus, warbling, purl of a quadruped ; bovblad, shoulder-blade.
ing, gurgling. Bav. burren, brummen, It is probably through this latter signifi
sausen, brausen, to hum, buzz, grumble; cation, and not in the sense of curvature
Sw. Żurra, to take one in, to trick, to in general, that ON. bogr, Sw, bog, Dan.
cheat. *ov, are applied to the bow of a ship, in
Bourdon. — Burden. Bourdon, the Fr. Épaule du vaisseau, the shoulder of
drone of a bagpipe, hence musical ac the vessel.
companiment, repetition of sounds with or A different modification gives ON. bāgi,
without sense at the end of stated divi
sions of a song, analogous to Fr. tinton, Sw, bºge, Dan, bue, G. bogen, an arch,
the ting of a bell, the burden of a song. bending, bow to shoot with. W. &wa,
—Cot. Gael. bogha, a bow.
Corresponding verbal forms are Goth.
And there in mourning spend their time
With wailful tunes, while wolves do howl and &fugan, ON. buga, beygja, AS. bugan,
barke ôeogan, Du. buigen, G. biºgen, to bow,
And seem to bear a bourdon to their plaint. bend ; Sw, buga, to bow or incline the
Spenser in R. head; on. bogna, bugna, Sw. bāgna,
Fr. bourdon, a drone of a bagpipe, a &lºgna, Dan. bovne, bugne, to bulge, bend,
drone or dor-bee, also the humming or belly out.

It would seem that the notion of a a round vessel for drink. Sp. bola, a ball,
bent or rounded object must be attained bowl.
antecedent to the more abstract concep The sense of a globular form is pro
tion of the act of bending. The foregoing bably taken from the type of a bubble as
forms may accordingly be derived with in other cases. Thus we have Esthon.
much plausibility from the figure of a ful, a bubble ; Fin. /u//o, a drop of
bubble, signified by forms like Gael. water ; puſ/istaa, to puff up ; pullakka,
do/g, Pol. buſka, or, with inversion of the round, swollen ; pulli, a round glass or
liquid, Fr. boucle, Sw, dial. bogla, w. bog flask; Lat. buſ/a, a bubble, a thing of
Ayn, largely illustrated under Bulk, Buckle. similar shape, a stud, boss, knob ; It.
From the former modification we have dolla, a bubble, blister, round glass phial,
ON. bo/gna, to puff up, swell, passing on stud, boss; ON. bola,a bubble; bol/l, a cup;
the one hand by the loss of the g into Pl. D. bol, globular, spherical ; Du. bol,
Dan. bulne, OE. bo/ne, to swell, and on swollen, puffy, hollow, convex, a ball, a
the other by the loss of the 2 into ON. globe or spherical body, the head, the
bogna, bugna, to bulge, bow, give in to, crown of a hat, bulb of an onion ; bo//e-
yield. From the other form are G. buckel, Æen, the boll or round seed-vessel of flax ;
a protuberance, a hump on the back ; Bav. čollen, globular body, round bead,
sich auſbuckeln (Schm.), to raise the back boll of flax ; rossboſ/en, horsedung ;
like a cat; then by the loss of the 1, Bav. mausbø//e/ein, mousedung ; OHG. bol/a,
&ucken, to bend down, to bow ; buck, a po//a, bulla in aqua, folliculus; hirmi
bending, prominence, hill. G. bucken, po//a, MH G. hirnbo//a, the skull or brain
Sw. bucka, bocka, Dan. bukke, to stoop, pan ; bol/e, a bud, a wine-can ; AS. bolla,
bow, make obeisance. Du. zich onder a pot, bowl ; heaſod bo//a, the head.
jemand buigen, to yield to one, to buckle A similar series of designations from
under to him. G. bucke/g gehen, to stoop the image of a bubble may be seen in
in walking ; buck/ing, a bow. The l Fin. AEu//o, a bubble, boil, tumour; &up
appears in a different position in ODu. tula, kuppelo, a ball ; Aupu, the crop of a
bulcken, inclinare se (Kil.), as in E. bulk bird, belly, head of a cabbage, wisp of
compared with Sw. buA, Dan. bug, con straw ; kupukka, anything globular. See
vexity, belly, or in E. bulge, compared Bulk.
with Fr. bouge, belly of a cask. W. bog, Box. A hollow wooden case, as well
a swelling or rising up. Sanscr. b/iu/, as the name of a shrub whose wood is
to bend, to make crooked ; (in pass.) to peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and
incline oneself; bhugma, bent, crooked. similar objects. AS. bor in both senses.
The same line of derivation seems re Gr. trāšoc, the box-tree, tróšic, a box; Lat.
peated in Magy. bugy, representing the burus, the box-tree and articles made of
sound of bubbling or guggling ; bugyni, it ; G. bitchse, a box, the barrel of a gun,
&ugyani, to bubble up, stream forth ; buchsbaum, the box-tree; It. bosso, box
&ugyogni, to guggle, bubble, spring as tree, bosso/a, a box, hollow place; Fr.
water; bugya, a boil, tumour, lump ; &uis, Bret, beuz, Bohem. Ausspan, box
buga, bugyoſa, a knot, a bundle. tree ; pusska, a box.
* Bowels. It. bude/lo, bue//o, OFr.
Du. busse, a box, bussken, a little box;
boel, gut, bowel; Bret. bouze/lou, bouellou, Pl.D. bisse, bitske.
Hence, with an in
bowels. Lat. botulus, a sausage. version of the s and Æ, as in AS. acsian, E.
Fr. boudin, a black pudding, the bowel ask, we arrive at the E. bor, without the
of an animal stuffed with blood and need of resorting to an immediate deriva
grits. tion from the Latin.
The word may probably be identical The bor of a coach is commonly ex
with Fris. budel, Du. buide/, G. beuſe/, a plained as if it had formerly been an ac
sack, purse, pocket. See Boil. tual box, containing the implements for
Bower. NE. boor, a parlour.—Hal. keeping the coach in order. It is more
ON. bur, a separate apartment; utibur, an probably from the G. bock, signifying in
outhouse; AS. bur, a chamber; sweſnbur, the first instance a buck or he-goat, then
a sleeping-room ; cumena-bur, guest applied in general to a trestle or support
chamber; fata-bur, a wardrobe; Sw. upon which anything rests, and to a coach
hönse-bur, a hen-coop ; W. &wr, an in box in particular. See Crab, Cable. In
closure, intrenchment, bºwra, a croft by a like manner the Pol. Koziel, a buck, is
house. applied to a coach-box, while the plural
Bowl.—Boll. Fr. boule, a bowl, in both Kozly is used in the sense of a sawing
senses, of a wooden ball to play with and block, trestle, painter's easel, &c.
To Box. To fight with the fists. From You may find time in eternity,
the Dan. bask, a sounding blow, baske, Deceit and violence in heavenly justice—
Ere stain or brack in her sweet reputation.
to slap, thwack, flap, by the same in B. and F.
version of s and Æ, as noticed under Box.
It is plainly an imitative word, parallel G. brechen, to break (sometimes also
with OE. Aash, to strike. Swiss batschen, used in the sense of failing, as die Augen
to smack the hand; baitschen, to give a brechen ihm, his eyes are failing him),
loud smack, to fall with a noise. Heligo gebrechen, to want, to be wanting; want,
land batsken, to box the ears. Lett. need, fault, defect; Du. braecke, ghebreck,
&auksch represents the sound of a blow ; breach, want, defect.— Kil. AS. brec,
&auáscheht, to give a sounding blow ; Pl.D. brek, want, need, fault ; ON. brek,
àuksteht, to give a blow with the fists. defect. On the same principle from the
Boy. G. bube, Swiss bub, bue, Swab. ON. Öresta, to crack, to break, to burst,
buah, a grown youth ; Cimbr. pube, boy, is derived brestr, a crack, flaw, defect,
youth, unmarried man ; Swiss Rom. moral or physical.
Brack.-Brackish. Water rendered
&oubo, bouébo, boy; bouba, bouéða, little
i. Lat. Aupus, a boy ; pupa, a girl, a unpalatable by a mixture of salt. One
of the numerous cases in which we have
to halt between two derivations.
To Brabble. A variation of babble,
representing the confused sound of simul Gael. bracha, suppuration, putrefaction;
taneous talking. In like manner the It. brach shuileach, blear-eyed; Prov. brac,
has bulicame and bru/icame, a bubbling pus, matter, mud, filth; el brac e la or
motion ; Fr. boussole, Sp. bruarula, a com dura del mun, the filth and ordure of the
pass; Fr. boiste, Prov. brosłia, a box. world—Rayn.; It. braco, brago, a bog or
Du. &rabòelen, to stammer, jabber, con puddle; OFr. brac, braic, bray, mud;
fuse, disturb, quarrel; Bohem. Öreptati, Rouchi breuque, mud, clay.—Hécart.
to stutter, murmur, babble. Then as an adj., Prov. brac, bragos, OFr.
Brace. The different meanings of the &rageur, foul, dirty. “La ville ou y avait
word brace may all be reduced to the idea eaues et sourses moult brageuses.”—Mon
strelet in Rayn. Thus brack, which sig
of straining, compressing, confining, bind nifies in the first instance water contami
ing together, from a root brak, which has
many representatives in the other Europe nated by dirt, might easily be applied to
an languages. See Brake. water spoilt for drinking by other means,
To brace is to draw together, whence a as by a mixture of sea water.
bracing air, one which draws up the But upon the whole I am inclined to
think that the application to water con
springs of life; a pair of braces, the bands taminated with salt is derived from the
which hold up the trowsers. A brace on
board a ship, It. braca, is a rope holding G. and Du. brack, wrack, refuse, damaged;
up a weight or resisting a strain. A brace dicitur de mercibus quibusdam minus
is also a pair of things united together in probis.--Kil. Brak-goed, merces sub
the first instance bya physical tie, and then mersæ, salo sive aquà marină corruptae.
merely in our mode of considering them. —Kil. Pl.D. brakke grund, land spoilt
Bracelet. Bracelet, an ornamental by an overflow of sea water; Du. brakke
band round the wrist; bracer, a guard to torſ, turf made offensive by a mixture of
protect the arm of an archer from the sulphur (where the meaning would well
string of his bow. Fr. brasselet, a brace agree with the sense of the Gael. and
let, wristband, or bracer—Cot.; OFr. Prov. root); wrack, brack, acidus, salsus.
—Kil. See Broker.
&rassard, Sp. bracil, armour for the arm, From the sense of water unfit for drink
from bras, the arm.
Brach. Prov. brac, bracon, braquet, Fr. ing from a mixture of salt, the word
&rague, brachet, Sp. Ptg. braco, It. bracco, passed on to signify salt water in general,
a setter, spaniel, beagle, dog that hunts by and the diminutive brackish was appro
scent. MHG. bracke, s. s., dog in general; priated to the original sense.
The entrellis eik far in the fludis brake
ON. rakki, dog; Sw. rakka, bitch ; Du. I sal slyng.—D. V. in R.
rakke, whelp ; AS. raece, OE. ratch, rach,
scenting dog, odorinsecus.-Pr. Pm. Bracket. A bracket is properly a
Brac A breach, flaw, or defect, cramp-iron holding things together; then
from break. Fr. briche, a brack or breach a stand cramped to a wall. Brackets in
in a wall, &c.—Cot. printing are claws holding together an
Floods drown no fields before they find a brack. isolated part of the text. Fr. brague, a
Mirror for Mag. in R. mortise for holding things together—-

