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Post Graduate School

Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

Examination for Admission to Ph.D. Programme 2013-2014

Discipline : Agricultural Extension

Discipline Code : 04 Roll No.

Please Note:

(i) This question paper contains 12 pages. Please check whether all the pages are
printed in this set. Report discrepancy, if any, immediately to the invigilator.

(ii) There shall be NEGATIVE marking for WRONG answers in the Multiple
Choice type questions (No. 1 to 130) which carry one mark each. For every
wrong answer 0.25 mark will be deducted.

5. The most important sucking pests of cotton

PART – I (General Agriculture) and rice are respectively
Multiple choice questions (No. 1 to 30). a) Nilaparvata lugens and Aphis gossypii
Choose the correct answer (a, b, c or d) b) Aphis gossypii and Thrips oryzae
and enter your choice in the circle (by c) Amrasca biguttula biguttula and Scirtothrips
shading with a pencil) on the OMR - dorsalis
answer sheet as per the instructions d) Thrips gossypii and Orseolia oryzae
given on the answer sheet.
6. Which of the following microorganism causes
fatal poisoning in canned fruits and
1. Who is the present Chairman of Protection of
Plant Varieties and Farmers' Right Authority
a) Aspergillus flavus
b) Penicillium digitatum
a) Dr. R.R. Hanchinal
c) Clostridium botulinum
b) Dr. P.L. Gautam
d) Rhizoctonia solani
c) Dr. S. Nagarajan
d) Dr. Swapan K. Datta
7. The cause of the great Bengal Famine was
a) Blast of rice
2. Which among the following is another name
b) Brown spot of rice
for vitamin B12?
c) Rust of wheat
a) Niacin
d) Karnal bunt of wheat
b) Pyridoxal phosphate
c) Cobalamin
8. Actinomycetes belong to
d) Riboflavin
a) The fungi
3. The largest share in India's farm export b) Eukaryote
c) Mycelia sterilia
earning in the year 2011-12 was from
d) None of the above
a) Basmati rice
b) Non-basmati rice
9. A virus-free clone from a virus infected plant
c) Sugar
can be obtained by
d) Guar gum
a) Cotyledonary leaf culture
4. The National Bureau of Agriculturally b) Axenic culture
Important Insects was established by ICAR c) Stem culture
d) Meristem tip culture
in ________, was earlier known as _______.
a) Bangalore; PDBC 10. Which of the following is not an objective of
b) New Delhi; National Pusa Collection the National Food Security Mission?
c) Ranchi; Indian Lac Research Institute a) Sustainable increase in production of rice,
d) New Delhi; NCIPM wheat and pulses
b) Restoring soil fertility and productivity at
individual farm level
c) Promoting use of bio-pesticides and organic
d) Creation of employment opportunities
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 2

11. Agmarknet, a portal for the dissemination of 19. The term 'Heterosis' was coined by
agricultural marketing information, is a joint a) G.H. Shull
endeavour of b) W. Bateson
a) DMI and NIC c) T.H. Morgan
b) DMI and Ministry of Agriculture d) E.M. East
c) NIC and Ministry of Agriculture
d) DMI and Directorate of Economics and 20. When a transgenic plant is crossed with a
Statistics non-transgenic, what would be the zygosity
status of the F1 plant?
12. The share of agriculture and allied activities a) Homozygous
in India's GDP at constant prices in 2011-12 b) Heterozygous
was c) Hemizygous
a) 14.1% d) Nullizygous
b) 14.7%
c) 15.6% 21. The highest per capita consumption of
d) 17.0% flowers in the world is in
a) The USA
13. The average size of land holding in India b) India
according to Agricultural Census 2005-06 is c) Switzerland
a) 0.38 ha d) The Netherlands
b) 1.23 ha
c) 1.49 ha 22. Which of the following is a very rich source of
d) 1.70 ha betalain pigment?
a) Radish
14. 'Farmers First' concept was proposed by b) Beet root
a) Paul Leagans c) Carrot
b) Neils Rolling d) Red cabbage
c) Robert Chamber
d) Indira Gandhi 23. Dog ridge is
a) Salt tolerant rootstocks of mango
15. In the year 2012, GM crops were cultivated b) Salt tolerant rootstocks of guava
in an area of c) Salt tolerant rootstocks of grape
a) 150 million hectare in 18 countries d) Salt tolerant rootstocks of citrus
b) 170 million hectare in 28 countries
c) 200 million hectare in 18 countries 24. Which of the following micronutrients are
d) 1.70 million hectare in 28 countries most widely deficient in Indian soils?
a) Zinc and boron
16. The broad-spectrum systematic herbicide b) Zinc and iron
glyphosate kills the weeds by inhibiting the c) Zinc and manganese
biosynthesis of d) Zinc and copper
a) Phenylalanine
b) Alanine 25. Which of the following fertilizers is not
c) Glutamine produced in India?
d) Cysteine a) DAP
b) Urea
17. At harvest, the above ground straw (leaf, c) Muriate of potash
sheath and stem) weight and grain weight of d) TSP
paddy crop are 5.5 and 4.5 tonnes per
hectare, respectively. What is the harvest 26. What is the estimated extent of salt affected
index of paddy? soils in India?
a) 45% a) 5.42 mha
b) 50% b) 7.42 mha
c) 55% c) 11.42 mha
d) 100% d) 17.42 mha

