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# c 


        
   
       
      
  ! " # #  

 \$ Let us build a table indicating how many matches are need to build each set of squares:

## Number of squares Number of matchsticks

1 4

2 12

3 24

4 40

5 60

6 84

7 112

If you watch carefully you will be able to see that each time we add a new layer of boxes to make a n x
n matrix , we add 4n new matchsticks. That is when there is one box on the table and we add
matchsticks to make a 2 x 2 matrix, 8matchsticks have to be added. Similarly to go from a 2 x 2 array to
a 3 x 3requires adding 12 matchsticks.

Thus we can conclude that if it takes p matchsticks to form a matrix of (m-1)squares, then the number of
matchsticks in a matrix of m squares is p + 4m. Thus starting with a square (1 x 1) of 4 matchsticks, the
number in the next larger size is 4 + 4 X 2 = 12, and the next level (3 x 3 square) requires 12 + 4 x 3 =
24 matchsticks. Thus an algorithm for computing the number of matchsticks in a square of size n x n is:

 %

 %  

##  % &' 

Alternatively we can compute the number of matchsticks needed for boxes of size greater than 4 by
constructing a difference table, and noting that the second difference is a constant (4):

Number
Number of
of 1st Difference 2nd Difference
Matchsticks
Squares

1 4

2 12 4

12

3 24 4

16

4 40 4

Yet again we can find a different means to compute the number of matchsticks in (n x n) matrices. Note
that in each row of a (n x n) matrix there are nmatchsticks, and there are (n + 1) lines of matchsticks.
Thus the total number of matchsticks in the rows of matchsticks is n (n + 1). There is exactly the same
number of matchsticks in each column. So the total number of matchsticks in a (n x n) matrix is #  &
 

c #( !! "  ") !!  "  * "!   

'
 +
       * 
,

##  \$rirst fill the 9-liter bucket.

Then pour 4 liters over to the 4-liter bucket (there are now 5 liters in the 9-liter bucket), and then pour
out the water from the 4-liter bucket.

Again pour 4 liters from the 9-liter bucket to the 4-liter bucket and empty it.
There will now be just 1 liter left in the 9-liter bucket.

Now pour that remaining 1 liter to the 4-liter bucket but this time keeps it there.

rill the 9-liter bucket again and then pour water to fill the 4-liter bucket to the top (this only needs 3
more liters).

The 9-liter bucket will now contain exactly 6 liters. Go ahead and add the concrete mix, now.

c -.    "    !    

%/

 0 &1

2%/

## ! 20 &1

2%2 #/

3

%&/

3

 \$

c '4*        "   ! 

## 6  7 

8 

 \$ 

## 5  \$

Ä Ä 
     
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
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aa 
a 

*
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O 
a 

O
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  
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 

8 

±    

    
    



 
  !
   
  
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  
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c  O a a 
 

a a 

a    
   
a 

## ! OOO a a"# a

# a 
  a 
 a a \$a
 
  \$ "a    

## % # a&  ' a

  a ( )

 )"a 

Ans: aa aaGood utility and usability are closely related, yet they are not the same
thing. Utility and usability are similar in that they are both critical in producing a quality product; the
product needs to be operated easily and intuitively (usability) to accomplish the given task (utility)
(Nielsen 2003). There are however subtle differences; utility is solely concerned with usefulness;
however usability includes not only utility, but also efficiency, safety, memorability, learnability and
satisfaction (Nielsen 2003).

##  a  aÄ   

  


     


  

     

  


     

 
    


 



 

   

 
    

##    

 ais the analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both
complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors
involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task.

. 8 \$The design deals with all the needs and requirements of the user and solely
focuses on users needs.
 a
a a (known before as 'Cooperative Design') is an approach to design attempting to
actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design
process in order to help ensure the product designed meets their needs and is usable.

 a  
a 
  
"
 
  


  
#"
 
  
 

 
\$ 

 
     

  \$ 



 
   
a  



" 

  
 
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

 
  


##      UÄ  % 

 
 
"
 


 

 
 &'
(  % 
"
 
 
   
 

 &


## OOO a a"# aßypermedia is a computer-based information retrieval

system that enables a user to gain or provide access to texts, audio and video recordings, photographs
and computer graphics related to a particular subject. ßypermedia is a term created by Ted
Nelson. ß  is used as a logical extension of the termhypertext in which graphics, audio, video,
plain text and hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information.

a 
  a 
 a a \$a


Indirect devices

The devices which need more cognitive processing are known as indirect pointing devices like
mouse,track ball etc.

Direct devices:: the devices which do not need more cognitive processing are known as direct pointing
devices like touch pads, touch screens.

## Evolutionary Prototyping Model

Use in projects that have low risk in such areas as losing budget, schedule predictability and control,
large-system integration problems, or coping with information sclerosis, but high risk in user interface
design.

Incremental/iterative Development

The process for constructing several partial deliverables, each having incrementally more functionality.

ß 
   
| common term for a user interface prototype is the  
   . It provides a broad view of an
entire system or subsystem, focusing on user interaction more than low-level system functionality, such
as database access. ßorizontal prototypes are useful for:

## V Confirmation of user interface requirements and system scope

V Demonstration version of the system to obtain buy-in from the business
V Develop preliminary estimates of development time, cost and effort.
ù    
|      is a more complete elaboration of a single subsystem or function. It is useful for
obtaining detailed requirements for a given function, with the following benefits:

## V Refinement database design

V Obtain information on data volumes and system interface needs, for network sizing and performance
engineering
V Clarifies complex requirements by drilling down to actual system functionality
V  refers to online transactions - buying and selling of goods and/or services over the
Internet.

V 
 covers online transactions, but also extends to all Internet based interactions with
business partners, suppliers and customers such as: selling direct to consumers, manufacturers
and suppliers; monitoring and exchanging information; auctioning surplus inventory; and
collaborative product design. These online interactions are aimed at improving or transforming
business processes and efficiency.