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Principles of Electronic

Communication Systems

Third Edition

2

Week 10 (Midterm)

3

Course Intended Learning

Outcomes

Learn the fundamentals of angular modulation

Calculate the frequency deviation and percentage of

modulation of an FM signal.

Calculate the bandwidth of an FM wave using Bessel

Function Table and Carsons’ Rule.

Differentiate pre-emphasis circuit from de-emphasis

circuit for noise suppression

Discuss the difference between Angular Modulation and

Amplitude Modulation in terms of its advantages and

disadvantages

4

1. Basic Principles

of Angular Modulation

wave is varied with respect to time

angle of a high-frequency signal in proportion with

the instantaneous amplitude of a modulating signal

5

1. Basic Principles

of Angular Modulation

Mathematical Principle of Angular Modulation

For an unmodulated carrier:

v(t) = Vc cos [ωct + θ(t)]

v(t) = Vccos [ 2пfct + θ(t)]

6

1. Basic Principles

of Angular Modulation

a. Phase Modulation

Varying the phase of a constant-amplitude carrier

directly proportional to the amplitude of the signal at a

rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal

VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k1Vm sin 2пfmt)]

7

1. Basic Principles

of Angular Modulation

b. Frequency Modulation

- varying the frequency of a constant-amplitude carrier

directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating

signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the of the

modulating signal

VFM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k2ᶘ(Vm sin 2пfmt)dt]

VFM(t) = Vc cos [ ωct + (δ/fm) sin 2пfmt ]

8

1. Basic Principles

of Angular Modulation

Figure 5-1: FM and PM

signals. The carrier is drawn

as a triangular wave for

simplicity, but in practice it is

a sine wave. (a) Carrier. (b)

Modulating signal. (c) FM

signal. (d) PM signal.

9

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

A sine wave carrier can be modified for the purpose of

transmitting information from one place to another by

varying its frequency. This is known as frequency

modulation (FM).

In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant and the

carrier frequency is changed by the modulating signal.

10

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

General formula for a Frequency-Modulated Wave:

VFM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k2ᶘ(Vm sin 2пfmt)dt]

VFM(t) = Vc cos [ ωct + (δ/fm) sin 2пfmt ]

Vc = peak carrier amplitude (V)

fc = carrier frequency (hz)

δ = deviation sensitivity (rad/s.)

fm = modulating signal frequency (hz)

11

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

As the amplitude of the information signal varies, the

carrier frequency shifts proportionately.

As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the

carrier frequency increases.

With no modulation the carrier is at its normal center

or resting frequency.

12

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

FM Parameters

A. Instantaneous Frequency (f)

- The precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of

time

- First time derivative of the instantaneous phase

B. Deviation Sensitivity (k2) = (rad/s)/V

- the output-versus-input transfer function for the modulators,

- gives the relationship between what output change in

respect to specified change in the input signal

- change would occur in the output frequency in respect to

change in the amplitude of the modulating input voltage

13

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

C. Instantaneous Frequency Deviation (fd or δ)

- is the instantaneous change in carrier frequency

produced by the modulating signal.

- is the amount of change in carrier frequency produced by

the modulating signal

- first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation

δ = fd = k2 * Vm

where:

δ =peak frequency deviation of FM wave form(rad/s.)

k2= deviation sensitivity of Fm modulator ( rad/s.V)

Vm = peak amplitude of modulating signal

14

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

D. Frequency Deviation Rate

- is how many times per second the carrier frequency

deviates above or below its center frequency

- determined by the frequency of the signal

E. Carrier Swing

- peak-to-peak frequency deviation

CS = 2 δ = 2 fd

15

1. The transmitter operates on a frequency of 915

MHz. The maximum FM deviation is +12.5KHz.

What are the maximum and minimum frequencies

that occur during modulation.

2. An FM detector produces a peak-to-peak output

voltage of 1.2V from an FM signal that is modulated

to 10 KHz by a sine wave. What is the detector

sensitivity.