Cot.; Piedm. braga, an iron for holding Hire mouth was sweet as braket or the meth.
or binding anything together. – Zalli.
From brake in the sense of constraining. From w. brag, malt, and that from
See Brace, Brake. bragio, to sprout; i.e. sprouted corn.
To Brag.—Brave. Primarily to crack, To Braid. See Bray.
to make a noise, to thrust oneself on Brail.--To Brail. From Fr. braies,
people's notice by noise, swagger, boast breeches, drawers, was formed brave/e,
ing, or by gaudy dress and show. Fr. &rayete, the bridge or part of the breeches
&raguer, to flaunt, brave, brag or jet it ; joining the two legs. A slight modifica
&raguard, gay, gallant, flaunting, also tion of this was brayeu/, the feathers
braggard, bragging.—Cot. ON. braća, about the hawk's fundament, called by our
Dan. brag, crack, crash ; ON. braža, to falconers the bray/e in a short-winged,
crash, to crack, also insolenter se gerere— and the pannel in a long-winged hawk.-
Haldorsen; Gael. bragh, a burst, explosion; Cot. From brayel, or from braie itself, is
&ragaineachd, empty pride, vain glory, also derived Fr. destrailler, to unbrace or
boasting ; Bret. braga, se pavaner, let down the breeches, the opposite of
marcher d'une manière fière, se donner which, brai//er (though it does not appear
trop de licence, separer de beaux habits. in the dictionaries), would be to brace, to
Langued. bragá, to strut, to make osten tie up. Rouchi &reſler, to cord a bale of
tation of his equipage, riches, &c. Swiss goods, to fasten the load of a waggon
Rom. braga, vanter une chose.—Vocab. with ropes.—Hécart.
de Vaud. Lith. braszkófi, to rattle, be Hence E. brails, the thongs of leather
noisy; Fris. braske, to shout, cry, make a by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's
noise ; Dan. braske, to boast or brag. wing were tied up ; to brai/ up a sail, to
In like manner to crack is used for tie it up like the wing of a hawk, in order
boasting, noisy ostentation. to prevent its catching the wind.
But thereof set the miller not a tare Brain. As. braggen, Du. breghe,
He cracked bost and swore it nas nat so.breghen, Öreyne.
Chaucer.Brake.—Bray. The meanings of
brake are very numerous, and the deriva
Brag was then used in the sense of tion entangled with influences from differ
brisk, proud, smart.
Seest thou thilk same hawthorn stud ent sources. A brake is,
How bragły it begins to bud.—Shepherd's Cal. I. A bit for horses; a wooden frame in
which the feet of vicious horses are con
Equivalent forms are Gael. breagh, fine, fined in shoeing ; an old instrument of
well-dressed, splendid, beautiful, Sc. bra’, torture ; an inclosure for cattle ; a car
braw, Bret. &rao, brav, gayly dressed, riage for breaking in horses; an instru
handsome, fine. ment for checking the motion of a wheel;
Thus we are brought to the OE. brave, a mortar ; a baker's kneading trough; an
finely dressed, showy ; bravery, finery. instrument for dressing flax or hemp ; a
From royal court I lately came (said he] harrow.—Hal.
Where all the braverie that eye may see— 2. A bushy spot, a bottom overgrown
Is to be found.—Spenser in R.
with thick tangled brushwood.
The sense of courageous comes imme 3. The plant ſerm.
diately from the notion of bragging and The meanings included under the first
boasting. Gael. brabhadair, a noisy talk head are all reducible to the notion of
ative fellow, blusterer, bully ; braðhdadh, constraining, confining, compressing, sub
idle talk, bravado, Fr. bravache, a roist duing, and it is very likely that the root
erer, swaggerer, bravacherie, boasting, &rak, by which this idea is conveyed, is
vaunting, bragging of his own valour.— identical with Gael. brac, W. braich, Lat.
Cot. It. bravare and Fr. braver, to swag &rachium, the arm, as the type of exertion
ger, affront, flaunt in fine clothes; Sp. and strength. It is certain that the word
bravo, bullying, hectoring, brave, valiant; for arm is, in numerous dialects, used in
sumptuous, expensive, excellent, fine. Fr. the sense of force, power, strength. Thus
brave, brave, gay, fine, gorgeous, gallant Bret. breach, Sp. brazo, Walloon bress,
(in apparel); also proud, stately, brag Wallachian braſsou, Turk bazu are used
gard ; also valiant, stout, courageous, in both senses.
that will carry no coals. Faire /e brave, It will be found in the foregoing ex
to stand upon terms, to boast of his own amples that brake is used almost exactly
worth.-Cot. in the sense of the Lat. subigere, express
Bragget. Sweet wort. ing any kind of action by which some
thing is subjected to external force, el arco, to bend a bow, Fr. braguer un
brought under control, reduced to a con canon, to bend or direct a cannon. The
dition in which it is serviceable to our same name is given to the handle of a
wants, or the instrument by which the ship's pump, the member by which the
action is exerted. force of the machine is exerted. It. braca,
ON. braća, subigere, to subdue. In a brace on board a ship.
this sense must be explained the expres Brake. 2. In the sense of a thicket,
sion of breaking in horses, properly brak cluster of bushes, bush, there is consider
ing or subduing them. To the same able difficulty in the derivation. The
head must be referred brake, a horse's equivalent word in the other Teutonic
bit, It. braca, a horse's twitch. AS. bracan, dialects is frequently made to signify a
to pound, to knead or mix up in a mortar, marsh or swamp. Du. broeck, Pl.D.
to rub, farinam in mortario subigere; Sp. &rook, a fen, marsh, low wet land ; G.
&regar, to exert force in different ways, bruch, a marsh, or a wood in a marshy
to bend a bow, to row, to stiffen against place ; brook, grassy place in a heath—
difficulties (se raidir contre—Taboada), Overyssel Almanach; NE. brog, a swampy
to knead; Prov. Örega, Corrèze bredgea, or bushy place–Hal. ; Mid.Lat. bro
bredza, to rub (as in washing linen— gi/um, brot/ium, bro/ium, nemus, sylva
Beronie), Fr. broyer, to bray in a mortar. aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer
The Fr. broyer is also used for the dress cetur.—Duc. OFr. brogille, bregiſle,
ing of flax or hemp, passing it through a ôroi/, broil/et, breuil, copse-wood, cover
&rake or frame consisting of boards loosely for game, brambles, brushwood. G. dial.
locking into each other, by means of gebräge, gebrüche, a brake, thicket.
which the fibre is stripped from the stalk Inquirers have thus been led in two di
or core, and brought into a serviceable rections, the notion of wetness leading
condition. As there is so much of actual some to connect the word with E. brook,
breaking in the operation, it is not sur a stream, Gr. 39éxw, to moisten, and Lat.
prising that the word has here, as in the riguus, watered, while others have con
case of horse-breaking, been confounded sidered the fundamental signification to
with the verb break, to fracture. We be broken ground, with the bushes and
have thus Du. &raecken het vlasch, fran tangled growth of such places.
gere linum.—Biglotton. Fr. briser, con The latter supposition has a remark
casser, le lin. So in G. ſlachs brechen, able confirmation in the Finnish lan
while in other dialects the words are kept guages, where from Esthon. murdma, to
distinct. Pl.D. braken, Dan. brage, to break, is formed murd, gebüsch, gebröge,
break flax; Pl.D. bracken, Dan. braºke, to a thicket, brake, bush, pasture, quarry;
break or fracture. It is remarkable that from Fin. murran, murtaa, to break,
the term for braking flax in Lith. is murrokko, sylva ubi arbores sunt vento
&raukti, signifying to sweep, to brush, to diffractae et transversim collapsae, multi
strip. The ON. brak is a frame in which tudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum
skins are worked backwards and forwards et collapsorum. And this probably was
through a small opening, for the purpose the original meaning of G. bruch, ge
of incorporating them with the grease &rièche, gebräge, E. brog or brake. A
employed as a dressing. Swiss Rom. break of such a kind, or overthrow of
brºgo, a spinning-wheel.-Voc. de Vaud. trees by the wind, is most likely to take
In like manner Lat. subigere is used for place in low wet ground where their
any kind of dressing. roots have less hold, and when once
Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in usus thrown down, in northern climates, they
Seu digitis subigebat opus.-Ovid. stop the flow of water and cause the
growth of peat and moss. Thus the
In the case of the NE. brake, Gael. word, which originally designated a
*raca, a harrow, Dan. brage, to harrow broken mass of wood, might come to
(Lat: {{e}as subigere, segetes subigere ara signify a swamp, as in Du. and G., as
tris), the notion of breaking down the well as in the case of the E. brog above
clods again comes to perplex our deriva mentioned. A brake is explained in
Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as “a bot
In other cases the idea of straining or tom overgrown with thick tangled brush
exerting force is more distinctly preserved. wood.' It. fratto, broken ; fratta, any
Thus, the term brake was applied to the thicket of brakes, brambles, bushes, or
handle of a cross-bow, the lever by which briers.-Fl.
the string was drawn up, as in Sp. Öregar Brake.—Bracken. 3. It may be sus

