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# 1

Principles of Electronic
Communication Systems

Third Edition

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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Week 10 (Midterm)

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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Course Intended Learning
Outcomes
 Learn the fundamentals of angular modulation
 Calculate the frequency deviation and percentage of
modulation of an FM signal.
 Calculate the bandwidth of an FM wave using Bessel
Function Table and Carsons’ Rule.
 Differentiate pre-emphasis circuit from de-emphasis
circuit for noise suppression
 Discuss the difference between Angular Modulation and
Amplitude Modulation in terms of its advantages and

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1. Basic Principles
of Angular Modulation

##  Results whenever the phase angle of the sinusoidal

wave is varied with respect to time

##  Is a modulation technique which varies the phase

angle of a high-frequency signal in proportion with
the instantaneous amplitude of a modulating signal

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1. Basic Principles
of Angular Modulation
Mathematical Principle of Angular Modulation
For an unmodulated carrier:
v(t) = Vc cos [ωct + θ(t)]
v(t) = Vccos [ 2пfct + θ(t)]

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1. Basic Principles
of Angular Modulation
a. Phase Modulation
Varying the phase of a constant-amplitude carrier
directly proportional to the amplitude of the signal at a
rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal

## General Formula for a Phase Modulated Wave:

VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k1Vm sin 2пfmt)]

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1. Basic Principles
of Angular Modulation
b. Frequency Modulation
- varying the frequency of a constant-amplitude carrier
directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating
signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the of the
modulating signal

## General formula for a Frequency-Modulated Wave:

VFM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k2ᶘ(Vm sin 2пfmt)dt]
VFM(t) = Vc cos [ ωct + (δ/fm) sin 2пfmt ]

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1. Basic Principles
of Angular Modulation
Figure 5-1: FM and PM
signals. The carrier is drawn
as a triangular wave for
simplicity, but in practice it is
a sine wave. (a) Carrier. (b)
Modulating signal. (c) FM
signal. (d) PM signal.

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
 A sine wave carrier can be modified for the purpose of
transmitting information from one place to another by
varying its frequency. This is known as frequency
modulation (FM).
 In FM, the carrier amplitude remains constant and the
carrier frequency is changed by the modulating signal.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
General formula for a Frequency-Modulated Wave:
VFM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k2ᶘ(Vm sin 2пfmt)dt]
VFM(t) = Vc cos [ ωct + (δ/fm) sin 2пfmt ]

## Where : VFM(t) = FM wave voltage (V)

Vc = peak carrier amplitude (V)
fc = carrier frequency (hz)
fm = modulating signal frequency (hz)

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
 As the amplitude of the information signal varies, the
carrier frequency shifts proportionately.
 As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the
carrier frequency increases.
 With no modulation the carrier is at its normal center
or resting frequency.

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
FM Parameters
A. Instantaneous Frequency (f)
- The precise frequency of the carrier at a given instant of
time
- First time derivative of the instantaneous phase
B. Deviation Sensitivity (k2) = (rad/s)/V
- the output-versus-input transfer function for the modulators,
- gives the relationship between what output change in
respect to specified change in the input signal
- change would occur in the output frequency in respect to
change in the amplitude of the modulating input voltage

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
C. Instantaneous Frequency Deviation (fd or δ)
- is the instantaneous change in carrier frequency
produced by the modulating signal.
- is the amount of change in carrier frequency produced by
the modulating signal
- first time derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation
δ = fd = k2 * Vm
where:
δ =peak frequency deviation of FM wave form(rad/s.)
k2= deviation sensitivity of Fm modulator ( rad/s.V)
Vm = peak amplitude of modulating signal

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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
D. Frequency Deviation Rate
- is how many times per second the carrier frequency
deviates above or below its center frequency
- determined by the frequency of the signal