3. If a modulator produces 5 kHz of frequency deviation

for a 10-V modulating signal, how much frequency

deviation is produced for a 2V modulating signal.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

16

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

F. Modulation Index (m)

The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating

frequency is known as the modulation index (mf).

In most communication systems using FM, maximum

limits are put on both the frequency deviation and the

modulating frequency.

In standard FM broadcasting, the maximum permitted

frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the maximum permitted

modulating frequency is 15 kHz.

The modulation index for standard FM broadcasting is

therefore 5.

m = (k2 * Vm) / fm

m = (δ/fm)

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

17

1.2 Basic Principles

of Frequency Modulation

G. Percent of Modulation

the ratio of the frequency deviation actually produced

to the maximum frequency deviation allowed by law

stated in percent form

%modulation = (δ(actual) / δ(max) ) x 100

H. Deviation Ratio

when the maximum allowable frequency deviation

and the maximum modulating frequency is used in

computing the modulation index

DR = (δmax / fmmax)

18

1. Determine the peak frequency deviation and the

modulation index for an FM modulator with a deviation

sensitivity of K = 5kHz/V and a modulating signal Vm = 2

cos (2π2000t)

2. In the United states, the Federal Communication

Commission limits the frequency deviation for commercial

FM broadcast-band transmitter to + 75kHz. If the given

modulating signal produces +5kHz frequency deviation.

What is the percent of modulation?. If for instance the

maximum frequency of the modulating signal is 30kHz.

Compute the deviation ratio.

3. What is the carrier swing of FM broadcast transmitter with a

percent modulation of 80%?

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

19

1.3 Basic Principles

of Phase Modulation

When the amount of phase shift of a constant-frequency carrier is

varied in accordance with a modulating signal, the resulting output

is a phase-modulation (PM) signal.

Phase modulators produce a phase shift which is a time

separation between two sine waves of the same frequency.

The greater the amplitude of the modulating signal, the greater the

phase shift.

The maximum frequency deviation produced by a phase modulator

occurs during the time that the modulating signal is changing at its

most rapid rate.

General Formula for a Phase Modulated Wave:

VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k1Vm sin 2пfmt)]

20

1.3 Basic Principles

of Phase Modulation

General Formula for a Phase Modulated Wave:

VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + kVm cos 2пfmt)]

Vc = peak carrier amplitude (V)

Vm = peak modulating amplitude (V)

k = phase deviation sensitivity (rad/s.)

fc = carrier frequency (hz)

fm = modulating signal frequency (hz)

21

1.3 Basic Principles

of Phase Modulation

PM Parameters

A. Instantaneous Phase = ωct +ø(t) rad

- The precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time

B. Instantaneous Phase Deviation = ø(t) rad

- the instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a

given instant of time and indicates how much the phase of

the carrier is changing with respect to the reference phase

C. Deviation Sensitivity (k1) = rad / V

- the changes that would occur at the phase of the output

carrier signal frequency to changes in the amplitude of the

input voltage.

22

What is the rms voltage of a sine wave would

cause a phase deviation of 30 degrees?

2. Given the PM modulators with the following

parameters: deviation sensitivity (kp) = 0.75rad/V,

carrier frequency (fc) = 500 kHz, modulating signal

= 2 sin (2π2kt)

a. determine the modulation index

b. change the modulating signal amplitude to 3Vp

and solve for modulation index

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

23

2. Comparing FM and PM

Carrier Deviation

In FM and in PM, the frequency deviation is directly

proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

In PM, the maximum amount of leading or lagging

phase shift occurs at the peak amplitudes of the

modulating signal.

In PM the carrier deviation is proportional to both the

modulating frequency and the amplitude.

24

Figure 5-4: Frequency deviation as a function of (a) modulating signal amplitude and

(b) modulating signal frequency.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

25

2. Comparing FM and PM

In order to make PM compatible with FM, the deviation

produced by frequency variations in the modulating

signal must be compensated for.

This compensation can be accomplished by passing the

intelligence signal through a low-pass RC network.

This RC low-pass filter is called a frequency-

correcting network, predistorter, or 1/f filter and

causes the higher modulating frequencies to be

attenuated.