18. Crossing over between non-sister 27. Which of the following is not a feature of
chromatids of homologous chromosomes watershed?
takes place during a) Hydrological unit
a) Leptotene b) Biophysical unit
b) Pachytene c) Socio-economic unit
c) Diplotene d) Production unit
d) Zygotene
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 3

28. Correlation coefficient 'r' lies between 35. The study or science of signs is known as
a) 0 and 1 a) Semiotics
b) -1 and 1 b) Semantics
c) -1 and 0 c) Syndicate
d) 0 and  d) Syntactic

29. For the data 1, -2, 4, geometric mean is 36. Vignette technique is related with
a) 2 a) People's normative judgments
b) 4 b) Pre-testing of questionnaire
7 c) Testing of reliability of an instrument
c) -  d) Social network
d) -2 37. Awareness of being tested is known as
a) Placebo effect
30. The relationship between Arithmetic mean b) Guinea pig effect
(A), Harmonic mean (H) and Geometric c) Regression effect
mean (G) is d) None of the above
a) G =AH
b) G= A+H 38. Pearson's 'r' is a method of examining
c) H =GA relationship between
d) A =GH a) Ordinal variables
b) Interval/ratio variables
PART – II (Subject Paper) c) One ordinal and other interval variables
Multiple choice questions (No. 31 to 130). d) Nominal variables
Choose the correct answer (a, b, c or d)
39. If people of different incomes vary in their
and enter your choice in the circle (by political attitudes, which in turn have
shading with a pencil) on the OMR - implications for their voting behaviour, then
answer sheet as per the instructions political attitudes would be
given on the answer sheet. a) Active variable
b) Categorical variable
31. Identify the threat to internal validity of an c) Intervening variable
experiment d) All of the above
a) Statistical regression
b) Attrition 40.Project is defined as
c) Instrumentation a) Non-routine time bound activity
d) All of the above b) Regular and on-going activity
c) Regular activity with limited focus towards
32. When we cannot separate the effects of resources
independent variables from possible effects d) Activity with major focus on objectives and
of extraneous variables, we say that the clientele
effects are
a) Regressed 41. Which of the following theories says, "in an
b) Confounded organization people need to be motivated"?
c) Counterbalanced a) Theory X
d) None of the above b) Theory Y
c) Theory Z
33. Panel studies can d) Theory of scientific management
a) Identify which variables are changing over
time 42. Which of the following organizations bears
b) Reveal which individuals are changing over the greatest risk?
time a) Pussy cat
c) Describe transaction flows in a network b) Fat cat
d) Identify cohorts c) Tiger
d) Non-governmental organizations
34. Which training orientation has the feature of 43. Which of the following effectively links
providing opportunity to gain insight and skill together trainees and trainers who are
from direct experience? geographically isolated?
a) Academic a) Video conferencing
b) Laboratory b) Local call
c) Activity c) Call centre
d) Organizational development d) Radio talk
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 4