E. Carrier Swing
- peak-to-peak frequency deviation
CS = 2 δ = 2 fd

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## Sample Problem Set1

1. The transmitter operates on a frequency of 915
MHz. The maximum FM deviation is +12.5KHz.
What are the maximum and minimum frequencies
that occur during modulation.
2. An FM detector produces a peak-to-peak output
voltage of 1.2V from an FM signal that is modulated
to 10 KHz by a sine wave. What is the detector
sensitivity.
3. If a modulator produces 5 kHz of frequency deviation
for a 10-V modulating signal, how much frequency
deviation is produced for a 2V modulating signal.
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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
F. Modulation Index (m)
 The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating
frequency is known as the modulation index (mf).
 In most communication systems using FM, maximum
limits are put on both the frequency deviation and the
modulating frequency.
 In standard FM broadcasting, the maximum permitted
frequency deviation is 75 kHz and the maximum permitted
modulating frequency is 15 kHz.
 The modulation index for standard FM broadcasting is
therefore 5.
m = (k2 * Vm) / fm
m = (δ/fm)
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1.2 Basic Principles
of Frequency Modulation
G. Percent of Modulation
the ratio of the frequency deviation actually produced
to the maximum frequency deviation allowed by law
stated in percent form
%modulation = (δ(actual) / δ(max) ) x 100
H. Deviation Ratio
when the maximum allowable frequency deviation
and the maximum modulating frequency is used in
computing the modulation index
DR = (δmax / fmmax)

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## Sample Problem Set 2

1. Determine the peak frequency deviation and the
modulation index for an FM modulator with a deviation
sensitivity of K = 5kHz/V and a modulating signal Vm = 2
cos (2π2000t)
2. In the United states, the Federal Communication
Commission limits the frequency deviation for commercial
FM broadcast-band transmitter to + 75kHz. If the given
modulating signal produces +5kHz frequency deviation.
What is the percent of modulation?. If for instance the
maximum frequency of the modulating signal is 30kHz.
Compute the deviation ratio.
3. What is the carrier swing of FM broadcast transmitter with a
percent modulation of 80%?
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1.3 Basic Principles
of Phase Modulation
 When the amount of phase shift of a constant-frequency carrier is
varied in accordance with a modulating signal, the resulting output
is a phase-modulation (PM) signal.
 Phase modulators produce a phase shift which is a time
separation between two sine waves of the same frequency.
 The greater the amplitude of the modulating signal, the greater the
phase shift.
 The maximum frequency deviation produced by a phase modulator
occurs during the time that the modulating signal is changing at its
most rapid rate.
General Formula for a Phase Modulated Wave:
VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + k1Vm sin 2пfmt)]

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1.3 Basic Principles
of Phase Modulation
General Formula for a Phase Modulated Wave:
VPM(t) = Vc cos [ 2пfct + kVm cos 2пfmt)]

## Where : VPM(t) = PM wave voltage (V)

Vc = peak carrier amplitude (V)
Vm = peak modulating amplitude (V)
k = phase deviation sensitivity (rad/s.)
fc = carrier frequency (hz)
fm = modulating signal frequency (hz)

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1.3 Basic Principles
of Phase Modulation
PM Parameters
A. Instantaneous Phase = ωct +ø(t) rad
- The precise phase of the carrier at a given instant of time
B. Instantaneous Phase Deviation = ø(t) rad
- the instantaneous change in the phase of the carrier at a
given instant of time and indicates how much the phase of
the carrier is changing with respect to the reference phase
C. Deviation Sensitivity (k1) = rad / V
- the changes that would occur at the phase of the output
carrier signal frequency to changes in the amplitude of the
input voltage.

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## 1. A phase modulator has a sensitivity of 5rad/V.

What is the rms voltage of a sine wave would
cause a phase deviation of 30 degrees?
2. Given the PM modulators with the following
parameters: deviation sensitivity (kp) = 0.75rad/V,
carrier frequency (fc) = 500 kHz, modulating signal
= 2 sin (2π2kt)
a. determine the modulation index
b. change the modulating signal amplitude to 3Vp
and solve for modulation index
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2. Comparing FM and PM

## 1. In relationship between the Modulating Signal and

Carrier Deviation
 In FM and in PM, the frequency deviation is directly
proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal.
 In PM, the maximum amount of leading or lagging
phase shift occurs at the peak amplitudes of the
modulating signal.
 In PM the carrier deviation is proportional to both the
modulating frequency and the amplitude.