pected that brake, in the sense of fern, is growth, as AS. brarmbel-affel, the thorn
a secondary application of the word in apple or stramonium, a plant bearing a
the sense last described, that is to say, fruit covered with spiky thorns, and in
that it may be so named as the natural Chaucer it is used of the rose.
growth of brakes and bushy places. It And swete as is the bramble flower
is certain that we find closely-resembling That beareth the red hepe.-Sir Topaz.
forms applied to several kinds of plants AS. Thornas and breme/as, thorns and
the natural growth of waste places and briars. Gen. iii. 18.
such as are designated by the term Bran. Bret. brenn, w. bran, It. brenna,
&rake, bruch, &c. Thus we have w. Arenda, Fr. bran. The fundamental sig
&ruß, heath ; ON. brok, sedge; bur&mi, nification seems preserved in Fr. bren,
Dan. bregme, bracken or fern; Port. excrement, ordure; Rouchi Ören d'orºſe,
&rejo, sweet broom, heath, or ling, also a ear-wax ; bermeua, snotty ; Russ. bren,
marshy low ground or fen ; Grisons mud, dirt; Bret. brenn hesken, the refuse
bruch, heath. or droppings of the saw, sawdust. Bran
It may be however that the relationship is the draff or excrement of the corn,
runs in the opposite direction, and E. what is cast out as worthless.
&rake, brog, G. bruch, gebröge, gebriºche, Ils ressemblent le buretel
&c., may be so called in analogy with Selonc l'Ecriture Divine
Bret. &rugek, a heath, from brug, bruk, Quigiete la blanche farine
heath, or with It. brughera, thick brakes Fors de lui et retient le bren.—Ducange.
of high-grown ferns (Flor.), as places So Swiss gaggi, chaff, from gaggi,
overgrown with brakes or fern, heath cack. Gael. brein, Öreun, stink; breanan,
(Bret. bruk, Örug), broom, or other plants a dunghill, W. brºwn!, nasty.
of a like nature. The relation of brake Branch. — Brank. We have seen
to bracken may originally have been that under Brace and Brake many instances
of the Bret. brug, heath, to brugen, a of the use of the root brak in the sense
single plant of heath. See Brush. of strain, constrain, compress. The na
Bramble.—Broom. As, bremel, Pl.D. salisation of this root gives a form braná
brummel, Du. braeme, breme ; Sw.G. in the same sense. Hence the Sc. brank,
brom, bramble; Du. brem, brom, broem, a bridle or bit; to brané, to bridle, to
Pl.D. braam, G. bram, also Afriemkraut, restrain. The witches' branks was an
f/riemen, broom, the leafless plant of iron bit for torture; Gael. brang, brancas,
which besoms are made. a halter. The same form becomes in It.
It will be found that shrubs, bushes, &ranca, branchia, the fang or claw of a
brambles, and waste growths, are looked beast; brancaglie, all manner of gripings
on in the first instance as a collection of and clinchings; among masons and car
twigs or shoots, and are commonly de penters, all sorts of fastening together of
signated from the word signifying a twig. stonework or timber with braces of lead
Thus in Lat. from virga, a rod or twig, or iron.—Florio. Bramcare, to gripe, to
virgulum, a shrub ; from Servian prut, clutch. Then by comparison with claws
a rod, fruſye, a shrub ; from Bret. brous, or arms, Bret. braná, It. branco, Fr.
a bud, and thence a shoot, brousãoad, &ranche, the branch of a tree.
&rus&oad, brushwood, wood composed of Brand. I. A mark made by burning.
twigs. Bav. Öross, brosst, a shoot, Serv. G. brandmurk, brandmahl, from brand,
&rst, young sprouts, Bret. broust, hallier, burning; brennen, to burn. , 2. As ON.
buisson fort epais, a thick bush, ground &randr, G. brand, a burning fragment of
full of briers, thicket of brambles–Cot.; wood. A sword is called a brand because
Fr. broussaille, a briery plot. In like it glitters when waved about like a flam
manner the word bramble is from Swiss ing torch. The Cid's sword on the same
brom, a bud, young twig (brom-beisser, principle was named tied, from Lat.
the bull-finch, E. bud-biter or bud-bird— titio, a firebrand.—Diez.
Halliwell); Grisons brumbe/, a bud; It. The derivation from brennen, to burn,
bromboli, broccoli, cabbage sprouts—Fl.; would leave nothing to be desired if the
Piedm. &/ombo, a vine twig; Bav. Aſroftſ, foregoing meanings stood alone. But we
a shoot or twig. find It. brano, brande/lo, a piece or bit;
The pointed shape of a young shoot Arandone, a large piece of anything, a
led to the use of the G. Afriem in the torch or firebrand; Fr. brin, a small
sense of an awl, and the word bramble piece of anything; brin & brin (as It.
itself was applied in a much wider sense Żrano a brano), bit by bit, piecemeal;
than it is at present to any thorny brindelles, the twigs of a besom ; ON.

brandr, N. brand, a stick, stake, billet, as Thus was this usurper's faction brangled, then
well as the blade of a sword. Thus the bound up again, and afterward divided again by
want of worth in Baliol their head.—Hume in
brand in ON. eldibrandr, E. ſirebrand, Jam.
might signify merely a piece of wood or
billet, and in the sense of a sword-blade To embrangle, to confuse, perplex, con
might be explained from its likeness to a found. The sense of a quarrel may be
stick. The corresponding form in Gael. is derived from the idea of confusion, or in
bruan, a fragment, morsel, splinter, which that sense brangle may be a direct imita
with an initial s becomes spruan, brush tion of the noise of persons quarrelling,
wood, fire-wood. Sc. brane-wood, fire as a nasalised form of the Piedm. bragale,
wood, not, as Jamieson explains it, from to vociferate, make an outcry.
Brase.—Braser.—Brasil. To brase
As. bryne, incendium, but from the fore
going brano, brin, bruan. meat is to pass it over hot coals; a
Quhyn thay had beinit lyk baitit bullis, braser, a pan of hot coals. It. bracea,
And brane-wod brynt in bailis. bracia, bragia, Fr. braise, Port. braza,
To Brandish.-Brandle. To brand live coals, glowing embers; brazeiro, a
pan of coals.
ish, to make shine with shaking, to shake The word brēsiſ, brasil, was in use
to and fro in the hand.-Bailey. Fr. before the discovery of America in the
brandir, to hurl with great force, to make sense of a bright red dye, the colour of
a thing shake by the force it is cast with, braise or hot coals, and the name of
to shine or glister with a gentle shaking ; Brazil was given because a dyewood,
brandi//er, to brandle, shake, totter, also supplying a more convenient source of
to glisten or flash-Cot. the colour than hitherto known, was
Commonly explained from the notion found there. ‘A qual—agora se chama
of waving a brand or sword. But this is do Brasil por caso do pao vermilho que
too confined an origin for so widely-spread della ven:” which at present is called
a word. Manx bramsey, to dash, Rouchi Brasil on account of the red wood which
braner, Bret. bransella, Fr. bransler, comes from thence.—De Goes, Chron.
branler, to shake. de Don Emanuel in Marsh. The name
Brandy. Formerly brandy-wine, Du. of Santa Cruz having been originally
brand-wijn, brandende wiftn, aqua ardens, given to the country, De Barros considers
vinum ardens.—Kil. The inflammable
it an eminent triumph of the devil that
spirit distilled from wine. Du. brandigh, the name of that holy wood should have
flagrans, urens.—Kil. G. branntwein , been superseded by the name of a wood
i.e. gebrannter wein, distilled wine, from used in dyeing cloths.
brennen, to burn, to distil ; weinbrenner, In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th
century the word is very common in the
Brangle. This word has two senses, forms brasil, brazil, bresil.
apparently very distinct from each other, La ai-jou molt garance et waide
though it is not always easy to draw an Et bresil et alun et graine
undoubted line between them. Ist, to Dont jou gaaing mes dras et laine.
scold, to quarrel, to bicker—Bailey, and Michel. Chron. du Roi Guill. d’Angl. in Marsh.
2nd, as Fr. brandiller, to brandle or Diez seems to put the cart before the
brandish. The It. brando/are is ex
horse in deriving the word from ON.
plained by Florio, to brangle, to shake, brasa, to braze or lute, to solder iron. It
to shog, to totter. is more likely derived from the roaring
The tre brangillis, boisting to the fall, sound of flame. G. brausen, prasselm, to
With top trimbling, and branchis shakand all. roar, to crackle; AS. brastlian, to brustle,
D. V. 59.50.
crackle, burn.-Lye. Sw. brasca, faire
In this application the word seems fracas, to make display ; Milan. brascó,
direct from the Fr. branler, the spelling to kindle, set on fire.—Diez. Gris. brasca,
with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) sparks. Sw, brasa, to blaze, also as a
being an attempt to represent the nasal noun, a roaring fire. Fr. embraser, to
sound of the Fr. m. In the same way the set on fire; Wallon. bruzi, braise, hot
Fr. bransle, a round dance, became ashes ; Pied. brusé, It. bruciare, Fr.
brangle or brawl in E. ; It. branla, a brusler, brûler, to burn. E. brustle, to
French brawl or brangle.—Fl. crackle, to make a noise like straw or
From the sense of shaking probably small wood in burning, to rustle.—Halli
arose that of throwing into disorder, put well. Fr. bruire, to murmur, make a
ting to confusion. noise, and bruir, brouir, to burn. —

Roquefort. “E tut son corps arder et rampire on board a ship.–Sverris Saga,

Bruir.’—Rayn. 275.
Brass.-Bronze. AS. brars, from being Then as parapets and battlements
used in the brazing or soldering of iron. naturally took the shape of projections on
ON. bras, solder, especially that used in the top of a building, the term bretesche
the working of iron ; at brasa, ferrumi was applied to projecting turrets or the
nare, to solder. The verb is probably like beyond the face of the wall.
derived from the brase, or glowing coals Un possesseur d'un heritage—ne peut faire
over which the soldering is done; Fr. *refesques, boutures, saillies, ni autres choses sur
&raser ſargent, le repasser un peu sur la la rue au prejudice de ses voisins.—Duc.
Araise.—Cot. The same correspondence Now this is precisely the ordinary
is seen between It. bronze, burning coals, sense of the E. bartisan, “the small over
bronzacchiare, to carbonado, as rashers hanging turrets which project from the
upon quick burning coals, bronzare, to angles or the parapet on the top of a
braze, to copper, and bronzo, brass, pan tower.’—Hal.
metal.–Florio. That the town colours be put upon the ber
Brat. A rag, a contemptuous name tisene of the steeple.—Jam.
for a young child.-Bailey. AS. brat, a The word is also used in the sense of
cloak, a clout. W. braſ, a rag. Gael. a fence of stone or wood. Jam. Sup. It
brat, a mantle, apron, cloth; brafach, a may accordingly be explained as a cor
banner. A brat is commonly used for a ruption of bratticing, brettysing, bartising,
child's pinafore in many parts of Eng equivalent to the Du. borderinge, coas
land. Pl. D. slakker-bortchen, a slabber satio, contignatio.—Kil.
ing-bib. For the application to a child Brave. See Brag.
compare Bret. trul, pil, a rag ; trulen or Brawl. I. A kind of dance. Fr.
fi/en (in the feminine form), a contempt bransle, branle, from branler, to shake.
uous name for a woman, a slut. So also See Brandish, Brangle.
Lap. sliðro, a rag ; neita sliðro (neita, 2. A dispute or squabble. Certainly
girl), a little girl. from the confused noise, whether con
Brattice.—Bartizan. A braffice is a tracted from brabble, as scrawl from
fence of boards in a mine or round dan scrab//e, or whether it be from Fr. braiſler,
gerous machinery, from Sc. bred, G. brett, frequentative of braire, to cry, as criai//er
Du. berd, a plank or board, as Zaffice, a of crier. Swiss bradle, deblaterare, brad
frame of laths, from Fr. latte, a lath. /ete, strepitus linguarum. – Deutsch.
A bretise or öretage is then a parapet, Mundart. 2. 368. Dan. bralle, to talk
in the first instance of boards, and in a much and high; at bra/ſe off, to scold
latinised shape it is applied to any boarded and make a disturbance; wraale, to
structure of defence, a wooden tower, a bawl, squall, roar. Gael. &raodhlach,
parapet, a testudo or temporary roof to brawling, noise, discord; braoiſich, a
cover an attack, &c. Sc. brettys, a forti loud noise. The term brawl is also ap
fication.—Jam. Betrar of a walle (bre plied to the noise of broken water, as a
tasce, brezays), propugnaculum.— Pr. Pn. &rawling brook. See Bray.
It. bertesca, bal/resca, a kind of rampart Brawn. The muscular part of the
or fence of war made upon towers; a body. It. brano, brandi//o, brandone,
block-house.—Altieri. Fr. Öreſegue, bre any piece, cob, luncheon, or collop of
fesgue, bretesche, a portal of defence in the flesh violently pulled away from the
rampire of a town.—Cot. whole.—Fl. OHG. brai/o (acc. bratón), Fris.
Duae testudines quas Gallice brutesches appel braede, &raeye, a lump of flesh, flesh of a
lant.—Math. Paris. A.D. 1224. Circumeunt ci leg of pork, calf of the leg.—Diez. Kil.
vitatem castellis et turribus ligneis et àerteschiis. Prov. bradon, brazon, Öraon, OFr. braion,
Hist. Pisana in Mur. A.D. 1156. Lorraine bravon, a lump of flesh, the
A wooden defence of the foregoing de buttocks, muscular parts of the body;
scription round the deck of a ship, or on Wall. breyon, a lump, breyon d'chater,
the top of a wall, was called by the bribe de viande, bas morceau de viande
Norsemen wig-gyrdi//, a battle-girdle. fraiche, breyon de gamões, the calf of the
‘Med endilöngum baenom var umbuiz a leg.—Remacle. Westphal. bran, Cologne
husum uppi, reistrupp bord-vidr a utan &roden, calf of the leg, buttock; Sc. brand,
verdom thaukom sva sem viggyrdlat calf of the leg; Sp. braſion for bradon, a
vaeri.” Along the town things were pre patch of cloth. OFr. es&raoner, It.
pared up on the houses, boarding being söranare, to tear piecemeal. See Brand.
raised up out on the roofs like the battle To Bray.—Braid. Many kinds of

