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Thomas Hansen Viuff, Bernt Johan Leira, Ole Øiseth

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Xu Xiang

Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Stavanger, Norway

Contact: thomas.h.viuff@ntnu.no

Abstract

A theoretical overview of the stochastic dynamic analysis of a floating bridge structure is presented.

Emphasis is on the wave-induced response and the waves on the sea surface are idealized as a zero

mean stationary Gaussian process. The first-order wave load processes are derived using linear

potential theory and the structural idealization is based on the Finite Element Method. A frequency

response calculation is presented for a simplified floating bridge structure example emphasising the

influence on von Mises stress in the pontoon from low- and high frequency waves and frequency

dependence in hydrodynamic added mass and damping coefficients.

Keywords: Floating bridge; frequency response; linear dynamics; von Mises stress.

1 Introduction types of floating bridges are used. Only three long

Floating bridges have been around for many span floating bridges are currently located in

thousands of years and throughout the years, they difficult sea state conditions and allows for cars to

have been used as temporary supply lines or for pass. These are:

military purposes. However, it is only during the i. Hood Canal Bridge (1961) in USA a 2,398

last three decades or so that floating bridges are meter long pontoon bridge with a 1,988

being developed to the degree of sophistication, so meter long anchored floating portion, it is

they can be applied as a critical part of modern the longest floating bridge in the world

infrastructure. Still, compared with land-based located in a saltwater tidal basin, and the

bridges, including cable-stayed bridges, limited third longest floating bridge overall.

information [1] is currently available on floating ii. Bergsøysund Bridge (1992) in Norway a

bridges and even less on submerged floating 931 meter long pontoon bridge with the

tunnels for transportation. This information is longest span of 106 meters.

especially true regarding construction records, iii. Nordhordland Bridge (1994) in Norway is a

environmental conditions, durability, operations combination of a cable-stayed and

and performance of the structure. pontoon bridge. It is the longest free

The limited amount of floating bridges currently in floating bridge without anchorage.

the world is a statement to this fact. Depending on

the landscape in the proximity of the floating

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19th IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016

Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

and practical development of floating bridges has

been carried out mainly in the USA and in Norway The linear stochastic dynamic response of a floating

with significant contributions from the industry. In bridge structure can be described using the

Norway it is mainly the Norwegian University of equation of motion to capture the dynamics of the

Science and Technology (NTNU), SINTEF the structure, potential theory to find the

research organisation and the Norwegian Public hydrodynamic added mass and damping and the

Roads Administration (NPRA). wave excitation force from the fluid-structure

interaction and stochastic theory to implement the

Pioneering studies on floating bridges was carried randomness of the wave excitation force.

by Hartz in the 1970’s. Around the same time

Holan, Sigbjörnsson and Langen carried out similar 2.1 Equation of Motion

studies on stochastic dynamics of floating bridges

[2] [3] [4] [5]. Later on in 1980 Sigbjörnsson and The equation of motion describing the linear

Langen exemplified the theory using a model of the dynamic behaviour of the floating bridge is

Salhus floating bridge [6] [7]. In recent years described in time domain as shown in (1) .

NTNU/SINTEF have led the theoretical evolution

[ M s ]{ u ( t )} [ C s ]{ u ( t )} [ K s ]{ u ( t )} { q h ( t )} (1)

within structural mechanics, fluid structure

interaction and stochastic modelling of

environmental loads applied to the offshore Here, [ M ] , [ C ] and [ K ] are the frequency

s s s

industry in Norway. Many of the same theories can independent structural mass-, damping- and

be directly applied in stochastic dynamic analysis of stiffness matrices. The vector notation { u } is the

floating bridges. structural response and the dots above represents

derivatives of time t . The vector { q ( t )} represents

Recently the NPRA has started several research h

projects regarding floating bridge structures as part the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic load vector.

of a ferry-free coastal route E39 between

2.1.1 Frequency Domain Representation

Kristiansand and Trondheim in Norway, where they

aim to develop current methods of design. For a single harmonic small amplitude wave,

{ q ( t )} can be described as a harmonic wave

In the present text a dynamic analysis in frequency h

i t

domain will be given and theory on stochastic proportional to e as shown in (2).

