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FIRE PROTECTION

SYSTEM
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

1.FIRE WATER SYSTEM

2.FOAM SYSTEM

3.EXTINGUISHER SYSTEM

4.HALON PROTECTION SYSTEM


1.FIRE WATER SYSTEM
FIRE WATER DESIGN FLOW
A. Pump Flow :
• 3 lpm/m2 of Shell Area for Distance of (R+30)m.
(R – Radius of Tank on fire)
• 1 lpm/m2 of Shell Area of Tanks located out side the Dyke.
B. Hydrant and Monitor :
• 1 Monitor (144 m3/hr)
• 4 Hydrants (36 m3/hr) both are working simultaneously.
C. Tank wagon area and Equipment :
• Tank wagon: 10 lpm/m2
• Volatile Pump Area : 10 lpm/m2
Flow rate shall be designed for the largest of A or B or C.
Fire water Pressure System Shall be Designed for minimum of
7kg/cm2g

1.FIRE WATER SYSTEM MAIN COMPONENTS

• FIRE FIGHTING AGENT: FIRE WATER

1.FIRE WATER TANKS

2.FIRE WATER PUMPS

3.FIRE WATER JOCKEY PUMPS

4.FIRE WATER HYDRANTS & MONITORS


FIRE WATER TANKS

• Under Ground or above Ground Storage Tanks.


• Capacity: Shall be minimum of 4 hours working Capacity of
the Fire water Pump.
• Fire water supply shall be preferably from fresh water source
such as river, tube well or lake. Where fresh water source is
not easily available, fire water supply may be sea water or
other acceptable source like treated effluents water.
• Storage reservoir shall be in two equal interconnected
compartments to facilitate cleaning and repairs. In case of
steel tanks there shall be minimum two tanks each having
50 % of required capacity.
FIRE WATER PUMP
• Pump should have flooded suction.

• Pump shall have 150% of rated capacity at a Minimum of 65%


of rated head.

• Pump Type: Diesel Engine Driven , Each Pump Contains


Individual Fuel Storage tank for Continuous working
of Pump for 6 hrs.

• If Reliable Electricity Available 50% of Pumps shall be Electric


Motor Driven.
Standby Pump Quantity: 50% of Working Pump(min. 1),Same
type and capacity

Location of Pump: 30m away from Process Equipment.


PRESSURIZATION OF HEADER
• Fire water header shall be Pressurize by the following ways:
• Providing Jockey Pumps have Capacity of 3- 10% of fire water
Pump capacity. (Minimum of 180 lpm)

• Providing non return valve Directly to the


fire water network from the storage tank.

• Providing Hydro-Pneumatic Tank


(1/3 Air and 2/3 Water)
FIRE WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPING
• Closed Loop Piping provide to Cover multidirectional flow.

• AG
300- 400 mm

• FGL
1 m (Normal)

1.5 m (Road)

• UG(For Road Crossing, Frost Condition)


PIPING
• Supports : Piping shall be supported at regular intervals not
exceeding 6 meters.
• Sizing : Fire water Distribution Piping Shall be Sized for 120%
of the Designed flow rate.
• Piping Header Should have Min. Pressure of 7 kg/m2g.
• Fire water mains shall not pass through buildings or dyked
areas.
• In case of underground mains the isolation valves shall be
located in RCC/brick masonary chamber.
• Material: Carbon Steel as per IS: 3589(Steel Pipes for water)
• In case of saline water service the fire water main pipes shall
be cement mortar/poly glass lined internally.
FIRE WATER HYDRANTS &
MONITORS
• At least one hydrant post shall be provided for
every 30 mtrs. of external wall measurement
or perimeter of battery limit in case of high
hazard areas.
• For non-hazardous area, they shall be spaced
at 45 mtrs. intervals.
• Hydrants shall be located at a minimum distance
of 15 mtrs. from the periphery of storage tank or
equipment under protection.
• Hydrant/Monitors shall be located along road
side berms for easy accessibility.
• Double headed hydrants with two separate landing valves on
4" standpost shall be used. All hydrant outlets shall be situated
1.2 mtrs. above ground level.
• MATERIAL:
• Stand post : Carbon Steel
• Outlet valves : Gunmetal / Aluminium
/Stainless Steel / Al-Zn Alloy
MONITORS:
• The location of the monitors shall not exceed 45 meters from
the hazard to be protected.
• Tank wagon Loading/unloading facility and Tank Truck gantry
area should be provided with alternate water cum foam
monitors
• Hydrants/Monitors shall be preferably located with branch
connection.
• MATERIAL : Carbon Steel / Gun Metal
2.FOAM SYSTEM

• Foam : Fire fighting foam is a homogeneous mass of tiny air or


gas filled bubble of low specific gravity, which when applied in
correct manner and in sufficient quantity, forms a compact
fluid and stable blanket which is capable of floating on the
surface of flammable liquids and preventing atmospheric air
from reaching the liquid.
FIRE FIGHTING FOAM

• CHEMICAL FOAM MECHANICAL FOAM


CHEMICAL FOAM
• When two or more chemicals are added the foam generates
due to chemical reaction.
• Commonly Used one:

• These foams are generally used in Fire extinguishers.