loud harsh noise are represented by the On syde he bradis for to eschew the dint.—
D. V. in Jam.
syllable bra, bru, with or without a final
d', g, Æ, ch, y. ON. bregda, to braid the hair, weave
Fr. braire, to bray like an ass, bawl, nets, &c. The ON. bragd is also applied
yell, or cry out loudly; bruire, to rumble, to the gestures by which an individual
rustle, crash, to sound very loud and is characterised, and hence also to the
lineaments of his countenance, explain
very harshly; brugier, to bellow, yell,
roar, and make a hideous noise.—Cot. ing a very obscure application of the E.
Prov. bruzir, to roar or bellow. &raid. Bread, appearance—Bailey; to
Gr. 3páxw, to crash, roar, rattle, re braid, to pretend, to resemble.—Hal.
sound; Boixo, to roar. ON. brać, crash, To pretend is to assume the appearance
and manners of another. “Ye braid of
noise ; vapna-brak, the clash of arms;
Dan. brage, to crash, crackle; E. bray, the miller's dog,' you have the manners
applied to loud harsh noises of many of the miller's dog. To braid of one's
kinds, as the voice of the ass, the sound father, to have the lineaments of one's
of arms, &c. father, to resemble him. ON. bragr,
Heard ye the din of battle bray f gestus, mos; at braga eſtir einum, to
With a terminal d we have Prov. imitate or resemble one. N. braa, kind,
soft; braa, to resemble.
&raidir, braidar, to cry; Port. bradar, to On the same principle may be explain
cry out, to bawl, to roar as the sea. OE. ed a passage of Shakespeare, which has
to braid, abraid, upbraid, to cry out, given much trouble to commentators.
make a disturbance, to scold. Since Frenchmen are so braid,
Quoth Beryn to the serjauntes, That ye me Marry who will, I'll live and die a maid.
hondith so
Or what have I offendit, or what have I seide? The meaning is simply, “since such are
Trewlich quoth the serjauntis it waylith not to the manners of Frenchmen, &c.’
breide (there is no use crying out) To Bray. 2. To rub or grind down
With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. in a mortar. Sp. bregar, to work up
paste or dough, to knead; Prov. Cat.
Then as things done on a sudden or bregar, to rub; Fr. broyer, Bret, braea, to
with violence are accompanied by noise, bray in a mortar. W. brettan, a mill, a
we find the verb to bray or braid used to brake for hemp or flax. See Brake.
express any kind of sudden or violent Breach. AS. brice, Fr. breche, a breach
action, to rush, to start, to snatch. or brack in a wall, &c.—Cot. From the
Ane blusterand bub out fra the North braying verb to break.
Gan oer the foreschip in the baksail ding.—D. V. Bread. ON. braud. G. brof.
Syne stikkis dry to kyndill there about laid is, To Break. Goth. brikan, braž, G.
Quhill all in flame the bleis of fyre upbradis. brechen, Lat. frangere, fractus ; Gr.
D. V.
Đàyvvut, to break, 64koç, a rag; Fin. rić
i.e. starts crackling up. Æoa, to break, to tear; Bret, regi, rogi, to
The cup was uncoverid, the sword was out break, to tear; rog, a rent.
yörayid.—Beryn. The origin is doubtless a representation
A forgyt knyff but baid he bradis out.—Wal of the noise made by a hard thing break
lace IX. 145. ing. In like manner the word crack is
But when as I did out of slepe abray.—F. Q. used both to represent the noise of a
The miller is a per'lous man he seide fracture, and to signify the fracture itself,
And if that he out of his slepe abreide or the permanent effects of it. The same
He might don us both a villany.—Chaucer.
relation is seen between Lat. fragor, a
The ON, bragd is explained motus loud noise, and frangere, to break; Fr.
guilibet ce/erior, at bragdi, instantane fracas, a crash, disturbance, and fracas
ously, at once, as OE. at a braid. ser, to break. The Lat. crepo and E.
His bow he hadden taken right crash are used to signify both the noise
made in breaking and the fracture itself.
And at a braid he gun it bende.—R. R.
ON. augmaðragd, a wink, twinkling of The Swiss has brätschen, to smack or
the eye. Then, as the notion of turning crack, braſsche, a brack, breach, or
is often connected with swiftness of mo wound.
tion, to braid acquires the sense of bend, Bream. A broad-shaped fresh-water
turn, twist, plait. fish, cyprinus latus. Fr. brame, Du.
. And with a braid I turnyt me about.—Dunbar ôraessent. Swiss Örafschig, ill-favouredly
in Jam. broad.

Breast. As, breast, Goth. brusts, Du. The origin is the imitation of a rust
horst. Perhaps the original meaning ling noise, as by the Sc. brissle, properly
may be a chest. Prov. brut, bruc, brusc, to crackle, then to broil, to fry; Swiss
the bust, body; brosłia, brusſia, a box. Rom. brire, to rattle (as hail), simmer,
Breath. AS. brarth, an odour, scent, murmur—Vocab. de Vaud. ; brisoſer, bre
breath. Originally probably the word soler, to roast, to fry; / os qui breso/e, the
signified steam, vapour, as the G. brodem, singing bone.-Gl. Génév. Then from a
&rodel, broden. simmering, twittering sound the term is
The caller wine in cave is sought applied to shivering, trembling, as in the
Mens brothing breists to cule.—Hume in Jam. case of twiſter, which signifies in the
first instance a continuous broken sound,
See Broth. and is then used in the sense of tremb
Breeches. Lat. bracaº, braceae; Bret. ling. We have thus It. brisciare, brez
bragez; on. brok, brakur, It. brache, zare, to shiver for cold. Compare OE.
Prov. braga, braia, OFr. bragues, braies. grill, chilly, with It. grillare, to simmer,
The origin is the root brak in the sense Fr. griſſer, to crackle, broil, Du. grillen,
of straining, binding, fastening; the ori to shiver.—Halma.
ginal breeches being (as it must be sup Breeze.—Briss, Brist. The ashes
posed) a bandage wrapped round the hips, and cinders sold by the London dustmen
and brought beneath between the legs. for brickmaking are known by the name
Hence the Lat. sub/gar, suð/gaculum, other of England the
from ligare, to § Piedm. braga, of breeze. In brist parts for dust, rub
term briss or is in use
&raca, a cramp-iron for holding things bish. Briss and buttons, sheep's drop
together, a horse's twitch; Fr. braie, pings; bruss, the dry spines of furze
&raies, a twitch for a horse, bandage or broken off.-Dev. Gl. Piedm. brossé, orts,
truss for a rupture, clout for a child, the offal of hay and straw in feeding
drawers. Bracha, a girdle.—Gl. Isidore cattle; Sp. broza, remains of leaves, bark
and Tatian.
of trees, and other rubbish ; Fr. bris,
The Breech (Prov.” braguier, braia) débris, rubbish; bris de charbon, coal
may be explained as the part covered by dust; bresi//es, brezi//es, little bits of wood
the breeches, but more probably the E. —Berri; briser, to break, burst, crush,
term designates the part on which a boy bruise; Bret. bruzum, a crum, morsel; G.
is breeched or flogged, a word formed brosame, a crum; Du. brijsen, brijselen,
from the sound of a loud smack. Swiss
to bray, to crush; Gael. bris, brisd, brist,
brätsch, a smack, the sound of a blow to break; Dan. briste, to burst, break,
with the flat hand, or the blow itself; fail. See Brick, Bruise.
&ráfschen, to smack; braſscher, an in Breeze. — Brize. G. breme, bremse,
strument for smacking, a fly-flap, &c. AS. brimsa, briosa, a gadfly, from the
G. dial. (Westerwald) fritschen, britschen, buzzing or bizzing (as it is pronounced in
to lay one on a bench and strike him the N. of E.) sound with which the gadfly
with a flat board; Du. bridsen, de bridse heralds his attack.
geven, met de bridse slaan, xyligogio A fierce loud buzzing breeze, their stings draw
castigare.—Biglotton. Pl.D. bridge, an OOCI,
instrument of laths for smacking on the And drive the cattle gadding through the wood.
breech; einem de britze geven, to strike Dryden.
one on the breech so that it smacks As AS. brimsa, G. bremse, point to G.
(klatschet). *rummen, Fris. brimme, to hum, so AS.
In like manner it is not improbable Ariosa, E. breeze, are related to Prov.
that Fr. ſesses, the breech or buttocks, bruzir, to murmur, to resound, Swiss
instead of being derived from Lat. fissus, Rom. brison, Öreson, noise, murmur,
cloven, as commonly explained, may be Russ. briosat’, to buzz.
from the verb ſesser, to breech, to scourge To Brew. The origin of the word is
on the buttocks (Cot.), corresponding to shown by the Mid. Lat. forms, brasiare,
G. ſizen, feifschen, and E. to ſeize or *raciare, bra.rare, Fr. brasser, to brew,
feaze, to whip, forms analogous to E. from brace, brasium, OFr. bras, braur,
switch, representing the sound of a blow. breiz, Gael. braich, w, brag, sprouted corn,
Breeze. Fr. Örise, a cool wind. It. malt. So ON. brugga, Sw. brygga, to
Brezza, chillness or shivering, a cold and brew, from AS. brug, malt; ‘brug, po
windy mist or frost; brezzare, to be lenta.”—Gl. AS. in Schilter.
misty and cold, windy withal, also to The Teutonic verbs, G. brauen, Du.
chill and shiver with cold. &rouwen, E. brew, are in like manner