dynamic modelling of a floating bridge is described, As an extra step in the equation, the derivatives of

including challenges regarding frequency- the structural response are derived and collected

dependent hydrodynamic added mass and within the parenthesis.

damping. Preliminary results will be given from a

frequency domain analysis of the stresses on the { q h ( t )} [ M h ( )] i [ C h ( )] [ K h ]

2

pontoon. (2)

i t i t

{ Z u ( )} e { Z q ( )} e

Although a lot of research has gone in to the topic

of floating bridges, the focus point has mostly been

Here, [ M h ( )] and [ C h ( )] are the frequency

on the structural response in terms of

displacement, velocity and acceleration of dependent hydrodynamic added mass and

structural points and as far as the author is aware, damping and is the angular frequency. [ K h ] is

not much literature on local stress distributions for the restoring stiffness assumed frequency

floating pontoon bridges is published. This paper independent for small amplitude motion. { Z u ( )}

aims to shed some light on general stochastic and { Z q ( ) } are the complex structural response

design as well as local stress distribution. amplitude and the complex wave excitation force

amplitude, respectively, and i is the imaginary

unit. Substituting the expression for the

hydrodynamic action given in (2) into the equation

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Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

of motion in (1) and rearranging the terms gives the Here, is time lag and [ m ] and [ c ] are the time h h

of motion. added mass and damping found from Fourier

transform.

{ Z q ( )} [ M ( )] i [ C ( )] [ K ]

2

(3) 1

i t

{ Z u ( )} [ M h ( )] e d

[ m h (t)]

2

(10)

The inertia, damping and restoring matrices

1

i t

include the structural terms as well as the added [ c h ( t )] [ C h ( )] e d (11)

hydrodynamic mass and damping. The combined 2

Using the impulse response function, h ( ) , the

[ M ( )] [ M s ] [ M h ( )] (4) response can be obtained in time domain as a finite

sum of system responses from hydrodynamic

[ C ( )] [ C s ] [ C h ( )] (5) action impulses at different time steps.

[K ] [K s ] [K h ] (6) { u ( t )} [ h ( t )]{ q h ( )}d (12)

The response induced by a single harmonic wave is The impulse response function is found from

then obtained by rearranging the terms in (3) and Fourier transform of the frequency transfer

introducing the frequency transfer function function in (8).

[ H ( )] .

1

i t

[ h ( t )] [ H ( )] e d (13)

{ Z u ( )} [ H ( )]{ Z q ( )} (7) 2

[ H ( )] [ M ( )] i [ C ( )] [ K ]

2

(8)

Such approaches are useful if non-linear behaviour

is of interest.

By use of the principle of superposition, it is

possible within the framework of linear theory to 2.2 Description of Sea Waves

incorporate a generalized description of the

excitation represented as the sum of a finite For engineering purpose, the wind-generated

number of harmonic waves. In case of a random waves are approximated as a locally stationary and

sea state the excitation in frequency domain can be homogeneous random field and the sea surface

obtain by Fourier transform of the excitation time elevation ({ x } , t ) becomes a function of time and

series. the two-dimensional space vector for the

horizontal surface at the mean water level.

2.1.2 Time Domain Representation

i ({ } { x } t )

Assuming frequency independent restoring and ({ x } , t ) e d Z ({ } , ) (14)

described in the time domain as shown in (9) by use Here, Z ( { } , ) is the spectral process of the sea

of the convolution integral.

surface elevation and { } { x , y } is the two-

dimensional wave number vector.

{ q h ( t )} { q ( t )} [ m h ( t )]{ u ( t )} d

(9) The spectral process is, given the assumptions of

[ c h ( t )]{ u ( t )} d [ K h ]{ u ( t )} stationarity and homogeneity, related to wave

r s

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19th IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016

Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

E d Z ( { } , ) d Z ( { } , )

T* S ( , ) S ( ) C o h ( )

r s r s r s

r s

(15) ( ) (19)

S ( { } , ) d x d y d i x cos y s in

r s

( ) D ( ) e d

g

C o h

r s

and space. The superscripts T and * refer to the Here, x and y are the horizontal distances

mathematical operations transpose and complex between point r and s .

conjugate, respectively. The operation E [ ] is the

2.2.1 Directional distribution

expected value.