44. Arrange these programmes in a 52. Which of the following is not true about
chronological order of their inception year PERT?
i) Firka Development Scheme a) PERT is event oriented
ii) GMFC (Grow More Food Campaign) b) Deterministic model
iii) DDP (Desert Development Programme) c) Time oriented
iv) T&V d) Calculates expected value of time duration
a) i, ii, iv, iii
b) i, ii, iii, iv 53. Which of the following is a method of
c) ii, i, iii, iv changing behaviour by instruction?
d) ii, i, iv, iii a) T-group training
b) Role playing
45. Study of human behaviour in relation to other c) Fish-bone exercise
people with whom he interacts means d) Transactional analysis
a) Psychology
b) Sociology 54. Principles of management (POSDCORB)
c) Social psychology has been given by
d) Anthropology a) Elton Mayo
b) Henry Fayol
46. Which of the following seeks to isolate factor c) Luther Gullick
which will account for most of the variability d) Frederick Taylor
from a set of variables?
55. “The India’s Food Crisis and Steps to Meet
a) Content analysis
It” was the name of the report submitted by
b) Factor analysis
a) Royal Commission
c) Path analysis
b) Ford Foundation
c) Fiscal Commission
47. "Enter in room after removal of shoes" is an d) Rocke Feller Foundation
example of 56. Span of control is associated with which of
a) Folkways the following?
b) Mores a) Group approach
c) Norms b) Managing sub-ordinates
d) Values c) Feedback
d) Mass approach
48. Process of mutual cultural diffusion through
which persons and groups become culturally 57. When information of the message is totally
alike is called changed, it is called
a) Assimilation a) Systematic distortion
b) Accommodation b) Stretch distortion
c) Acculturation c) Fog distortion
d) Conflict d) Mirage distortion
49. Sampling error is
58. Lack of norm/rule is called
a) Difference between number/answer given by
a) Harmony
respondent and the true correct answer
b) Anomie
b) Difference between true value of data
c) Chaos
collected and population
d) Lawlessness
c) Standard deviation of sample distribution
d) Error in sampling from population
59. Concept of VLW first evolved from
50. Spatial sampling includes respondents a) Etawah Pilot Project
a) Selected from villages b) Community Development Programme
b) Selected from urban/peri-urban areas c) Gurgaon Project
c) Representing certain groups d) National Extension Service
d) Which move from one place to another
60. The basic feature of scientific approach is
51. The hypothesis which does not clarify the a) Imagination
cause and effect relationship is termed as b) By-chance
a) Alternate hypothesis c) Intuition
b) Symmetrical hypothesis d) Objectivity
c) Null hypothesis
d) Descriptive hypothesis
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 5

61. Sarvodaya Movement has been started by 69. SWOT is basically a tool for
a) A.T. Mosher a) Decision making
b) G.R. Gokhale b) Leading
c) Vinoba Bhave c) Controlling
d) Sir Daniel Hamilton d) Motivating

62. The first EEI in India was established at 70. Cyclic model of training was developed by
a) Nilokheri a) Lynton and Pareek
b) Hyderabad b) Miller R.D.
c) Jorhat c) Yark A.
d) Chennai d) Reay D.G.