from a form similar to Wall. brå, brau, to the dead; from the last of which, E.
Walach. brahé, malt. dial. arval, funeral.
If the foregoing were not so clear, a Bridge.—As. brigge; G. bricke, OSw.
satisfactory origin might have been found Öro, brygga, as so, sugga, a sow, bo, bygga,
in w. berwi, to boil, the equivalent of to prepare, gno, gnugga, to rub. The Sw.
Lat. ſervere, whence berw, berwedd, a bro is applied not only to a bridge, but to a
boiling, and berweddie, to brew. Gael. paved road, beaten way; Dan. bro, bridge,
*ruith, to boil, and ODu. Örieden, to pier, jetty, pavement; bro/egge, to pave.
brew.—Kil. “Han laet broa twa rastin af Tiwede,' he
It is remarkable that the Gr. 3pdºw, made two leagues of road through the
Bodaaw, to boil, would correspond in like forest of Tiwede.—Ihre. At Hamburg a
manner to the Fr. brasser, which however paviour is called steen-brygger. Pol. bruk,
is undoubtedly from brace, malt. pavement ; Lith. brukkas, pavement,
Brewis. See Broth. stone-bridge; bružkoti, to pave; brukkfi,
Bribe. Fr. bribe de pain, a lump of to press; ibruk&fi, to press in, imprint.
bread; briber, to beg one's bread, collect The original sense thus seems to be to
bits of food. Hence OE. bribour, a beg ram, to stamp.
gar, a rogue; It. birčante, birãome, a Bridle. As, bride/, ohG. britti/, Aritiſ;
cheat, a rogue, with transposition of Fr. bride. Perhaps this may be one of
the r. the cases in which the derivation of the
A bribe is now only used in the meta word has been obscured by the insertion
phorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth of an r. ON. bifi//, Dan. bidsel, a bridle,
of some one, a gift for the purpose of ob from bit, the part which the horse bites or
taining an undue compliance. holds in his mouth.
The origin of the word is the w. briwo, So It. bretonica, befonica, betony; bru
to break; briw, broken, a fragment; /icame, bulicame, boiling up ; broco/iere,
&ara briw, broken bread. Rouchi briſe, E. buckler, ON. brus&r and busár, a
a lump of bread.—Hécart. bush; Du. broosekens, E. buskins, E.
Brick. A piece of burnt clay.—Thom groom, AS. guma.
son. The radical meaning is simply a Brief. From Lat. breve or brevis, a
bit, a fragment, being one of the numer summary or any short writing. Applied
ous words derived from break. Lang. especially to a letter or command, to the
&rico, or brizo, a crum; bricou, a little king's writs. In the G. briefit has been
bit; bricouneſha, to break to pieces; appropriated to the sense of an epistle
&rica/io, a crum, little bit, corresponding or letter. In E. it is applied to the letter
to OE. brocaly, broken victuals. As, brice, of the Archbishop or similar official
fracture, fragment, hlaſes brice, a bit of authorising a collection for any purpose;
bread. In some parts of France brigue to the summary of instructions given to a
is still used in this sense, brigue de pain, barrister for the defence of his client.
a lump of bread.—Diez. Brigue, frag Dictante legationis suae brevem.—Ducange.
ment of anything broken.—Gl. Génév. Brier. As. brar, brere, but probably
Aricoſeau, a quoit of stone.—Cot. It. from the Normans. In the patois of
&riccia, any jot or crum, a collop or slice Normandy the word briere is still pre
of something.—Fl. served (Patois de Bray). Fr. bruyere, a
Bride.—Bridal. Goth. bruths, daugh heath, from Bret. brug, bruk, w. grug,
ter-in-law; OHG. briºt, sponsa, conjux, Gael. /raoch, Grisons bruch, brutg, heath.
nurus; G. braut, bride. W. priod, ap It. brughiera, a heath ; brughera, thick
propriate, fit, appropriated, owned; also brakes of high-grown ferns.—Flor. Mid.
married, a married man or woman; Lat. &ruarium, a heath, barren land
Żriodas, a wedding; priodºfab, a bride rough with brambles and bushes.—Duc.
groom (mab=son); priod-ſerch, a bride Brig. A two-masted vessel. Pro
(merch=maid). Priodi, to appropriate; bably contracted from brigantine. Sp.
Żriodor, a proprietor. Diefenbach com dergantino, a brig or brigantine, two
pares Lat. Arivus, one's own, prizatus, masted vessel.-Neumann.
appropriate, peculiar. Brigade. A division of an army, from
Bridegroom, AS. bryd-guma, the newly Fr. brigade, and that from It. brigata, a
married man; guma, a man. Brida/, company, troop, crew, brood. Trovar
for bride-ale, AS. bryd-eale, the marriage si in brigata, to meet together.
feast, then the marriage itself. So in The Prov. has briguer, in the sense of
OSw, fastningar-ø/, graſ-3/, arſ-ºl, the Fr. frayer, to circulate, consort with.
feast of espousals, of burial, of succession “Mes se a servir als+ valens homes e a

briguar ab lor.’ He set himself to serve general notion of exertion of force. See
men of merit, and to associate with them. Brake. In the same way to strive is, in
The primary meaning of Sp. bregar, It. the first instance, to exert one's force in
&rgare, seems to be to exert force; bre the attempt to do something, and, second
gar el arco, to bend a bow; It. brigare, arily, to contend with another.
to strive for, to shift for with care, labour, Bright.—Brilliant. Goth. /air//s,
and diligence, briga, necessary business. clear, manifest: ON. ºfartr, As. bear//,
—Florio. Brigata, then, would be a set bright; bearhtm, brachtm, bºyhºm, a glit
of people engaged in a common occupa tering, twinkling, moment. Bav. bracht,
tion. clang, sound, noise.—Schmeller, ohG.
Brigand. — Brigantine. — Brigan fºra/i/, Aracht, clear sound, outcry, tumult,
dine. It. briga, strife, Mid. Lat. briga, and, at a later period, splendour. The E.
jurgia, rixa, pugna.-Duc. It brigare, &right itself was formerly applied to
to strive, brawl, combat. Probably then sounds.
it was in the sense of skirmishers that Heo–song so schille and so brihte
the name of brigand was given to certain That far and ner me hit iherde.—
light-armed foot-soldiers, frequently men Owl and Nightingale, 1654.
tioned by Froissart and his contempora AS. beerhſian, strepere. — Beowulf,
ries. A Latin glossary quoted by Du 2315.
cange has “Veles, brigant, c'est une Leod was asungen
manière de gens d'armes courant et apert Gleomannes gyd,
a pié.’ “Cum 4 millibus peditum arma Gamen aeft aestab
torum, duobus millibus brigantum et Beorhtode benc sweg.
ducentis equitibus.”—Chron. A.D. 1351, The lay was sung, the gleeman's song, the
in Duc. They were also called brigancii sport grew high, the bench-notes resounded.
or brigantini. “Briganciis et balestra In like manner the G. fºrahlen signifies
riis Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi in the first instance to speak with a loud
reservavit.” voice, to cry, and secondly, to glitter, to
The passage from the sense of a light shine.—Adelung. The origin of both
armed soldier to that of a man pillaging these words is the imitative root brag,
on his own account, is easily understood. Arak, representing a sudden noise. Swab.
In the time of the bataile (of Agincourt) the &ragen, brägen, briegen, to cry—Schmid;
brigauntis of the Frensch took the kyngis car OE. bray, braid.
riage and ied it away.—Capgrave, 312. The phenomena from whence all repre
It. brigante, a pirate, rover either by sea sentative words are immediately taken
or land.-Flor. A similar change has must of course belong to the class which
taken place in the meaning of the It. addresses itself to the ear, and we find
ma/andrini, in later times a robber or accordingly that the words expressing
highway-man, but classed by Thomas of attributes of light are commonly derived
Walsingham with the Brigands as a from those of sound. So G. he//, clear,
species of horse-soldier. transparent, from haſ!, a sound, clangour.
Reductus est ergo et coram consilio demon The Ir. g/ðr, a noise, voice, speech,
stratus Brigan/inorum more semivestitus gestans g/öram, to sound, show the origin of Lat.
sagittas breves qualiter utuntur equites illarum c/arus, clear, with respect either to sound
partium qui Malandrini dicuntur.—Duc. or colour, and the E. tinkle, that of Fr.
From brigante, in the sense of a rob efince//e, a spark. From ON. g/amme,
ber, It. brigandare, to rob, to rove, to g/amr, tinnitus, g/amra, to resound, may
play the pirate or thief at sea, and hence be explained g/ampi, glitter, splendour,
a brigantine, a small light pinnace pro g/ampa, to shine, corresponding to the
per for giving chase or fighting—Bailey; Gr. Aduwa, Aapºrpác. Du. schaferent,
a vessel employed for the purpose of scheferen, to make a loud noise, to
piracy. shriek with laughter, schifferen, to shine,
A brigandine was a kind of scale to glisten. In Fin. there are many
armour, also called briganders, from examples of the same transfer of sig
being worn by the light troops called nification from the phenomena of the
Brigands. A Breton glossary quoted by one sense to those of the other; Kilia,
Ducange has “Arºgandiziott, Gall, brigan clare tinniens, clare lucens, splendens ;
dine, Lat. squamma; inde squammatus, --- e - -