The directional distribution is commonly

The wave spectral density is divided into a cross-

characterised by a bell shaped function centered

spectral term with r s and auto-spectral terms

around the mean wave direction. The simplest and

with r s . The auto-spectral density is denoted

one of the most commonly applied functional

S ( , ) .

forms is the so-called cos-2s distribution, given in

The wave number vector can be described as a (20) for a specific mean wave direction.

function of the wave direction and the modulus

2 s 1

( s 1) m

2

. 2

D ( )

2s

cos

( 2 s 1) 2 (20)

cos ( m )

{ } (16)

s in

Here, s is the spreading parameter, ( ) is the

Furthermore, within the first-order Stokes theory Gamma function and m is the mean wave

and are related through the dispersion

direction.

relationship given in (17).

2.3 Fluid structure interaction

g ta n h ( h )

2

(17)

The current analysis of floating bridges is based on

Here, g is the gravitational acceleration and h is the assumption of water being incompressible,

non-viscous and irrotational. Then, within the

the water depth. In the special case of deep water

framework of potential theory, the flow field is

waves the dispersion relationship can be

governed by Laplace’s equation, given in (21) for

approximated as 2 g . As a result of this Cartesian coordinates [8].

approximation the spectral density can be

described as a function of wave direction and

2

2

2

0

2

frequency. (21)

x y z

2 2 2

the frequency-dependent directional distribution Here, is the velocity potential and x , y and z

D ( , ) and the one-dimensional wave spectral are Cartesian coordinates. Hence, the basic

density S ( ) . For simplicity, the directional problem at hand is to find the solution of the

distribution is normally assumed to be frequency- Laplace’s equation in terms of the velocity

independent as given in (18). potential.

Assuming no current and by virtue of the principle

S ( , ) S ( ) D ( ) (18) of superposition the velocity potential can be

obtained from the linear problem given in (22).

Due to the coherency, C o h

( ) , between point

r s

density given in (19) is a bit more complicated and

is formulated by assuming deep water waves.

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Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

7 nk dS

6

i t i t q j i

0e 7e kuk 0 (24)

k 1 (22) S0

Here, n k represents the component of the surface

Here, 0 and 7 represents the velocity potential normal vector in the direction of the k 'th degree of

from the incident- and diffracted waves, freedom. Comparing the expression with (23) the

respectively. k represents the velocity potential force is identified as the wave excitation force.

per unit velocity from radiated waves and u k 2.3.2 Hydrodynamic Added Mass and Damping

represents the time derivative of the complex

motion of the body in the water and together they The radiation problem describes the scenario of a

represent the velocity potential from radiated body oscillating in calm sea. Using the same

waves k k u k when the body is oscillating in the approach as described in section 2.3.1 the

hydrodynamic action from a body oscillating in

k 'th degree of freedom.

calm water can be found.

From first-order Stokes theory the velocity

potential for the incident wave is known. To obtain q j

i u j j

nk dS

a physical legitimate solution for the other seven S0

(21) must be satisfied together with the free- Re n k d S u j Im nk dS u

j

j

j

level, the kinematic boundary conditions at the M h , jk ( ) C h , jk ( )

radiation condition. Using the indirect boundary Comparing the expression with (23) the

integral formulation and applying Green’s second hydrodynamic added mass and damping can be

identity it is possible to obtain solutions for each of identified.

the seven velocity potentials and the pressure p

can then be obtained through Bernoulli’s equation. 3 Solution Strategy

Applying specific velocity potentials in Bernoulli’s It is commonly assumed, within the field of civil

equation and integrating the hydrodynamic engineering structural dynamics, that structural

pressure over the wetted body surface it is possible damping is very small and hence can be neglected

to obtain expressions for the wave excitation force when calculating the natural frequencies and

and the hydrodynamic added mass and damping natural modes of a classically damped system. In

when comparing to the equation for steady-state the case of fluid structure interaction there is a

harmonic rigid body motion is given in (23). significant contribution to the damping from the

6

hydrodynamic damping [ C h ( )] and so the system

M

i t

q je jk

( ) u k C jk

( ) u k K jk

uk (23) instead is categorised as a non-classically damped

k 1

system. Procedures exists to calculate this higher

order eigenvalue problem by use of the state-space

Here, the index notations of (4), (5) and (6) is

approach [9]. The solution consists of complex

applied.

eigenvalues and complex eigenvectors.