63. If a sample is selected according to 71. Non-verbal communication based on touch is

probability sampling technique and the called
sample mean score is 9.7 and standard error a) Haptics
of the mean is 1.3, then one can be 95 per b) Kinesis
cent certain that the population mean will be c) Cronimics
a) 9.7 + (1.961.3) d) Oculesics
b) 9.7 - (1.961.3)
c) Between 9.7 + (1.961.3) and 72. IVLP stands for
9.7 - (1.961.3) a) International Village Linkage Programme
d) (9.71.96) / 1.3 b) Institute Village Link Programme
c) Institute Village Linkage Programme
64. The oldest diffusion research tradition d) Institute Village Link Project
belongs to
a) Sociology 73. 'Skeptical' refers to
b) Anthropology a) Innovators
c) Geography b) Early adopters
d) Extension c) Early majority
d) Late majority
65. Two factor theory of motivation was given by
a) Hertzberg 74. Sociology is a "value free science", who said
b) Maslow it
c) Karl Marx a) Arnold Toynbee
d) Max Weber b) R.N. Mukherjee
c) Julion Huxley
66. Encoding skills are d) Max Weber
a) Speaking and listening
b) Speaking and reading 75. The social philosopher who gave the term
c) Speaking and writing 'group dynamics'
d) Speaking and reassuming a) Yogendra Singh
b) Emile Durkheim
67. When a farmer is line sowing his wheat crop c) August Comte
under the supervision of an extension d) Kurt Lewin
worker, what experience is he undergoing?
a) Symbolic experience 76. The state when the rate of change in a social
b) Supervisory experience system is commensurate with the system's
c) Iconic experience ability to cope with it is known as
d) Enactive experience a) Stable equilibrium
b) Dynamic equilibrium
68. COIK fallacy expands to c) Disequilibrium
a) Communication oriented intelligence and d) Unstable equilibrium
b) Cannot oppose intellect and knowledge 77. Who has defined leadership as a behaviour
c) Communication organization intelligence and that affects the behaviour of others more
knowledge than their behaviour affects that of a leader?
d) Clear only if known a) La-Piere
b) H.T. Mazumdar
c) Libb
d) Seckler-Hudson
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 6

78. Selection of a course of action from among 88. The wholeness of cases in case study could
the alternatives is called be preserved by
a) Planning a) Breadth of data
b) Decision making b) Levels of data
c) Controlling c) Formation of indices and types
d) Leading d) All of the above

79. The highest quality organization is 89. What is incorrect about hypothesis?
a) Transcendental a) It has empirical referents
b) Mutualistic b) It is related to a body of theory
c) Parasitic c) It is related to available techniques
d) Accidental d) It must be general

80. Sociometry technique was developed by 90. Which of the following is incorrect?
a) Kurt Lewin a) Fact initiates theory
b) Louis Dumont b) Theory predicts facts
c) Robert Redfield c) Facts redefine and clarify theory
d) J.L. Moreno d) Facts completely determine theory

81. Community spirit is the chief characteristic of 91. When an extension worker talks about a
a) Geminschaft crop’s varietal characteristics, farmers learn
b) Gesselschaft through
c) Society a) Mere hearing
d) Organization b) Abstractions
c) Practice
82. Who gave the term folkways? d) Memory
a) F. Tonnies
b) W.G. Sumner 92. Heuristic view in science stresses
c) E. Ross a) Problem solving
d) Talcott Parsons b) Body of facts
c) Activity
83. Camera obscura means d) Stereotype
a) Darkened room
b) Lightened room 93. One-tailed and two-tailed tests differ in the
c) Open room a) Location of the region of rejection
d) Small room b) Size of the region of rejection
c) Both a) & b)
84. Film frame size comes in a variety of ranges, d) None of the above
the most widely used is
a) 65 mm format 94. The process of arranging situation in which
b) 55 mm format the important things to be learned, are called
c) 45 mm format to the attention of learners, their interest
d) 35 mm format developed, desire aroused and action
promoted is known as
85. Extension programme is a statement of a) Training
a) Situations b) Learning
b) Objectives c) Learning situation
c) Solutions d) Teaching
d) All of the above
95. ‘Mazdoor Manzils’ was the brain child of
86. First paragraph of a news story is known as a) J.P. Narayan
a) Body b) S.K. Dey
b) Lead c) Nanajee Deshmukh
c) Tail d) A.R. Desai
d) Prelude
96. Core of extension is
87. Treating abstractions as if they were actual a) Development of man
phenomena is termed as b) Development of family
a) Fallacy of reification c) Development of man and his environment
b) Theoretical fallacy d) All of the above
c) Ecological fallacy
d) None of the above
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 7