Ailistia, tinnitum clarum moveo, splen

orné de brigandine.’
The sense of strife or combat express dorem clarum reflecto. Wi/isſº, to ring,
ed by briga is a particular case of the as glass; wil/a/a, wiſe//a, wiſahſaa, to

flash, to glitter; Kajata, to resound, re Öreme/, a border, lap, fringe; ON. barmr,
echo, also to reflect, shine, appear at a the edge, border, lip of a vessel, lap of a
distance; Kimista, to sound clear (equiva garment; hence the bosom, originally
lent to the E. chime), Kiming, Sonus acutus,
the lap folding over the breast. E. barm,
the lap or bosom; barm-cloth or barm
clangor tinniens, Aimma/taa, kiimotſaa, skin, an apron.
to shine, to glitter; Áommaſa, Komista, The E. ryme, which seems identical
to sound deep or hollow; Æomottaa, to with rim, is used for the surface of the
shine, to shimmer. sea (Hawkins' Voyage). In the same
In like manner in Galla the sound of a
way Sw. brym is used in the sense both
bell is imitated by the word Óiſ/i/, whence of border or edge and surface, vaſtu
hi/hi/-goda (literally, to make biſhi/), to &ryn, the ryme of the water; tıgne-bryn,
ring, to glitter, beam, glisten.—Tutschek. the eye-brow. Dan. Özyn, brow of a hill,
The meaning of the Fr. bri//er, to surface of the ocean.
shine, seems to have been attained on a To Brim. Said of swine when in
principle exactly similar. We must pre heat. “Subo, to brymme as a boore doth
mise that an initial brand gr, as well as whan he geteth pigges.”—Elyot in Way.
&/ and g/, frequently interchange, as in The expression is now confined to the
Langued. breziſ, Fr. grºzil, small gravel, sow, as is the case also with Pl.D. brum
It. bru//o, gru//o, parched, broiled.— men : de sãge brummet, the sow is brim
Flor. We have then in Fr. the verbs
ming.—Brem. Wtb. G. brumſ, brunſ,
grisser, to creak, crackle; gresi//er, gris the heat of animals. Closely connected
Zer, to make a crackling noise, as of meat is OE. breme, brim, fierce, furious, vigor
in broiling ; griller, to creak, crackle, ous.-Hal.
broil; and corresponding to these, with Tancred went his way and Richard wek full brim.
an initial brinstead of gr, Sc. briss/e, Langtoft, 154.
Swiss Rom. briso/er, breso/er (Gloss. The highest condition of ungratified
Génév.), to broil, to parch, identical with passion, whether of desire or anger, finds
the Fr. breziller, bri//er, to twinkle, glit its vent in cries and roaring. Thus Lat.
ter, sparkle. Here it cannot be doubted fremo, to roar, is used of raging, excited,
that the original meaning of the Sc. or violent action. It. &ramire, to roar as
Ariss/e was derived from the crackling a lion, bray as an ass; &ramire, a long
noise made by meat in broiling, as in ing or earnest desire ; &ramare, earnestly
AS. brasſlian, to crackle, to burn. In Fr. to wish or covet.—Fl. Prov. &ramar,
&reziller, briller (related to each other as OFr. bramer, to utter cries.
&resiſler, gril/er), the meaning is trans L'amour, que epoinçonne
ferred from the domain of the ear to that Toute creature a s'aimer,
of the eye, from the analogous effect pro Les fait de rut si fort &ramer
duced on the sensitive frame by a crack Que le bois d'autour en resonne.—Rayn.
ling noise and a sparkling light. So Fr. Sp. bramar, to roar, to storm, to fret ;
A&iſſer, to crackle, to sparkle, to shake, &rama, rut, the heat of animals. Du.
to long for a thing. àremmen, rugire, sonitum edere; bremen,
The verb bri//er itself seems to have ardere desiderio.—Kil. Rugere, rugire
the sense of shaking or trembling in the (cervorum, leonum), brommen, Öremmen,
expression bri//er après, greedily to covet &rimmen, Örummem.—Dief. Supp.
—Cot.; properly to tremble with impa Brimstone. ON. brennistein, Sw.
tlence. dial. brånſisten, burning stone. In Ge
Instead of briller in this application nesis and Exodus, l. 754, we have brim
the Swiss Rom. uses óreso/er (il Öreso/e ſir, and l. I 164, brin/ize, for the burning
d'être maríe ; os qui Öreso/e, the singing of Sodom : ‘the brinyire's stinken smoke.”
bone), strongly confirming the contraction AS. bryne, burning. ON. (poet.) brimi,
of briller from brezi//er, and the cor fire.
respondence of the pair with gri//er, gre Brindled.—Brinded. Streaked, co
si/Zer, griller d’impatience.--Dict. Tre loured in stripes. ON. bröndoſ/r, s. s. ;
VOux. &rand-AErossoſ/r, cross-barred in colour,
It. brillare, to quaver with the voice. from brandr, a stick, post, bar. A
Örindled cow is in Normandy called
Brim.—Rim. G. brame, brame, Lith. vache brange'e, from bringe, a rod. Hence
bremas, border, margin, edge; Pol. bram, with an initial s, Sc. spraing, a streak,
border, brim; Magy. Aerem, fºrem, a bor s/rainged, striped or streaked.
der, fringe (Lat. Jimbria); Du. Wremie, The identity of ON. &randr and Fr.

bringe is traced through the It. brano, emotions which produce it, is to erect the
&randello, a bit ; Fr. brin, a morsel, a hair, to birst/e, briss/e might properly be
slip or sprig of an herb; Berri, bringwe, used in the sense of startling, ruffling,
a crum, a morsel; bringe, a rod or twig, setting the hair on end, whence may be
#rindc//es de balai, the twigs of a besom. explained the Sc. expression, to set up
See Brand. one's birse, to put one in a rage; birssy,
Brine. As. bryne, Du. brijn (Kil.), Sc. hot-tempered, to be compared with the
&rim, brime. Liquamen vel garum, fisc It riórezzoso, angry. A cold bleak day
dryne.-Gl. Alfr. Brym, brim (poet.), the is called a birssy day, because it makes
sea; brymſlod, a deluge. In Dorset sea us shivery and goose-skinned, setting the
sand is called brim...and.—Hal. Salte hair on end ; compare It. brezza, a cold
water, saulmeure, or bryme.—Palsgr. and windy mist or frost.
The name seems to be taken from the Brittle.—Brickle. Formerly written
roaring of the waves; ON. brim, the surf, brotiſ, apt to break, from AS. brytan, ON.
breaking of the waves; brim sior, a stormy briofa, Ptg. brifar, to break. Dan. bryde,
sea ; brimh/iod, roar of the sea; brim to break, broaden, brittle. In the N. of
sa/ſr, very salt; brimli, flame. Gr. 3ptuw, E. and Sc. brickle, brock/e, bruckle, are
Fris. brimme, to roar. See To Brim. Da. used in the sense of brittle, from break.
&randing, the surf, from brande, to burn, The Pl.D. bros, brittle, is the equivalent
can only come from comparison of the derivative from the Gael. form bris, Fr.
noise of the breakers to the roar of briser. Bret. &resk, brusk, fragile.
flames. Broach. — Abroach. — Brooch. To
Brisk. Fr. brusque, lively, quick, rash, broach a cask is to pierce it for the pur
fierce, rude, harsh ; win brusque, wine of pose of drawing off the liquor, and hence,
a sharp, smart taste. It. brusco, eager, metaphorically, to broach a business, to
sharp, brisk in taste, as unripe fruits, sour, begin upon it, to set it a going. w. procio,
grim, crabbed. to thrust, to stab; Gael. brog, to goad, to
Brisket. Fr. brichet, the brisket or spur, and, as a noun, an awl. Prov.
breast-piece of meat; Norm. bruchet, broca, Fr. broche, a spit, a stitch; brocher,
Adam's apple in a man's throat, breast to spit, stitch, spur; Prov, brocar, It.
bone of birds; Bret. &ruched (Fr. ch.) the broccare, brocciare, to stick, to spur. Sp.
breast, chest, craw of a bird. “Pectus &roca, a brad or tack, a button; broche,
culum, brusketſ.”—Nat. Antiq. p. 222. a clasp, a brooch, i. e. an ornamented pin
Russ. briocho, Bohem. brich, bricho (with to hold the parts of dress together.
the diminutives, Russ. by ioshko, Boh. Lat. &rocchus, bronchus, a projecting
brissko), a belly. tooth ; It. brocco, a stump or dry branch
Bristle. As byrst; Sw, borst, Du. of a tree so that it prick a bud, a peg ;
borsſel, Sc. birs, birse, NE. brust. A thick sørocco, sprocco, a skewer, sprout, shoot.
elastic hair, strong enough to stand up of It is probable that there is a funda
itself. Corn. Öros, aculeus. – Zeuss. mental connection with the verb to break,
Walach. borzos (struppig), bristly; Swiss the notion of a sharp point being obtain
borzen, to stand out; Fr. d rebours, ed either from the image of a broken
against the grain ; rebrousser, to turn up stick (brocco, Stecco rotto in modo che
the point of anything.—Cot. Mid. Lat. punga—Altieri), or from that of a splinter
reburrus, rebursus, sticking up ; ‘In suá or small fragment, which in the case of
primaeva aetate habebat capillos crispos wood or similar material naturally takes
et rigidos et ut ita dicam rebursos ad the form of a prick, or finally from the
modum pini ramorum qui semper ten pointed form of a bud or shoot, breaking
dunt Sursum.'—Vita abbatum S. Crispini out into growth. It. brocco, a bud, broc
in Duc. co/i, sprouts. Compare also E. prick
The It. brisciare, brezzare, to shiver with Sw. Spricka, to crack, to shoot, to
for cold as in a fit of an ague, has under bud.
Breeze been connected with the Sc. A similar relation may be observed
brissle, birs/e, birstle, to broil, to scorch, between Sp. brote, a bud, a fragment,
originally merely to crackle or simmer. Prov. brot, a shoot or sprig, and forms
Hence ribreggare, to shiver for cold or like the ON. briofa, Port. britar, to break.
for fear, to astonish or affright with sud Broad. AS. braid, Goth. braids, ON.
den fear; ribrezzoso, startling, trembling, breidr, G. breit. See Spread.
full of astonishment, humorous, fantas Brocade. It. broccaſa, a sort of cloth
tical, suddenly angry. wrought with gold and silver. Commonly
Then as the effect of shivering, or the explained as from Fr. drocher, to stitch,