2.3.1 Wave Excitation Load In the context of this article, the dynamic response

is calculated using the direct frequency response

The diffraction problem describes the scenario of a

method with the structure subjected to a set of unit

fixed body in incident waves. By only including 0

amplitude wave with periods ranging from 1

and 7 in Bernoulli’s equation it is possible to second to 15 seconds.

obtain the hydrodynamic action by integrating the

hydrodynamic pressure over the wetted body

surface S 0 .

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Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

The frequency domain representation described in L Ixx Iyy Izz

section 2.1.1 applies the complex frequency [m] [m4] [m4] [m4]

transfer function [ H ( )] given in (8) to obtain

Bm1 400 1.07E-04 2.65E+00 9.21E-01

solutions in the frequency domain. The response

amplitude { Z u ( )} is a complex quantity Bm2 400 1.07E-04 2.65E+00 9.21E-01

describing the amplitude and the phase angle of

Bm3 8.02 1.17E+01 5.86E+00 5.86E+00

the dynamic response.

By splitting the load into a real part { Z q , R e ( ) } and The mass properties and dimensions of the

pontoon are listed in Table 2 and Table 3,

an imaginary part { Z q , Im ( )} as described in [10] respectively.

the solution can be as shown in (26).

Table 2. Pontoon mass properties

{ Z u ( ) } [ H ( ) ] { Z q , R e ( ) }

(26) M rxx ryy rzz

i [ H ( ) ] { Z q , Im ( ) } [kg] [m2] [m2] [m2]

4 Case Study

The symbols I jj

and r jj represents the second

4.1 Description of Floating Bridge Model moment of area and the radius of gyration around

the j ’th axis, respectively. I x x is the torsional

The model is a simplified floating pontoon bridge

moment of inertia.

with pontoon dimensions equal to the pontoons

used in the mid sections of the Bergsøysund Bridge Table 3. Pontoon dimensions with final draft

(Norway).

h d Aw

The model consists of two horizontal beams, one [m] [m] [m2]

vertical beam and a pontoon. The dimensions of

the bridge are illustrated in Figure 1 where the x - , 6.98 3.61 594

y - and z - axis corresponds to surge, sway and

Supports are located at each end of the floating

heave, respectfully.

bridge model and modelled as fixed in all degrees

of freedom.

Due to the hydrodynamic added mass and

damping, it is crucial to know the correct pontoon

draft before commencing the dynamic analysis.

Therefore, a static analysis is first carried out.

From equilibrium between the pontoon mass and

buoyancy from the displaced water, the initial draft

Figure 1. Bridge schematics of the pontoon is found. The static analysis is then

carried out by replacing the pontoon with a vertical

The cross-sectional properties of the beam

spring stiffness from the waterplane area and the

elements are given in Table 1.

water density. Applying gravitational loads to the

static model the vertical displacement is

computed. The final draft d is found by combining

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19th IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016

Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

the result from the static analysis with the initial From the analysis, information of the

draft. hydrodynamic added mass and damping as a

function of the period is illustrated in Figure 4.

Figure 2. Static model with pontoon spring and Assuming a damping ratio of 0 .0 2 the Rayleigh

gravitational load damping is calibrated using the first two horizontal

undamped natural periods T n 1 4 4 .5 s and

4.2.2 Environmental Load Modelling T n 2 1 3 .9 s found from solving the classical

The hydrodynamic restoring, added mass and eigenvalue problem. From the sway response of

damping is calculated using a boundary element the midpoint of the floating bridge, it can be

method software. A panel model of the pontoon checked whether or not appropriate structural

surface as the one in Figure 3 is created and given damping is applied. It is important to have a

as input to the software. The panel model used sufficiently low mass proportional damping in

consists of 632 panel elements and is subjected to order not to damp out the wave response.