The FM produced by a phase modulator is called

indirect FM.

26

3. Frequency Analysis of Angle-

Modulated Wave

Any modulation process produces sidebands.

When a constant-frequency sine wave modulates a

carrier, two side frequencies are produced.

Side frequencies are the sum and difference of the

carrier and modulating frequency.

The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually much wider

than that of an AM signal with the same modulating

signal.

27

3. Frequency Analysis of Angle-

Modulated Wave

28

3.1: Modulation Index

and Sidebands

Bessel Functions

The equation that expresses the phase angle in terms

of the sine wave modulating signal is solved with a

complex mathematical process known as Bessel

functions.

necessary to memorize or calculate them.

29

3.1: Modulation Index

and Sidebands

Figure 5-8: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM

signals based on the Bessel functions.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

30

3.1: Modulation Index

and Sidebands

Figure 5-9: Plot of the Bessel function data from Fig. 5-8.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

31

3.1: Modulation Index

and Sidebands

Bessel Functions

The symbol ! means factorial. This tells you to multiply

all integers from 1 through the number to which the

symbol is attached. (e.g. 5! Means 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 =

120)

Narrowband FM (NBFM) is any FM system in which

the modulation index is less than π/2 = 1.57, or

mf < π /2.

NBFM is widely used in communication. It conserves

spectrum space at the expense of the signal-to-noise

ratio.

32

FM Signal Bandwidth

The higher the modulation index in FM, the greater the

number of significant sidebands and the wider the

bandwidth of the signal.

bandwidth of an FM signal can be restricted by putting

an upper limit on the modulation index.

33

maximum deviation is 6 kHz, what is the modulation

index? What is the bandwidth?

34

4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

automotive ignition systems, and power line switching

that produces transient signals.

Noise is typically narrow spikes of voltage with high

frequencies.

Noise (voltage spikes) add to a signal and interfere

with it.

Some noise completely obliterates signal information.

35

4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

amplitude.

FM receivers contain limiter circuits that deliberately

restrict the amplitude of the received signal.

Any amplitude variations occurring on the FM signal

are effectively clipped by limiter circuits.

This amplitude clipping does not affect the information

content of the FM signal, since it is contained solely

within the frequency variations of the carrier.

36

4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

37

4.1: Pre-emphasis

Preemphasis

Noise can interfere with an FM signal and particularly

with the high-frequency components of the modulating

signal.

Noise is primarily sharp spikes of energy and contains a

lot of harmonics and other high-frequency components.

To overcome high-frequency noise, a technique known

as preemphasis is used.

A simple high-pass filter can serve as a transmitter’s

pre-emphasis circuit.

Pre-emphasis provides more amplification of only high-

frequency components.

38

4.1: Pre-emphasis

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

39

4.1: Pre-emphasis

Preemphasis

A simple low-pass filter can operate as a deemphasis

circuit in a receiver.

A deemphasis circuit returns the frequency response to

its normal flat level.

The combined effect of preemphasis and deemphasis is

to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for the high-

frequency components during transmission so that they

will be stronger and not masked by noise.

40

4.2: De-emphasis

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

41

5: Frequency Modulation Versus

Amplitude Modulation

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

42

5.1:Advantages of FM over AM

Advantages of FM

FM typically offers some significant benefits over AM.

FM has superior immunity to noise, made possible by

clipper limiter circuits in the receiver.

In FM, interfering signals on the same frequency are

rejected. This is known as the capture effect.

FM signals have a constant amplitude and there is

no need to use linear amplifiers to increase power

levels. This increases transmitter efficiency.

43

5.2:Disadvantages of FM over AM

Disadvantages of FM

FM uses considerably more frequency spectrum space.

FM has used more complex circuitry for modulation and

demodulation.

In the past, the circuits used for frequency modulation

and demodulation involved were complex. With the

proliferation of ICs, complex circuitry used in FM has all

but disappeared. ICs are inexpensive and easy to use.

FM and PM have become the most widely used

modulation method in electronic communication today.

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