in the sense of embroidered. But Mura Broil. Disturbance, trouble, a falling

tori shows that, though from the same out, a quarrel.—B. The sense has been
fundamental origin, the line of develop somewhat modified in later times by a
ment has been something different. It. confusion with brawl.
&rocco, a peg, stump, or Snag, is also But that thou wilt in winter ships prepare
applied to a knot or bunch in silk or And trie the seas in broile of whirling windes.
thread, whence broccare, to boss, to stud Surrey in R.
—Fl.; broccoso, broccuto, knotty, knobby;
and broccato was used to signify stuff The proper sense is that of Fr. brouil
ornamented with a raised pile, forming
ler (from whence it immediately comes),
knots or loops, or stuff embossed with
to jumble, trouble, shuffle, confound, to
make a hurly-burly.—Cot. It. broglio.
gold and silver. Ptg. /roco, a flock or Gael. broigh/ich, noise, bawling, confu
little tuft of silk or wool, a flake of snow;
frocadura, tufted ornaments, embroidery.
sion, tumult; brožgh/each, bustling, noisy,
tumultuous. From a direct imitation of
Brock. A badger, from the white a confused sound. Fr. brouhaha, brou
streaked face of the animal. Gael. broice,
a mole, a freckle, brutach, spotted, frec hour, storms, blusters, hurly-burlies.
See Brawl.
kled; breac, speckled, piebald ; broc, a
badger; brocach, Sc. broukit, brooked, B. To Contracted
Broil. To roast upon hot coals.-
from Fr. brasi//er, to
streaked or speckled in the face. Dan. roast on the braise, or glowing coals; or
&roged, parti-coloured, broc, a badger.
W. brech, brych, brindled, freckled, bry perhaps we should rather say formed like
Fr. brasiller, brusler, bruler, or It. bras
chau, motes, spots, atoms; Bret bric'h, ciare, brasciuolare, brasolare, brusciare,
briz, speckled, parti-coloured, streaked, àruci/are, brusuo/are (the last to be ar
brizen, a freckle. For the same reason
gued from brasciuole, brasuo/e, brusuale,
the badger is also called Bawson, q.v. fried or boiled steaks), bru//are, to burn,
Brocket. A hart of two years old.
Fr. brocart, because the animal at that parch, scorch, broil.—Florio. Sc. birs/e,
&rissle, to parch or broil. In all these
age has a single sharp broche or snag to words the imitative character of the de
his antler. The fallow-deer of the same
signation from the crackling sound of
age was termed a pricket.—Cot. flame and burning grease is felt in a
To Broider. Fr. broder, Sp. bordar,
to ornament with needle-work. Here lively manner. Compare G. Arasse/n, to
crackle, rustle, and AS. brast/iant, to
two distinct images seem to have coal crackle, to burn, Grisons brasc/a, sparks;
esced in a common signification. The E. brustle, to crackle, make a noise like
Bret. brouda, to embroider, to prick, to straw or small wood in burning.—Hal.
spur, and W. &rodio, to embroider, to
darn, point to an origin in Bret. broud, a When he is falle in such a dreme—
prick, sting, Gael. brod, E. brod, prod, to He routeth with a slepie noyse
prick. On the other hand the Sp. bor And broustleth as a monkes froyse (pancake)
When it is throwe into the panne.—Gower in R.
dar seems derived from borde, bordo, a
border, because a border of needle-work It. brusſolare, to scorch, broil, carbonado.
was the earliest mode of ornamenting a With an initial grinstead of brthe Fr.
garment. Ihre has gull-fford, a border has grisser, to crackle, creak, gresſ/ſer,
ornamented with gold, silkes-borda, a to crackle as a shell in the fire, or salted
border ornamented with silk. So from fish on coals, grislement, a crackling
Pol. bram, a border, bramowanie, em noise as of meat in broiling ; griſler, to
broidering. broil, precisely analogous to the Sc.
It may happen here, as will often be brissle and E. broil. The Italian has
found to be the case in other instances the double form brullo, grullo, parched,
where the derivation seems to halt be broiled.—Fl.
tween two roots, that these are them Broker. The custom of employing a
selves modifications of a common original. broker in the purchase of goods arises
Thus brod, a point, and bord' or òred, an
from the advantage of having a skilled
edge, agree in being the extremity of a
intermediary, capable from long practice
thing. The ON. brydda is both to sharpen
of forming a critical judgment of the
or furnish with a point, and also to sew
goods in question, of pointing out their
on a border or fringe to a garment. Com
latent defects, and rejecting whatever
pare also. AS. brera, breard, a brim, rim,
falls below the degree of excellence called
margin, with Sc. braird, the shoot of for by the circumstances of the case. To
corn, AS. onbºyrdan, to instigate. find fault is accordingly recognised in

Piers Plowman as the specific duty of a If we advance another step in the in

broker :- quiry and seek the origin of the term
Among burgeises have I be &rack, wrak, in the sense of rejection, we
Dwellyng at London, shall probably find the original image in
And gart Backbiting be a brocour, the act of spitting, as the liveliest expres
To blame men's ware.
sion of disgust and contempt for the re
On this principle the G. designation is jected object. G. brechen, Du. bracken,
maſſier, from make/, a blur, stain, fault ; to vomit ; E. dial. why cake, tussis,
make/n, to criticise, censure, find fault screatio – Junius ; wreak, a cough —
with, [and thence] to follow the business Hal. : ON. Araki, spittle ; hrak, any re
of a broker, buy and sell by commission. fuse matter. Fr. rayuer, racher, cracher,
—Küttner. For the same reason the to spit; racaiſ/e, refuse ; Prov. raca, an
OFr. term was correctour, couraſier, Lat. old worthless horse, analogous to Bohem.
corrector, correctarius, whence the mo *rakyne, an outcast or rejected sheep.
dern courtier, a broker. Per manus et The Langued. brumo, phlegm, spittle,
mediationem quorundam J. S. et A. G. has exactly the force of G. brack in the
&rocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem expression brumos de boufºgo, merchan
barganei.-Lib. Alb. 396. Vous jurrez dises de rebut ; G. brack-guſ, refuse
que vous ne marchandirez dez nullez wares. See Wreak.
marchaundisez queux vous ſerez correc In the sense of blot or stain there is a
tage. — Sacramentum Abrocariorum in singular confusion with brack, a breach
Lib. Alb. To correct an exercise is to or flaw, from break.
point out the faults. - Bronze. It. bronzo, Sp. bronce, pan
Now in most of the Teutonic (espe metal.-Fl. This word shows the same
cially the Pl.D.) and Slavonic dialects is relation to It. bronze, glowing coals,
found the root brak; or wrak in the sense which E. brass does to Sp. brasa, embers.
of rejection, refuse, vile, damaged, faulty, Bronzare, to braze, to copper. ON. &rasa,
giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect, to braze or solder iron with a lute of
make selection, sort, try out, reject, cast brass. It would appear then that the use
out. Lith. brožas, a fault, weak place, of the metal in soldering, an operation
matter of blame ; brokoti, to blame, to performed over hot coals, is the origin of
criticise (mäkeln). Russ. brak, refuse ; the designation both of bronze and brass.
braćovat, to pick and choose, to sort ; It may be compared with It. bronze, Sc.
&ražovanie, inspection, rejection ; Pol. &runds, brands, embers; to brund, to
trak, want, lack, refuse ; braćować, to emit sparks. – Jam. Grisons brinz/a,
garble, to pick, to be wanting. In the &rasc/a, a spark, shring/ar, to sparkle.
Teutonic class : Du. brack, rejected, The use of the word bronzed in the
damaged; braeck goed, goods damaged sense of tanned, sunburnt, is probably
by ...Ҽff Pl.D. brakem, to not originally derived from comparison
garble, inspect, try ; wražen, to pro with the colour of the metal bronze, but
nounce unsound, to reject; Dan. 7/rage, from the primary sense of the It. bronze,
to reject, find fault with, to sort goods; embers. Abbronzare, abbronzanchiare, to
s/aae wrag paa, to throw blame upon, roast on the embers, to scorch, tan, or
find fault with. G. brack-gut (Sanders), sunburn.—Fl.
Pl.D. wrack-good, refuse goods. Prov. Brood.—Breed. As, brod, a brood ;
brac, refuse, filth, mud, ordure, and as an brid, the young of any animal ; bredazz,
adj. vile, dirty, abject. Fr. bric-a-brac, to nourish, cherish, keep warm. Du.
trumpery, brokers’ goods. See Brackish. &roeden, to sit on eggs, to hatch ; G. brief,
The name broker seems to have come the spawn of fishes, progeny of birds, in
to us from the shores of the Baltic, with sects, and fishes ; britten, to hatch, bring
which much of our early commerce was eggs and spawn into active life. Pl. D.
carried on. In those countries the term &rod, brot, fish-spawn; bröden, Öröen, to
braker, bracker, or wracker is used to hatch, bridae, a chicken. Commonly re
signify public inspectors, appointed to ferred to the notion of warming, in which
classify goods according to their quality, sense the OHG. bruoton is used by Not
and to reject the damaged and unsound. ker : ‘also unsih diu uuolla bruoteſ unde
—Adelung. In Petersburgh the price of uuider froste skirmet, as wool warms us
tallow is quoted with or without brack, and protects us against frost. Bret.
the term brack signifying the official in broud, hot, burning, fermenting. W. &rway,
spection of sworn brackers or sorters.- hot, warm ; brydio, to be hot. ODu.
Tooke's Catherine, I. 38. &rieden, to brew. See Broth.