97. Two main features of a good layout is 106. The earliest edition of the newspaper is
a) Balance and emphasis known as
b) Balance and attraction a) Morning edition
c) Balance and crisp b) First edition
d) Balance and specific c) Bull dog
d) City edition
98. Cluster sampling is a
a) Non-probability sampling 107. The literal meaning of the word
b) Quota sampling management is
c) Random sampling a) Personal administration
d) Probability sampling b) House keeping
c) Store keeping
99. ABC of poster d) Policy making
a) Attractive, brief, clear
b) Attractive, bold, clear 108. Lack of faith in government system is called
c) Accuracy, brief, clear a) Cynicism
d) Accuracy, bold, clear b) Misanthropism
c) Atropism
100. T&V system originated in d) Normlessness
a) Bangladesh
b) Israel 109. A French social philosopher who gave
c) England sociology its name and who stressed the
d) Turkey need to base scientific theories on
observation was
101. In judging the validity of an instrument, what a) Sir Henry Maine
is incorrect about valid variance? b) Emile Durkheim
a) Shares variance with other measures c) August Comte
b) Includes variance due to error d) Herbert Spencer
c) Does not include variance specific to the
measure 110. It helps direct the eyes of the viewer in a
d) Does not share variance with other natural way towards the important parts of
measures the photo
a) Rule of one
102. Training basically is not a b) Rule of two
a) Overt process c) Rule of third
b) Covert process d) Rule of four
c) Communication process
d) Learning process 111. Simulation method does not include
a) In basket exercise
103. Evolutionary theory of social change is b) Role play
a) Linear c) Business games
b) Cyclical d) Brain storming
c) Zigzag
d) Progression in straight line 112. “Concentration Principle” in deploying the
resources and Trickle down theory were the
104. A hypothesis is essentially a hallmarks of
a) Interrogative statement a) CDP
b) Empirical statement b) IRDP
c) Relational proposition c) IADP
d) Generally held view d) HADP

105. On the occasion of ICAR Golden Jubilee 113. The level of adoption of any innovation at
celebration, which of the following was which the S-shaped curve takes off is
launched? a) 0-5%
a) KVK b) 10-25%
b) ORP c) 40-50%
c) T&V d) 60-80%
d) LLP
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 8

114. Double-barreled questions in an interview 122. In expansion of 4-H club, one ‘H’ does not
schedule are stand for
a) Important to seek in-depth information a) HEAD
b) Generally required to probe value- b) HAPPINESS
orientation c) HEALTH
c) Ambiguous as they provide more frames of d) HAND
d) Generally open-end questions 123. The degree to which an individual acts as
an opinion leader for a variety of topics is
115. Attempt to identify and remedy known as
shortcomings during the development state a) Monomorphism
of a program is called as b) Polymorphism
a) Informal evaluation c) Polysemous
b) Summative evaluation d) Homophilous
c) Formative evaluation
d) Ex-ante evaluation 124. “Deliberation” has been advocated as an
important stage in innovation decision
116. James-Lange theory of emotion states that process by
a) Emotional experience occurs after the a) Rogers & Shoemaker
bodily changes b) Prochaska
b) Felt emotions and bodily reactions in c) Singh & Pareek
emotion are independent of each other d) Kurt Lewin
c) Emotion we feel is due to our interpretation
of an aroused bodily state 125. The philosophy of ‘Management by
d) Emotion we feel results from appraisals Objectives’ is primarily built on the concepts
117. Sociogram refers to a) Self-control and self-direction
a) A unit of weight on sociometric scale b) Reward system
b) A diagram of group structure c) Organisational structure
c) Economic programme of urban society d) Leadership styles
d) A telegraphic message sent to a group
126. General statements or understandings that
118. The time element is distinctive in the channel thinking in decision-making
process of a) Rules
a) Communication b) Strategy
b) Diffusion c) Tactics
c) Adoption d) Policy
d) Interaction
127. ‘Programmed Instruction’ is a method of
119. The special treatment given to a first born a) Individual training
child by his parents refers to b) Group training
a) Status ascribed to him c) Mass training
b) Privilege given to him d) Class training
c) Esteem given to him
d) Custom of the society 128. In equal appearing interval method of scale
construction, the statements having the
120. Asymmetry of frequency distribution is following quality are selected
a) Skewness a) Inter-quartile range should be high
b) Normal b) Inter-quartile range should be low
c) Poisson c) Scale value should be equal to inter-quartile
d) Binomial range
d) Scale value should be higher than the inter-
121. In Prochaska's five stages-of-change quartile range
model, which is not included?
a) Pre-contemplation 129. If the coefficient of determination is 0.64,
b) Contemplation the coefficient of correlation will be
c) Maintenance a) 0.8
d) Dissonance b) 0.16
c) 0.32
d) 0.36
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 9