60 unit amplitude waves with periods

T {1 : 0 .2 5 : 1 5} seconds each with a wave 5 Results

direction of 90 degrees from the global x -axis From the dynamic analysis carried out in the

corresponding to sway. The water depth is set frequency domain it is possible to obtain some

equal to 1000 meters. preliminary results of the stress distribution in the

pontoon. The stress response from a set of 60 unit

amplitude mono-chromatic beam sea waves have

been analysed and specific characteristics of the

frequency distribution of von Mises stress has been

observed. At high frequency waves (period in the

range of 1 second to 5 seconds) the largest stresses

Figure 3. Panel- and structural model of pontoon in the pontoon are located in the front part of the

The mesh size of the panel model is roughly 2 pontoon and on the corners connecting the front

meters, which according to [11] requires a vertical concrete plates to the top- and bottom

minimum wavelength of 16 meters or in this case concrete plates, see Figure 5. Maximum values are

in the range of 0.97 MPa.

an equivalent wave period of approximately 3.2

seconds.

monochromatic wave excitation force with

Figure 4. Normalized hydrodynamic added mass T 2 .2 5s . The unit is Pa

and damping in y-direction (sway). Normalization

factors are f m 2 .1 9 E + 0 6 and f c 6 .8 7 E + 0 5 for At lower frequencies the largest von Mises stress is

located exclusively around the connection point

added mass and damping, respectively

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19th IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016

Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment

between the pontoon and the vertical beam as a proper connection between pontoon and bridge

illustrated in Figure 6. The stresses are in this case deck. Future work includes more pontoons and a

as high as 33.8 MPa. stochastic dynamic analysis in frequency- and time

domain.

7 Acknowledgement

The late Prof. Ragnar Sigbjörnsson has contributed

to sections 1, 2.1 and 2.2 with an initial draft.

8 References

[1] Skorpa L. Developing new methods to cross

wide and deep Norwegian fjords. Procedia

Engineeering. 2010; 4(1877): p. 81-89.

Figure 6. Von Mises stress on pontoon for [2] Holand I,LI. Salhus floating bridge: theory

monochromatic wave excitation force with and hydrodynamic coefficients. SINTEF

T 8 .5 0 s . The unit is Pa Report. Trondheim: SINTEF; 1972.

The minimum stresses at the low frequency wave [3] Sigbjörnsson R. LI. Wave-induced

excitation is roughly the same order as the stresses Vibrations of a Floating Bridge: The Salhus

from the high frequency wave excitation force. It is Bridge. Trondheim: SINTEF; 1975.

believed that the high stress is a result of the high

wave loads on the pontoon under long waves. [4] Sigbjörnsson R,LI. Wave-induced Vibrations

of a Floating Bridge: A Monte Carlo

6 Conclusion and further work Approach. SINTEF; 1975.

[5] Holand I,I,SR. Dynamic analysis of a curved

The paper has presented general theory on

floating bridge. In IABSE Proceedings; 1977.

solutions of the equation of motion in both time-

p. P-5/77.

and frequency domain and has explained how to

incorporate the randomness of the sea state into [6] Langen I,SR. On stochastic dynamics of

the design using stochastic theory. Also a brief floating bridges. Eng. Struct. 1980 October;

discussion of how potential theory and boundary 2.

element methods can be used when dealing with a

[7] Langen I. Frequency Domain Analysis of a

non-classically damped system such as a floating

Floating Bridge Exposed to Irregular Short-

bridge structure.

crested Waves. Trondheim: SINTEF; 1980.

A case study of a simplified floating bridge

[8] Munson BR, Young DF, Okiishi TH, Huebsch

structure has been presented and preliminary

WW. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics. 6th

results of the stress distribution on the pontoon is

ed.: John Wiley & Sons; 2010.

shown.

[9] He, J., Fu, Z. Modal Analysis: Butterworth-

From the preliminary analysis in frequency domain

Heinemann; 2001.

it can be concluded from the results given in Figure

5 and Figure 6 that the joint between the pontoon [10] DNV-GL. Sesam User Manual, Sestra, Valid

and the beam bridge structure is crucial in the from program version 8.6. 2014 October

design of the pontoon and, if not thoughtfully 31..

carried out, can generate high stresses in the [11] Faltinsen OM. Sea Loads on Ships and

pontoon surface elements. Offshore Structures: Cambridge University

Although the simplified pontoon bridge is made to Press; 1990.

resemble a realistic floating bridge structure,

many details are lost in the simplification, such as

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