Brook. As, broca, a brook; W. &ritcheſt, The diminutive bordeau, bordel, was
the bubbling or springing up of water, a originally used in the innocent sense of
spring, a source; Gael. bruich, to boil, a little cottage.
seethe, simmer ; from the murmuring Ne laissent en Chartrain ne en Dive borde/,
noise. Gr. 3pixw, to roar, 3ptºw, to spring ; Ne maison en estant qui soit fors du chastel.
Bohem. bruceti, to murmur. The mean
Domunculum circumdedit cum familia. So
ing of the word brook in the low G. dia
lects is very different, signifying low wet rengus vero expergefactus de bordello exiit et
ſugiens in vivariam exire voluit.-Duc.
land (Brem. Wtb.); a grassy place in a
heath.-Overyssel Almanack. Brother. A term widely spread through
It is possible that brook in the E. sense the branches of the Indo-Germanic stock.
may be connected with Russ. &reg; Gael. Sanscr. bhratr; Zend. Öröta, Gael. bra
bruach, Manx broogh, brink, verge, bank, thair, W. brawd; Slavon. bratr; Lat.
as Fr. rivière, a river, It. riviera, a shore, frater.
from riffa, bank. Brow. The ridge surrounding and
To Brook. To digest, to bear patiently. protecting the eye. AS. braew, brºgh,
AS. brucan, to use, eat, enjoy; Goth. Pol. brew, Russ. brow, brow. Bohem.
&ružjan, to use ; brużs, useful; G. brau &rauðiti, to border. Du. brauwe, eye-lid,
chem, to use. Lat. frui, /ructus. eye-brow, and also border, margin, fur
Broom. A shrub with leafless pointed edging.—Kil. ON. &rd, eye-lid, eye-lash ;
branches. G. Afriemkraut, awl-plant. brun, eye-brow, edge, eminence ; Dan.
See Bramble. bryn, eye-brow, brow of a hill, surface of
Broth. It. brodo, Fr. brouet, broth ; the ocean ; Sw. bryn, edge, border, sur
Du. broºye, brue, OHG. brod, G. brithe, face. W. bryn, a hill. G. augen-braune,
Pl.D. broi, properly boiling water; brilhen, eye-brow.
&roien, to scald, pour boiling water over. The AS. forms appear related to the
Ir. bruiſhim, to boil; bruithe, sodden, Russ. breg, Bohem. breh, Gael. Öruach, a
boiled; bruithean, heat, warmth ; bruth brink, bank, shore ; Serv. Öreg, a hill,
ch'an, broth; brothaire, a caldron. Gael. bank, shore.
&rwich, bruith, to boil, brothas, broth ; Brown. Ger. braun, ON. brun, It.
Manx broie, to boil, broit, broth. Bret. Aruno, Fr. brun, perhaps burnt colour,
&roud, W. brºwd, hot. G. brodem, Öroden, the colour of things burnt, from Goth.
steam from heated bodies, in which brinnan, G. brennen, to burn.
sense the Sc. broth is sometimes used ; a Browse. Fr. brouter, brouser, brouster,
person is said to be in a broth of sweat to knap or nibble off the sprigs, buds,
who is steaming with sweat. Du. broem bark, &c. of plants ; broust, a sprig,
(for brodem), spuma, sordes seu strigmata young branch, or shoot. — Cot. Bret.
rerum decoctarum. The origin is a re brows, brous, a bud; brous-Åoad, brush
presentation of the simmering of boiling
wood ; browskaol, broccoli, cabbage
water. Limousin broudi, brudi, to make sprouts; brous-gwezen, a shrub ; brousſ,
a confused noise of winds, waves, &c. briar, thick bush ; brousta, to browse, to
Pl.D. brudde/n, to bubble up with noise. grow into a bush. Prov. Örotar, to shoot,
The softening down of the consonant bud, grow ; brossa, OFr. broces, brosses,
(which is barely pronounced in Gael. Catalan brossa, Sp. broza, thicket, brush
&rothas) gives the OE. browys, Örewis, wood ; brofar, to sprout, bud, break out
Brewet, pottage, broth, and Sc. brose. as small-pox, &c.; Gris. &raussa, low
The AS. has brºw, infusion, ceaſes briw, shrubs, as rhododendrons, juniper, &c.
kail brose, cabbage soup ; Sc. &roo, bree, Prov. bruts, heath. Fr. brogues, Örosses,
pottage made by pouring boiling water on &rousses, brouches, brouic, bruc, bushes,
meal, infusion; the barley bree, juice of briars, heath.-Roquef. Mid. Lat. &rus
malt, ale; Gael. brigh, juice of meat, sap, cia, brozia, dumetum. ‘Tam de terrá
pith, vigour, strength ; Ir. bruth, strength, *ruscosá quam de arabili.”—Duc. Serv.
vigour, rage, heat; explaining the Prov. &rst, sprouts; brstiți, to browse. OHG. &ros,
briu, and It. &rio, mettle, spirit. sprout. Bav. Öross, brosst, a bud, a sprout.
Brothel. Sp. borda, a hut or cottage; It. brocco, sprocco, broccoſo, shoot, sprout.
Fr. borde, a little house or cottage of Here we find throughout the Romance,
timber, hut, hovel. — Cot. Commonly Teutonic, Celtic, and Slavonic families, a
derived from the boards, of which the variety of forms, broc, bros, brost, sproc,
fabric consists. But the Walach. bor s/ross, sprot, signifying twigs, shoots,
defou is an underground hut as well as a sprouts, or bushes and scrubby growths,
house of ill fame. plants composed of twigs, or broken up

into a multitude of points. There can be *rocar, to cleanse, broza, a brush ; Gael.
little doubt that they are all derived from &ritis (in the pl.), shivers, splinters, frag
the notion of breaking out, which we find ments, bruis (sing.), a brush; E. bris, brist,
expressed by similar modifications in the dust, rubbish. Piedm. bruscia, brustia, a
termination of the root, brić, bris, brist, horse-brush, wool-card, brustie, to brush,
prit, to break or burst. See next article, Lang. brousſia, a flax comb, G. borsſe,
and also Brush, Broach. &irste, Sw. borste, a brush.
Bruise. As. Arysan, OE. brise, to crush. In E. also the word brush had formerly
And he that schal falle on this stone schall be the sense of dust or flue.
broken, but on whom it schall falle, it schall al
to brisen him.—Wicliff. (Agea) said, Sir by your speche now right well I
h ere

Fr. briser, to break, crush, bruise ex That if ye list ye may do the thing that I most
tremely. — Cot. O Fr. bruiser. — Diez. desire,
Prov. brisar, desbrisar, to break to bits ; And best
that is, this your heritage there you liked
Gael. bris, brisa, brist, Port. &ritar, to That ye might give: and ever among, the brush
break. away she pikid
A modification of the same root which From her clothes here and there, and sighid
gives the E. break, the interchange of the therewithal.-Chaucer, Beryn.
final consonants being clearly shown in
the derivatives, Prov, brico or brizo, a While cajoling her husband, she kept
crum ; briketo, brizeto, bricalio, a little picking the dust or bits of flue from her
bit ; briga/, dust, fragments; briza/ de clothes to hide her embarrassment. To
carbon, du bris de charbon de terre, coal &rush then would be to dust, to clear
dust. See Breeze. away the brush or dust and rubbish.
Bruit. Fr. bruit, It. bruito, Pr. brºit, On the other hand, the derivation is
a noise, a rumbling, Fr. and It. bruire. equally satisfactory from the twigs or
Pr. brugir, bruzir, to make a rumbling. bristles of which the brush is composed.
* Brunt. Brunt, insultus, impetus; The Lat. scopa signifies in the first in
styrtyn' or brunton', or sodenly comyn' stance twigs, and in the second place a
agen an enmy, insilio, irruo. — Pr. Pm. besom, while the word besom itself pro
Prunt of a daunger, escousse, effort.— perly signifies twigs, rods. The same re
Palsgr. The brunt of an engagement is lation holds good between G. borste, Sw.
the shock of battle when the two armies &orst, a bristle, and G. borsfe, birste, Sw.
actually come in collision. /orste, a brush ; NE. brust, a bristle, and
That in all haste he would join battayle even Piedm. brustia, a brush, wool-card. Bav.
with the bront or brest of the vangarde.—Hall in bross, àross/, a bud or sprout; Bret. &rous,
R. The fore rydars put themselves in prese with a bud, shoot ; brous/oad, brushwood,
their longe lances to win the first brunte of the wood composed of twigs. . Prov. Örtze,
field.-Fabyan. &rus, brusc (Dict. Castr.), heath, quasi
OE. brunt, a blow. twigs, a shrub composed of small twigs;
Bot baysment gef myn herte a brunt. Lang. brousso, a tuft of heath ; Fr. brosse,
Allit. Poems, E. E. Text Soc. A. 174. a bush, bushy ground, also a head-brush,
All that was bitten of the beste was at a brunt
wool-card, flax-comb ; brosseſſes, small
dede.—K. Alexander, p. 134. heath whereof head-brushes are made.—
of burt, to butt.—Pr. Pm. Prov, burs, Cot. Brusshe, to make brusshes on,
shock, blow; burcar, abroncan, Fr. bron bruyère.— Palsgr. 201. It. brusca, ling or
cher, to strike the foot against an obstacle, heath for brushes.—Fl. ON. brus&r, a
to stumble. bush of hair, tuft of grass or hay, a brush.
Brush. An implement made of bristles Perhaps the explanation of the double
or elastic twigs for whisking away small origin is to be found in the fact that the
extraneous matters from a surface. It is words signifying mote, dust, rubbish, and
singular that the word may be derived those signifying a sprig, twig, bush, are
with equal propriety from the dust or both derived from modifications of the
rubbish it is used to remove, or from the multiform root signifying break, appear
materials of which it is itself composed. ing in Goth. brikan, Gael. bris, brist, Fr.
Cat. &rossa, quisquiliae, sordes, faex ; bros Ariser, Port. brifar. The Bav. Öross,
sar, detergere; Gael, brusg, a crum, It. &rosst, Bret, brous, OFr. broust, a bud,
&rusco, bruscolo, a mote, fescue ; brusca, twig, or shoot, seems named from burst
a brush ; Swiss bruske, Piedm. brosse, ing (ON. brisſa) or breaking out ; or the .
remnants of hay or fodder, orts, brossa, a separate twigs or bristles may be con
brush ; Sp. broza, chips, dust, rubbish, sidered as splinters, as It. brusco, bruscoſo,
&ruschetta, a little piece of wood or straw, open lath-work, which is also used in a great
fescue, mote. But see Bristle. portion of the ends and sides of the main building,
Bubble. It. bubbola. From an imita to allow a free current of air.—Illust. News,
March 28, 1857.
tion of the sound made by the bubbling
liquid. Bohem. bub/afi, to murmur, bub Buck. The male goat, also applied
Zirta, a bubble; Pol. 6 ºffel, a bubble, a to the male deer, and then to other wild
tumour; Lith. buffs, ti, to bubble, boil; animals, as a buck rabbit. W. &wch,
&lt&auſi, to bellow as a bull; bubenfi, to Gael. boc, Fr. bouc. Probably named
thunder gently; bubiti, to beat ; bub/eti, from the tendency of the animal to butt
to bump as a bittern. Sc. bub, a blast or strike with the forehead. Fin. pußata,
of wind. to butt ; Esthon. pokkama, to butt, to
A bubble and a lump or swelling are kick; Magy. Óðſºni, to stick, to butt. Pol.
very, generally designated by the same Attº, knock, rap, tap ; Gael. &oc, a knock
word, either because a bubble is taken as or blow ; Fr. buyuer, bucquer, to knock
the type of anything round and swelling, at a door, to butt or jurr; Dan. bukke, to
or because the same articulation is used ram down a gun. It becro is a radically
to represent the pop of a bubble bursting, different form, from bek / bef / represent
and the sound of a blow, from which the ing the bleating of a goat.
designation of a knob, hump, or projec To Buck. Formerly, when soap was
tion is commonly taken. Fr. buffe, a push, not so plentiful a commodity, the first
wheal, blister, watery bud, hunch or operation in washing was to set the linen
bump. — Cot. “Burble in the water— to soak in a solution of wood ashes. This
&udette."—Palsgr. Magy. Óoð, buð, pup, a was called bucking the linen, and the
bunch, hump, tuft, top, buðorek, a bubble. ashes used for that purpose were called
To Bubble. See Dupe. duck-ashes. The word was very generally
Buccanier. A set of pirates in the spread. In G. it is beuchen, bauchen,
17th century, who resorted to the islands &eichen, buchen, bitchen, bliżen ; Sw. Ayka,
and uninhabited places in the West Dan. Ayge; Fr. buyuer, Öuer, It. buca
Indies, and exercised their cruelties prin tare; Bret. bugdi. Sp. Özgada, lye. The
cipally on the Spaniards. The name, ac derivation has been much discussed. The
cording to Olivier Oexmelin, who wrote a more plausible are :—
history of adventurers in the Indies, is 1. Dan. bog-aske, the ashes of beech
derived from the language of the Caribs. wood, chiefly employed in making potash;
It was the custom of those savages when but the practice of bucking would have
they took prisoners to cook their flesh on arisen long before people resorted to any
a kind of grate, called barbacoa (whence particular kind of wood for the supply of
the term barðecue, a barbecued hog, a ashes.
hog dressed whole). The place of such a 2. It. bucata, buck-ashes, supposed to
feast was called boucan (or according to be so called from buca, a hole, because
Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself), and the ashes are strained through a pierced
this mode of dressing, in which the flesh dish, in the same way that the