MECHANICAL FOAM
• It is produced by mechanically mixing a gas or air to a solution
of foam compound (concentrate) in water.

LOW EXPANSION FOAM


(5:1 to 15:1)*

MECHANICAL FOAM MEDIUM EXPANSION FOAM


(51:1 to 500:1)

HIGH EXPANSION FOAM


(750:1 to 1000:1)
(* Mostly used Due to its Better Resistance to Fire. )
LOW EXPANSION FOAM
PROTEIN BASE FOAM

FLUORO PROTEIN FOAM:

LOW EXPANSION FOAM AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM


(AFFF)*

MULTIPURPOSE AFFF

FILM FORMING FLOURO PROTEIN


(FFFP)

(* Mostly used Due to its Better Compatibility with other Fire


Fighting Agents.)
Foam Fire Fighting
• Foam System shall complete with,
adequate water supply
supply of foam concentrate,
suitable proportioning equipment,
a proper piping system,
and discharge devices.
TYPES :
1.Fixed
2.Semi Fixed
3.Mobile
Types
• 1.FIXED
Fixed foam conveying system comprises of fixed piping
for water supply at adequate pressure, foam concentrate tank,
eductor, suitable proportioning equipment for drawing foam
concentrate and making foam solution.
• 2.SEMI FIXED
• Semi-fixed foam system gets supply of foam solution
through the mobile foam tender. A fixed piping system
connected to foam makers cum vapour seal box in case of
cone roof(Fixed) tanks and foam maker and foam pourers in
the case of floating roof tanks conveys foam to the surface of
tank.
• MOBILE:
• Mobile system includes foam producing unit mounted
on wheels which may be self propelled or towed by a vehicle.
These units supply foam through monitors/foam towers to the
burning surface.

• Foam pourer:
Foam makers/foam pourers shall
be located not more than 24 mtrs.
apart on the shell perimeter based on 600 mm
foam dam height.
A minimum of two foam pourers shall be provided .
Tank Dia. (M) No. of Foam Pourers
>18 upto 20 2
>20 upto 25 3
>25 upto 30 4
>30 upto 35 5
>35 upto 40 6
>40 upto 45 8
>45 upto 50 10

The estimation of number of foam discharge outlet is based


on pourer capacity of 1000 lpm at a pressure of 7 kg/cm2 g
Foam Rate

Cone Roof Tanks : 5 lpm/m2 (liquid surface area of the tank to


be protected.)

Floating Roof Tanks : 12 lpm/m2 (seal area with foam dam


height of 600 mm of the tank to be protected)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
• TYPES

• 1.DCP EXTINGUISHERS

• 2.CO2 EXTINGUISHERS

• 3. FOAM EXTINGUISHERS

• 4. WATER EXTINGUISHERS

• FIRE EXTINGUISHERS-OISD 117.pdf


HALON PROTECTION SYSTEM
• Halon is a liquefied gas extraordinarily effective as fire
extinguishing agent. However, due to its ozone depleting
properties, its production is being phased out as per the
Montreal Protocol.
.
PAINTING
• All Equipment Related to Fire Fighting are Painted
“FIRE RED”.

• To indicate Clean Visibility and Only used for Fire fighting.

COMMUNICATION
Adequate communication system like telephone/Public Address
System/Paging System/ intrinsically safe Walkie-talkie system
should be considered.
ACCESSORIES
• Sand Scoops
• Safety helmets
• Water curtain nozzles
• Stretcher
• First Aid Box with Anti snake serum
• Rubber hand gloves for electrical jobs
• Explosimeter
• Fire Proximity suit
• Rescuscitator
• Electrical siren (3 Km range)
• Hand operated siren
• Water jel blanket
• Red/Green flag for fire drill
STANDARDS

• 1)OISD 117 - Fire protection facilities for petroleum depots,


terminals and pipeline installations
• 2)NFPA 11A - Standard for Medium and high expansion foam
systems.
• 3)NFPA 13 - Standard for the Installation of sprinkler systems.
• 4) NFPA 15 - Standard for Installation of water spray systems.
• 5) NFPA 20 - Standard for Installation of Centrifugal fire pumps
• 6) NFPA - 2001 Standard on clean Agent Fire Extinguishing
system.
• 7) API 2001 - Fire Protection in Refineries