130. An extension programme has been planned 135.

with an emphasis on improving the i) Maslow a) Field Theory
production of cotton by providing an ii) Pavlov b) Summated rating scale
integrated extension service. The above iii) Thurstone c) Need hierarchy
programme follows iv) Likert d) Equal appearing interval
a) The commodity specialized approach v) Kurt Lewin e) Conditioned learning
b) The T&V system approach
c) The participatory approach 136.
d) All of the above i) IADP a) Targetted approach
ii) IRDP b) Package programme
Matching type questions (No. 131 to 140); iii) NREP c) Employment generation
all questions carry equal marks. Choose iv) SFDA d) Poverty alleviation
the correct answer (a, b, c, d or e) for v) DWCRA e) Welfare approach
each sub-question (i, ii, iii, iv and v) and
enter your choice in the circle (by
i) Instructional method a) Sharp
shading with a pencil) on the OMR - ii) Intelligence b) Thorndike
answer sheet as per the instructions iii) Credibility c) Stanford-Binet
given on the answer sheet. iv) Consequences of d) Hovland
131. v) Culture lag e) Ogburn
i) Malcolm Knowles a) Philosophy of
Extension Education 138.
ii) Paolo Freire b) Theories of adult i) Social learning a) Granovetter
learning ii) Strength of weak ties b) George Simmel
iii) Daniel Benor c) Result demonstration iii) Social distance c) Hagerstrand
iv) Kelsey & Hearne d) Conscientization iv) Neighbourhood effect d) Coleman
v) Seaman A. Knapp e) T&V approach v) Drug diffusion e) Albert Bandura

132. 139.
i) Guttenberg a) Readability test Book Author
ii) Edgar Dale b) Audience response i) Psychometric Methods a) L.C. Jain
iii) Rudolph Flesck c) Fog index ii) India's Villages b) Guilford
iv) J.P. Leagans d) Cone of experience iii) Farmer First Revisited c) Agrawal and
v) Robert Gunning e) Printing press Narain
iv) Grass Without Roots: d) Scoones and
133. Rural Development Under Thompson
i) Coefficient of a) Goodness of the fit of Government Auspices
concordance (W) distributions v) Dying Wisdom e) Srinivas
ii) Kolmogorov-Smirnov b) One-way analysis of
test variance 140.
iii) Kruskal-Wallis test c) Degree of agreement i) Transactional Analysis a) Country Club
over coding of items ii) Johari’s Window b) Self-fulfulling Prophecy
iv) Yule's Q d) Association of ranks iii) Managerial Grid c) Parent, Adult, Child
v) Cohen's Kappa e) Measure of Association iv) General Adaptation d) Blind area
134. v) Pygmalion Effect e) Stress
i) Man-to-Man a) Shantiniketan
ii) Sondeo b) Cultural Shock
iii) Benett c) Ratings
iv) Oberg d) Hierarchical level of
v) Brati Balika e) Farmer First Approach
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 10

Short questions (No. 141 to 146); each question carries FIVE marks. Write answers,
including computation / mathematical calculations if any, in the space provided for
each question on the question paper itself.
141. What do you mean by Andragogy? Are andragogy and pedagogy different? Explain. Describe
andragogical process stepwise.

142. Describe the core characteristics of Farming System Research & Extension (FSR&E).
Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 11

143. Describe the salient threats to internal validity of an experiment.

144. What is training? Describe Spiral model of training process.

Subject : PhD – Agricultural Extension – 2013 12

145. Enumerate the eight approaches of extension as classified by Axin and describe the strength and
weaknesses of anyone.

146. Describe the major elements of diffusion process and the short-comings of diffusion research.