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## 5-2: Principles of Phase Modulation

Figure 5-4: Frequency deviation as a function of (a) modulating signal amplitude and
(b) modulating signal frequency.
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2. Comparing FM and PM

## 2. When Converting PM into FM

 In order to make PM compatible with FM, the deviation
produced by frequency variations in the modulating
signal must be compensated for.
 This compensation can be accomplished by passing the
intelligence signal through a low-pass RC network.
 This RC low-pass filter is called a frequency-
correcting network, predistorter, or 1/f filter and
causes the higher modulating frequencies to be
attenuated.
 The FM produced by a phase modulator is called
indirect FM.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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3. Frequency Analysis of Angle-
Modulated Wave
 Any modulation process produces sidebands.
 When a constant-frequency sine wave modulates a
carrier, two side frequencies are produced.
 Side frequencies are the sum and difference of the
carrier and modulating frequency.
 The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually much wider
than that of an AM signal with the same modulating
signal.

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3. Frequency Analysis of Angle-
Modulated Wave

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3.1: Modulation Index
and Sidebands
Bessel Functions
 The equation that expresses the phase angle in terms
of the sine wave modulating signal is solved with a
complex mathematical process known as Bessel
functions.

##  Bessel coefficients are widely available and it is not

necessary to memorize or calculate them.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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3.1: Modulation Index
and Sidebands

Figure 5-8: Carrier and sideband amplitudes for different modulation indexes of FM
signals based on the Bessel functions.
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3.1: Modulation Index
and Sidebands

Figure 5-9: Plot of the Bessel function data from Fig. 5-8.
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3.1: Modulation Index
and Sidebands
Bessel Functions
 The symbol ! means factorial. This tells you to multiply
all integers from 1 through the number to which the
symbol is attached. (e.g. 5! Means 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 =
120)
 Narrowband FM (NBFM) is any FM system in which
the modulation index is less than π/2 = 1.57, or
mf < π /2.
 NBFM is widely used in communication. It conserves
spectrum space at the expense of the signal-to-noise
ratio.

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## 3.2: FM Signal Bandwidth

FM Signal Bandwidth
 The higher the modulation index in FM, the greater the
number of significant sidebands and the wider the
bandwidth of the signal.

##  When spectrum conservation is necessary, the

bandwidth of an FM signal can be restricted by putting
an upper limit on the modulation index.

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## 1. If the highest modulating frequency is 3 kHz and the

maximum deviation is 6 kHz, what is the modulation
index? What is the bandwidth?

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4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

##  Noise is interference generated by lightning, motors,

automotive ignition systems, and power line switching
that produces transient signals.
 Noise is typically narrow spikes of voltage with high
frequencies.
 Noise (voltage spikes) add to a signal and interfere
with it.
 Some noise completely obliterates signal information.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

##  FM signals have a constant modulated carrier

amplitude.
 FM receivers contain limiter circuits that deliberately
restrict the amplitude of the received signal.
 Any amplitude variations occurring on the FM signal
are effectively clipped by limiter circuits.
 This amplitude clipping does not affect the information
content of the FM signal, since it is contained solely
within the frequency variations of the carrier.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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4: Noise-Suppression Effects of FM

## Figure 5-11: An FM signal with noise.

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4.1: Pre-emphasis

Preemphasis
 Noise can interfere with an FM signal and particularly
with the high-frequency components of the modulating
signal.
 Noise is primarily sharp spikes of energy and contains a
lot of harmonics and other high-frequency components.
 To overcome high-frequency noise, a technique known
as preemphasis is used.
 A simple high-pass filter can serve as a transmitter’s
pre-emphasis circuit.
 Pre-emphasis provides more amplification of only high-
frequency components.

## © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

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4.1: Pre-emphasis

## Figure 5-13 Preemphasis and deemphasis. (a) Preemphasis circuit.

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4.1: Pre-emphasis

Preemphasis
 A simple low-pass filter can operate as a deemphasis
 A deemphasis circuit returns the frequency response to
its normal flat level.
 The combined effect of preemphasis and deemphasis is
to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for the high-
frequency components during transmission so that they
will be stronger and not masked by noise.

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4.2: De-emphasis

## Figure 5-13 Preemphasis and deemphasis. (c) Deemphasis circuit.

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5: Frequency Modulation Versus
Amplitude Modulation

## Major applications of AM and FM

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 FM typically offers some significant benefits over AM.
 FM has superior immunity to noise, made possible by
clipper limiter circuits in the receiver.
 In FM, interfering signals on the same frequency are
rejected. This is known as the capture effect.
 FM signals have a constant amplitude and there is
no need to use linear amplifiers to increase power
levels. This increases transmitter efficiency.

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